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Christine Nagy

Annotated Bibliography

Agarwal, S., Goel, D., & Sharma, A. (2013). Evaluation of the Factors which Contribute to the

Ocular Complaints in Computer Users. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research:

JCDR, 7(2), 331335.

This article provides an overview of a research study of heavy computer users and their eye


We also found that maintaining an ideal distance from the screen would reduce the eyestrain

and headache, while maintaining a downward gaze during the computer work would also

contribute in reducing the eyestrain to a significant level.

Adjustment of the brightness level according to the workplace reduces the eyestrain and

watering, while the use of flat panel LCD monitors with anti glare screens and taking frequent

breaks during the work also reduce these ocular complaints dramatically.

All About Vision (Ed.). (n.d.). What is Blue Light? Retrieved from

The article discussed and pictured visuals to help readers understand Blue Light.

More than 87 percent of Americans report using digital devices for more than two hours per

day, and 52.2 percent report using two digital devices simultaneously.

American Optometric Association. (n.d.). Computer Vision Syndrome. Retrieved from

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Computer Vision Syndrome - Computer Vision Syndrome, also referred to as Digital Eye

Strain, describes a group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged

computer, tablet, e-reader and cell phone use.

Brody, J. E. (2016, May 30). Computer Vision Syndrome Affects Millions [Web log post].

Retrieved from


Domingues-Montanari, S. (2017). Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen

time on children. Journal Of Paediatrics & Child Health, 53(4), 333-338.


The article examines both the negative and the positive effects of screen time on children.

The physiological mechanisms that underlie the adverse health outcomes related to screen time

and the relative contributions of different types of screen and media content to specific health

outcomes are unclear.

Heiting, OD, Gary, and Larry K. Wan, OD. (2016). Children and Computer Vision Syndrome.

All About Vision. Retrieved from


Is screen time bad for your eyes?. (2014). Popular Science, 285(4), 80.

Not everyone agrees that we are slowly losing vision. Some feel enough research hasnt been
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conducted to conclude with confidence. However, almost everyone agrees that staring at screens

overall isnt great for eye health.

Theres no direct evidence that tvs, computers, or cell phones cause nearsightedness, yet

worries about the effects of staring at illuminated screens persist.

Klomm, a., & Gahan Tarnow, K. (2015). CNE SERIES. Computer Vision Syndrome: A

Review of Literature. MEDSURG Nursing, 2015 Mar-Apr;24(2):89-93.

The article discusses an overview of Computer Vision Syndrome and explains suggested

preventions, treatments, etc.

Recommendations Help Prevent CVS

1.Have the computer screen at least 20-24 inches away.

2.Adjust viewing angle to 14-20 below horizontal.

3. After 20 minutes on the computer, look about 20 feet away for at least 20 seconds.

4.Check screen lighting and room lighting, eliminating glare, reflection, and dust on the screen.

5. Use an anti-glare cover or nonreflective coating on the screen.

6.Use good body posture in a comfortable environment (cool, dust free,humidified, free from


7.Blink more often and be sure to close the eyelids completely.

8.Have regular eye exams and use good eyeglasses or contact lenses to correct vision.

9. To increase circulation and stimulate tear production, massage eyelids.

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Moon, J., Yun, J., Yoon, Y. D., Park, S. I., Seo, Y. J., Park, W. S., ... & Oh, S. J. (2017).

Blue light effect on retinal pigment epithelial cells by display devices. Integrative

Biology, 9(5), 436-443.

More and more studies are being conducted to determine the impact of digital displays on our

eye health. This study proved that short wavelength blue light negatively impacts retinas, and if

displays utilized less short wavelength blue light, the retinas were not as compromised and

increased cell death.

Munshi, S., Varghese, A., & Dhar-Munshi, S. (2017). Computer vision syndromeA

common cause of unexplained visual symptoms in the modern era. International Journal

of Clinical Practice.

Computer Vision Syndrome is on the rise due to the amount of time we spend in front of the

computer screen. Computer Vision Syndrome, also referred to as Digital Eye Strain, is

defined by the American Optometric Association (AOA) as a group of eye and vision-related

problems resulting from prolonged use of computers, tablets, e-readers and cell phones.

It would be ideal to educate children and instill in them the right practices of using computers.

Murphy, K. (2016). Is technology affecting our health?. Nursing made Incredibly Easy,

14(4), 44-52.

Technology is affecting us in a variety of ways including contributing to a sedentary lifestyle,

sleep problems, vision problems, hearing problems, neck/back strain, and text thumb.
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Close computer work can cause dry eyes, light sensitivity, double vision, fatigue, and

headaches. Additionally, handheld devices demand that users position themselves close to the

equipment. This can result in increased use of eye muscles to focus, which leads to more strain.

This accumulative damage may contribute to macular degeneration. It's particularly important

to balance the use of technology in children to decrease the risk of nearsightedness.

Park, S. I., & Jang, Y. P. (2017). The Protective Effect of Brown, Gray, and Blue-Tinted

Lenses against Blue LED Light-Induced Cell Death in A2E-Laden Human Retinal

Pigment Epithelial Cells. Ophthalmic research, 57(2), 118-124.

Research was completed to determine the effectiveness of tinted and polarized lenses in

protecting our eyes from harmful blue LED light. Their results found:

Tinted glasses may provide significant protection against potential blue-light-induced

photochemical and photo-oxidative damage in RPE cells.

The protection was more efficient in lenses with a brown or gray tint than in blue-tinted lenses.

Penn Medicine (Ed.). (n.d.). Computer Vision Syndrome Treatments and Procedures. Penn

Medicine. Retrieved from



This website highlights effective strategies to avoid and reduce eye strain.

the screen should be at or just beyond an arm's length away (about 20 to 26 inches) to

give the eyes a comfortable focusing distance. The screen should also stand straight in
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front of the face instead of off to the side to ease eyestrain. The center of the monitor

should be about four to eight inches lower than the eyes to allow the neck to relax and to

lessen the exposed surface area of the eye, which will reduce dryness and itching.

The article also recommends people take the cupping test to see if the rooms lighting is

conducive for healthy screen viewing.

The visor test can help determine if the current lighting in the room is a problem. The test is

conducted by cupping hands over the eyes like a baseball cap to block the lights while looking at

the monitor. If an improvement is immediately noticed, then lighting changes should be made.

Rebuild Your Vision (2014, December 3). What Teachers Can Do to Keep Young

Eyes Retrieved from


Article summarizes issues and recommends that we allow our students frequent breaks.

Computer and tablet users tend to adopt a zombie-ish stare, holding unblinking contact with

their screens for far longer than they would a book. This can quickly dry eyes out, and while that

might sound fairly innocuous, it can be extraordinarily uncomfortable, and may even lead to

unhealthy habits like excessive eye-rubbing.

So take a break. Breaks, really. Adults are often advised to take eye restswhile working at

computer screens. Children are, if anything, even more susceptible to overwork, so err on the

side of caution, and give students plenty of time to relax and refocus while working through a

complex or laborious problem.

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Rebuild Your Vision (2015, December 21). 10 Signs Your Child May Be Suffering from a

Vision Problem. Retrieved from


There are many issues that plague children in school. Make sure children have plenty of eye rest

time so they arent affected academically.

Sometimes, school is just plain tiring, and your child is worn down by the time he or she gets

home. However, if it becomes a constant, and youre worried about what exactly is so

exhausting, it could be that vision problems are making it hard for your child to stay awake.

Many eye problems make eyes tired, or can make children feel more drained just from staring at

something for long periods of time.

Seidman, B. ( 2015, August 13). CBS News. Retrieved from CBS News:

Most digital screens are backlit and emit blue light, or high-energy visible (HEV) light

wavelengths, which the group said can cause irritation and possibly long-term damage to the

retina. Blue light is also known to suppress the sleep hormone melatonin, causing an artificial

feeling of wakefulness and disrupting sleep patterns, which can add to eye strain.

Stringham, J. M., Stringham, N. T., & OBrien, K. J. (2017). Macular Carotenoid

Supplementation Improves Visual Performance, Sleep Quality, and Adverse Physical

Symptoms in Those with High Screen Time Exposure. Foods, 6(7), 47.
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The dramatic rise in the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers over the past decade

has raised concerns about potentially deleterious health effects of increased screen time (ST)

and associated short-wavelength (blue) light exposure.

(macular carotenoids (MC) lutein, zeaxanthin, and mesozeaxanthin) supplementation (24 mg

daily) yielded significant improvement in MPOD, overall sleep quality, headache frequency, eye

strain, eye fatigue, and all visual performance measures, versus placebo (p < 0.05 for all).

Increased (macular pigment optical density MPOD) significantly improves visual performance

and, in turn, improves several undesirable physical outcomes associated with excessive (Screen


Smick, K. (2015). How to Educate Patients About the Dangers of HARMFUL LIGHT.

Review Of Optometry, 152(3), 32-33

As more and more patients spend longer periods of time engaged in digitally based activities,

we have an increasing responsibility to find solutions aimed at protecting their vision. Crizal

Prevencia No-Glare lenses are an excellent place to start.

McKinsey & Company (2012). Lighting the way: Perspectives on the global lighting

market - McKinsey. Retrieved from


The increase in LED products overall is on the rise.

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Make no mistake, digital devices are part of our lives and are here to stay. By 2020, it is

estimated that 90 percent of all light sources will be based on LED products. Furthermore, LED

light is expected to increase in residential settings by 50 percent for 2016 and 70 percent for


TechTarget (n.d.). What is LCD (liquid crystal display)? Retreived from

Retrieved from

LCD (liquid crystal display) is the technology used for displays in notebook and other smaller

computersLCDs consume much less power than LED and gas-display displays because they

work on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting it.