Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

Ore Geology Reviews 13 1998.


Orogenic gold deposits: A proposed classification in the context

of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit
D.I. Groves , R.J. Goldfarb b, M. Gebre-Mariam a,c
, S.G. Hagemann a , F. Robert d

Centre for Teaching and Research in Strategic Mineral Deposits, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Uniersity of Western
Australia, Nedlands, WA 6907, Australia
U.S. Geological Surey, Box 25046, Mail Stop 973, Dener Federal Center, Dener, CO 80225, USA
Wiluna Gold Mines Limited, 10 Ord St., West Perth, WA 6005, Australia
Geological Surey of Canada, 601 Booth St., Ottawa, Ont., Canada K1A OE8
Received 20 March 1997


The so-called mesothermal gold deposits are associated with regionally metamorphosed terranes of all ages. Ores were
formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and
collisional orogens. In both types of orogen, hydrated marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been added to continental
margins during tens to some 100 million years of collision. Subduction-related thermal events, episodically raising
geothermal gradients within the hydrated accretionary sequences, initiate and drive long-distance hydrothermal fluid
migration. The resulting gold-bearing quartz veins are emplaced over a unique depth range for hydrothermal ore deposits,
with gold deposition from 1520 km to the near surface environment.
On the basis of this broad depth range of formation, the term mesothermal is not applicable to this deposit type as a
whole. Instead, the unique temporal and spatial association of this deposit type with orogeny means that the vein systems are
best termed orogenic gold deposits. Most ores are post-orogenic with respect to tectonism of their immediate host rocks, but
are simultaneously syn-orogenic with respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes and the prefix
orogenic satisfies both these conditions. On the basis of their depth of formation, the orogenic deposits are best subdivided
into epizonal - 6 km., mesozonal 612 km. and hypozonal ) 12 km. classes. q 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights

Keywords: orogenic gold deposits; lode-gold mineralisation; ore formation; terminology; nomenclature

1. Introduction quartzcarbonate lode-gold deposit. The deposit type

in this issue alone is referred to as synorogenic,
This thematic issue of Ore Geology Reiews in-
turbidite-hosted, mesothermal and Archaean lode-
cludes a wide variety of papers on a single type of
gold. This reflects the proliferation of such terms
throughout the economic geology literature during
Corresponding author. Tel.: q61-9-3802667; fax: q61-9- the last ten years and a subsequent increase in confu-
3801178. sion for the readers. For example, is a synorogenic

0169-1368r98r$19.00 q 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII S 0 1 6 9 - 1 3 6 8 9 7 . 0 0 0 1 2 - 7
8 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

Mother-lode type gold deposit different from an summarizes many of the steps that led to these
Archaean gold-only type or from a mesothermal evolving modern-day models. A unifying tectonic
greenstonegold type? Many researchers working on theme has recently been evaluated by workers such
such deposits would recognize these as essentially a as Wyman and Kerrich 1988., Barley et al. 1989.,
variety of subtypes of a single deposit type, i.e. Hodgson and Hamilton 1989., Kerrich and Wyman
epigenetic, structurally-hosted lode-gold vein sys- 1990., Kerrich and Cassidy 1994. and Goldfarb et
tems in metamorphic terranes Kerrich, 1993.. How- al. 1998 - this issue..
ever, the consistent usage of a single and widely-
accepted classification term for this deposit type as a 2.1. Geological characteristics
whole is clearly warranted. Mesothermal is such a
term that has been widely adopted during the last ten
years, but is a term that, as originally defined by 2.1.1. Geology of host terranes
Lindgren 1933. for deposits formed at about 1.23.6 Perhaps the single most consistent characteristic
km, is more applicable to sedimentary rock-hosted of the deposits is their consistent association with
Carlin-type deposits and the gold porphyryrskarn deformed metamorphic terranes of all ages. Observa-
environment Poulsen, 1996.. tions from throughout the worlds preserved Ar-
A principal aim of this introductory paper is to chaean greenstone belts and most recently-active
present and justify a unifying classification for these Phanerozoic metamorphic belts indicate a strong as-
lode-gold deposits. An attempt is made to place these sociation of gold and greenschist facies rocks. How-
so-called mesothermal deposits into a broader class ever, some significant deposits occur in higher meta-
that emphasizes their tectonic setting and time of morphic grade Archaean terranes e.g. McCuaig et
formation relative to other gold deposit types. A al., 1993. or in lower metamorphic grade domains
second aim is to review briefly their more significant within the metamorphic belts of a variety of geologi-
defining features in the light of current inconsistent cal ages. In the Archaean of Western Australia, a
terminology and the recognition that this deposit number of synmetamorphic deposits extend into
group may form over a wider range of crustal depths granulite facies rocks Groves et al., 1992.. Pre-
and temperatures than commonly recognized metamorphic protoliths for the auriferous Archaean
Groves, 1993; Hagemann and Ridley, 1993; Gebre- greenstone belts are predominantly volcano-plutonic
Mariam et al., 1995.. The term orogenic is intro- terranes of oceanic back-arc basalt and felsic to
duced and justified as a term to replace mesothermal mafic arc rocks. Clastic marine sedimentary rock-
and other descriptors for this deposit type. It is also dominant terranes that were metamorphosed to
suggested that the terms epizonal, mesozonal and graywacke, argillite, schist and phyllite host most
hypozonal be used to reflect crustal depth of gold younger ores, and are important in some Archaean
deposition within the orogenic group of deposits. terranes e.g. Slave Province, Canada..

2.1.2. Deposit mineralogy

These deposits are typified by quartz-dominant
2. Definition of so-called mesothermal gold de- vein systems with F 35% sulfide minerals mainly
posits Fe-sulfides. and F 515% carbonate minerals. Al-
bite, white mica or fuchsite, chlorite, scheelite and
The so-called mesothermal gold deposits Table tourmaline are also common gangue phases in veins
1 are a distinctive type of gold deposit which is in greenschist-facies host rocks. Vein systems may
typified by many consistent features in space and be continuous along a vertical extent of 12 km with
time. These have been summarized in a variety of little change in mineralogy or gold grade; mineral
comprehensive ore-deposit model descriptions that zoning does occur, however, in some deposits.
include Bohlke 1982., Colvine et al. 1984., Berger Gold:silver ratios range from 10 normal. to 1 less
1986., Groves and Foster 1991., Nesbitt 1991., common., with ore in places being in the veins and
Hodgson 1993. and Robert 1996.. Kerrich 1993. elsewhere in sulfidized wallrocks. Gold grades are
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 9

relatively high, historically having been in the 530 second or third order structures, most commonly
grt range; modern-day bulk mining methodology near large-scale often transcrustal. compressional
has led to exploration of lower grade targets. Sulfide structures. Although the controlling structures are
mineralogy commonly reflects the lithogeochemistry commonly ductile to brittle in nature, they are highly
of the host. Arsenopyrite is the most common sulfide variable in type, ranging from: a. brittle faults to
mineral in metasedimentary country rocks, whereas ductile shear zones with low-angle to high-angle
pyrite or pyrrhotite are more typical in metamor- reverse motion to strike-slip or oblique-slip motion;
phosed igneous rocks. In fact, the Salsigne gold b. fracture arrays, stockwork networks or breccia
deposit in Cambrian sedimentary rocks of the French zones in competent rocks; c. foliated zones pres-
Massif Central is the worlds largest producer of sure solution cleavage. or d. fold hinges in ductile
arsenic Guen et al., 1992.. Gold-bearing veins ex- turbidite sequences. Mineralized structures have
hibit variable enrichments in As, B, Bi, Hg, Sb, Te small syn- and post-mineralization displacements,
and W; Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations are generally but the gold deposits commonly have extensive
only slightly elevated above regional backgrounds. down-plunge continuity hundreds of metres to kilo-
metres.. Extreme pressure fluctuations leading to
2.1.3. Hydrothermal alteration cyclic fault-valve behavior Sibson et al., 1988. re-
Deposits exhibit strong lateral zonation of alter- sult in flat-lying extensional veins and and mutually
ation phases from proximal to distal assemblages on cross-cutting steep fault veins that characterize many
scales of metres. Mineralogical assemblages within deposits e.g. Robert and Brown, 1986..
the alteration zones and the width of these zones
generally vary with wallrock type and crustal level. 2.2. Tectonic setting and timing of mesothermal
Most commonly, carbonates include ankerite, ein emplacement
dolomite or calcite; sulfides include pyrite, pyrrhotite
or arsenopyrite; alkali metasomatism involves sericit- The so-called mesothermal gold deposits Table
ization or, less commonly, formation of fuchsite, 1. occupy a consistent spatialrtemporal position Fig.
biotite or K-feldspar and albitization and mafic min- 1., having formed during deformational processes at
erals are highly chloritized. Amphibole or diopside convergent plate margins orogeny. irrespective of
occur at progressively deeper crustal levels and car- whether they are hosted in Archaean or Proterozic
bonate minerals are less abundant. Sulfidization is greenstone belts or Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sed-
extreme in BIF and Fe-rich mafic host rocks. Wall- imentary rock sequences e.g. Barley and Groves,
rock alteration in greenschist facies rocks involves 1992; Kerrich and Cassidy, 1994.. The placing of
the addition of significant amounts of CO 2 , S, K, these deposits in a plate tectonic setting was a logical
H 2 O, SiO 2 " Na and LILE. outgrowth of the acceptance of plate tectonic theory
in the early 1970s. Guild 1971. initially discussed
2.1.4. Ore fluids the orogen-associated endogenic mineral deposits
Ores were deposited from low-salinity, near-neu- of Mesozoic and Tertiary age on the sites of
tral, H 2 OCO 2 " CH 4 fluids which transported gold Cordilleran-type continentrocean. collisions.
as a reduced sulphur complex. Fluids associated with Sawkins 1972. noted, soon after, how both these
this gold deposit type are notable by their consis- Circum-Pacific gold ores and spatially associated
tently elevated CO 2 concentrations of G 5 mol%. felsic magmas were probable products of subduc-
Typical d18 O values for hydrothermal fluids are tion-related tectonism. Just as significant was
about 58 per ml in the Archaean greenstone belts Sawkins 1972. observation that Archaean gold lodes
and about 2 per ml higher in the Phanerozoic gold in the Superior Province, Canada, may have some
lodes. relationship to the southward younging of igneous
ages, interpreted as being reflective of a seaward-
2.1.5. Structure migrating trench. It would be, however, another six-
There is strong structural control of mineralization teen years cf. Wyman and Kerrich, 1988. before
at a variety of scales. Deposits are normally sited in workers would follow-up on this important concept

Table 1
Timing of orogenic gold vein formation and significant tectonic relationships from some gold provinces in metamorphic rocks partly modified from Kerrich and Cassidy, 1994;
Goldfarb et al., 1998.. Host terranes are mainly Archaean greenstone belts and younger oceanic sedimentary rock-dominant assemblages. Provinces are ordered, from top to
bottom of the table, in increasing age of formation
Province Age of Age of Spatially Metamorphic Other important events Geochron. Refs.
veining host associated events
Ma. terranes magmatism Ma.
Ma. Ma.
Mt. Rosa, upper F 33 Palaeozoic 310, 4225 415, 9060 hypothesized slab delamination at Curti 1987., Blanckenburg
nappes, W. Alps, most blueschist.; 45 Ma and Davies 1995.
Italy abundant 4440
at 3329.
Chugach 5749 L. Cretaceous 6650 6650 veining during subduction of Haeussler et al. 1995.
accretionary spreading ridge beneath growing
prism, S. Alaska prism
Juneau gold belt, 5753 Permian mid-Cret, mid-Cret, 7060 emplacement of sill during Goldfarb et al. 1991b.,
S. Alaska mid-Cretaceous 7060 sill., Barrovian metamorphism; change Miller et al. 1994.
6048 from orthogonal to oblique
batholith. convergence during veining
Willow Creek 66 Late Paleozoic 7466 Jurassic veining during onset of oroclinal Madden-McGuire et al.
district, south- bending of Alaska; syn-veining 1989.
central Alaska accretion and subduction tens
of km seaward
Bridge River, SW 9186 Late 270, 9143 Jurassic veining during seaward collision Leitch et al. 1991.
British Columbia Paleozoic of Wrangellia terrane and early
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

early stages of Coast batholith

Mesozoic formation
Fairbanks, east- 9287, 77 Early 9590 EarlyMiddle 120110 Ma regional extension; McCoy et al. 1997.
central Alaska Paleozoic Jurassic syn-veining accretion and
subduction tens of km seaward;
veining continues into
unmetamorphosed rocks of craton
in Yukon
Nome, NW 109 Early 10882 170130 veining during regional Ford and Snee 1996.
Alaska Paleozoic blueschist., extension and slab rollback; veins
10882 4050 km from high-T magmaticr
Barrovian. metamorphic front
Russian Far East 135100 Late 14480 Late Jurassic veining during increased Nokleberg et al. 1996.,
Paleozoic Early Cretaceous convergence rates between Goldfarb et al. 1998.
middle Eurasian and Izanagi plates
Shangdong Early Archaean 190170, Archaean veining during late stage of Trumbull et al. 1996.,
Peninsula E. Cretaceous 132121 Yanshanian magmatism; Wang et al. 1996., Nie
China., NE hypothesized mantle plume during 1997.
China and Korea onset of post-collisional extension
Sierra foothills 144108 Middle 177135 JurassicEarly 150140 Ma seaward stepping of Bohlke and Kistler 1986.,
and Klamath 127108s Paleozoic north., Cretaceous trench; 120 Ma onset of rapid, Landefeld 1988., Elder
Mts., California Mother Jurassic 15080 orthogonal convergence and and Cashman 1992.
lode belt. south. Sierra Nevada batholith emplacement
Otago, South JurassicEarly PermianLate none Early Jurassic veining likely throughout last McKeag and Craw 1989.
Island, New Cretaceous Triassic Early Cretaceous period of collisional deformation
Zealand along Gondwanan margin
SW Yukon and 180 G134 Early 190160 Late Triassic younger dates on mineralization Rushton et al. 1993.,
Interior British Paleozoic Early Jurassic could be cooling ages; syn- Ash et al. 1996.
Columbia Triassic veining accretion and subduction
tens of km seaward
New England PermianEarly Carboniferous 306280, PermianTriassic veining related to final period of Ashley et al. 1994.,
fold belt, E. Triassic Permian 255245, Early accretion and subduction along Scheiber 1996.
Australia Triassic eastern Australia
Muruntau, Late Cambrian 310, 271261 Late deposits near suture of Hercynian Berger et al. 1994.,
Uzbekistan and Carboniferous Ordovician Carboniferous continentcontinent collision Drew et al. 1996.
adjacent central Early Permian Early Permian
Asia deposits
Variscan-related, 340310 Late 360320 350340 Late Devonian?.-Permian Bouchot et al. 1989.,
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

Europe Bohemia Proterozoic subduction; LaurorussiaAfrica Cathelineau et al. 1990.,

Massif.; early collision by 380350 Ma Moravek 1995.,
300"20 Paleozoic Stein et al. 1996.

Table 1 continued.
Province Age of Age of Spatially Metamorphic Other important events Geochron. Refs.
veining host associated events
Ma. terranes magmatism Ma.
Ma. Ma.
Southern 343294 Paleozoic Late Carboniferous veins emplaced at higher P T and Stowell et al. 1996.
Appalachians, Ordovician to main event.; deeper crustal levels than other
USA Carboniferous lower grade Phanerozoic orogenic gold
episodes in Late deposits in North America
Ordovician and
Meguma, Nova 380362 Cambrian 380370, 316 415377 host rocks obducted to Kontak et al. 1990.,
Scotia Ordovician continental margin between Late Keppie and Dallmeyer
Silurian and Early Permain 1995.

Victoria, SE 460?., Ordovician 415390, 460430 Stawell subduction event?; thin-skinned Arne et al. 1996., Foster
Australia 415360 Early 370360 BallaratBendigo., tectonics; conflicting data on age et al. 1996., Phillips and
Devonian 410400 of gold mineralization Hughes 1996.

Queensland, NE 408"30, Late Silurian Middle Devonian subduction event?; thin-skinned Peters and Golding 1989.,
Australia Carboniferous Devonian Ordovician tectonics Solomon and Groves
Middle 1994.
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

Trans-Hudson 18071720 Early 18901834 18701770 perhaps a series of unrelated Ansdell and Kyser 1992.,
orogen, central Proterozoic thermal and ore-forming events; Thomas and Heaman
Canada regional transpression continued 1994., Fayek and Kyser
until 1690 Ma 1995., Conners 1996.

Birimian belt of about 2100 21852150 21852150, veining in basinal rocks during Hirdes et al. 1996.
Ghanaeastern volcanics.; 21162088 oblique thrusting Eburnean
Cote dIvorie adjacent deformation. of these over
Burkina Faso basins are volcanic sequences
Dharwar craton, about 2400?. 27002530 2550 mineralization during collision Krogstad et al. 1989.,
S. India and suturing of numerous terranes Balakrishnan et al. 1990.
to form the Kolar schist belt,
which is the site of the most
important ores; age of
mineralization poorly-constrained
Yilgarn craton, 26402620, 27502685 26902660, 26902660, youngest date on veining could Kent and McDougall
W. Australia 2602, 2565?. 26502630 26502630 be cooling age; metamorphism 1995., Kent et al. 1996.,
poorly-constrained Kent and Hagemann

Slave craton, about 26702660 Middle and 2663, 2640 about 2690 100-m.y.-long subduction regime Abraham and Spooner
NWT, Canada Late Archaean 2585 initiated by 2712 1995., MacLachlan and
Helmstaedt 1995.
Zimbabwe craton, 2670, 2659, Early and Late 27002600, 2690?. poorly dated crustal evolution Foster and Piper 1993.,
Zimbabwe 2410?. Archaean 2460 Great Darbyshire et al. 1996.,
Dyke., 2428 Vinyu et al. 1996.
Superior 27202670, Middle and 27202673, 26902643 young period for mineralization Kerrich 1994., Kerrich
Province, Canada 26332404?. Late Archaean 26452611 might reflect thermal resetting of and Cassidy 1994.,
true ages Jackson and Cruden
1995., Powell et al.

Kaapvaal craton, 32003064 36003200 in 3437, 3106, ) 3200, some at in Barberton, mineralization at deRonde et al. 1991.,
South Africa Barberton Barberton 30002700, 2850 least 100 m.y. after thrusting and Foster and Piper 1993.
belt.; ) 2700 belt. 26002500 regional metamorphism of hosts;
with perhaps some of the mineralization may
some at 2850 correlate with that of the Pilbara
Murchison belt. block, western Australia
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727
14 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

Fig. 1. Tectonic settings of gold-rich epigenetic mineral deposits. Epithermal veins and gold-rich porphyry and skarn deposits, form in the
shallow F 5 km. parts of both island and continental arcs in compressional through extensional regimes. The epithermal veins, as well as
the sedimentary rock-hosted type Carlin ores, also are emplaced in shallow regions of back-arc crustal thinning and extension. In contrast,
the so-called mesothermal gold ores termed orogenic gold on this diagram. are emplaced during compressional to transpressional regimes
and throughout much of the upper crust, in deformed accretionary belts adjacent to continental magmatic arcs. Note that both the lateral and
vertical scale of the arcs and accreted terranes have been exaggerated to allow the gold deposits to be shown in terms of both spatial position
and relative depth of formation.

and begin to widely look at Archaean gold as a crucial for the formation of the Sierra foothills gold
product of continental-margin deformational events. districts including the Mother lode belt.. With an
The concept of a general spatial association be- abundance of new geochronological data from west-
tween the gold deposits and subduction-related ther- ern North America, recent models of gold genesis in
mal processes in accretionary orogens oceanic-con- accretionary orogens have been able to look closely
tinental plate interactions. became commonplace in at specific processes e.g. changing plate motions,
the mid-1980s. Fyfe and Kerrich 1985. presented a changing collisional velocities, ridge subduction, etc..
model at that time to explain the massive fluid occurring during accretionrsubduction that tend to
volumes required for the numerous gold-bearing vein be most closely associated with veining e.g. Gold-
swarms adjacent to crustal-scale thrust zones of con- farb et al., 1991b; Elder and Cashman, 1992; Haeus-
tinental margins. They hypothesized that underplated sler et al., 1995.. Theoretically, as a subduction zone
hydrated rocks contained the required water and such steps seaward, a series of gold systems and plutonic
water was released during thermal reequilibration as bodies should develop and young towards the
subduction ceased. Subsequent models for the Meso- trench-part of a so-called Turkic-type Sengor and
zoic and Cenozoic gold fields of westernmost North Okurogullari, 1991. orogen. This type of scenario
America relied heavily on correlating gold vein em- crudely characterizes Alaska, USA, a part of the
placement with subduction-driven processes Bohlke North American margin almost entirely composed of
and Kistler, 1986; Goldfarb et al., 1988.. Landefeld accreted oceanic rock sequences Plafker and Berg,
1988., expanding on the ideas in Fyfe and Kerrich 1994..
1985., detailed how the seaward stepping of subduc- Collisional orogens continentcontinent colli-
tion accompanying terrane accretion could have been sion., including the Variscan, Appalachian and
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 15

Alpine, also are host environments for gold deposits. continental margins were favorable environments for
In fact, collisional or internal. and accretionary or veining. Geochronological study of the gold deposits
peripheral. orogens may represent end-members of a in the Meguma terrane of Nova Scotia, Canada,
continuous process. Any continentcontinent colli- indicates veining between 380 and 362 Ma Kontak
sion will be preceded by closure of an ocean basin, et al., 1990., during the late part of Acadian defor-
and hence is nothing more than a final stage of a mation of the Appalachian orogen. The Meguma was
peripheral orogen. The gold systems that are associ- the final terrane accreted to the Atlantic margin
ated with the Phanerozoic internal orogens are actu- during the poorly-understood late Palaeozoic Lauren-
ally all spatially associated with marine rocks that tiaGondwanaland collision. Keppie and Dallmeyer
have been caught up within the suture. In addition, 1995., noting that magmatism and high-temperature
within peripheral orogens, accretion of microconti- metamorphism were restricted to a narrow time range
nents such as Wrangellia along western North Amer- of about 380370 Ma, rather than the prolonged 100
ica Plafker and Berg, 1994. or Avalonia along m.y. of Meguma collision, suggest a distinct episode
Laurentia Keppie, 1993. may be viewed as a type of of lower lithospheric delamination for the thermal
small-scale continentcontinent collision. A key perturbation. This brief thermal event, occurring at
point in all examples is that hydrated marine sedi- the same time as gold veining, is also likely to be
mentary and volcanic rocks were added to continen- important to the ore-forming process. Whereas little
tal margins and, at some time during this growth, the is certain about the subduction-related tectonics of
accreted rocks experienced relatively high geother- the northern Appalachians, mesothermal-type gold
mal gradients. ores such as the Hammer Down in northwestern
Oligocene veins in the western European Alps Newfoundland Gaboury et al., 1996. indicate that a
Curti, 1987. are the youngest recognized, economic broad belt of gold systems accompanied continental
examples of this deposit type. They also serve to growth.
point out that more than simple plate subduction is Palaeozoic gold veins of the Tasman orogenic
required for vein formation. The closure of an ocean system in eastern Australia make it clear that the
basin between Europe and Adria perhaps a part of ore-forming process need not require a Cordilleran-
northern Africa. occurred during an 80-m.y.-long style of terrane accretion. Unlike the collage of
period of Early Cretaceousearly Tertiary oceanic small terranes that formed the accreted margin of
crust subduction without any preserved evidence of western North America, eastern Australia is mainly
gold veining or magmatism; blueschist metamorphic composed of a single lithotectonic assemblage the
facies in the Alps now record the low thermal gradi- Lachlan terrane. that represents a 2,000-km-wide
ents. By the early Eocene, complete closure of the Palaeozoic turbidite fan sequence developed adjacent
ocean had led to continentcontinent collision and a to the Gondwanan craton Coney, 1992.. Such an
partial subduction of the European continental mar- environment lacks deep-crustal terrane-bounding
gin between 55 and 45 Ma Blanckenburg and faults located between accreted material and the
Davies, 1995.. It was not until almost 100 m.y. active margin, which, where present in the North
subsequent to the onset of convergence, perhaps due American Cordillera, expose a variety of crustal
to slab delamination resulting in the cessation of levels and often serve as the focus of hydrothermal
subduction at 4540 Ma Blanckenburg and Davies, fluid flow. Compression-related deformation is solely
1995., that magmatism and high temperature meta- intraplate rather than concentrated along sutures be-
morphism impacted the obducted upper nappes of tween terranes. The fact that such a large percentage
the western Alps near the collisional suture. Much of of gold has been concentrated in the BendigoBal-
the Alpine gold veining occurred during the early larat area of Victoria Phillips and Hughes, 1996;
Oligocene peak of magmatism Curti, 1987.. Ramsay, 1998 - this issue. indicates some significant
The understanding of gold-forming processes and and still poorly-understood, local control on vein
timing in older Phanerozoic orogens may be compli- emplacement in the orogenic system. Nonetheless,
cated by the hundreds of millions of years of addi- similar to the North American Cordillera, the Tas-
tional geological time, but certainly such Palaeozoic man orogenic system is characterized by significant
16 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

growth of the eastern Australian margin addition of syn- to post-peak-metamorphic and were emplaced
the Lachlan terrane. and a subduction zone east of at temperatures generally within 1008C of peak
the Lachlan assemblage throughout much of the metamorphic temperatures experienced by the sur-
Palaeozoic Solomon and Groves, 1994.. rounding host rocks. However, recent studies in
The abundance of geological similarities between mainly Archaean greenstone belts have extended the
the gold ores of the Phanerozoic orogens and those ranges of temperature and pressure, and hence ex-
in Archaean greenstone belts began to be interpreted tended the inferred crustal range of formation of the
by the late 1980s as evidence of a similar tectonic deposits into higher- and lower-grade metamorphic
setting for ore formation. Wyman and Kerrich 1988. rocks e.g. the crustal continuum model of Groves,
hypothesized that gold mineralization in the Superior 1993.. The evidence for formation of these gold
Province of Canada was related to convergent plate deposits over PT ranges of about 1807008C and
margin-style tectonics. At roughly the same time, - 15 kbar Groves, 1993; Hagemann and Brown,
Barley et al. 1989. independently reached the same 1996; Ridley et al., 1996. implies vertically exten-
conclusion to explain the development of gold lodes sive hydrothermal systems that contrast sharply with
in Western Australia. Subduction of oceanic rocks other continental-margin gold systems that are appar-
into the zone of partial melting appeared to be ently restricted to the upper 5 km or so of crust Fig.
significant in the development of these gold ores 2..
within orogens of all ages Hodgson and Hamilton, Studies in the early 1990s, summarized in Mc-
1989.. Major fault zones spatially associated with Cuaig et al. 1993., identified higher PT examples
auriferous belts in the Archaean terranes were now of these gold ores in amphibolite facies terranes of
recognized by several researchers as ancient terrane Western Australia, the Superior and Slave Provinces
boundaries. Kerrich and Wyman 1990. pointed out in Canada, India and Brazil. Most such mineraliza-
that, as observed in present-day convergent margins, tion occurred between 4506008C and 35 kbar. A
Archaean ore-forming fluids were products of deeper few examples in granulite terranes formed at even
crustal thermotectonic events which occurred subse- higher PT regimes Barnicoat et al., 1991; La-
quent to magmatism and metamorphism in ore-host- pointe and Chown, 1993.. The gold ores were still
ing supracrustal rocks. Detailed geochronological precipitated from the same low salinity, CO 2- and
studies now recognize such lower- to mid-crustal, O-rich fluids, but, because of the higher tempera-
late deformational regimes in Archaean terranes tures and different mineral stabilities, there is a
Jackson and Cruden, 1995; Kent et al., 1996.. Gold scarcity of carbonate phases and an abundance of
deposits in any given Archaean province may all be calc-silicate minerals characterizing alteration haloes
a part of the same supercontinent cycle cf. Barley Mikucki and Ridley, 1993.. Such assemblages are
and Groves, 1992., but can show a wide variation in similar to those typifying skarn systems Mueller and
age Table 1., reflecting a variety of thermal events Groves, 1991..
during many tens of millions of years of accretion It is somewhat problematic as to why a similar
and subduction. continuum of gold deposits has not been widely
recognized in higher metamorphic-grade portions of
2.3. Crustal enironment of mesothermal gold de- Phanerozoic orogenic belts. Was there something
position inherently different between the tectonics of Ar-
chaean and Phanerozoic continental growth? Or do
The majority of deposits of this ore style are sited such gold deposits occur in high-grade terrains of the
in ductile to brittle structures, have proximal alter- Phanerozoic and they have just been classified dif-
ation assemblages of Fe sulfidecarbonatesericite ferently? Perhaps a re-evaluation of the classification
" albite in rocks of appropriate composition to of some of the gold-bearing skarns or contact-
stabilise the assemblage. and were deposited at 300 metamorphosed deposits in younger orogenic belts
" 508C and 13 kbar, as indicated by fluid inclusion might help to solve this problem. Ore fluid salinity
and other geothermobarometric studies Groves and might be a key discriminator in the case of the
Foster, 1991; Nesbitt, 1991.. They are consistently skarns, with relatively high ore-fluid salinities being
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 17

Fig. 2. Schematic representation of crustal environments of hydrothermal gold deposits in terms of depth of formation and structural setting
within a convergent plate margin. This figure is by necessity stylised to show the deposit styles within a depth framework. There is no
implication that all deposit types or depths of formation will be represented in a single ore system. Adapted from Groves 1993.,
Gebre-Mariam et al. 1995. and Poulsen 1996..

associated with typical gold skarn deposits that are notable. Comb, cockade, crustiform and colloform
more directly linked to intrusive sources Meinert, textures at the Racetrack deposit, deposited from
1993.. The late Palaeozoic Muruntau deposit in CO 2-poor fluids in lower greenschist facies rocks at
Uzbekistan is apparently one example of a post- depths F 2.5 km, are more like those developed in
Archaean, higher metamorphic grade mesothermal- classic epithermal vein deposits Gebre-Mariam et
type deposit. The abundance of thin quartz layering, al., 1993.. Similar textures at the Wiluna gold de-
fluid inclusion data suggesting trapping temperatures posits in subgreenschist facies rocks, as well as
in excess of 4008C Berger et al., 1994. and a d18 Oquartz measurements as light as 67 per ml,
skarn-like, calc-silicate assemblage Marakushev and provide some of the strongest evidence of meteoric
Khokhlov, 1992. from deeper parts of the ore system water involvement in some of the mesothermal
all suggest that the deposit may represent a deeper hydrothermal systems Hagemann et al., 1992, 1994..
part of the crustal continuum. Gold solubility relationships at temperatures be-
Ore formation at temperatures of 2002508C and low 2002508C best explain the observation that the
at crustal depths of only a few kilometers is not continuum of this type of gold deposit does not
uncharacteristic of these ores where hydrothermal continue into the uppermost few kilometres of the
fluids have migrated to shallower crustal levels. crust. The moderately-reducing and only moderately
However, a few anomalies from shallow gold sys- sulphur-rich conditions likely to characterize
tems in the Yilgarn block of Western Australia are mesothermal gold ore-fluids at low temperature
18 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

Mikucki, 1998 - this issue., would favor low gold type sedimentary rock-hosted and porphyryrskarn
solubilities at these low temperatures e.g. Shen- deposits developed within the same active continen-
berger and Barnes, 1989.. However, hydrothermal tal margins as the so-called mesothermal deposits
fluids that have been depositing mesothermal gold Fig. 1.. Notable distinctions, however, can be made
along crustal-scale fault zones at depth, must still that relate to local changes in tectonism within a
advect along these faults to the surface. Such is developing orogen and to crustal depth range a
probably the case in the westernmost part of North reflection of regional geothermal gradient. of the
America where CO 2-rich, isotopically-heavy fluids auriferous hydrothermal systems.
migrated to near-surface environments of very low As shown schematically in Fig. 1, a significant
PT in the Cordilleran orogen. Cinnabar" stibnite- proportion of epithermal and porphyry deposits are
bearing epithermal, silicacarbonate veins, which distinct in that they form above subduction zones
were deposited within the upper few kilometres of distal to continental margins or within continental
crust, define such flow Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs, margins, but during post-collisional extension. Many
1989.. Examples include the HgSb deposits of the other gold-rich epithermal and porphyry systems de-
Kuskokwim basin in SW Alaska, the Pinchi belt of velop in oceanic regimes within the top few kilome-
British Columbia and the coast ranges of northern tres of crust of volcano-plutonic island arcs located
California. In fact, it has been recognized now for above intermediate- to steeply-dipping subduction
thirty years that many of the thermal springs within zones e.g. Sawkins, 1990; Sillitoe, 1991., with a
the accreted margin of western North America have vertical transition from porphyry-style to classic ep-
a unique chemical character White, 1967. and could ithermal vein-style mineralization e.g. White and
be the surface expression of deeper mesothermal Hedenquist, 1995.. Other epithermal lodes, including
gold deposits. d18 Oquartz values for Hg-rich veins some of the world-class deposits Muller and Groves,
emplaced in the near surface are as heavy as q30 1997., are associated with alkalic, mantle-related
per ml because of greater quartzwater fractionation, rocks that reflect extensional episodes in a conver-
as temperatures of ore fluids cooled to as low 1508C. gent orogen in either a near-arc region e.g. Porgera:
Such heavy oxygen values are very distinct from Richards et al., 1990. or far inland of the accre-
d18 Oquartz values of other types of vein systems tionary wedge e.g. Cripple Creek: Kelley et al.,
deposited in classical epithermal environments, such 1996.. Certainly, many of the well-studied Tertiary
as those of the Nevada Basin and Range Goldfarb et epithermal ores associated with volcanic rocks
al., 1990.. The identification of this type of HgSb throughout Nevada are products of post-orogenic
epithermal system in a continental margin terrane Basin and Range extension. Geochronological evi-
with limited erosion may be a valuable guide to the dence is beginning to favour a similar temporal
down-dip existence of a so-called mesothermal gold setting for Carlin-type mineralization Hofstra, 1995;
occurrence. Emsboo et al., 1996..
The gold-bearing epithermal vein and porphyry
systems that are, however, associated with colli-
2.4. Comparisons with other lode-gold deposit types sional, subduction-related tectonics Sillitoe, 1993.
are typically located in different crustal regimes in
Most deposit types that contain ore-grade gold the orogen than the so-called mesothermal gold
Table 2., whether with gold as the principal metal systems. Whether in an island arc, compressional
or together with copper, are sited along convergent orogen, or a zone of back-arc rifting, the porphyry-
plate margins Sawkins, 1990.. There are notable skarn-epithermal vein continuum normally is tele-
exceptions, such as gold-rich volcanogenic massive scoped into the upper 25 km of crust Figs. 1 and
sulfide deposits developed along spreading ocean 2; Poulsen, 1996.. Magmatism generally I-type. and
ridges e.g. Bousquet. and other deposit styles asso- high temperatures impose a very steep geothermal
ciated with possible anorogenic hot spots e.g. gradient on the upper crust, often locally far in
Olympic Dam.. However, as a rule, many of the excess of 1008Crkm. An abundance of subvolcanic
Phanerozoic gold-bearing epithermal vein, Carlin- to volcanic rocks necessitates that much of the gold
Table 2
Characteristics of epigenetic gold deposits. Summarized from Foster 1991., Robert et al. 1991., Kirkham et al. 1993., Hedenquist and Lowenstern 1994., Richards 1995. and
Poulsen 1996.
Deposit Examples Tectonic setting Temp. of Depth of Ore fluid Au:Ag Alteration types Other key features
type formation emplacement composition
8C . km .

Orogenic Kalgoorlie Australia ., continental margin; 200 700 2 20 3 10 eq. wt% 1 10 carbonation, hosted in deformed metamorphic
Val dOr Canada ., compressional to NaCl, G 5 sericitization, terranes; F 3 5% sulfide
Ashanti Ghana . , transpressional mol% CO 2 ; sulfidation; skarn- minerals; individual deposits of
Mother lode USA . regime; veins typically in traces of CH 4 like assemblages in G 1 2 km vertical extent; spatial
metamorphic rocks on and N 2 higher temperature association with transcrustal fault
seaward side of deposits zones and granitic magmatism
continental arc

Epithermal high sulf.s Goldfield oceanic arc, continental 100 300 surface - 1 20 eq. wt% 0.02 1 adularia sericite veins and replacements are similar
low and high USA ., Summitville arc, or back arc 2 km NaCl; quartz low sulf. . age as ore-hosting or nearby
sulfidation . USA ., Julcani Peru ., extension of continental early acidic versus quartz alunite volcanic rocks; ore zones
Lepanto Philippines.; crust; extensional condensate high kaolinite high generally 100 500 m in vertical
low sulf.s Comstock environments normal, sulf. . sulf.. extent; disseminated ore common
Lode USA ., Fresnillo but commonly in in high sulf. systems
Mexico ., Golden compressional regimes
Cross New Zealand .

Epithermal Cripple Creek USA .; post-subduction, back generally surface F 10 eq. wt% very carbonation, K- Te-rich deposits associated with
alkalic- Porgera PNG .; arc extension; extension F 200 2 km NaCl high CO 2 ; variable metasomatism, alkalic igneous rocks; ores
related . Emperor, Fiji can be adjacent to traces of CH 4 and propylitic commonly in breccia pipes and as
magmatic arc or N2 assemblages manto-type replacements
hundreds of km

Sedimentary- Carlin USA ., Jerritt back-arc extension and 200 300 23 F 7 eq. wt% 0.1 10 intense very fine-grained gold in intensely
rock hosted Canyon USA ., thinning of continental NaCl; silicification; some silicified rock; dissolution of
Guizhou PR China . crust kaolinization surrounding carbonate

Gold-rich Bingham USA ., oceanic or continental 300 700 25 some fluids ) 35 0.001 0.1 central biotite KF disseminated sulfides and veinlets
porphyry Grasberg Indonesia ., arc; subduction-related eq. wt% zone surrounded within and adjacent to porphyritic,
Lepanto-Far Southeast but often associated NaCl; can mix by quartz chlorite; silitic-to intermediate composition
Philippines ., with extensional with low salinity common sericite intrusions; low oxidation state of
Kingking Philippines. environments surface waters; pyrite overprinting; magmas may favor gold
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

often immiscible distal propylitic enrichments; generally I-type

vapor alteration magmas; gold introduced with Cu-

Gold-rich Hedley Canada ., oceanic or continental 300 600 15 10 to ) 35 eq. F 1 10 garnet pyroxene most occur as calcic exoskarns;
skarn Fortitude USA ., arc; subduction-related wt% NaCl epidote chlorite typically associated with mafic,
Crown Jewel USA . but often associated calcite low-silica, very reduced plutons
with extensional

Submarine Horne Canada ., back-arc rift basins F 350 on or near 3.5 6.5 eq. 0.0001 quartz talc chlorite laminated, banded, or massive
exhalative Bousquet Canada. , Kuroko-type . or mid- seafloor wt% NaCl; 0.1 is most common fine-grained sulphides; commonly
Greens Creek USA . , ocean seafloor much higher with an outer zone both exhalative and
Boliden Sweden . spreading Cyprus- and salinities where of illite"smectite; synsedimentary replacement
Besshi-type . fluid interaction anhydrite or barite textures; gold relatively more
with brines cap in places important in back-arc regions
20 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

ore is hosted in lithologies of roughly equivalent age. research interest in gold genesis studies. In fact, in
The shallow level of the hydrothermal activity re- the 75th Anniversary Volume of Economic Geology
stricts much of the lode-gold emplacement to rocks 1981., there is notably no chapter that is devoted to
that are unmetamorphosed to only slightly regionally this economically important ore deposit type. Eco-
metamorphosed. nomic geologists had begun to notice the basic asso-
In contrast, the so-called mesothermal ore de- ciation of the Phanerozoic deposits with subduction
posit type is deposited over a very broad range of the zones and convergent margins during the growth of
upper crust Groves, 1993; Poulsen, 1996.. Rather plate tectonic theories. However, books on tectonics
than bringing a concentrated heat source to the near and ore deposits barely mentioned these gold sys-
surface, the fluids, granitic magmas and heat are tems e.g. Mitchell and Garson, 1981..
carried to higher crustal levels along major fault As the price of gold increased dramatically in the
zones that may have been suture zones between late 1970s, so did interest in the understanding of
accreted terranes. Crustal geotherms of perhaps G these gold deposits. Mesothermal lode-gold de-
308Crkm are elevated, but not to the levels of the posits began to receive extensive study by ore geolo-
more telescoped group of ore deposit types. Where gists, and were subsequently described by a variety
hydrothermal fluids reach the near-surface environ- of terms during the last fifteen years as workers
ment, their relatively low temperature hinders signif- began recognizing them as a single mineral deposit
icant gold transport; however, bisulphide complexes type. The abundance of terms that define these ores
still may carry significant Sb and Hg into the upper reflects both the great expansion of knowledge about
few kilometres of crust Fig. 2.. Where such fluids these systems accumulated during the 1980s e.g.
migrate into the realm of the typical porphyry- Robert et al., 1991. and the efforts by various groups
skarn-epithermal continuum, complex overlapping of to establish ore deposit model volumes that classify
deposit styles may develop. Such a situation may deposits by type e.g. Cox and Singer, 1986.. One
characterize southwestern Alaska, where epithermal consequence of so many terms for the same deposits
HgSb ores that suggest so-called mesothermal is the resulting confusion for those not extremely
gold deposits at depth Gray et al., 1997. are spa- familiar with the gold literature. Certainly, a single
tially associated with volcano-plutonic-related gold deposit type title would be helpful for all workers.
deposits Bundtzen and Miller, 1997., or northern The paper by Nesbitt et al. 1986. on lode-gold
California where the McLaughlin gold deposit sits deposits of the Canadian Cordillera seemed to initi-
among a series of Hg-rich hot springs Sherlock and ate popularity of the phrase mesothermal. They de-
Logan, 1995.. fine a group of Canadian mesothermal gold de-
posits that formed between 2003508C within a se-
ries of accreted terranes. Prior to this paper, the
3. Problem of nomeclature broad class of mesothermal gold deposits did not
exist. Major gold volumes such as Gold 82 Fos-
Prior to 1980, the so called mesothermal group ter, 1984., Turbidite-hosted Gold Deposits Keppie
of Archaean through Tertiary deposits was not widely et al., 1986. and Gold 86 Macdonald, 1986.
recognized as a single special type of gold ore. Most lacked any mention of such a deposit type. However,
classifications scattered the deposits among the since the Nesbitt et al. 1986. paper, the
mesothermal and hypothermal regimes of Lindgren mesothermal terminology has become well-en-
1933.. Others, such as Bateman 1950., divided trenched in the literature. This may be a response, in
these deposits into groups within a very broad cav- part, to the need to easily contrast this group of gold
ity filling type of epigenetic ore deposit. Hence, deposits with the generally more shallowly-deposited
many Archaean lodes were classified as fissure fill- types of gold ores that had already been classified as
ing type deposits, Otago was a shear zone deposit epithermal for many years previous. Because of
type, Bendigo was a saddle reef deposit type, Tread- this widespread acceptance of the mesothermal label,
well, Alaska was a stockwork type deposit, etc. The subsequent comprehensive descriptions of these gold
relatively low price of gold correlated with a limited deposits have tended to group them under such a
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 21

mesothermal heading Groves et al., 1989; Kerrich, deposit type solely on PT environment is not
1991; Hodgson, 1993.. advisable Bateman, 1950..
Whereas mesothermal has become the most The contrasting tectonic setting between the sites
common term used in referring to this type of de- of most epithermal gold deposits and the sites of all
posit during the last ten years, Poulsen 1996. has so-called mesothermal deposits presents another
recently shown how it is very inconsistent with the basic problem with usage of the Lindgren model. As
meaning originally proposed by Lindgren 1907, envisioned by Lindgren 1907, 1933., the epither-
1933.. Lindgrens description of such a deposit type mal, mesothermal and hypothermal terms were in-
is for that which formed at depths of about 1,200 tended to define a continuum among deposits. How-
3,600 m and at temperatures of 2003008C. Because ever, as implied in Fig. 2, the term epithermal is
of the restrictive temperature range, high-temperature now entrenched in the literature as a specific min-
alteration phases, including tourmaline, biotite, horn- eral-deposit type that most commonly describes
blende, pyroxene and garnet, were stated as being high-level veining and alteration broadly associated
absent in and surrounding mesothermal type ores. with volcanism or subvolcanic magmatism e.g.
Gold districts such as those of the California foothills Berger and Bethke, 1985.. As discussed above, such
belt, the Meguma domain of Nova Scotia, central epithermal gold deposits may form in oceanic arcs
Victoria, and Charters Tower in Queensland were long before continental margin orogenesis or, as in
classified by Lindgren 1933. as mesothermal. the Basin and Range of the USA, during post-oro-
Many other gold districts, however, that are rou- genic extension, as shown schematically in Fig. 1.
tinely classified as mesothermal today were actu- Hence, there are typically neither consistent spatial
ally termed hypothermal by Lindgren 1933.. These nor temporal relations between the two gold deposit
deposits were described as having formed at 300 types.
5008C, thus exhibiting higher temperature alteration Many other terms relating to host rocks, vein
assemblages, and at depths below 3,600 m. Most of mineralogy or ore-fluid chemistry are equally unac-
the worlds Archaean gold deposits were clearly ceptable in the overall description of these deposits.
stated as being hypothermal deposits. In addition, Commonly used terms, such as greenstone gold,
some Phanerozoic lodes, including those of the Bo- slate belt gold, or turbidite-hosted gold, disguise
hemian Massif and Juneau, Alaska, were included in the fact that the deposits have many similarities
the class. The groupings into the mesothermal and despite their different hosting sequences the theme
hypothermal temperature ranges by Lindgren are re- of this special Ore Geology Reiews issue. and
markably accurate in light of many modern fluid should be used, if at all, to describe subgroups of the
inclusion studies. But the key point is that many of major deposit type, and not the deposit type itself.
the deposits that are now termed mesothermal did The use of Archaean or Mother lode-type gold
not fit in the mesothermal category in the early 20th deposits is also unacceptable, clearly reflecting a
century and still do not fit in the category today. specific temporal or spatial preference, respectively.
If one such Lindgren-type term was used to define Metamorphic gold implies an understanding of the
the broad observed range for PT conditions of ore-forming process which is, however, still strongly
these deposits, it probably is xenothermal. The under debate. The fact that these deposits contain
term, coined by Buddington 1935., covers the PT only a few percent sulfide minerals, in most cases,
conditions from lepothermal a vague PT regime has led to classifications referring to them as low
between epithermal and mesothermal. to hypother- sulfide Berger, 1986., and the fact that gold is
mal. As such, it would include the broad range of ore enriched by orders of magnitudes over base metals
forming pressures and temperatures that is well- and Au:Ag ratios are generally ) 1 has led to their
documented in the Yilgarn block of Western Aus- classification as gold only Hodgson and MacGee-
tralia, as summarised by Groves 1993.. However, han, 1982; Phillips and Powell, 1993. deposits.
other factors, such as structural control, wall rock However, many other types of gold deposits, includ-
type and fluid chemistry play a major role in the ing the sedimentary rock-hosted ores at Carlin and
localization of a gold deposit and definition of a gold elsewhere in Nevada, show the same low sulfide
22 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

content. Similarly, lode-gold McCuaig and Ker- those where ore fluids are derived from evolving
rich, 1994. may be interpreted to contain a variety of magmas. The Proterozoic gold lodes of northern
gold deposit types. Australia and the Mesozoic deposits of the north
A critical feature of all these deposits seems to be China craton and Korea are also commonly sug-
their common tectonic setting, as described in detail gested to be genetically associated with igneous pro-
above. These deposits were classified as pre-oro- cesses. Are such deposits, with ore fluid chemistries
genic by Bache 1980, 1987., who recognized their essentially identical to those of typical orogenic gold
association with the worlds orogenic belts. How- deposits, a different deposit type? Sillitoe 1991.
ever, at the same time, the classification assumed a indicated that the intrusion-related gold deposits also
syngenetic exhalative origin for the auriferous lodes, form in Phanerozoic convergent plate margins above
an assumption clearly in conflict with modern zones of active subduction, although regional exten-
geochronological data. Goldfarb et al. 1991a, 1998 - sion is stressed as an important characteristic and
this issue. have often preferred the term synoro- thus indicates some difference from the orogenic
genic, given the clear overlap of gold-forming events class defined here. Sillitoe 1991. does stress that the
in the North American Cordillera with a broad, apparent overlap between orogenic and intrusion-re-
120-m.y.-long period of continental margin growth. lated gold systems requires further attention. We
The term post-orogenic has been used by other would certainly agree.
workers Gebre-Mariam et al., 1993; Groves, 1996. A convenient terminology that both retains the
who emphasize that deformation and metamorphism prefixes epi, meso, and hypo used by Lindgren
of ore host rocks commonly predate hydrothermal 1907, 1933., and subdivides the orogenic gold de-
vein emplacement Groves et al., 1984; Colvine, posit type, is introduced by Hagemann and Ridley
1989; Hodgson and Hamilton, 1989.. 1993. and then further modified by Gebre-Mariam
et al. 1995.. Its continued usage is recommended. In
such a scenario, epizonal deposits form within 6 km
4. Proposed classification of the surface at temperatures of 1503008C, meso-
zonal deposits form at depths of 612 km and at
These gold deposits, throughout the worlds colli- temperatures of 3004758C and hypozonal deposits
sional orogenic belts, can actually be viewed as both form below 12 km and at temperatures exceeding
syn- and post-orogenic in origin. Whereas host rocks 4758C. It is critical to note that this terminology has
for ore may already be undergoing uplift and cooling been defined solely as a subdivision for orogenic
thus post-orogenic., the ore-forming fluids may be gold deposits based on many modern geothermo-
generated or set in motion by simultaneous thermal barometric studies. Because of this, the depth zones
processes at depth thus syn-orogenic. as described for these orogenic subclasses do not correspond to
by Stuwe et al. 1993.. For example, Kent et al. those in Lindgrens epithermal, mesothermal, and
1996. show that the main episode of gold mineral- hypothermal regimes.
ization in the Yilgarn craton postdates thermal events
in the ore-hosting upper crust, but temporally corre-
lates with melting and magmatism of lower-middle Acknowledgements
Archaean crust. Because of this, it is suggested that
the gold ores simply be classified as orogenic lode The authors acknowledge the input of past and
types, as was originally suggested by Bohlke 1982.. present staff and students at the Key Centre at UWA,
A remaining problem is whether to classify many particularly Mark Barley, Kevin Cassidy and John
intrusion-related gold deposits within this group of Ridley. The research was funded largely by mining
orogenic gold deposits. Sillitoe 1991. places de- companies and supported by Key Centre Corporate
posits such as Muruntau and Charters Tower in such Members, DEETYA, AMIRA, MERIWA and UWA.
an intrusion-related deposit type. McCoy et al. 1997. The paper was inspired as a result of a course given
distinguish plutonic-related mesothermal gold de- by F. Robert in Perth in February, 1996, and confer-
posits of interior Alaska, such as Fort Knox, as ences on mesothermal gold deposits in Ballarat and
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 23

Perth in July, 1996. The encouragement of Ross Berger, B.R., Bethke, P.M. Eds.., 1985. Geology and geochem-
Ramsay is greatly appreciated. This manuscript was istry of epithermal deposits. Rev. Econ. Geol. 2, 298 pp.
Berger, B.R., Drew, L.D., Goldfarb, R.J., Snee, L.W., 1994. An
much improved through the exceptionally insightful epoch of gold riches: The Late Paleozoic in Uzbekistan,
comments of Kevin Cassidy, Rob Kerrich, Howard central Asia. Soc. Econ. Geol. Newslett. 16 1., 711.
Poulsen, Ed Mikucki and one anonymous journal Von Blanckenburg, F., Davies, J.H., 1995. Slab breakoff: A
reviewer. model for syncollisional magmatism and tectonics in the Alps.
Tectonics 14, 120131.
Bohlke, J.K., 1982. Orogenic metamorphic-hosted. goldquartz
veins. U.S. Geol. Surv., Open-file Rep. 795, 7076.
References Bohlke, J.K., Kistler, R.W., 1986. RbSr, KAr and stable
isotope evidence for ages and sources of fluid components of
Abraham, A.P.G., Spooner, E.T.C., 1995. Late Archean regional gold-bearing quartz veins in the northern Sierra Nevada
deformation and structural controls on goldquartz vein min- foothills metamorphic belt, California. Econ. Geol. 81, 296
eralization in the northwestern Slave province, N.W.T., 322.
Canada. Can. J. Earth Sci. 32, 11321154. Bouchot, V., Gros, Y., Bonnemaison, M., 1989. Structural con-
Ansdell, K.M., Kyser, T.K., 1992. Mesothermal gold mineraliza- trols on the auriferous shear zones of the Saint Yrieix district,
tion in a Proterozoic greenstone belt, Western Flin Flon do- Massif central, France. Evidence from the Le Bourneix and
main, Saskatchewan, Canada. Econ. Geol. 87, 14961524. Laurieras gold deposits. Econ. Geol. 84, 13151327.
Arne, D.C., Bierlein, F.P., McNaughton, N.J., Wilson, C.J.L., Buddington, A.F., 1935. High temperature mineral associations at
Morard, V.J., Ramsay, W.R.H., 1996. Timing of felsic mag- shallow to moderate depths. Econ. Geol. 30, 205222.
matism in Victoria and its relationship to gold mineralization. Bundtzen, T.K., Miller, M.L., 1997. Precious metals associated
In: Hughes, M.J., Ho, S.E., Hughes, C.E. Eds.., Recent with Late CretaceousEarly Tertiary igneous rocks of south-
Developments in Victorian Geology and Mineralisation. Aust. western Alaska. In: Goldfarb, R.J., Miller, L.D. Eds.., Min-
Inst. Geosci. Bull. 20, 4348. eral Deposits of Alaska. . Econ. Geol. Monogr. 9, 242286.
Ash, C.H., Reynolds, P.H., Macdonald, R.W.J., 1996. Mesother- Cathelineau, M., Boiron, M.C., Hollinger, P., Poty, B., 1990.
mal goldquartz vein deposits in British Columbia oceanic Metallogenesis of the French part of the Variscan orogen. Part
terranes. New mineral deposit models of the Cordillera. B.C. II: Timespace relationships between U, Au and SnW ore
Geol. Surv., Cordilleran Roundup Short Course, pp. O1O32. deposition and geodynamic events. Mineralogical and UPb
Ashley, P.M., Cook, N.D.J., Hill, R.L., Kent, A.J.R., 1994. data. Tectonophysics 177, 5979.
Shoshonitic lamprophyre dykes and their relation to mesother- Colvine, A.C., 1989. An empirical model for the formation of
mal AuSb veins at Hillgrove, New South Wales, Australia. Archean gold deposits. Products of final cratonization of the
Lithos 32, 249272. Superior Province, Canada. In: Keays, R.R., Ramsay, W.R.H.,
Bache, J.J., 1980. Essai de typologie quantitative des gisements Groves, D.I. Eds.., The Geology of Gold Deposits: The
mondiaux dor. BRGM Note SGNrGMXrGIT, No. 622. 9 Perspective in 1988. Econ. Geol. Monogr., 6, 3753.
pp. Colvine, A.C., Andrews, A.J., Cherry, M.E., Durocher, M.E.,
Bache, J.J., 1987. World Gold Deposits: A Quantitative Classifi- Fyon, J.A., Lavigne, M.J., Macdonald, A.J., Marmont, S.,
cation. North Oxford Academic, London, 179 pp. Poulsen, K.H., Springer, J.S., Troop, D.G., 1984. An inte-
Balakrishnan, S., Hanson, G.N., Rajamani, V., 1990. Pb and Nd grated model for the origin of Archean lode-gold deposits.
isotope constraints on the origin of high Mg and tholeiitic Ont. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 5524, 98 pp.
amphibolites, Kolar Schist Belt, South India. Contrib. Mineral. Coney, P.J., 1992. The Lachlan belt of eastern Australia and
Petrol. 107, 279292. Circum-Pacific tectonic evolution. Tectonophysics 214, 125.
Barley, M.E., Groves, D.I., 1992. Supercontinent cycles and the Conners, K.A., 1996. Unraveling the boundary between turbidites
distribution of metal deposits through time. Geology 20, 291 of the Kisseynew belt and volcano-plutonic rocks of the Flin
294. Flon belt, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada. Can. J. Earth Sci.
Barley, M.E., Eisenlohr, B.N., Groves, D.I., Perring, C.S., Vearn- 33, 811829.
combe, J.R., 1989. Late Archean convergent margin tectonics Cox, D.P., Singer, D.A. Eds.., 1986. Mineral Deposit Models.
and gold mineralization: A new look at the Norseman-Wiluna U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1693, 379 pp.
belt, Western Australia. Geology 17, 826829. Curti, E., 1987. Lead and oxygen isotope evidence for the origin
Barnicot, A.C., Fare, R.J., Groves, D.I., McNaughton, N.J., 1991. of the Monte Rosa gold lode deposits Western Alps, Italy.: A
Synmetamorphic lode-gold deposits in high-grade Archean comparison with Archean lode deposits. Econ. Geol. 82,
settings. Geology 19, 921924. 21152140.
Bateman, A.M., 1950. Economic Mineral Deposits, 2nd ed. Wi- Darbyshire, D.P.F., Pitfield, P.E.J., Campbell, S.D.G., 1996. Late
ley, New York, 916 pp. Archean and Early Proterozoic goldtungsten mineralization
Berger, B.R., 1986. Descriptive model of low-sulphide Auquartz in the Zimbabwe Archean craton: RbSr and SmNd isotope
veins. In: Cox, D.P., Singer, D.A. Eds... Mineral Deposit constraints. Geology 24, 1922.
Models. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1693, 183186. deRonde, C.E.J., Hall, C.M., York, D., Spooner, E.T.C., 1991.
24 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

Laser step heating 40Arr39Ar age spectra from early Archean Goldfarb, R.J., Nash, J.T., Stoesser, J.W. Eds.., Geochemical
Barberton greenstone belt sediments: A technique for detect- Studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1989. U.S.
ing cryptic tectono-thermal events. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta Geol. Surv. Bull., 1950, pp. E1E9.
55, 19331951. Goldfarb, R.J., Leach, D.L., Pickthorn, W.J., 1991a. Source of
Drew, L.J., Berger, B.R., Kurbanov, N.K., 1996. Geology and synorogenic fluids of the northern Cordillera: Evidence from
structural evolution of the Muruntau gold deposit, Kyzylkum the Juneau Gold Belt, Alaska. In: Robert, F., Sheahan, P.A.,
desert, Uzbekistan. Ore Geol. Rev. 11, 175196. Green, S.B. Eds.., Greenstone Gold and Crustal Evolution.
Economic Geology, 1981. 75th Anniversary Volume. Econ. Geol. Geol. Assoc. Can., Mineral Deposits Div. Publ., pp. 160161.
Publ. Co., Littleton, CO, 964 pp. Goldfarb, R.J., Snee, L.W., Miller, L.D., Newberry, R.J., 1991b.
Elder, D., Cashman, S.M., 1992. Tectonic control and fluid Rapid dewatering of the crust deduced from ages of mesother-
evolution in the Quartz Hill, California, lode-gold deposits. mal gold deposits. Nature 354, 296298.
Econ. Geol. 87, 17951812. Goldfarb, R.J., Phillips, G.N., Nokleberg, W.J., 1998. Tectonic
Emsboo, P., Hofstra, A.H., Park, D., Zimmerman, J.M., Snee, L., setting of synorogenic gold deposits of the Pacific Rim. Ore
1996. A mid-Tertiary age constraint on alteration and mineral- Geol. Rev. 13, 185218 this issue..
ization in igneous dikes on the Goldstrike property, Carlin Gray, J.D., Gent, C.A., Snee, L.W., Wilson, F.H., 1997. Epither-
Trend, Nevada. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Prog. 28 7., 476. mal mercuryantimony and gold-bearing vein lodes of south-
Fayek, M., Kyser, T.K., 1995. Characteristics of auriferous and western Alaska. In: Goldfarb, R.J., Miller, L.D. Eds.., Min-
barren fluids associated with the Proterozoic Contact Lake eral Deposits of Alaska. Econ. Geol. Monogr. 9, 287305.
lode-gold deposit, Saskatchewan, Canada. Econ. Geol. 90, Groves, D.I., 1993. The crustal continuum model for late-Archaean
385406. lode-gold deposits of the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia.
Ford, R.C., Snee, L.W., 1996. 40Arr39Ar thermochronology of Miner. Deposita 28, 366374.
white mica from the Nome district, Alaska: The first ages of Groves, D.I., 1996. Geological concepts in the exploration for
lode sources to placer gold deposits in the Seward Peninsula. large to giant late-orogenic mesothermal. gold deposits: The
Econ. Geol. 91, 213220. Archaean greenstone experience. In: Mesothermal Gold De-
Foster, D.A., Kwak, T.A.P., Gray, D.R., 1996. Timing of gold posits: A Global Overview. Geol. Dept. Key Centre. Univ.
mineralisation and relationship to metamorphism, thrusting, Ext., Univ. West. Aust. Publ. 27, 114117.
and plutonism in Victoria. In: Hughes, M.J., Ho, S.E., Hughes, Groves, D.I., Foster, R.P., 1991. Archean lode-gold deposits. In:
C.E. Eds.., Recent Developments in Victorian Geology and Foster, R.P. Ed.., Gold Metallogeny and Exploration. Blackie
Mineralisation. Aust. Inst. Geosci. Bull. 20, 4953. and Son, Glasgow, pp. 63103.
Foster, R.P. Ed.., 1984. Gold 82: The Geology, Geochemistry Groves, D.I., Phillips, G.N., Ho, S.E., Henderson, C.A., Clark,
and Genesis of Gold Deposits. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 753 M.E., Woad, G.M., 1984. Controls on distribution of Ar-
pp. chaean hydrothermal gold deposits in Western Australia. In:
Foster, R.P. Ed.., 1991. Gold Metallogeny and Exploration. Foster, R.P. Ed.., Gold 82: The Geology, Geochemistry and
Blackie and Son, Glasgow, 432 pp. Genesis of Gold Deposits. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp.
Foster, R.P., Piper, D.P., 1993. Archaean lode-gold deposits in 689712.
Africa: Crustal setting, metallogenesis and cratonization. Ore Groves, D.I., Barley, M.E., Ho, S., 1989. Nature, genesis and
Geol. Rev. 8, 303347. tectonic setting of mesothermal gold mineralization in the
Fyfe, W.S., Kerrich, R., 1985. Fluids and thrusting. Chem. Geol. Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. In: Keays, R.R., Ramsay,
49, 353362. W.R.H., Groves, D.I. Eds.., The Geology of Gold Deposits:
Gaboury, D., Dube, B., Lafleche, M.R., Lauziere, K., 1996. The Perspective in 1988. Econ Geol. Monogr., 6, 7185.
Geology of the Hammer Down mesothermal gold deposit, Groves, D.I., Barley, M.E., Barnicoat, A.C., Cassidy, K.F., Fare,
Newfoundland Appalachians, Canada. Can. J. Earth Sci. 33, R.J., Hagemann, S.G., Ho, S.E., Hronsky, J.M.A., Mikucki,
335350. E.J., Mueller, A.G., McNaughton, N.J., Perring, C.S., Ridley,
Gebre-Mariam, M., Groves, D.I., McNaughton, N.J., Mikucki, J.R., Vearncombe, J.R., 1992. Sub-greenschist to granulite-
E.J., Vearncombe, J.R., 1993. Archaean AuAg mineralisa- hosted Archaean lode-gold deposits of the Yilgarn Craton: A
tion at Racetrack, near Kalgoorlie, Western Australia: A high depositional continuum from deep sourced hydrothermal fluids
crustal-level expression of the Archaean composite lode-gold in crustal-scale plumbing systems. Geol. Dept. Key Centre.
system. Miner. Deposita 28, 375387. Univ. Ext., Univ. West. Aust. Publ. 22, 325338.
Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G., Groves, D.I., 1995. A classi- Le Guen, M., Lescuyer, J.L., Marcoux, E., 1992. Lead-isotope
fication scheme for epigenetic Archaean lode-gold deposits. evidence for a Hercynian origin of the Salsigne gold deposit
Miner. Deposita 30, 408410. Southern Massif Central France.. Miner. Deposita 27, 129
Goldfarb, R.J., Leach, D.L., Pickthorn, W.J., Paterson, C.J., 1988. 136.
Origin of lode-gold deposits of the Juneau gold belt, southeast- Guild, P.W., 1971. Metallogeny: A key to exploration. Mining
ern Alaska. Geology 16, 440443. Eng. 23 1., 6972.
Goldfarb, R.J., Gray, J.E., Pickthorn, W.J., Gent, C.A., Cieutat, Haeussler, P.J., Bradley, D., Goldfarb, R., Snee, L., Taylor, C.,
B.A., 1990. Stable isotope systematics of epithermal 1995. Link between ridge subduction and gold mineralization
mercuryantimony mineralization, southwestern Alaska. In: in southern Alaska. Geology 23, 995998.
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 25

Hagemann, S.G., Brown, P.E., 1996. Geobarometry in Archean Kent, A.J.R., Cassidy, K.F., Fanning, C.M., 1996. Archean gold
lode-gold deposits. Eur. J. Mineral. 8, 937960. mineralization synchronous with the final stages of cratoniza-
Hagemann, S.G., Ridley, J.R., 1993. Hydrothermal fluids in epi- tion, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Geology 24, 879882.
and katazonal crustal levels in the ArchaeanImplications for Keppie, J.D., 1993. Synthesis of Palaeozoic deformation events
P T X t evolution of lode-gold mineralisation. In: and terrane accretion in the Canadian Appalachians. Geol.
Williams, P.R., Haldane, J.A. Eds.., An international confer- Rundsch. 82, 381431.
ence on crustal evolution, metallogeny and exploration of the Keppie, J.D., Dallmeyer, R.D., 1995. Late Paleozoic collision,
Eastern Goldfields. Extended Abstr. Aust. Geol. Surv. Org., delamination, short-lived magmatism and rapid denudation in
Record 54, pp. 123130. the Meguma Terrane Nova Scotia, Canada.: Constraints from
Hagemann, S.G., Groves, D.I., Ridley, J.R., Vearncome, J.R., Arr39Ar isotopic data. Can. J. Earth Sci. 32, 644659.
1992. The Archaean lode-gold deposits at Wiluna, Western Keppie, J.D., Boyle, R.W., Haynes, S.J. Eds.., 1986. Turbidite-
Australia. High level brittle-style mineralisation in a strike-slip Hosted Gold Deposits. Geol. Assoc. Can., Spec. Pap. 32,
regime. Econ. Geol. 87, 10221053. 186 pp.
Hagemann, S.G., Gebre-Mariam, M., Groves, D.L., 1994. Sur- Kerrich, R., 1991. Mesothermal gold deposits - A critique of
face-water influx in shallow-level Archean lode-gold deposits genetic hypotheses. In: Robert, F., Sheahan, P.A., Green, S.B.
in Western Australia. Geology 22, 10671070. Eds.., Greenstone Gold and Crustal Evolution. Geol. Assoc.
Hedenquist, J.W., Lowenstern, J.B., 1994. The role of magmas in Can., Mineral Deposits Div. Publ., pp. 1331.
the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits. Nature 370, 519 Kerrich, R., 1993. Perspectives on genetic models for lode-gold
527. deposits. Miner. Deposita 28, 362365.
Hirdes, W., Davis, D.W., Ludtke, G., Konan, G., 1996. Two Kerrich, R., 1994. Dating Archaean auriferous quartz vein de-
generations of Birimian Paleoproterozoic. volcanic belts in posits in the Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada: 40Arr39Ar evi-
northeastern Cote dIvorie West Africa.: Consequences for dence for a 70100 m.y.-time gap between plutonismmeta-
the Birimian controversy. Precambrian Res. 80, 173191. morphism and mineralisation. A discussion. Econ. Geol. 89,
Hodgson, C.J., 1993. Mesothermal lode-gold deposits. In: 679686.
Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. Kerrich, R., Cassidy, K.F., 1994. Temporal relationships of lode-
Eds.., Mineral Deposit Modeling. Geol. Assoc. Can., Spec. gold mineralization to accretion, magmatism, metamorphism
Pap., 40, 635678. and deformation, Archean to present: A review. Ore Geol.
Hodgson, C.J., Hamilton, J.V., 1989. Gold mineralization in the Rev. 9, 263310.
Abitibi greenstone belt: End stage result of Archaean colli- Kerrich, R., Wyman, D.A., 1990. The geodynamic setting of
sional tectonics? In: Keays, R.R., Ramsay, W.R.H., Groves, mesothermal gold deposits: An association with accretionary
D.I. Eds.., The Geology of Gold Deposits: The Perspective in tectonic regimes. Geology 18, 882885.
1988. Econ. Geol. Monogr., 6, 86100. Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. Eds..,
Hodgson, C.J., MacGeehan, P.J., 1982. A review of the geological 1993. Mineral Deposit Modeling. Geol. Assoc. Can., Spec.
characteristics of Gold Only deposits in the Superior Province Pap. 40, 798 pp.
of the Canadian Shield. In: Hodder, R.W., Petruks, W. Eds.., Kontak, D.J., Smith, P.F., Reynolds, P., Taylor, K., 1990. Geolog-
Geology of Canadian Gold Deposits. Can. Inst. Min. Metall., ical and 40Arr39Ar geochronological constraints on the timing
Spec. Vol. 24, 211229. of quartz vein formation in Meguma Group lode-gold deposits,
Hofstra, A.H., 1995. Timing and duration of Carlin-type gold Nova Scotia. Atl. Geol. 26, 201227.
mineralization in Nevada and Utah: Relation to back-arc ex- Krogstad, E.J., Balakrishnan, S., Mukhopadhyay, D.K., Rajamani,
tension and magmatism. Geol. Soc. Am. Abstr. Progr. 27 6., V., Hanson, G.N., 1989. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years age:
329. Evidence at Kolar, south India. Science 243, 13371340.
Jackson, S.L., Cruden, A.R., 1995. Formation of the Abitibi Landefeld, L.A., 1988. The geology of the Mother Lode-gold belt,
greenstone belt by arc-trench migration. Geology 23, 471474. Sierra Nevada Foothills metamorphic belt, California. In: Bi-
Kelley, K.D., Romberger, S.B., Beaty, D.W., Snee, L.W., Stein, centennial Gold 88, Extended Abstracts, Oral Programme.
H.J., Thompson, R.B., 1996. Genetic model for the Cripple Geol. Soc. Aust. Abstr. 22, pp. 167172.
Creek district: Constraints from 40Arr39Ar geochronology, Lapointe, B., Chown, E.H., 1993. Gold-bearing iron-formation in
major and trace element geochemistry and stable and radio- a granulite terrane of the Canadian Shield: A possible deep-
genic isotope data. In: Thompson, T.B. Ed.., Diamonds to level expression of an Archean gold-mineralizing system.
Gold. I. State Line Kimberlite district, Colorado. II. Cresson Miner. Deposita 28, 191197.
mine, Cripple Creek district, Colorado. Soc. Econ. Geol., Leitch, C.H.B., Van der Hayden, P., Godwin, C.I., Armstrong,
Guidebook Ser. 26, 6583. R.L., Harakal, J.E., 1991. Geochronometry of the Bridge
Kent, A.J.R., Hagemann, S.G., 1996. Constraints on the timing of River camp, southwestern British Columbia. Can. J. Earth Sci.
lode-gold mineralisation in the Wiluna greenstone belt, Yil- 28, 195208.
garn Craton, Western Australia. Aus. J. Earth Sci. 43, 573588. Lindgren, W., 1907. The relation of ore deposition to physical
Kent, A.J.R., McDougall, I., 1995. Constraints on the timing of conditions. Econ. Geol. 2, 105127.
gold mineralization in the Kalgoorlie goldfield, Western Aus- Lindgren, W., 1933. Mineral Deposits, 4th ed. McGraw Hill, New
tralia, from 40Arr39Ar and UPb dating: Evidence for multiple York and London, 930 pp.
mineralization episodes. Econ. Geol. 90, 845859. Macdonald, A.J. Ed.., 1986. Proceedings of Gold 86. An Inter-
26 D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727

national Symposium on the Geology of Gold Deposits. Muller, A.G., Groves, D.I., 1997. Potassic Igneous Rocks and
Toronto, 517 pp. Associated GoldCopper Mineralization, 2nd ed. Springer-
MacLachlan, K., Helmstaedt, H., 1995. Geology and geochem- Verlag, Berlin, 238 pp.
istry of an Archean mafic dike complex in the Chan Forma- Nesbitt, B.E., 1991. Phanerozoic gold deposits in tectonically
tion: Basis for a revised plate-tectonic model of the Yel- active continental margins. In: Foster, R.P. Ed.., Gold Metal-
lowknife greenstone belt. Can. J. Earth Sci. 32, 614630. logeny and Exploration. Blackie and Son, Glasgow, pp. 104
Madden-McGuire, D.J., Silberman, M.L., Church, S.E., 1989. 132.
Geologic relationships, KAr ages and isotopic data from the Nesbitt, B.E., Muehlenbachs, K., 1989. Geology, geochemistry
Willow Creek gold mining district, southern Alaska. In: Keays, and genesis of mesothermal gold deposits of the Canadian
R.R., Ramsay, W.R.H., Groves, D.I. Eds.., The Geology of Cordillera: Evidence for ore formation from evolved meteoric
Gold Deposits: The Perspective in 1988. Econ. Geol. Monogr. water. In: Keays, R.R., Ramsay, W.R.H., Groves, D.I. Eds..,
6, 242251. The Geology of Gold Deposits: The Perspective in 1988.
Marakushev, A.A., Khokhlov, V.A., 1992. A petrological model Econ. Geol. Monogr. 6, 553563.
for the genesis of the Muruntau gold deposit. Int. Geol. Rev. Nesbitt, B.E., Murowchick, J.B., Muehlenbachs, K., 1986. Dual
34 1., 5976. origin of lode-gold deposits in the Canadian Cordillera. Geol-
McCoy, D., Newberry, R.J., Layer, P., DiMarchi, J.J., Bakke, A., ogy 14, 506509.
Masterman, J.S., Minehand, D.L., 1997. Plutonic-related gold Nie, F., 1997. An overview of gold resources in China. Int. Geol.
deposits of interior Alaska. In: Goldfarb, R.J., Miller, L.D. Rev. In press.
Eds.., Mineral Deposits of Alaska. Econ. Geol. Monogr. 9, Nokleberg, W.J., Bundtzen, T.K., Dawson, K.M., Eremin, R.A.,
191241. Goryachev, N.A., Koch, R.D. Ratkin, V.V., Rozenblum, I.S.,
McCuaig, T.C., Kerrich, R., 1994. P T t-deformation-fluid Shpikerman, V.I., Frolov, Y.F., Gorodinsky, M.E., Khanchuck,
characteristics of lode-gold deposits: Evidence from alteration A.I., Kovbas, L.I., Melnikov, V.D., Nekrasov, I.Ya.,
systematics. In: Lentz, D.R. Ed.., Alteration and Alteration Ognyanov, N.V., Petrachenko, E.D., Petrachenko, R.I.,
Processes Associated with Ore-forming Systems. Geol. Assoc. Pozdeev, A.I., Ross, K.V., Sidorov, A.A., Wood, D.H., Gry-
Can., Short Course Notes, 11, 339379. beck, D., 1996. Significant metalliferous lode deposits and
McCuaig, T.C., Kerrich, R., Groves, D.I., Archer, N., 1993. The placer districts for the Russian Far East, Alaska and the
nature and dimensions of regional and local gold-related hy- Canadian Cordillera. U.S. Geol. Surv., Open-File Rep. 513-A,
drothermal alteration in tholeiitic metabasalts in the Norseman 385 pp.
goldfields: The missing link in a crustal continuum of gold Peters, S.G., Golding, S.D., 1989. Geologic, fluid inclusion, and
deposits?. Miner. Deposita 28, 420435. stable isotope studies of granitoid-hosted gold-bearing quartz
McKeag, S.A., Craw, D., 1989. Contrasting fluids in gold-bearing veins, Charters Towers, northeastern Australia. Econ. Geol.
quartz vein systems formed progressively in a rising metamor- Monogr. 6, 260273.
phic belt: Otago Schist, New Zealand. Econ. Geol. 84, 2233. Phillips, G.N., Hughes, M.J., 1996. The geology and gold deposits
Meinert, L.D., 1993. Igneous petrogenesis and skarn deposits. In: of the Victorian gold province. Ore Geol. Rev. 11, 255302.
Kirkham, R.V., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. Phillips, G.N., Powell, R., 1993. Link between gold provinces.
Eds.., Mineral Deposit Modeling. Geol. Assoc. Can., Spec. Econ. Geol. 88, 10841098.
Pap. 40, 569583. Plafker, G., Berg, H.C., 1994. Overview of the geology and
Mikucki, E.J., 1998. Hydrothermal transport and depositional tectonic evolution of Alaska. In: Plafker, G., Berg, H.C.
processes in Archaean lode-gold systems: A review. Ore Geol. Eds.., The Geology of Alaska. The Geology of North Amer-
Rev. 13, 307321. ica, vol. G-1. Geol. Soc. Am., pp. 9891021.
Mikucki, E.J., Ridley, J.R., 1993. The hydrothermal fluid of Poulsen, K.H., 1996. Lode-gold. In: Eckstrand, O.R., Sinclair,
Archaean lode-gold deposits: Constraints on its composition W.D., Thorpe, R.I. Eds.., Geology of Canadian Mineral
inferred from ore and wallrock alteration assemblages over a Deposit Types. The Geology of North America, vol. P-1.
spectrum of metamorphic grades. Miner. Deposita 28, 469 Geol. Soc. Am., pp. 323328.
481. Powell, W.G., Carmichael, D.M., Hodgson, C.J., 1995. Condi-
Miller, L.D., Goldfarb, R.J., Gehrels, G.E., Snee, L.W., 1994. tions and timing of metamorphism in the southern Abitibi
Genetic links among fluid cycling, vein formation, regional greenstone belt, Quebec. Can. J. Earth Sci. 32, 787805.
deformation, and plutonism in the Juneau gold belt, southeast- Ramsay, W.R.H., 1998. A review of Victorian mesothermal gold,
ern Alaska. Geology 22, 203206. regional setting, styles, and genetic constraints. In: Keays,
Mitchell, A.H.G., Garson, M.S., 1981. Mineral Deposits and R.R., Ramsay, W.R.H., Groves, D.I. Eds.., The Geology of
Global Tectonic Settings. Academic Press, London, 405 pp. Gold Deposits: The perspective in 1988.
Moravek, P. Ed.., 1995. Gold deposits of the central and SW part Richards, J.P., 1995. Alkalic-type epithermal gold deposits: A
of the Bohemian Massif. In: Excursion Guide, Third Biennial review. Turbidite - hosted gold deposits of Central Victoria,
SGA Meeting. Mineral deposits: From their origin to their Australia: their regional setting, mineralisation styles and some
environmental impacts. Prague, August 2831, 104 pp. genetic constraints. Ore Geol. Rev. 13, 131151 this issue.
Mueller, A.G., Groves, D.I., 1991. The classification of Western In: Thompson, J.F.H. Ed.., Magmas, Fluids and Ore De-
Australian greenstone-hosted gold deposits according to wall- posits. Min. Assoc. Can., Short Course Ser., 23, 367400.
rock-alteration assemblages. Ore Geol. Rev. 6, 291332. Richards, J.P., Chappel, B.W., McCulloch, M.T., 1990.
D.I. Groes et al.r Ore Geology Reiews 13 (1998) 727 27

Intraplate-type magmatism in a continentisland-arc collision Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I., Duke, J.M. Eds.., Mineral De-
zone-Porgera intrusive complex, Papua New Guinea. Geology posit Modeling. Geol. Assoc. Can., Spec. Pap. 40, 465478.
18, 958961. Solomon, M., Groves, D.I., 1994. The Geology and Origin of
Ridley, J., Mikucki, E.J., Groves, D.I., 1996. Archean lode-gold Australias Mineral Deposits. Oxford Monogr. Geol. Geophys.
deposits: Fluid flow and chemical evolution in vertically ex- 24, 951 pp.
tensive hydrothermal systems. Ore Geol. Rev. 10, 279293. Stein, H.J., Markey, R.J., Morgan, J.W., Zak, K., Zachariad, J.,
Robert, F., 1996. Quartzcarbonate vein gold. In: Eckstrand, Sundblad, K., 1996. ReOs dating of Au deposits in shear
O.R., Sinclair, W.D., Thorpe, R.I. Eds.., Geology of Cana- zones using accessory molybdenite: Bohemian Massif, Car-
dian Mineral Deposit Types. The Geology of North America, olina slate belt, and Fennoscandian Shield examples. Geol.
vol. P-1. Geol. Soc. Am., pp. 350366. Soc. Am. Abstr. Progr. 28 7., 474.
Robert, F., Brown, A.C., 1986. Archean gold-bearing quartz veins Stowell, H.H., Lesher, C.M., Green, N.L., Sha, P., Guthrie, G.M.,
at the Sigma mine, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec. Part I. Sinha, A.K., 1996. Metamorphism and gold mineralization in
Geologic relations and formation of the vein systems. Econ. the Blue Ridge, southernmost Appalachians. Econ. Geol. 91,
Geol. 81, 578592. 11151144.
Robert, F., Sheahan, P.A., Green, S.B. Eds.., 1991. Greenstone Stuwe, K., Will, T.M., Zhou, S., 1993. On the timing relationship
Gold and Crustal Evolution. Geol. Assoc. Can., Mineral De- between fluid production and metamorphism in metamorphic
posits Div. Publ., 252 pp. piles: Some implications for the origin of post-metamorphic
Rushton, R.W., Nesbitt, B.E., Muehlenbachs, K., Mortensen, J.K., gold mineralization. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 114, 417430.
1993. A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of Au quartz Thomas, D.J., Heaman, L.M., 1994. Geologic setting of the Jolu
veins in the Klondike district, Yukon Territory, Canada. A gold mine, Saskatchewan: UPb age constraints on plutonism,
section through a mesothermal vein system. Econ. Geol. 88, deformation, mineralization and metamorphism. Econ. Geol.
647678. 89, 10171030.
Sawkins, F.J., 1972. Sulfide ore deposits in relation to plate Trumbull, R.B., Hua, L., Lehrberger, G., Satir, M., Wimbauer, T.,
tectonics. J. Geol. 80, 377397. Morteani, G., 1996. Granitoid - hosted gold deposits in the
Sawkins, F.J., 1990. Metal Deposits in Relation to Plate Tecton- Anjiayingzi District of Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of
ics, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 451 pp. China. Econ. Geol. 91, 875895.
Scheiber, E., 1996. Geology of New South Wales: Synthesis. Vinyu, M.L., Frei, R., Jelsma, H.A., 1996. Timing between
Geol. Surv. N.S.W. Mem. Geol. 13 1., 295 pp. granitoid emplacement and associated gold mineralization:
Sengor, A.M.C., Okurogullari, A.H., 1991. The role of accre- Examples from the ca. 2.7 Ga Harare-Shamva greenstone belt,
tionary wedges in the growth of continents - Asiatic examples northern Zimbabwe. Can. J. Earth Sci. 33, 981992.
from Argand to plate tectonics. Eclogae Geol. Helv. 84 3., Wang, L.G., Luo, Z.K., McNaughton, N.J., Groves, D.I., Huang,
535597. J.Z., Miao, L.C., Guan, K., Liu, Y.K., 1996. SHRIMP UPb
Shenberger, D.M., Barnes, H.L., 1989. Solubility of gold in in zircon studies of plutonic rocks from the Jiaodong Peninsu-
aqueous sulfide solutions from 150 to 3508C. Geochim. Cos- lar, Shangdong Province, China: Constraints on crustal and
mochim. Acta 53, 269278. tectonic evolution and gold metallogeny. In: Mesothermal
Sherlock, R.L., Logan, M.A.V., 1995. Silicacarbonate alteration Gold Deposits: A Global Overview. Geol. Dept. Key Centre.
of serpentinite: Implications for the association of mercury and Univ. Ext., Univ. West. Aust. Publ. 27, 3438.
gold mineralization in northern California. Explor. Mining White, D.E., 1967. Mercury and base-metal deposits with associ-
Geol. 4 4., 395409. ated thermal and mineral waters. In: Barnes, H.L. Ed..,
Sibson, R.H., Robert, F., Poulsen, K.H., 1988. High-angle reverse Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Holt, Rinehart
faults, fluid pressure cycling, and mesothermal goldquartz and Winston, New York, pp. 575631.
deposits. Geology 16, 551555. White, N.C., Hedenquist, J.W., 1995. Epithermal gold deposits:
Sillitoe, R.H., 1991. Intrusion-related gold deposits. In: Foster, Styles, characteristics and exploration. Soc. Econ. Geol.
R.P. Ed.., Gold Metallogeny and Exploration. Blackie and Newslett. 23 1., 913.
Son, Glasgow, pp. 165209. Wyman, D., Kerrich, R., 1988. Alkaline magmatism, major struc-
Sillitoe, R.H., 1993. Gold-rich porphyry copper deposits: Geologi- tures, and gold deposits: Implications for greenstone belt gold
cal model and exploration implications. In: Kirkham, R.V., metallogeny. Econ. Geol. 83, 451458.