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Industrial Boiler Operations Industrial Boiler Operations

• Boilers are used in industry to convert chemical

At the and of this session you must be able to: energy of fuels into thermal energy for water
•Know the functions and applications of various boilers heating and power steam generations.
•Differentiate between two classes of boilers. • A fuel is combustible ( to burn) material that has
•Different types of boilers according to fuels applications. a high calorific value.
•Various steam applications • There are many fuels e.g. fossil and non-fossil
•Boiler tubes configurations. fuels.
•Define and state functions of: • Common fossils fuels are Coal, Oil and natural
–The economizer, gas.
–the super heater and • Non-fossil fuels are those fuels that did not
–the evaporator.
originate from fossil formation e.g. nuclear fuels
used in power plant.
–Air heater
• Task 1: Name any two everyday typical water
•Boiler Feed water flow diagram
heating boilers.

Industrial Application of Steam

• Steam is generated for various applications e.g:
• Application in industrial equipment.
– Steam jacketing, Boilers may be divided into two main types as
– Steam tracing, follows:
– Steam stripping, (a)Water-tube boilers in which water and steam flow
– Controlling run-away temperature in combustion. through the tubes surrounded by the flue gas.
– “Atomising” steam ( making oil mist in oil burners)
This type is almost universally used in power station
– and Steam purging.
• Application in power generations work because it permits of high working pressures
– Superheated steam is used to drive large steam It has a high rate of evaporation (up to 350 000 kg/h),
turbines to produce electrical power. It can be built in very large sizes with correspondingly
– Industry also use steam turbine driven pumps. high efficiency.
Homework : How does a steam turbine work?

Water-tube boiler Water-tube boiler

• Water Tube Boiler (US DoE,2002:2-5)

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Water Tube Boilers Water Tube Boilers
• In Water tube boilers, water is inside the tubes • Pulverised Coal Fired Boilers.
and the hot gases are outside.
• The tubes extend to the upper header called a – Finely ground coal is fed with primary air into
steam drum. the burner where it ignites.
• A solid, liquid or gaseous fuel can be burned in – Secondary air is supplied for complete
water tube boilers. combustion.
• Typical water tube boiler fuels are coal, oil, • Stoker Fired Units.
natural gas, biomass and municipal waste.
– Stoker boiler are designed for solid fuel
• Coal Fired tubes are divided into three
categories: handling.
– Pulverised Coal fired Boilers. – Fuel to is above grate and the air comes to
– Stoker Fired Units. both under grate and over grate.
– Fluidised Bed Coal Boiler. – The Ash is removed as it accumulates.

Water Tube Boilers

Various water tube Boiler Designs
Fuel Oil and Natural Gas Fired Boilers
– The other water tube package boilers are Oil
Fired Boilers and Natural Gas Fired Boilers.
– The designs are classified as A type, D type
and O type.
– Refer to Figures next page
• In Oil and Natural Gas Fuel Fired Boilers there
are burners with burner guns.
• Task 2: Oil Fuel burners tends to plug more
A type, D type O type.
often than gas Fuel burners
• Water Tube Boiler (US DoE,2002:2-5)

Fire-tube boilers
(b) Fire-tube boilers in which the hot gases
pass through tubes surrounded by water.
As the hot gases go through the tubes,
heat is transferred into the water body that
surrounds the tubes.

This class includes Lancashire and

locomotive boilers which operate at low
and medium pressures (up to 1-5 MN/m!~)
and evaporate up to 7000 kg of steam/h.

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Fire-tube boilers
Fire Tube Boiler
Flue gas
Water Body



Flue Gas
Fire Tube Boiler (US DoE2002:2-3) Fire Tube Boiler (US DoE2002:2-3)

Other Boilers Other Boilers


Fire Box

Vertical tubeless
packaged steam boiler.
• Firebox firetube (US DoE2002:2- 4)

Waste Heat Boilers Coal Fired Boiler Plant

• Other chemical process Industries utilise the
waste flue gas energy into making steam.
• H2S from crude refining converted into sulphur.
• This is an exothermic process that produces hot
flue gases.
• The hot flue gases are passed through the tubes
in a condenser to produce steam that is used in
the plant (fire tube boiler).
• The Fluid Catalytic Regenerator produces hot
flue gases.
• The energy in the flue gas is utilised to produce
steam (Water tube boiler)

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Coal Fired Boiler Plant Refuse Derived Fuel fired boiler
Class Exercises
Classwork • What type design is
1. What drives this boiler A,D or
air into the O?
burner? • What is the purpose
of the economiser?
• Why is the
economizer and air
heaters situated at
their locations?
• Why is air heated?
• What type of boiler
is this?

Feed Systems -Burners Feed Systems -Burners

• Burner guns are used to channel fuel into • Burner designs are core to the design of an
the inside of the boiler. effective combustion system. (will be
• The oil fuel is made into fine oil mist
• A combustion system that limits the formation
(sprays) as it leaves the burner tip by NOx, CO, SO2 and PM
atomizing steam.
• There are different types of burners.
• The burner has a provision for primary air – Steam –atomizing oil burner
supply – Air –atomizing oil burner
• Primary air and oil spray at the burner tip – Dual fuel burners
provides a constant flame inside the boiler. – Multistage pressure – atomizing oil burner
– Single stage pressure – atomizing oil burner
• Burners improve the stability of the flames – Atmospheric gas burner.
over a variety of flow rates.

A boiler consists of the following main

•The economizer,
•the super heater and
•the evaporator.
•It may also have an air heater.

Boiler Process Layout

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• Boiler Plant Process Layout

The economizer:
The evaporator transforms the hot water supply
• The purpose of the economizer is to provide a from the economizer into a wet steam at a constant
hot water supply to the evaporator, pressure.
• This increases the efficiency of the plant. It is situated at the bottom of the boiler closest to
• The economiser is usually situated at the top of the fire and uses the most heat provided by the
the boiler fuel.
• It consists of a large number of tubes through The evaporators provide a large quantity of wet
which the water supply flows. steam which is collected in the lower drum or water
• It uses the heat that the exhaust gases provide. drum with a mud drum at the bottom.
• Task 3: Why is the economizer situated on top of The mud drum acts as a collector for all solid
the boiler? matter that precipitates and can be periodically
cleaned by blowing down. (see the following

Boiler internals
The Superheater.
• Steam Drum
• Usually situated above the evaporator the super
• Boiler tubes heater consists of a large number of tubes,
cut across which use the heat from the exhaust gases.
• Its purpose is to transform large quantities of wet
steam (saturated steam) at constant pressure
into superheated steam at the desired
• This is an O- temperature.
type tube • It is located in the flue gas streams just before
configuration the boiler tubes.
• It is a bundle of tubes from the steam drum
(upper drum).
• The bundle leads to the steam header (pipe)
• Lower Drum or mud drum

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Boiler Feed Water system

Air heater.
The air heater uses the last of the energy
from the fuel and is situated next to the
By heating the air used in the combustion
chamber the efficiency of the installation is
The fuel burns much better if the air is
heated and its fuel consumption is

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