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ON THIKA SUPERHIGHWAY

1 DESIGN INFORMATION

KeNHA Client

MULTISCOPE CONSULTING ENGINEERS Consultant

PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING FACILITIES Project

ON THIKA SUPERHIGHWAY

1) Bs EN 1990: Basis of Design Relevant Building Codes

2) Bs EN 1991: General Actions of Practice, Books and

1-1: densities, selfweight, imposed loads for Design Softwares.

buildings Relevant BS EN codes

1-2:Traffic Loads on bridges used with references to

1-4: Wind Actions respective BS standards

1-5:Thermal Actions

1-6:Actions during execution

1-7:Accidental actions

3) BS EN 1992-1: Concrete: Common rules and rules for

buildings

1992-2:Concrete bridges:Design and detailing

4) BS EN 1993:1-1/BS 5950-1: :Steel-Common rules and

rules for buildings

1993-2:Steel bridges

5) BS EN 1997: Geotechnical design

6) BS EN 1998-1 Design of Structures for Earthquake

Resistance

7) BS 4449: specifications for steel bars for the

reinforcement of Concrete

8) BS EN 3766/ BS 8666: Scheduling, dimensioning,

Bending of steel reinforcement for concrete

9) Steel Designers Manual, 6th,7th edition

10) FIB Guide to design of footbridges

11) Reynolds Reinforced concrete

12) Reinforced concrete Design by Bill Mosley

13) Foundation Design and Construction by Tomlinson

14) Prokon Version 2.5 Analysis and Design Software

15) Robot Structural analysis Design Software

16) BS EN /BS 8110 Spreadsheets

17) AC1 committee 435 recommendations on deflection

18) Kenyan Code of Practice for the Design and

Construction of Buildings and other Structures in

relation to Earthquakes (1973)

1

19) Principles of Foundation Engineering By Braja M. Das

20) Joints in Concrete Construction by ACI Committee

224 of 2001

For class XC4, cyclic wet and dry Cover to Reinforcement.

Minimum Cover for decks =30 mm For Durability and Fire

Minimum Cover for other members=40 Resistance

BS EN 1992-1

Dead General Loading Data

Unit weight of concrete = 25kN/m3 BS EN 1991: 1

Deck finishes = 1.5kN/m2 BS 648(unit weights)

Services = 0.25kN/m2

Pedestrian Live Load

Pedestrian Loads on ramps/deck = 5kN/m2

Wind

Basic Wind Speed (NAIROBI KENYA)= 28m/s BS EN 1991:4

Bases to be founded on soft rock with safe bearing Soil Condition

pressure = 200kN/m2 at approximate Depth of 2.0 meters

below ground

Pad foundation = for piers Foundation Types

Structural steel sections used for Truss, Concrete for piers, Material Properties

foundations and decking

Steel strength class, S275

Concrete class 30/35 for all structural elements

Reinforcement steel to be High yield Ribbed bars with fy =

460kN/mm2.

2

2 Introduction

2.1 Layout:

0 1784

1784 0

C3

C3

343

5

343

5

C3

C3

a C2

C2 a

a C2

C2 a

8022

8000

00

75

75

00

C1 C1

C4

C4

12001

12001

12

0

50

120x120x8mm Thick Equal

50

12

0

angle bracing

C5 C6 C6 34

00 Girder Truss T1 Girder Truss T1 Girder Truss T1 C5 00

34

25mm Thick AC surface finish

C5 a

C5 250x150x6.0mm RHS

spaced @2375mm c/c

C5 C6 Girder Truss T1 C6 Girder Truss T1 C5

64000

(SCALE 1:150)

3

2.2

383

400

Typical Cross-Sections

1300

381

118

175

750

750

575

3650

SECTION 5-5

SCALE 1 : 25

4

polycarbonate sheeting

@2375mm c/c

@1050mm c/c on plan

250x250x8mm SHS

Top Chord of Girder Truss

150x150x6mm SHS

Internal Members of Girder Truss

3600

8mm thick Balustrade

to Arch.s specification

1100

150mm Thick solid slab with

25mm Thick AC surface finish

100

300

Y Y

6000

1950 1950

X X

2000

TYPICAL SECTION

SCALE 1 : 25

2.3 Location:

The proposed Mangu footbridge is to be located across Thika superhighway at Mangu

Road Junction, Chainage Km 39+350.

2.4 Configuration:

The foot bridge consists of climbing ramps and a highway crossing through-truss both

carried by concrete piers bearing on pad foundations.

The climbing ramps are175mm thick, 3.65 m width by 6.0 m span totaling to a length of

52 m. They are supported on secondary peripheral beams

The highway crossing through truss structure includes a 150mm thick, 4m wide, 3

spans deck totaling to a length of 64m. The deck bears on cross beams spaced at 2.375 m

5

c/c which are carried by two truss bottom chords. The truss system is carried by tapered

reinforced concrete piers.

Climbing Ramps 2 R.C 3.65m wide, 52m length, 150 mm thick,

Truss Deck 1 R.C 4m wide, 64m length, 150mm thick, 3 spans

Girder Spans 3 Steel 14.5m, 38.0m, 11.5m

Piers R.C

Foundations R.C

other civil engineering structures) and designed for a working life of 100 years

during movements, vibrational behavior will be controlled within the following limits:

vibrations and 0.2 for horizontal vibrations in normal usage

Fundamental frequency of the structure is below 5Hz for vertical Vibrations

and 2.5 Hz for Horizontal/lateral Vibrations

6

3 LOADING CALCULATIONS

The footbridge through-truss, deck and ramps are designed to transfer the

permanent and variable actions to the substructure in accordance with BS EN

1990:2002, BS EN 1991: 1, 2, 4 and 5. Situations critical to the structure and

considered for design are the persistent and transient situations and accidental

situations

These are the material self-weights which include 150mm thick decking for the truss

slab, 175mm thick ramps, 50mm thick hardened screed finish(or 50mm thick asphalt

surfacing), 1.2mm thick profiled steel sheeting under the truss deck, truss claddings,

the truss member self-weights and the self-weights of piers. Reinforced Concrete

unit weight= 25 kN/m3

b. Ramp Deck, 175 mm thick= 25 x0.175= 4.375 kN/m2

c. Finishes for decks, allow 50 mm screed/asphalt =24x0.05 = 1.2kN/m2

d. Profiled steel sheeting, for truss deck = 0.25 kN/m2

e. Allow for cladding of truss =0.20 kN/m2

f. Allow for roofing of truss + purlins =0.380 kN/m2

g. Allow for services on roof/deck = 0.25 kN/m2

h. Truss member self-weights: take = 0.17 kN/m

The variable loads considered for the design are a pedestrian group load, a

horizontal load on the deck Qfk and the Wind loads as calculated.

The load model considered is the crowd load, gr1, since service vehicles are not

specified in the bridge, in accordance with BS EN 1990 A2.2.3 and BS EN 1991-2

section 5 (Actions in footbridges). An accompanying horizontal force (Qfk) equal to

10% of the total udl is considered to act at the Bottom chord/deck level on the bridge

simultaneously as a horizontal load for longitudinal stability (BS EN 1991-2: 5.4).

7

GROUP LOADS IN FOOTBRIDGES TO BS EN 1991-2 Section 5

b. Wind Actions

i. Wind basic Data

Location of Bridge: Nairobi

Table 4.1 Terrain: Category 11, with low vegetation and limited obstacles

Reference height above ground = z = ze = 8m

Density of air = 1.25 kg/m3

ii. Wind speeds

w.m.o Converting speed to EN 10-min gust basic speed, vbo =28/1.65 =17.0

guidelines on

m/s

wind

vb = vbo.cdir.cseason where

interconversion

Cdir is the directional factor=1,

Co=1

Cseason is the seasonal factor=1

Vbo = Vb =17.0 m/s

4.3

Mean wind speed, Vm =Vb.Cr(z).Co(z) where

Cr= 0.96

Co(z) is the orographic factor = 1.0

Vm=16.4

Cr(z) is the roughness factor =Kr.ln(Z/Zo) for Zmin<Z (8) <Zmax

Table 4.1 m/s

where Zmin = 2m and Zmax = 200 m and Kr is the terrain factor

Kr =0.19(Zo/Zo,ii)0.07 , therefore, For terrain category 11, Kr = 0.19

Cr = Kr.ln(Z/Zo) = 0.

Wind Mean Speed, Vm = Vb.Cr(z).Co(z) =16.4 m/s

8

iii. Wind Pressure Factors in X direction

where Ce is the exposure factor and Cfx is a force coefficient

Using Fig. 4.2, for reference height = 8m, Ce =2.3

Cfx = Cfx,0 which can be got from fig. 8.3

bdeck/dtotal = 4000/8000 =0.5

Cfx=Cfx,0 = 2.4 Ce(z) =

Therefore, C=Ce(z).Cfx =5.52 5.52

Basic Wind Pressure, qb

Peak Wind Pressure, qp

Qp(z) =Ce(z).qb(z) =416N/m2

8.3.2 kN/m2

To get wind forces, multiply with the reference Areas for Deck and Piers

Aref(Pier) = 0.5 x Height

fkwz =Cs.Cd.Cfz.qp(ze) where Cfz= 0.9, Cs.Cd are the structural size and

8.3.3 dynamic factors = 1

fkwz =0.38 kN/m2 fkwz =0.38

kN/m2

vii. Wind in the y-direction

For Truss Bridges, take Fkwy = 50%the wind forces in the x-direction

wherever required

8.3.4

9

3.3 COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS

The considered actions are combined in accordance with BS EN 1990:2002 to give the

most onerous cases adopted for the local elemental design and the global/entire

structural system design.

Includes the effects of self-weights, pedestrian loads, wind, thermal and construction loads.The

combinations of actions are expressed as follows and the least favourable case adopted for

design.

Or for STR limit state, either

Or

where:

Gk,j represents the characteristic value of the j-th unfavourable permanent action

Qk,1 is the characteristic value of leading variable action ('main accompanying action' in 6.10a)

Qk,i represents the characteristic value of the i-th accompanying variable action (i > 1)

G, Q are representations of the factor F according to the type of action to which they relate

10

Note: An expansion joint is designed to relieve thermal restraints as a result of

temperature range and fluctuations. This action will be accommodated by shear in the

elastomeric bearing and will be considered in bearing design. Again it is important to

note that the temperature range expected at the site is minimal.

Note: A traffic restraint system will be designed to protect the piers of the structure. The

structure is also built with an adequate clearance against collision by under-passing

vehicles with a horizontal action equal to 10% of the pedestrian vertical load also

considered to be acting on the deck level.

In these situations, the structural deformation behavior of the deck structure will be

verified including deflections and vibrations using the following combinations:

i. Combination 1: Persistent and transient situations

11

BS EN 1990 Table A1.2A and A1.2B

Combination factor Values for variable actions in Footbridges (BS EN 1990: Table

A2.2)

12

Only characteristic combination is relevant to steel structures and is given as follows

with partial factors of actions taken as 1.0

i. CRITICAL LOCAL ELEMENTS

(a) Roof

Dead Load

Sheeting and purlins = 0.380 kN/m2

Services = 0.25 kN/m2

Total Dead Load, gk = 0.63kN/m2

Live Load

Imposed (Maintenance) =0.25kN/m2

Total qk = 0.25kN/m2

Wind is taken as the accompanying variable load (in z-direction)

Permanent Leading Accompanying Actions

Actions Action

EQN 1.35Gk 1.5Qk 1.5o,Qk,o 1.5o,Qk,1 1.5o,Qk,2 Design

Action

kN/m2

6.10 (a) 0.85 0.15 0.3 1.3

6.10(b) 0.79 0.15 0.3 1.24

Dead Load

150mm Concrete Slab = 3.75 kN/m2

Finishes = 1.5 kN/m2

Services = 0.25 kN/m2

Total Dead Load, 1.0 Gk = 5.5 kN/m2

13

Live Load

Wind uplift on deck is a favourable action in this case and is not considered

Imposed (Foot bridge) =5.0 kN/m2

Total 1.0 Qk =5.0 kN/m2

Permanent Leading Accompanying Actions

Actions Action

EQN 1.35Gk 1.5Qk 1.5o,Qk,o 1.5o,Qk,1 1.5o,Qk,2 Design

=0.925 o Action

kN/m2

6.10 (a) 7.43 3 0 10.43

6.10(b) 6.87 3 0 9.87

(c) Ramp Slabs

Dead Load

175mm Slab = 4.4 kN/m2

Finishes = 1.5kN/m2

Services = 0.25 kN/m2

Total 1.0 gk = 6.15 kN/m2

Live Load

Wind uplift on deck is a favourable action in this case and is not considered

Imposed (Foot bridge) =5.0kN/m2

Actions Action

EQN 1.35Gk 1.5Qk 1.5o,Qk,o 1.5o,Qk,1 1.5o,Qk,2 Design

o =0.4 1 =0.4 2 =0 Action

kN/m2

6.10 (a) 8.3 3 0 11.3

6.10(b) 7.7 3 0 10.7

14

ii. SYSTEM ANALYSIS COMBINATIONS

These combination are for the analysis of an entire structure for persistent and

transient situations.

Permanent loads, Pedestrian Live load as main Variable, Horizontal Load and

wind as accompanying Variables (eq. 6.10)

Permanent Loads with Pedestrian Live Loads, Horizontal Load and wind

loads as combination and accompanying variables (eq. 6.10(a) and (b))

15

3.6 VIBRATIONS OF THE BRIDGE

during movements, vibrational behavior will be controlled within the following limits

in seviceability:

vibrations and 0.2 for horizontal vibrations in normal usage

Fundamental frequency of the structure is below 5Hz for vertical Vibrations

and 2.5 Hz for Horizontal/lateral Vibrations

16

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