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PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING FACILITIES

ON THIKA SUPERHIGHWAY

STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATIONS


1 DESIGN INFORMATION
KeNHA Client
MULTISCOPE CONSULTING ENGINEERS Consultant
PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING FACILITIES Project
ON THIKA SUPERHIGHWAY
1) Bs EN 1990: Basis of Design Relevant Building Codes
2) Bs EN 1991: General Actions of Practice, Books and
1-1: densities, selfweight, imposed loads for Design Softwares.
buildings Relevant BS EN codes
1-2:Traffic Loads on bridges used with references to
1-4: Wind Actions respective BS standards
1-5:Thermal Actions
1-6:Actions during execution
1-7:Accidental actions
3) BS EN 1992-1: Concrete: Common rules and rules for
buildings
1992-2:Concrete bridges:Design and detailing
4) BS EN 1993:1-1/BS 5950-1: :Steel-Common rules and
rules for buildings
1993-2:Steel bridges
5) BS EN 1997: Geotechnical design
6) BS EN 1998-1 Design of Structures for Earthquake
Resistance
7) BS 4449: specifications for steel bars for the
reinforcement of Concrete
8) BS EN 3766/ BS 8666: Scheduling, dimensioning,
Bending of steel reinforcement for concrete
9) Steel Designers Manual, 6th,7th edition
10) FIB Guide to design of footbridges
11) Reynolds Reinforced concrete
12) Reinforced concrete Design by Bill Mosley
13) Foundation Design and Construction by Tomlinson
14) Prokon Version 2.5 Analysis and Design Software
15) Robot Structural analysis Design Software
16) BS EN /BS 8110 Spreadsheets
17) AC1 committee 435 recommendations on deflection
18) Kenyan Code of Practice for the Design and
Construction of Buildings and other Structures in
relation to Earthquakes (1973)

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19) Principles of Foundation Engineering By Braja M. Das
20) Joints in Concrete Construction by ACI Committee
224 of 2001
For class XC4, cyclic wet and dry Cover to Reinforcement.
Minimum Cover for decks =30 mm For Durability and Fire
Minimum Cover for other members=40 Resistance
BS EN 1992-1
Dead General Loading Data
Unit weight of concrete = 25kN/m3 BS EN 1991: 1
Deck finishes = 1.5kN/m2 BS 648(unit weights)
Services = 0.25kN/m2
Pedestrian Live Load
Pedestrian Loads on ramps/deck = 5kN/m2
Wind
Basic Wind Speed (NAIROBI KENYA)= 28m/s BS EN 1991:4
Bases to be founded on soft rock with safe bearing Soil Condition
pressure = 200kN/m2 at approximate Depth of 2.0 meters
below ground
Pad foundation = for piers Foundation Types

Structural steel sections used for Truss, Concrete for piers, Material Properties
foundations and decking
Steel strength class, S275
Concrete class 30/35 for all structural elements
Reinforcement steel to be High yield Ribbed bars with fy =
460kN/mm2.

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2 Introduction

2.1 Layout:

0 1784
1784 0

C3
C3
343

5
343
5

C3
C3
a C2
C2 a

a C2
C2 a

8022
8000

00
75

75
00

C1 C1

C4
C4
12001

12001
12

0
50
120x120x8mm Thick Equal
50

12
0

angle bracing

C5 C6 C6 34
00 Girder Truss T1 Girder Truss T1 Girder Truss T1 C5 00
34

150mm Thick solid slab with


25mm Thick AC surface finish
C5 a
C5 250x150x6.0mm RHS
spaced @2375mm c/c
C5 C6 Girder Truss T1 C6 Girder Truss T1 C5

14500 38000 11500


64000

DECK SLAB LAYOUT PLAN


(SCALE 1:150)

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2.2
383
400
Typical Cross-Sections

1300
381
118
175
750

750
575

250 3150 250

3650

SECTION 5-5
SCALE 1 : 25

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polycarbonate sheeting

75x50x3.0mm RHS Rafter


@2375mm c/c

50x25x2.5mm RHS Purlins


@1050mm c/c on plan

250x250x8mm SHS
Top Chord of Girder Truss

150x150x6mm SHS
Internal Members of Girder Truss

3600
8mm thick Balustrade
to Arch.s specification

1100
150mm Thick solid slab with
25mm Thick AC surface finish

100x200 R.C parapet wall

100

300
Y Y

6000
1950 1950

Ground floor level

X X

2000
TYPICAL SECTION
SCALE 1 : 25

2.3 Location:
The proposed Mangu footbridge is to be located across Thika superhighway at Mangu
Road Junction, Chainage Km 39+350.

2.4 Configuration:
The foot bridge consists of climbing ramps and a highway crossing through-truss both
carried by concrete piers bearing on pad foundations.

The climbing ramps are175mm thick, 3.65 m width by 6.0 m span totaling to a length of
52 m. They are supported on secondary peripheral beams

The highway crossing through truss structure includes a 150mm thick, 4m wide, 3
spans deck totaling to a length of 64m. The deck bears on cross beams spaced at 2.375 m

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c/c which are carried by two truss bottom chords. The truss system is carried by tapered
reinforced concrete piers.

ELEMENT No. of MATERIAL DIMENSIONS


Climbing Ramps 2 R.C 3.65m wide, 52m length, 150 mm thick,
Truss Deck 1 R.C 4m wide, 64m length, 150mm thick, 3 spans
Girder Spans 3 Steel 14.5m, 38.0m, 11.5m
Piers R.C
Foundations R.C

2.5 DESIGN PERIOD

In accordance to BS EN 1990, the structure is classified as in category 5 (Bridges and


other civil engineering structures) and designed for a working life of 100 years

2.6 Dynamic Verification of structure

To avoid resonance brought about by dynamic frequency amplifications of the structure


during movements, vibrational behavior will be controlled within the following limits:

Maximum acceptable accelerations of the structure are 0.7 for vertical


vibrations and 0.2 for horizontal vibrations in normal usage
Fundamental frequency of the structure is below 5Hz for vertical Vibrations
and 2.5 Hz for Horizontal/lateral Vibrations

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3 LOADING CALCULATIONS
The footbridge through-truss, deck and ramps are designed to transfer the
permanent and variable actions to the substructure in accordance with BS EN
1990:2002, BS EN 1991: 1, 2, 4 and 5. Situations critical to the structure and
considered for design are the persistent and transient situations and accidental
situations

The actions considered are:

3.1 Permanent Actions (Dead Loads)


These are the material self-weights which include 150mm thick decking for the truss
slab, 175mm thick ramps, 50mm thick hardened screed finish(or 50mm thick asphalt
surfacing), 1.2mm thick profiled steel sheeting under the truss deck, truss claddings,
the truss member self-weights and the self-weights of piers. Reinforced Concrete
unit weight= 25 kN/m3

a. Truss Deck,150 mm thick= 25x 0.15 =3.75 kN/m2


b. Ramp Deck, 175 mm thick= 25 x0.175= 4.375 kN/m2
c. Finishes for decks, allow 50 mm screed/asphalt =24x0.05 = 1.2kN/m2
d. Profiled steel sheeting, for truss deck = 0.25 kN/m2
e. Allow for cladding of truss =0.20 kN/m2
f. Allow for roofing of truss + purlins =0.380 kN/m2
g. Allow for services on roof/deck = 0.25 kN/m2
h. Truss member self-weights: take = 0.17 kN/m

3.2 Variable Actions


The variable loads considered for the design are a pedestrian group load, a
horizontal load on the deck Qfk and the Wind loads as calculated.

a. Pedestrian Live Loads

The load model considered is the crowd load, gr1, since service vehicles are not
specified in the bridge, in accordance with BS EN 1990 A2.2.3 and BS EN 1991-2
section 5 (Actions in footbridges). An accompanying horizontal force (Qfk) equal to
10% of the total udl is considered to act at the Bottom chord/deck level on the bridge
simultaneously as a horizontal load for longitudinal stability (BS EN 1991-2: 5.4).

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GROUP LOADS IN FOOTBRIDGES TO BS EN 1991-2 Section 5

b. Wind Actions

Are evaluated in accordance with BS EN 1991: 1-4-2005

REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT


i. Wind basic Data
Location of Bridge: Nairobi
Table 4.1 Terrain: Category 11, with low vegetation and limited obstacles
Reference height above ground = z = ze = 8m
Density of air = 1.25 kg/m3
ii. Wind speeds

Basic 3-sec gust wind speed = 28 m/s Vb=17 m/s


w.m.o Converting speed to EN 10-min gust basic speed, vbo =28/1.65 =17.0
guidelines on
m/s
wind
vb = vbo.cdir.cseason where
interconversion
Cdir is the directional factor=1,
Co=1
Cseason is the seasonal factor=1
Vbo = Vb =17.0 m/s
4.3
Mean wind speed, Vm =Vb.Cr(z).Co(z) where
Cr= 0.96
Co(z) is the orographic factor = 1.0
Vm=16.4
Cr(z) is the roughness factor =Kr.ln(Z/Zo) for Zmin<Z (8) <Zmax
Table 4.1 m/s
where Zmin = 2m and Zmax = 200 m and Kr is the terrain factor
Kr =0.19(Zo/Zo,ii)0.07 , therefore, For terrain category 11, Kr = 0.19
Cr = Kr.ln(Z/Zo) = 0.
Wind Mean Speed, Vm = Vb.Cr(z).Co(z) =16.4 m/s

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iii. Wind Pressure Factors in X direction

fwx=1/2pVb2C where C=Ce(z).Cfx


where Ce is the exposure factor and Cfx is a force coefficient
Using Fig. 4.2, for reference height = 8m, Ce =2.3
Cfx = Cfx,0 which can be got from fig. 8.3
bdeck/dtotal = 4000/8000 =0.5
Cfx=Cfx,0 = 2.4 Ce(z) =
Therefore, C=Ce(z).Cfx =5.52 5.52

Table 8.2 iv. Wind Pressures


Basic Wind Pressure, qb

Qb(z)=1/2pVb2 = 180.6 N/m2


Peak Wind Pressure, qp
Qp(z) =Ce(z).qb(z) =416N/m2

v. Characteristic Wind Pressures in x-direction

fkwx=1/2pVb2C =0.997 =1.0 kN/m2 fkwx= 1


8.3.2 kN/m2

To get wind forces, multiply with the reference Areas for Deck and Piers

Aref(deck) =3.5x64 =224 m2


Aref(Pier) = 0.5 x Height

vi. Wind Pressures in z-direction

fkwz =Cs.Cd.Cfz.qp(ze) where Cfz= 0.9, Cs.Cd are the structural size and
8.3.3 dynamic factors = 1
fkwz =0.38 kN/m2 fkwz =0.38
kN/m2
vii. Wind in the y-direction
For Truss Bridges, take Fkwy = 50%the wind forces in the x-direction
wherever required
8.3.4

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3.3 COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS
The considered actions are combined in accordance with BS EN 1990:2002 to give the
most onerous cases adopted for the local elemental design and the global/entire
structural system design.

Combination 1: Persistent and transient situations

Includes the effects of self-weights, pedestrian loads, wind, thermal and construction loads.The
combinations of actions are expressed as follows and the least favourable case adopted for
design.

For Strength (STR) and Equilibrium (EQU) limit state


Or for STR limit state, either

Or

where:

"+" means "to be combined with"

implies "the combined effect of"

Gk,j represents the characteristic value of the j-th unfavourable permanent action

Qk,1 is the characteristic value of leading variable action ('main accompanying action' in 6.10a)

Qk,i represents the characteristic value of the i-th accompanying variable action (i > 1)

G, Q are representations of the factor F according to the type of action to which they relate

is a factor applied to a combination and accompanying action

is a reduction factor applied to unfavorable permanent actions =0.925 (in 6.10b)

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Note: An expansion joint is designed to relieve thermal restraints as a result of
temperature range and fluctuations. This action will be accommodated by shear in the
elastomeric bearing and will be considered in bearing design. Again it is important to
note that the temperature range expected at the site is minimal.

Combination 2: Accidental Situations

This combination can be expressed as:

Where Ad is the design accidental action.

Note: A traffic restraint system will be designed to protect the piers of the structure. The
structure is also built with an adequate clearance against collision by under-passing
vehicles with a horizontal action equal to 10% of the pedestrian vertical load also
considered to be acting on the deck level.

Combination 3: Serviceability Situations

In these situations, the structural deformation behavior of the deck structure will be
verified including deflections and vibrations using the following combinations:

The characteristic combination will be adopted.

3.4 Load Partial factors and Design Combinations


i. Combination 1: Persistent and transient situations

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BS EN 1990 Table A1.2A and A1.2B

Design combinations can be written as follows:

Combination factor Values for variable actions in Footbridges (BS EN 1990: Table
A2.2)

ii. Combination 3: Serviceability Combinations

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Only characteristic combination is relevant to steel structures and is given as follows
with partial factors of actions taken as 1.0

3.5 CHARACTERISTIC AND ULTIMATE LOADS


i. CRITICAL LOCAL ELEMENTS
(a) Roof
Dead Load
Sheeting and purlins = 0.380 kN/m2
Services = 0.25 kN/m2
Total Dead Load, gk = 0.63kN/m2

Live Load
Imposed (Maintenance) =0.25kN/m2
Total qk = 0.25kN/m2

Design ULS load combination for roof


Wind is taken as the accompanying variable load (in z-direction)
Permanent Leading Accompanying Actions
Actions Action
EQN 1.35Gk 1.5Qk 1.5o,Qk,o 1.5o,Qk,1 1.5o,Qk,2 Design
Action
kN/m2

6.10 0.85 0.95 0.45 2.25


6.10 (a) 0.85 0.15 0.3 1.3
6.10(b) 0.79 0.15 0.3 1.24

(b) Bridge Truss Deck


Dead Load
150mm Concrete Slab = 3.75 kN/m2
Finishes = 1.5 kN/m2
Services = 0.25 kN/m2
Total Dead Load, 1.0 Gk = 5.5 kN/m2

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Live Load
Wind uplift on deck is a favourable action in this case and is not considered
Imposed (Foot bridge) =5.0 kN/m2
Total 1.0 Qk =5.0 kN/m2
Permanent Leading Accompanying Actions
Actions Action
EQN 1.35Gk 1.5Qk 1.5o,Qk,o 1.5o,Qk,1 1.5o,Qk,2 Design
=0.925 o Action
kN/m2

6.10 7.43 7.5 0 14.93


6.10 (a) 7.43 3 0 10.43
6.10(b) 6.87 3 0 9.87
(c) Ramp Slabs
Dead Load
175mm Slab = 4.4 kN/m2
Finishes = 1.5kN/m2
Services = 0.25 kN/m2
Total 1.0 gk = 6.15 kN/m2

Live Load
Wind uplift on deck is a favourable action in this case and is not considered
Imposed (Foot bridge) =5.0kN/m2

Total 1.0qk =5.0 KN/m2

Co Permanent Leading Accompanying Actions


Actions Action
EQN 1.35Gk 1.5Qk 1.5o,Qk,o 1.5o,Qk,1 1.5o,Qk,2 Design
o =0.4 1 =0.4 2 =0 Action
kN/m2

6.10 8.3 7.5 0 15.8


6.10 (a) 8.3 3 0 11.3
6.10(b) 7.7 3 0 10.7

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ii. SYSTEM ANALYSIS COMBINATIONS

These combination are for the analysis of an entire structure for persistent and
transient situations.

The considered Combinations at ultimate state are

Permanent loads, Pedestrian Live load as main Variable, Horizontal Load and
wind as accompanying Variables (eq. 6.10)

1.35Gk,j+1.5Qk,1v(Pedestrian) +1.5oQk,i,h(Horizontal force) + 1.5 1Qk ,i,w(wind)

1.35Gk,j+1.5Qk,1v (Pedestrian)+1.5oQk,iw(Wind) + 1.5 1Qk ,ih (Horizontal force)

Permanent Loads with Pedestrian Live Loads, Horizontal Load and wind
loads as combination and accompanying variables (eq. 6.10(a) and (b))

1.35Gk,j+1.5oQk,i,v(Pedestrian) + 1.5 1Qk ,i,w(wind)

1.35Gk,j+1.5oQk,iv(Pedestrian) + 1.5 1Qk ,ih (Horizontal force)

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3.6 VIBRATIONS OF THE BRIDGE

To avoid resonance brought about by dynamic frequency amplifications of the structure


during movements, vibrational behavior will be controlled within the following limits
in seviceability:

Maximum acceptable accelerations of the structure are 0.7 for vertical


vibrations and 0.2 for horizontal vibrations in normal usage
Fundamental frequency of the structure is below 5Hz for vertical Vibrations
and 2.5 Hz for Horizontal/lateral Vibrations

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