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With the new 1.0l Kappa () gasoline engine, which can be found in the face-lifted Hyundai i10 and the
new Kia Picanto, Hyundai-Kia combines a three-cylinder concept with modern technologies such as the
initial application of variable valve timing within this displacement segment. The derivate with switchable
intake manifold delivers 60kW/82PS and achieves a maximum torque of 94Nm. Next to the gasoline engine
a bivalent version for the use of gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is already available; an ethanol
engine is under development.

autHorS central role in the companys efficiency are improved by reducing the
future small cars number of cylinders. Therefore, determin
ing the number of cylinders was crucial
Climate change and the influence of hu for development of the Kappa 1.0l engine.
mans on it are the subjects of world-wide Compared to a four-cylinder engine, a
discussion. The transportation sector, in three-cylinder engine has better perfor
cluding cars, trains, aircraft and ships, is mance and fuel economy, . Nevertheless,
Sunghoon Lee responsible for more than one-fifth of all a NVH (noise vibration harshness) prob
is Leader of Design for Kappa Engine global CO2 emissions. Hyundai-Kia is lem caused by increased unbalanced forces
Family at Hyundai Motor Company
(HMC) in Seoul (Korea).
meeting the challenge to lower emissions remained the weakness of the three-cylin
as required by legislation in all markets. der. However, through optimal design of
Such regulations, as well as rising energy the cranktrain, reinforcement of the engine
prices, lead to an increased interest in structure and optimizing the match with a
compact vehicles. The new 1.0l three- vehicle, NVH can be improved. Contrast
cylinder engine out of the Kappa family is ing with a three-cylinder engine, a two-
part of the Hyundai-Kia sustainable prod cylinder engine generally fitted to a motor
Youngsam Gu uct strategy and combines high achieve cycle cannot meet NVH quality without a
is Member of Design for Kappa ment with fuel efficiency. The selected balance shaft because of excessive un
Engine Family at Hyundai Motor
three-cylinder concept fulfils high acoustic balanced forces caused by reciprocating
Company (HMC) in Seoul (Korea).
requirements due to intensive detail opti mass. If the balance shaft is applied, the
mization. From the beginning of develop vibration of the C1 component will be
ment, the engine was designed with coun decreased. However, fuel economy will
try-specific requirements in mind. The become worse due to power loss. Also,
economic and eco-friendly Kappa engine applying a balance shaft increases cost
family will when flanked by additional and weight. Moreover, larger and longer
Dr. Taechung Kim derivates take over a central role in the intake and exhaust systems are necessary
is Leader of Engine Simulation at companys future small cars. to reduce low-frequency combustion noise,
Hyundai Motor Company (HMC)
the unique noise of a motorcycle. Even
in Seoul (Korea).
with the application of these technologies,
Concept Decision:
there are limits to combustion noise re
Number of Cylinders
duction in a two-cylinder engine. Adding
In the early phase of development, the an alternator, air conditioner compressor
four-cylinder engine was typical in the and a starter motor on a two-cylinder
1.0l class. However, owing to increasing engine body restricts design freedom. In
Dr. Joachim Hahn demands for improved fuel economy, conclusion, considering NVH quality, cost
is Leader of Design and Mechanical three-cylinder engines were launched; the and other factors, the three-cylinder con
Development at Hyundai Motor Europe development of a two-cylinder engine was figuration was determined to best for the
(HMETC) in Rsselsheim (Germany).
even reported. Friction loss and thermal Kappa 1.0l engine.

0 7 - 0 8 I 2 0 1 1 Volume 72 11

linder engine vibration. In the case of the

threecylinder engine, the major design
focus of the crankshaft is minimizing both
4-cylinDer 3-cylinDer 2-cylinDer
the vertical pitching and longitudinal yaw
fuel consumption + ing. Both vibrations mainly depend upon
(~ 3 % 5 %)
the balanceweight and one is inversely
performance + +
proportionate to the other. Therefore, it is
weight +
Reference (~ -10 %) crucial to minimize the pitching and the
nVh - -- yawing. By analyzing the crankshaft
+ through dynamic simulations in the form
costs +
(~ -9 %) of assembling pistons and connecting
effect of synergy* + o
rods, the Kappa is designed to the optimal
*with 1.2 l four-cylinder shape of its crankshaft balanceweight.
Decision matrix: number of cylinders The endurance of the crankshaft was en
sured by computeraided strength analysis
and evaluating the physical part. To
Version 51 kw / 69 ps 60 kw / 82 ps biValent improve fuel efficiency, the offset crank
number of cylinDers [-] 3 shaft mechanism, , is applied. The off
arrrangement [-] Inline set crankshaft mechanism is the fuel
economy technology used to reduce the
Displacement [cm] 998
friction force between the piston thrust
bore x stroKe [mm x mm] 71 x 84
face and the cylinder bore inner face on
compression ratio 10.5 the explosion stroke by optimizing the
Distance of cylinDers [mm] 78.5 eccentricity e. But the contact force on a
ValVe arrangement [-] 4V DoHC, Dual CVVT piston antithrust side becomes greater
while a piston moves up. As a result of
ValVe actuation [-] Tappet with mechanical lash
ComputerAided Engineering (CAE) analy
timing DriVe [-] Roller chain
sis, the eccentricity e is optimized at 11mm,
intaKe system [-] Fixed lenght Variable length giving the Kappa improved fuel economy
rateD power [kw] 50.7 60.3 of 1 % at low engine speed. By using De
max. torQue [nm] 95 sign for SixSigma (DFSS) and FEM, the
connecting rod is designed to be the light
fuel [-] Gasoline LPG / gasoline
est one in its capacity class, , while
Engine specifications improving fuel efficiency and ensuring
endurance. In order to decrease the iner
tial force, the piston is optimized by mini
mizing the piston compression height
specifications abrasion durability. With added 0.7mm (24.7mm), pinbosses distance and skirt
spine on the outer surface of the liner, length. As a result, piston weight is 161g.
The new Kappa 1.0l engine DOHC with adhesion between aluminium and the Decreased weight of the piston and con
four valves per cylinder achieves high castiron liner is improved. Therefore, the necting rod enables the Kappa to improve
est values for power, fuel efficiency and deformation of the cylinder bore is reduced. fuel efficiency by about 0.5 %. Because
acoustics. The basic data of the aggregate Consequently, oil consumption and the the piston ring is coated with Physical
are summarized in . The engine design amount of blowby gas are decreased. The Vapour Deposition (PVD), the tension of
will be explained in the following shape of the skirt is designed as a corru the piston oil ring is reduced by 33 %.
paragraphs. gated type to enhance stiffness. Also, for MoS2coated piston skirt and reduced pis
minimizing weight and improving NVH ton ring tension provide 0.6 % better fuel
performance, the ribs and shape are opti efficiency to the Kappa. Two major tech
mized by FEM (Finite Element Method) nologies are applied on the bearings to
The aluminium alloy cylinder block is analysis. improve fuel efficiency. First, the multi
applied to reduce engine weight by 12kg. boring bearing technology reduces oil
Also, the cylinder block is designed as an leakage by eliminating the crush relief
cranKshaft anD piston group
opendeck type of highpressure diecast and optimizing the gap between crank
ing process. Meanwhile, to reduce the For reducing weight and manufacturing shaft journals and bearings. Therefore,
length and weight of the Kappa engine, cost, the crankshaft is made of cast iron, the optimized inner profile of the bearing
the bore gap is designed to be 7.5mm FCD700C, and the shape of balance decreases the amount of consumed oil.
with a Siamese type. The castiron liner is weight is optimized by the cranktrain Second, the partially grooved bearing
applied to the cylinder bore to enhance the behaviour analysis to minimize threecy technology also reduces oil leakage by

Influence of crankshaft offset on friction fuel efficiency and performance by opti
mizing valve timing. It continuously alters
inlet/outlet valve timing depending on
driving conditions to reduce pumping loss
and increase volumetric efficiency. With
Dual-CVVT technology the Kappa improves
fuel economy by up to 3% and perfor
mance significantly compared to a non-
CVVT engine. Also, it decreases emission
gases such as NOx and HC by the effect of
the internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation
(EGR). Moreover, the internal EGR helps
to achieve cost reduction, because catalyst
jewelry weight is reduced. The Kappa is
developed with Mechanical Lash Adjuster
(MLA) tappet of the direct acting type, ,
for reducing inertial mass of the valve sys
tem and saving costs. The MLA tappet is
coated with Diamond Like Carbon (DLC)
to improve fuel efficiency. DLC coating
overcomes the disadvantage of increasing
Optimized conrod friction due to sliding contact between
camshaft and tappet. In comparison with
Other engines 1.0 l engine nitrification coating, the DLC coating gets
700 0.3% better fuel economy by reducing
valvetrain friction. The friction of the DLC-
600 coated tappet is improved relatively better
at low-engine speed than at high-engine
Weight [g]

speed. For improving fuel economy by

reducing valvetrain inertial mass, Kappa
400 uses a beehive valve spring. Similar to the
shape of a beehive, the top diameter of
300 the beehive valve spring is designed to be
smaller than the bottom diameter. This
200 lowers the weight of the retainer and valve
800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200
spring and reduces the inertial mass of the
Displacement [cm ]
valvetrain. Valvetrain friction is lowered
Optimized 1.0 l conrod in the field of competition by 10% at whole engine speeds compared
to a conventional valve spring. To reduce
inertial mass, the MLA tappet minimizes
wall thickness. It is 20% lighter than
decreasing the grooved area of both ends. mixture at the spark plug, the squish area other replacements, creating the smallest
With these two technologies the oil pump takes 10 % of the cylinder bore area. The valve spring load and reducing friction.
capacity is decreased by 13%, increasing spark plug is placed in the centre to
fuel economy by about 0.4%. shorten flame paths thereby giving good
Intake and Exhaust Manifold
combustion and reducing raw emission.
The scissors angle of the valve was devel The three-cylinder engine is alternatively
Cylinder head
oped at 33.2 to minimize the surface of equipped with an intake manifold of con
A pent-roof combustion chamber and a the combustion chamber, thereby improv stant length and a variable counterpart in
tumble inlet port, , are applied to the ing combustion efficiency and minimizing order to achieve two power variants. In
cylinder head to reduce HC emission the size of the cylinder head. both cases the plenum is made of plastic
while improving the characteristics of to reduce weight and costs. To ensure
combustion. Also, tumble flow, which high engine torque at middle speeds, the
Valvetrain and Timing Drive
was reinforced by 15.8% than the initial static tube corresponds to the long posi
design, was applied to improve combus The Kappa adopts the worlds first Dual tion of the switchable runner. The mani
tion efficiency, therefore torque at low Continuously Variable Valve Timing fold length was verified by simulation and
and middle speed (1500 to 3000rpm) is (Dual-CVVT) technology in its capacity experiment and specified to 451mm. The
improved by 1%. For converging air-fuel class. Dual-CVVT technology maximizes shape of the surge tank is changed to a

0 7 - 0 8 I 2 0 1 1 Volume 72 13
Cover Story T hree-cylinder Engines

Combustion chamber shape and layout of cylinder head exhaust manifold. The increased content
of silicium enables the Kappa to resist
oxidation under high-temperature condi
tions and to improve the catalyst durabil
ity. The new engine fulfils the latest Euro
5 standard.

Operation Strategy

All derivatives of the new three-cylinder

engine are available in combination with
an engine start-stop system which lowers
fuel consumption by approximately 3%.
The decision to implement an engine
start-stop system was taken after evaluat
ing a number of single parameters, such
as the clutch pedal position, the shift
lever, vehicle speed, level of battery
charging, the outside temperature and
electrical consumption. In the algorithm,
safety-relevant aspects get highest priority.
Vehicles with a start-stop system have a
more efficient starter as well as a battery
with higher capacity. An Alternator
Management System (AMS) controlling
the alternator based on driving conditions
is also used and increases fuel economy
by about 1.5%.

Optimization of Engine
and Vehicle Acoustics

For reducing noise when the engine is at

Friction-optimized idle, a ramp profile of the camshaft is
valvetrain optimized to eliminate vibration from
valve action. The shape and volume of
the delivery pipe are changed to decrease
ticking noise of an injector, thereby mini
curved structure from the typical straight respectively. The exhaust manifold is mizing the high-frequency noise compon
variety, which improves torque and made of cast iron, thereby reducing cost ent. In order to reduce radiated noise in
maximum power by 1.0Nm and 1.5kW, by 30% compared to a stainless steel Wide Open Throttle (WOT), the engine

Improvement examples by NVH analysis

CO2 is reduced by 5% while power is
dline improved as much as in the gasoline vari
140 ant. The Kappa LPI Bi-Fuel engine is
equipped with both gasoline and LPG
injector. And because of poor conditions
Dry mass [kg]

120 in the combustion chamber caused by the

dry characteristic of LPG, superior valve
seats and valves in properties of abrasion,
Other engines corrosion and heat conductivity are devel
-1.0 l engine
oped. Also, the piston top ring is PVD
80 (Physical Vapour Deposition) coated to
improve durability.

800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 Results
Displacement [cm3]
With the application of the latest tech
Dry mass of new 1.0 l engine in comparison to competitor engines nologies, such as Dual CVVT and the
switchable intake manifold (VIS), the new
Kappa 1.0l engine achieves the best-in-
class performance. The same technologies
structure is analyzed and modified by because of the shortage of LPG infrastruc in combination with a carefully detailed
using extensive CAE. Also, to improve ture, demands on the development of optimization particularly in the field of
engine NVH, a high-strength aluminium Bi-Fuel engine which consumes both the engine mechanics allow partial-load
engine block and ladder frame are used. gasoline and LPG fuel are increasing. fuel consumption to represent a new
The circular matching structure allows the To meet these needs, Hyundai-Kia has optimum within the competitor engines
powertrain to be stiffened. Additionally, developed the 1.0l LPI Bi-Fuel version of (=1 and Non-EGR) with a value of only
compact and strong accessory packaging the Kappa. Volumetric efficiency of the 375 g/kWh at 2000/min and 2bar. By
is applied by directly mounting both the Kappa 1.0l Bi-Fuel engine is improved by using various technologies to decrease
alternator and air conditioning compres applying a Liquid Petroleum Injection noise, the Kappa improves NVH quality
sor on engine block. To reduce radiated (LPI) system. This injects LPG into each about 2 to 3dB over competitive engine
noise, the vibration path from piston to cylinder head ports entrance and controls at whole engine running zones. To reduce
ladder frame is optimized and radiation the rate of fuel flow accurately. Therefore, weight, the Kappa uses an aluminium
from radiation surfaces such as head
cover, chain cover and in/exhaust is
100 Performance and
shows the analytical results of reduc
-1.0 l engine (3-cyl) torque curve of the new
tion of vibration and radiated noise from
1.0 l engine
a chain cover and a head cover by using -1.0 l engine (4-cyl)
CAE. To reduce rumble noise from the (predecessor)
engine partial load operation conditions,
ECU data, such as spark timing, are opti
mally matched. To decrease both whine
and ticking noise of the chain drive a
Pressure Regulation Valve (PRV) is 60
applied to the chain tensioner. Also, cool
Power [PS]

ing fan noise of the alternator at middle-

and high-speed acceleration was reduced
by applying a dual fan configuration. 40 100
Vibration level in the vehicle interior is
reduced by using a stiffer dash panel and 90
a dense isolation pad.
Torque [Nm]

20 80

Bi-Fuel Variant for Driving

with Gasoline and LPG

With tightened CO2 regulations and oil 0 60

price fluctuation, the need for developing 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
an LPG engine is growing. However, Speed [rpm]

0 7 - 0 8 I 2 0 1 1 Volume 72 15
Cover Story T hree-cylinder Engines


Other vehicles
Kia Picanto
CO2 emission [g/km]




Gasoline (95 g/km)
Bi-fuel (90 g/km)
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Displacement [cm3]

CO2 emission of new Kia Picanto in the field of competitors

c ylinder block, plastic intake manifold References

and other technologies. Through strain [1] Sunghoon Lee, Bosung Shin: The Design and
Development of New Hyundai Kappa 1.2 L Dual-
and stress analysis and NVH develop CVVT Engine. SAE, 2011
ment, the shape of rib is optimized and [2] Sunghoon, Lee, Bosung Shin, Chunseok Jeon:
the thickness of the wall becomes thin The Design and Development of the New Hyundai
Kappa Engine. APAC, 2009
ner. As a result, the Kappa weighs only
[3] Joachim Hahn, Peter Birtel, Seung Beom Yoo:
71.4kg, making it the lightest 1.0l engine Hyundai-Kia solutions for European LPG market.
in comparison to competitor engines, . IAV-Tagung Gasfahrzeuge, 2010

Summary and Outlook

The interdisciplinary efforts in the

course of the development of the new
Kappa 1.0l engine led to an aggregate
with high power and efficiency. The
derivate with switchable intake manifold
delivers 60kW/82PS and achieves a
maximum torque of 94Nm, . The
specific advantages of the three-cylinder
concept, the application of selected tech
nologies such as start-stop system, but
also detailed optimizations of all compo
nents contribute to an efficient vehicle
engine. High requirements for comfort
were fulfilled by consistent treatment
of the concept-specific challenges. CO2
emissions of 95g/km for the new Kia
Picanto with a gasoline engine and 90g/
km for the variant with Bi-Fuel engine
identify a new benchmark in the 1.0l
class, . As the further variant, the pro
These results would not have been possible
duction of an ethanol-compatible engine
without the cooperation of Sungwon Shin and
(FFV) will start within 2011; a turbo
Dr. Myongho Kim of Hyundai Motor Company,
charged version of the 1.0l engine is
so the authors wish to express gratitude for
under development and will mark a
their contribution.
further, consistent step toward sustain
able mobility in near future.

Heavy-Duty, On- and
Off-Highway Engines
Concepts for the future www

6th International MTZ Conference

15 and 16 November 2011 NEW
Cuttin INES

Kiel | Germany
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cons issions a
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A LT E R e
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Cutting emissions and nt Kiel

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