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1. PSK is a constant envelope modulation scheme. This means that all symbols have equal

energy after modulation. What is the energy of the BPSK and QPSK modulated symbols

shown in Tables 1(a) and 1(b) respectively?

2. In modulate.vi, what should be the default value for the Symbol Energy of the modulated

sequence?

3. Consider a uniformly distributed random bit stream { } (i.e. { = 1} = { = 0}).

Suppose { } is BPSK modulated such that each symbol has energy . In an AWGN channel,

what is the average probability of bit error as a function of SNR when using ML estimation?

You may assume that noise is a real-valued Gaussian random variable with variance 0 /2 ,

0

i.e. (0, 2

).

1. (5 pts) verify that modulate.vi is working correctly; check that BPSK and QPSK symbols are

produced correctly

2. (5 pts) verify that symbol energy is modified appropriately

3. (10 pts) verify that decode.vi performs ML symbol detection; run multiple iterations of

simulator to verify correctness of ML detection algorithm implemented by student

Make sure student has appropriate documentation in block diagram and front panel, edited

icons, and readable code.

Verify that the student's BER plots are close to the BPSK and QPSK curves in Figure 4 (page

10).

1. Set the parameters below and perform a test with the appropriate parameters below

carrier frequency = 2.4 GHz

time duration = 1 msec

2. Start top_tx.vi and run top_rx.vi to receive one packet at a time; look at constellation on

top_rx.vi front panel; modify noise level and look at constellation again

There is no lab report for this part of the lab. But the following questions need to be answered in

the lab report for Lab 2.2.

1. What is the name of the queue used to pass the generated bit sequence from the transmitter

to the receiver (i.e. the bit sequence needed to perform error detection)?

2. Describe what happens to the received constellation as you increase noise power in the top

level of the transmitter, i.e. top_tx.vi.

3. Based on your observation of the received signal constellation, explain which modulation

scheme (BPSK or QPSK) performs better (on average) in noisy channels, and why. Assume

that both schemes are using the same average symbol energy.

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