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ORTIZ, Sarah Marie G.

June 27, 2017




Literature (from the Latin Littera meaning 'letters and referring to an acquaintance with the written
word) is the written work of a specific culture, sub-culture, religion, philosophy or the study of such
written work which may appear in poetry or in prose.

Types and Kinds of Literature

1. Oral Literature

Epic - is the narrative poem that conveys moral and culture of that period
Proverbs - are traditional sayings that influence the lifestyle of people through their
Myth fairytales with lots of adventures, magic and it lacks scientific proof.
Folk tale are traditional stories that have been creating interest since ancient times.
Fable a story that teaches a moral or a lesson.

2. Written Literature

Drama consists of theatrical dialogs performed on stage, it consists of 5 acts. A

drama that has just one act is a 'one-act play'.
Tragedy it revolves around the main character, his life, struggle, misfortune
and grief, or sometimes, death of the dear ones or the main character.

Comedy is full of laughter wherein incidents are handled very lightly.

Novel is a simple narration of a story without any dialogs like drama. It can be comic,
romantic, criminal, detective, adventurous, or a political story, etc.

Allegory - The story revolves around more than one meaning. What the writer
says directly is symbolic and totally different from the meaning conveyed at the

Feminist - novels are written by women around the world about women's issues
in a male-dominated society.

Gothic - fiction is a combination of both horror and romance.

Ironic - novels are known for excessive use of narrative technique.

Realism - novels are based on the truths of society and their problems.

Narration - the writer becomes a third-person narrator who narrates the whole
story around its characters.

Satire - is a common form seen in comedy novels, this literary device tries to
focus on facts of the society and their issues.

Science Fiction - It's the most popular form. Everyone likes to dream, imagine
life in space and to know about aliens, robots, paranormal activities and what

Poetry - is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from
emotion recollected in tranquility.

Sonnet - is the short poem of 14 lines.

Elegy - is a mournful poem wherein the poet is lamenting for the dead person
or his near ones.

Ode - is the formal and long poem, serious in nature. It addresses a person,
place, or thing.

Allegory - has two symbolic meanings. One is the literal meaning and another
is the deep/symbolic meaning.

Lyric - is a short poem which has song-like quality.

Short story - are wonderful tales of quests and fantasies.

Frame Narrative - a story within the main story.

Autobiography - is the story of the author's own life written by the author himself.

Biography is the story of the persons life written by another person.

Essay - the authors' point of view about any particular topic explained in detail.

Journals - somewhat look like diaries, but they are different because they record
infinite information, analysis, thoughts, experiences, etc.

Media - includes newspaper, magazine, movies, Internet, radios, etc. It is the newest
and widely acceptable type of literature. Everyone follows it due to its multiple
objectives to learn, entertain and promote.