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Product Design (MM ZG541) Lecture 1 BITS Pilani Introduction Product Planning Pilani Campus Srinivas Kota
Product Design (MM ZG541)
Lecture 1
BITS Pilani
Introduction
Product Planning
Pilani Campus
Srinivas Kota

Outline

Outline • Course Structure • Introduction • Product Planning 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 2

• Course Structure • Introduction • Product Planning

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Introduction

Introduction Introduction to design Modern product development process Innovative thinking 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani

Introduction to design Modern product development process Innovative thinking

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Product Development Process

Product Development Process Product development teams Product development planning process and basic tools 7/23/2016 Product Design

Product development teams

Product development planning process and basic tools

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Scoping Product Development

Scoping Product Development What to develop? Mission statement Technical questioning Business case analysis Design drivers 7/23/2016

What to develop? Mission statement Technical questioning Business case analysis Design drivers

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Product Specification Development Identifying the customer needs Establishing product function Benchmarking Establishing product specifications 7/23/2016 Product

Product Specification Development

Identifying the customer needs Establishing product function Benchmarking Establishing product specifications

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Portfolios and Product Architecture Architecture types Modularity design Implications 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 7

Portfolios and Product Architecture

Architecture types Modularity design Implications

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Conceptual Design

Conceptual Design Concept generation Concept selection Concept testing and embodiment 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani

Concept generation Concept selection Concept testing and embodiment

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Physical Prototypes and Models Prototype and model basics Principles of prototyping Rapid prototyping 7/23/2016 Product Design

Physical Prototypes and Models

Prototype and model basics Principles of prototyping Rapid prototyping

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Product Development Economics Economic analysis process Qualitative and quantitative analyses 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani

Product Development Economics

Economic analysis process Qualitative and quantitative analyses

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Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Methods of designing for manufacturing and assembly 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541

Methods of designing for manufacturing and assembly

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Design for Environment

Design for Environment Life Cycle Assessment Methods for designing environmentally conscious products 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541

Life Cycle Assessment

Methods for designing environmentally conscious products

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Industrial Design

Industrial Design Need for industrial design Industrial design process Management Assessing the quality of industrial design

Need for industrial design Industrial design process Management Assessing the quality of industrial design

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Evaluation Scheme

Evaluation Scheme • EC-1 15% (3 Quizs) • EC-2 35% (Mid-Semester Exam) (CB) • EC-3 50%

EC-1

15% (3 Quizs)

EC-2

35% (Mid-Semester Exam) (CB)

EC-3

50% (Comprehensive Exam) (OB)

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Product design – An introduction 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 15

Product design – An introduction

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Why study Product Design

Why study Product Design • Economic success of most firms depends on their ability to identify

• Economic success of most firms depends on their ability to identify needs of customers • Translate those needs into physical products at optimal cost • Craftsmanship style of working is on rapid decline

Intuition based

Poor repeatability

Lack of customer focus

• Bad Perception that people will buy “whatever is designed good”

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Why study Product Design

Why study Product Design • Modern Product attributes desired by customers – Quality / Performance of

• Modern Product attributes desired by customers

– Quality / Performance of product is order qualifier (Not order winner)

– Value worth the price – Robust performance is desired (Taking into account adverse environmental conditions and usage patterns) – Easily serviceable – Maintenance free – Higher second value ( implies less wear and tear)

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Case for Product design

Case for Product design • Firestone ( US Tyre manufacturer ) had 70 years of tyre

Firestone ( US Tyre manufacturer ) had 70 years of tyre manufacturing experience till 1970s

It had good relations with 3 auto makers of Detroit

Had good presence in Europe too

In late 1970s, Michelin, French company introduced Radial

tyres in US Market Firestone could not respond as they were improving the

existing tyres and not adapting the new technology They went almost into bankruptcy during that decade

In 1988, they were sold to Bridgestone, Japanese tyre maker

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The course is applicable to…

The course is applicable to… • Engineered, discrete, physical products 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani

Engineered, discrete, physical products

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Terminologies

Terminologies • Product Development • Design and Development • Research and Development 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541

Product Development

Design and Development

Research and Development

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Terminologies

Terminologies • Research and development – Responsible for development of new technology – Generally R&D transfers

Research and development

– Responsible for development of new technology

– Generally R&D transfers the technology to product development team

– Product development team applies the technology to new product development

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Terminologies

Terminologies • Design and development – Set of technical activities (Sizing shaft diameter or calculating energy

Design and development

– Set of technical activities (Sizing shaft diameter or calculating energy loss, efficiency etc.) and is within product development process

– Design process is the set of technical activities within a product development process

– Responsible for technical specification, new concept development, Detailed Engineering

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Terminologies

Terminologies • Product development – Product development is entire set of activities required to bring a

Product development

– Product development is entire set of activities required to bring a new concept to saleable product

– Includes Business case analysis, Marketing efforts, technical engineering design, manufacturing plans, validation of product design

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Shape memory alloys

Shape memory alloys R&D activity identifies the material which retains the shape upon Heating and on
R&D activity identifies the material which retains the shape upon Heating and on cooling they can
R&D activity identifies the
material which retains the shape
upon Heating and on cooling they
can be deformed easily
Product development intelligently
uses them in simple applications
such as below.
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Types of design

Types of design • Original design • Adaptive design • Variant design 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541

Original design Adaptive design Variant design

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Original design

Original design • • • Few successful original designs occur over time Disrupt the market Replaces

Few successful original designs occur over time Disrupt the market Replaces old equipment, manufacturing methods etc

Refrigeration ,air conditioning industry used to work on harmful Ozone depleting Chloro flouro carbon gases (CFCs) such as R- 12, R-11 etc and HCFCs such as R-22 , R-502

Development of Zero ozone depleting HFCs(Hydro flouro carbons) such as R-410A, R-134a impacted the industry to change majority of components, processes etc

Original design • • • Few successful original designs occur over time Disrupt the market Replaces

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Adaptive design

Adaptive design • • Adapting a known system to a changed task Reciprocating / Rotary mechanisms

Adapting a known system to a changed task Reciprocating / Rotary mechanisms were known to industrial world since 1900s

Domestic air conditioning market used to be dominated by reciprocating compressors (for compressing refrigerant)

With new Rotary compressors (Size /weight being only half) able to work in harsh climates got developed, replaced most of reciprocating compressors

Adaptive design • • Adapting a known system to a changed task Reciprocating / Rotary mechanisms

Rotary

Adaptive design • • Adapting a known system to a changed task Reciprocating / Rotary mechanisms

Reciprocating

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Variant design

Variant design • Extension of product platforms • Variation of Size , geometry, material properties, control

Extension of product platforms

 

Variation of Size , geometry, material properties, control parameters etc.

Company has products such as motors till 15kW

Extension of the product range to say 100 kW is variant design

Development of Engine exhaust tail pipe in plastic instead of metal is yet another example

Here Engineering studies and principles help directly most and majority of the times.

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Redesign

Redesign • All the design concepts discussed are basically redesign only • People used landlines for

All the design concepts discussed are basically redesign only

People used landlines for communication through long distances, however had a serious limitation that they were not portable

Mobile phones addressed the issue and made communication portable.

A design solution (Mobile phone) which overcomes shortcoming of existing product (Landline) can be termed as redesign.

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Challenges of product development • Trade –offs • Dynamics of market • Details • Time pressure

Challenges of product development

Trade –offs

Dynamics of market

Details

Time pressure

Economics

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What interests the people

What interests the people • Creation • Satisfaction of societal and individual needs • Team diversity

• Creation • Satisfaction of societal and individual needs • Team diversity • Team spirit

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Product development process 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 32

Product development process

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Introduction

Introduction • Product development is a process • Process is sequence of steps to convert certain

• Product development is a process

• Process is sequence of steps to convert certain inputs into useful outputs

• Product development process involves steps which a organization employs to conceive, design and commercialize a product.

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At Macro level….

At Macro level…. Understand the Develop a concept opportunities (Weakness of landlines- Not portable) (Look for
Understand the Develop a concept opportunities (Weakness of landlines- Not portable) (Look for new solutions or
Understand
the
Develop a
concept
opportunities
(Weakness of
landlines- Not
portable)
(Look for new
solutions or
verify any
other form of
same usage)

Implement the concept

(Translate the concept to physical product)

All activities needed to make the decision to launch a new product development effort
All activities needed to make
the decision to launch a new
product development effort
All activities needed to make the decision what the product will be
All activities needed to
make the decision what the
product will be

All activities needed to make the product and every product work well all the time.

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Understand the opportunity

Understand the opportunity Some relevant questions are What do we use as a product? What is

Some relevant questions are

What do we use as a product? What is the difficulty? Why does not it do what we want it to be?

Anyone can have wild visions!

Can those visions be transformed to realities? Can it be developed and implemented? Can it generate worthwhile profit?

On concluding above, organization is clear on

State of competitive market Customer population, preferences Available technologies

Above information will decide whether to go ahead or drop the idea into new product development

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Develop a concept

Develop a concept - Target specifications are set - Product positioning in market place is thought
  • - Target specifications are set

  • - Product positioning in market place is thought of

  • - Divide the product concept into input , output, transformation models

  • - In this phase, what the product has to do is more important than how it needs to be done

  • - Develop alternative functional models (on drawing board) and sub functions to achieve them

  • - Select best possible functional models

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Implement a concept

Implement a concept Till last two stages, product existed only in paper, in this phase it

Till last two stages, product existed only in paper, in this phase it turns into physical product

  • - Detailed Engineering

  • - Modelling

  • - Prototyping

  • - Design for X

  • - Robust design

  • - Production planning, manufacturing Engineering

  • - Quality control gate implementation

Caution: Changes are difficult at this stage.

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Six phase product development Steps outlined in reference book - Planning - Concept development - System

Six phase product development

Steps outlined in reference book

  • - Planning

  • - Concept development

  • - System level design

  • - Detail design

  • - Testing and Refinement

  • - Production ramp-up

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Staged gateway development process 46% of the resources that companies devote to the conception, development and

Staged gateway development process

46% of the resources that companies devote to the conception, development and launch of new products go to projects that do not succeed - they fail in the marketplace or never make it to market.

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Staged gateway development process Stage 0 -Discovery: Activities designed to discover opportunities and to generate new

Staged gateway development process

Stage 0 -Discovery: Activities designed to discover opportunities and to generate new product ideas. Stage 1
Stage 0 -Discovery: Activities designed to discover opportunities and to
generate new product ideas.
Stage 1 -Scoping: A quick and inexpensive assessment of the technical merits
of the project and its market prospects.
Stage 2 -Build Business Case: This is the critical homework stage - the one
that makes or breaks the project. Technical, marketing and business
feasibility are accessed resulting in a business case which has three
main components: product and project definition; project justification;
and project plan.
Stage 3 -Development: Plans are translated into concrete deliverables. The
actual design and development of the new product occurs, the
manufacturing or operations plan is mapped out, the marketing launch
and operating plans are developed, and the test plans for the next
stage are defined.
Stage 4 -Testing and Validation: The purpose of this stage is to provide
validation of the entire project: the product itself, the
production/manufacturing process, customer acceptance, and the
economics of the project.
Stage 5 -Launch: Full commercialization of the product - the beginning of full
production and commercial launch.
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Thank you 7/23/2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 41

Thank you

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Product Design (MM ZG541) Lecture 2 BITS Pilani Teams PD Process Tools Pilani Campus Srinivas Kota
Product Design (MM ZG541)
Lecture 2
BITS Pilani
Teams
PD Process Tools
Pilani Campus
Srinivas Kota

Outline

Outline • Teams – Composition – Roles – Myers-Briggs Type Indicator – Team building – Team

• Teams

– Composition – Roles – Myers-Briggs Type Indicator – Team building – Team Evaluation

• PD Process Tools

– Gantt Charts – PERT/CPM

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Introduction

Introduction • New products do not result from routine exercises • Novel solutions require Imagination –

• New products do not result from routine exercises • Novel solutions require Imagination

– common and extraordinary problems

• Individuals need to work in teams

• Composition of design team

• Ability to plan and schedule a complex product development project

• Creation of vibrant environment for the team and structuring team’s activities are key to success of any organization

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Need for a team

Need for a team • Products are getting complex • Washing Machine: – Mechanical components such

• Products are getting complex • Washing Machine:

– Mechanical components such as housing, drum, Pump etc – Electrical components like motor, capacitor, power cord etc, – Electronics parts such as Printed Circuit Boards, user interface – Safety , Fire related

Need for a team • Products are getting complex • Washing Machine: – Mechanical components such

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Need for a team

Need for a team • Automobile: – Aerodynamics – Styling – Air conditioning – Industrial design

• Automobile:

Aerodynamics

Styling

Air conditioning

Industrial design

– Instrumentation – Environmental Legal and many more!!

Need for a team • Automobile: – Aerodynamics – Styling – Air conditioning – Industrial design

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Team

Team • Team – two or more persons engaged in a common goal – dependent on

Team

– two or more persons engaged in a common goal dependent on one another for results – joint accountability for the outcomes

Does not help us work as teammates

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Organisational Realities

Organisational Realities • Many organizations exhibit characteristics that leads to dysfunctional product development team – Lack

• Many organizations exhibit characteristics that leads to dysfunctional product development team

– Lack of empowerment of the team – Functional “Kidnapping” – Inadequate resources

– Lack of cross functional representation on the project team

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PRIDE Principles

PRIDE Principles • PRIDE principles – Purpose – Respect – Individuality Harnessing – Discussions – Excellence

PRIDE principles

– Purpose – Respect – Individuality Harnessing – Discussions – Excellence

Team composition

– Synergy – Unity – Competence – Consensus

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Team Roles

Team Roles • Administrator / Reviewer – Monitors project and judges outcomes • Trouble shooter /

Administrator / Reviewer

– Monitors project and judges outcomes

Trouble shooter / Inspector

– Repairs problems and solves impediments to progress

Producer / Test pilot

– Brings tasks to fruition and reality

Manager / Coordinator

– Supervises and leads tasks

Conserver / Critic

– Preserves teams goals, addresses moral issues

Expediter / Investigator

– Experiences the team goals, gets facts and know-how

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Team Roles

Team Roles • Conciliator / Performer – Detects and fixes interpersonal issues • Mockup Maker /

Conciliator / Performer

– Detects and fixes interpersonal issues

Mockup Maker / Prototype Maker

– Builds and tests rough prototypes

Visionary

– Imagines various product forms and uses

Strategist

– Speculates on and plans project and product future

Need finder

– Evaluates human factors and consumer issues

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Team Roles

Team Roles • Entrepreneur / Facilitator – Explores new products and methods, inspires, and motivates •

Entrepreneur / Facilitator

– Explores new products and methods, inspires, and motivates

Diplomat / Orator

– Harmonizes team, client and customer

Simulator / Theoretician

– Attempts to understand phenomena, analyses performance and efficiency

Innovator

– Synthesizes new products, improves solutions

Director / Programmer

– Sets deadlines and breaks bottlenecks

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Behavioral Roles… ..

Behavioral Roles… .. • Organiser – Reliable person concerned about the practical aspects of the design

Organiser

– Reliable person concerned about the practical aspects of the design process

Motivator

– Confident person in charge of the schedule and goals of a design team

Pusher

– Dynamic person forcing a design team to work faster

Soldier

– Creative person predominately generating solutions

Gatherer

– Extroverted

person

searching

for

information

and

communicating with others outside the team

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Behavioral Roles… ..

Behavioral Roles… .. • Listener – Perceptive person perceiving and combining the ideas and statements of

Listener

– Perceptive person perceiving and combining the ideas and statements of others

Completer

– Conscientious person eliminating the last flaws of a design

Specialist

– Dedicated person with extensive knowledge in a special field

Evaluator

– Strategically thinking person concerned about alternatie solutions

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Myers – Briggs Type indicator

Myers – Briggs Type indicator • MBTI is a simple measurement indicator of how people behave

• MBTI is a simple measurement indicator of how people behave and contribute in work environment

• Developed by Carl Jung (1875-1961) • Psychology as basis for personality

• Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs applied the theory and developed MBTI Indicators

• Final MBTI type category indicates how a person makes decisions or comes to conclusions

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Myers – Briggs Type indicator

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Personality types

Personality types • How a person is energized – Introversion • Seldom interacts with others, they

How a person is energized

Introversion

 

• Seldom interacts with others, they gain energy by processing information internally

 

Extroversion

 

• They initiate and tend to get energy from surrounding

What a person pays attention to

Intuition

• Based on future thinking. Visionary , can take decisions without any data

Sensing

• Depends on 5 senses and believe in hard data

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Personality types

Personality types • How a person decides – Thinking • Relies on cause and effect /

How a person decides

Thinking

 

Relies on cause and effect / Logic

 

Feeling

 

Works on how ideas are communicated - Feelers

What kind of outlook a person adopts

Perception

 

Considers all data to arrive at conclusion, Slow decision making

Judgment

Quickly comes to conclusion with the data (facts) on hand

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Role mapping

Role mapping E- Extroversion S- Sensing I – Introversion N – Intuition T – Thinking J
E- Extroversion S- Sensing I – Introversion N – Intuition T – Thinking J – Judgement
E- Extroversion
S- Sensing
I – Introversion
N – Intuition
T – Thinking
J – Judgement
F – Feeling
P - Perception
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Who is an effective team member A Good Team Member There is a set of attitudes

Who is an effective team member

A Good Team Member

There is a set of attitudes and work habits that you need to adopt to be a good team member:

Take responsibility for the success or failure of the team Be a person who delivers on commitments Be a contributor to discussions Give your full attention to whomever is speaking and demonstrate this by asking helpful questions Develop techniques for getting your message across the team – Learn to give and receive useful feedback

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Characteristics of effective team • Team goals are more important to individual goals • Understand the

Characteristics of effective team

• Team goals are more important to individual goals • Understand the goals and committed to achieve • Trust replaces fear, and people feel comfortable taking risks • Respect, collaboration, and open-mindedness • Team members communicate readily; diversity of opinions is encouraged

• Decisions are made by consensus and have the acceptance and support of the members of the team

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Organisational structures

Organisational structures • Structure of product development teams is very important • Two such structures exists

• Structure of product development teams is very important

• Two such structures exists • Function based

– Specialized education, training or experience – Marketing, Design and Manufacturing)

• Project based

• Handpicked individuals from each functions are put together and asked to execute a project

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Functional organization

Functional organization • Individuals, working on one or a limited number of tasks each, are grouped
Functional organization • Individuals, working on one or a limited number of tasks each, are grouped

Individuals,

working

on

one

or

a

limited

number of tasks each, are grouped

according to their technical expertise.

Individuals

with

similar

technical

background form the basic building blocks of

the formal reporting lines.

Integration with other functions a tedious task.

Because people are motivated by the need to deepen their knowledge base in certain area, these groups face tremendous difficulties when attempt to integrate their findings into a specific product to address a specific market need.

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Project organization

Project organization • Individuals of different technical/functional expertise are grouped into an organizational subunit responsible for
Project organization • Individuals of different technical/functional expertise are grouped into an organizational subunit responsible for

Individuals

of

different

technical/functional expertise

are

grouped into an organizational subunit responsible for one product or service (or potentially a limited set of closely related products/services).

Although

from

different

technical/functional backgrounds

the

group builds a group identity focus is to create a product.

,their

The team leader takes the customer’s perspective and focuses the team on defining and creating a cohesive product or service.

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Some thoughts on organization • Project product organization focusses on result, the itself while neglecting building

Some thoughts on organization

• Project product

organization

focusses

on

result,

the

itself

while

neglecting

building

technological excellence in the long run.

• Functional organizations, in contrast, focus on building technological excellence, while neglecting the product / customer.

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Stages of Team Development

Stages of Team Development • Orientation (Forming) – The members are new to the team –

Orientation (Forming)

The members are new to the team

– They are probably both anxious and excited, yet unclear about what is expected of them

Dissatisfaction (Storming)

Now the challenges of forming a cohesive team become real – Differences in personalities, working and learning styles, cultural backgrounds, and available resources begin to make themselves known

Resolution (Norming)

– The dissatisfaction abates when team members establish group norms, either spoken or unspoken, to guide the process, resolve conflicts, and focus on common goals

Production (Performing)

– This is the stage of team development we have worked for

Termination (Adjourning)

– When the task is completed, the team prepares to disband. Good teams make suggestions on how to improve the team experience

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Team Evaluation

Team Evaluation • Unity • Self direction • Group climate • Communication • Distribution of leadership

• Unity • Self direction • Group climate • Communication • Distribution of leadership • Distribution of responsibility • Problem solving • Conflict management • Decision making • Group self evaluation

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Unity (Degree of unity, cohesion) • Is group just a collection of individuals? (little or no

Unity (Degree of unity, cohesion)

Is group just a collection of individuals? (little or no group feeling)

Is unity of team by external factors or by real friendship? (some group)

Is group very close but needs little exercise?

Strong common purpose and spirit based on real friendship.

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Self-Direction ( group’s own motive / power)

Self-Direction ( group’s own motive / power) • Little drive from anywhere among members? • Group

Little drive from anywhere among members?

Group has some self propulsion but needs some push?

Is there domination from strong single member or leader?

Does initiation, planning , execution and evaluation come from group as a whole?

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Group Climate

Group Climate (extent to which members feel free to share) • Does climate inhibits good fun,

(extent to which members feel free to share)

Does climate inhibits good fun, behavior and opinions?

Members freely express needs?

Member express themselves but without observing interest of total group?

Member express freely taking in to account welfare of team?

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Communication (manner of expressing idea/ opinion) • Very little discussion occurs. • Members listen carefully but

Communication (manner of expressing idea/ opinion)

Very little discussion occurs.

Members listen carefully but do not express views.

Domination of “own” opinion?

Communications are open, two way, deep and lengthy

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Distribution of Leadership

Distribution of Leadership • Non of the members take leader roles. • Some take leader role

Non of the members take leader roles.

Some take leader role but maximum remain

passive follower. Many member taker leadership role quite few

are always followers. All members of group share responsibilities.

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Distribution of Responsibility

Distribution of Responsibility • Everyone tries to get out of jobs. • Responsibilities are carried out

Everyone tries to get out of jobs.

Responsibilities are carried out by few

members? Some accept responsibility but do not carry

them out. Responsibilities are distributed and carried out by every member.

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Problem Solving

(Group’s ability to think straight , make use of everyone's idea and deicide creatively about its problems)

Problem Solving (Group’s ability to think straight , make use of everyone's idea and deicide creatively

Not much thinking as a group, Decision made

hastily or group lets thinking ?

leaders

do

most

of

the

Some

cooperative

thinking

but

group

gets

tangled up in pet ideas, confused movement

towards good solution. Not an orderly process ?

 

Good pooling of ideas and orderly thoughts.

Everyone's

ideas

are

used

to

reach the

final

plan.

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33

Conflict Management (how group deals with conflicts) • Group ignores or avoids disagreement to detriment of

Conflict Management (how group deals with conflicts)

Group ignores or avoids disagreement to detriment of task ?

Friendly group discussion but little analysis of problem ?

Members argue their own points and try to dominate others ?

Differences are presented, thrashed through to sound understanding , acknowledged in decision making.

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Product Design MMZG541

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34

Decision Making (how group arrives at final decision) • One or two members lead group and

Decision Making (how group arrives at final decision)

One or two members lead group and dominate decision ?

Decisions are always hard to reach and group allows deadlines to dictate course to take ?

Are decision hastily made without working through options ?

Decisions are reached after through consideration of options and consequences of each possible option.

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Product development Planning 30 July 2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 36

Product development Planning

30 July 2016

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Planning

Planning • Basic Constituents of of planning are – What • Tasks – When • Schedule

• Basic Constituents of of planning are What

• Tasks

When

• Schedule

Where

• Equipment and facilities

How

• People, material, facility and equipment costs

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Steps

Steps 1. Identify the tasks and milestones of the project 2. Supplement product tasks with team

1. Identify the tasks and milestones of the project

  • 2. Supplement product tasks with team tasks

  • 3. Estimate project resources and time (updated…)

  • 4. Assign tasks to a timeline, including parallel and sequential structure

  • 5. Monitor Progress and assign additional tasks

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Tasks

Tasks 30 July 2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 39
Tasks 30 July 2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 39

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Basic planning Tools

Basic planning Tools - Gantt Charts - PERT/ CPM 30 July 2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS

- Gantt Charts - PERT/ CPM

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Gantt Charts

Gantt Charts • Basic planning and scheduling tool • Named after Henry Gantt • Activities (Tasks

• Basic planning and scheduling tool • Named after Henry Gantt

• Activities (Tasks are written as rows) with time as columns.

• As an enhancement, task lists are used along with Gantt charts

• Task lists states the deadline, responsible person, check box to fill whether the task is completed or not.

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Gantt Charts

Gantt Charts Job 1 3 Job 2 2 Job 3 Job 4 1 1 2 3
Job 1 3 Job 2 2 Job 3 Job 4 1 1 2 3 4 5
Job 1
3
Job 2
2
Job 3
Job 4
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Days
Key:
Planned activity
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Facility

Gantt Charts - Updated

Gantt Charts - Updated Job 1 3 Behind schedule Job 2 2 Ahead of schedule Job
Job 1 3 Behind schedule Job 2 2 Ahead of schedule Job 3 Job 4 On
Job 1
3
Behind schedule
Job 2
2
Ahead of schedule
Job 3
Job 4
On schedule
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
Days
Key:
Today’s Date
Planned activity
Completed activity
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Facility

Gantt Charts

Gantt Charts • They do not typically show the dependencies of tasks • Gantt charts should

They do not typically show the dependencies of tasks

Gantt charts should contain

 

Time scales as fine (Weeks) as possible

 

Task categories – Broken down to details

Responsibilities assigned

Monitoring /updating is mandatory on time scale basis (If weekly , then monitoring should be done weekly)

An open bar can be used to plan tasks and shaded part can be used to monitor progress

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CPM

CPM • CPM (Critical Path Method) represent both dependencies and timing. • They do not allow

CPM (Critical Path Method) represent both dependencies and timing.

They do not allow loops or feedback and we cannot explicitly show iterative coupling tasks

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CPM

CPM Product : Hair dryer ( Heater + Blower + Motor + Controls) Task Description Immediate

Product :

Hair dryer ( Heater + Blower + Motor + Controls)

Task

Description

Immediate predcessors

Time (Weeks

A

Start

 

0

B

Model the mechanical sub assembly (Housing, grip shape, nozzle etc

A

6

C

Model the electrical interface (Heater + Motor + controls)

A

8

D

Prototype - Mechanical sub assembly

B

3

E

Prototype - Electrical Components

C

4

F

Safety test on electrical sub assembly (As per standard)

E

2

G

Final proto type- Mechanical and electrical assembly

D, F

3

H

Performance testing

G

4

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CPM Product : Hair dryer ( Heater + Blower + Motor + Controls) Task Description Immediate

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Critical path

Critical path • It is longest chain of dependent events • Dependencies among the tasks in

It is longest chain of dependent events

Dependencies among the tasks in CPM chart, some serially and some of which are arranged in parallel, leads to Critical path

The project leader must pay attention electrical sub tasks based on this case.

and monitor

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Thank you 30 July 2016 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 48

Thank you

30 July 2016

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Product Design (MM ZG541) Lecture 3 BITS Pilani Scoping Product Development Pilani Campus Srinivas Kota
Product Design (MM ZG541)
Lecture 3
BITS Pilani
Scoping
Product Development
Pilani Campus
Srinivas Kota
BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Scoping Product Development
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus
Scoping
Product Development

Contents

Contents • Introduction • Technology ‘S’ curves • ‘S’ curves and Product Development • Technical Questioning

• Introduction • Technology ‘S’ curves • ‘S’ curves and Product Development • Technical Questioning • Mission Statement • Design Drivers

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Introduction

Introduction • What to develop ? • Should a new technology be introduced? • Should the

• What to develop ? • Should a new technology be introduced?

• Should the current product be refined and tweaked to better please the customer?

• Should the product be expanded into variant forms to more comprehensively cover the market?

• Outsourcing vs in-house development

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Product development projects

Product development projects • Four Types – New product platforms – Derivatives of Existing product platforms

Four Types

New product platforms Derivatives of Existing product platforms Incremental improvements to existing products Fundamentally new products

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Product development projects

Product development projects • New product platforms – Hybrid cars – Touchpad incorporated laptops – Solar

New product platforms

– Hybrid cars – Touchpad incorporated laptops – Solar powered calculators – Digital watches

LED bulbs – LED television – Many more……

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Product development projects

Product development projects • Derivative of existing products – Diesel Engine in a new platform –

Derivative of existing products

– Diesel Engine in a new platform – Higher capacity (Kgs) washing machine – Low TR room air conditioners – Small or big display of LCD mobile phones – Bigger size television

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Product development projects

Product development projects • Incremental improvements – Higher mileage vehicle ( More km / Liter) –

Incremental improvements

– Higher mileage vehicle ( More km / Liter) – More Megapixel camera – Less polluting engine – Aesthetic variants – Redesign of tail lamps, bumpers etc.

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Product development projects

Product development projects • Fundamentally new products – Automobile (Driverless) – Bluetooth – Electricity transmitters through

Fundamentally new products

– Automobile (Driverless) – Bluetooth – Electricity transmitters through air – New composite material

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Some thoughts

Some thoughts • In business (and in life?) winning once is not enough. • Even if

In business (and in life?) winning once is not enough.

Even if you score big, you can’t rest on your laurels. You have to rack up repeated victories in the market, one after the other.

Otherwise, you become a has-been, just another business that sparkled brightly before flaming out.

This

has

been

the

fate

of

many

once-successful

companies that got to the top but couldn’t stay there.

• Yet, some organizations do thrive at the top for decades and even longer. They launch one successful business after another, and routinely outperform their rivals.

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What’s their secret? 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 11

What’s their secret?

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15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 12
15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 12
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Technology Development

Technology Development Simplified Technology Development Cycle Transferring Technology Development Cycle 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani

Simplified Technology Development Cycle

Transferring Technology Development Cycle

15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 13
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Technology ‘s’ curves

Technology ‘s’ curves • Technological innovation time cycle and market behavior is well characterized by ‘S’

• Technological innovation time cycle and market behavior is well characterized by ‘S’ curve

• Technological innovation typically manifest themselves into a market along ‘S’ curve

• In case of product , the Product Metric (In case of bulb, lumens of light output per unit watt; efficiency) can be plotted as function of time when each product was introduced

Metric value will naturally fall as an ‘S- curve’ in time

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Product evolution - technology ‘s’ curve [Text Book] 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 15

Product evolution - technology ‘s’ curve

[Text Book] 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 15
[Text Book]
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Product evolution - technology ‘s’ curve [http://terrapacificusa.com/?page_id=128] 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 16

Product evolution - technology ‘s’ curve

Product evolution - technology ‘s’ curve [http://terrapacificusa.com/?page_id=128] 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 16

[http://terrapacificusa.com/?page_id=128]

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Telecom Industry

Telecom Industry 5G Etisalat (UAE) said it has already tested speeds of up to 115GBps as
5G
5G

Etisalat (UAE) said it has already tested speeds of up to 115GBps as part of its 5G strategy

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Perspective

Perspective [http://noordinary.co.nz/how-to-tell-if-your-industry-is-going-to-be-disrupted-befor.html] 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 18
Perspective [http://noordinary.co.nz/how-to-tell-if-your-industry-is-going-to-be-disrupted-befor.html] 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 18

[http://noordinary.co.nz/how-to-tell-if-your-industry-is-going-to-be-disrupted-befor.html]

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Stages of Technology ‘S’ Curve

Stages of Technology ‘S’ Curve • Lower portion – Changes are less and widely spaced –

Lower portion

– Changes are less and widely spaced Not much innovation (slope)

Middle portion

rapid profusion of innovation (slope) – many products are launched – many competitors joins the market

Top portion

Stages of Technology ‘S’ Curve • Lower portion – Changes are less and widely spaced –

stagnation & maturity of existing product technology

– Physical laws of the process dominates and performance can not improve further

– Few mature competitors

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Violation (?) of S curve

Violation (?) of S curve 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 20
15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 20
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Creative problem solving

Creative problem solving The mere formulation of a problem is far more often essential than [is]

The mere formulation of a problem is far more often essential than [is] its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities to regards old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science – Albert Einstein

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Product Development

Product Development • Product development Questions – Technical risk (Can we do?) – Market risk (Will

Product development Questions

Technical risk (Can we do?)

Market risk (Will customers buy?)

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Product Development

Product Development 1 step in design process • Technical Questioning • Mission Statements 15-Oct-16 Product Design

1 st step in design process

Technical Questioning Mission Statements

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Objectives of mission statement and technical questioning • Define goals (goals must be stated before they

Objectives of mission statement and technical questioning

• Define goals (goals must be stated before they can met)

• Focus design efforts

Translate the business case analysis to the development team

• Provide a schedule for tasks (timeline and milestones)

• Provide guidelines for the design process that will prevent conflict within the design team

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Technical Questioning

Technical Questioning • What is the problem really about ? • What implicit expectations and desires

• What is the problem really about? • What implicit expectations and desires are involved? • Are the stated customer needs, functional requirements, and constraints truly appropriate? • What avenues are open for creative design? • What characteristics the product must have or not have?

• Has the design task been posed at the appropriate level of abstraction?

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Mission Statement

Mission Statement Tangible result of technical questioning procedure is design team’s mission statement or market attack

Tangible result of technical questioning procedure is design team’s mission statement or market attack plan

Who should write it?

• Typically project manager or the Design Lead

When it should be available and whom it should reach?

• During the project kick-off and should reach all team members

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Mission statement : x product

Mission statement : x product • Product Description: One concise and focused sentence • Key Business

Product Description:

One concise and focused sentence

Key Business or Humanitarian goals:

Primary Market:

Schedule Gross profit /margin Market share Advancement of human needs

Brief phrase of market sector or group

Secondary Market:

List of secondary markets, currently or perceived

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Mission statement : x product… • Assumption: Key assumptions or uncontrolled factors to be confirmed by

Mission statement : x product…

Assumption:

Key assumptions or uncontrolled factors to be confirmed by customer

Stake Holders:

1-5 word statement of customer set

Avenues of compact design:

Identify key areas of innovation

Scope Limitation:

List of limitation that will reign back the design team from ‘solving the world’

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Finger Nail Clipper

Finger Nail Clipper 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 29
Finger Nail Clipper 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 29

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Mission statement : Fingernail Clipper • Product Description: Remove & file excess fingernail length • Key

Mission statement : Fingernail Clipper

Product Description:

Remove & file excess fingernail length

Key Business or Humanitarian goals:

Primary Market:

6 month development of beta prototype

30% profit/margin Initial 5% market share Supplement fingernail polish business

Adults of all ages focusing on fingernail users

Secondary Market:

Knife collectors Business executives

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Mission statement : Fingernail Clipper • Assumption: Small , compact stowage volume Long Life(10-2 years) •

Mission statement : Fingernail Clipper

Assumption:

Small , compact stowage volume Long Life(10-2 years)

Stake Holders:

XYZ corporation; users; salons; retailers

Avenues of compact design:

Ergonomic shape; store/capture of nails; compact stowage; ease of cutting

Scope Limitation:

Material ; steel processing and moldable plastics

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Ceiling Fans

Ceiling Fans 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 32
Ceiling Fans 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 32

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Mission statement : Ceiling fans • Product Description: Generates draft of air • Key Business or
Mission statement : Ceiling fans • Product Description: Generates draft of air • Key Business or

Mission statement : Ceiling fans

Product Description:

Generates draft of air

Key Business or Humanitarian goals:

2 month development of beta prototype

7% profit/margin Initial 2% market share Supplement Injection molding business

Primary Market:

Household usage

Secondary Market:

Used in manufacturing industries for ventilation

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Mission statement : Ceiling fans • Assumption: Size, Color , Noise, Ease of installation • Stake
Mission statement : Ceiling fans • Assumption: Size, Color , Noise, Ease of installation • Stake

Mission statement : Ceiling fans

Assumption:

Size, Color , Noise, Ease of installation

Stake Holders:

Avenues of creative design:

Common households, Regulatory authorities

Efficiency of fans, Variable speeds (Not in steps), Aesthetics

Scope Limitation:

Dependence on electricity, Metal processing limitations etc

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Design Drivers

Design Drivers • It is an early decision that must be made, but once made, determines

It is an early decision that must be made, but once made, determines in large part many of subsequent design decision

• What

makes

a

product

desirable

to

consumers

as

well

as

profitable

for

organization to build and develop?

• The key; fundamental specification which drives subsequent design aspects, balancing both business feasibility and technical feasibility for an organization

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Design Drivers for Fingernail Clipper • Business front – Clipper should be ‘more comfortable’ & easy

Design Drivers for Fingernail Clipper

Business front

– Clipper should be ‘more comfortable’ & easy in operation so as to attract more customers, increase sales hence profit to organization

Technical front

– Should be strong enough to withstand ‘bending’, should not be heavy

• Length, thickness, strength & width are design drivers

• These parameters must compromise on both fronts to reach an equilibrium decision

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Design drivers for Fingernail clipper 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 37

Design drivers for Fingernail clipper

Design drivers for Fingernail clipper 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 37

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Design Drivers for Ceiling Fan

Design Drivers for Ceiling Fan • Business front – Fan should be ‘aesthetically superior’ & should

Business front

– Fan should be ‘aesthetically superior’ & should draft more air at low noise during operation so as to attract more customers, increase sales hence profit to organization

Technical front

– Motor should be strong enough to rotate the fan and should not be heavy, The fan blade should be aero dynamical in shape.

• Diameter of the fan, thickness, shape, strength & width of fan blade are design drivers

– These parameters must compromise on both fronts to reach at equilibrium decision

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Design drivers for Ceiling Fan 15-Oct-16 Diameter Motor Blade shape “Permits” means “ aids or supports

Design drivers for Ceiling Fan

15-Oct-16

Diameter Motor Blade shape
Diameter
Motor
Blade
shape

“Permits” means “ aids or supports or enables

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Design drivers for commercial Aircraft • Potentially profitable commercial Aircraft must satisfy both business and technical

Design drivers for commercial Aircraft

• Potentially profitable commercial Aircraft must satisfy both business and technical mutually constraining conditions

• Must carry sufficient passengers to provide revenue to cover operating cost

• It must have enough thrust & lift to fly number of passengers demanded by business case

Wing(s), Engine(s) and Fuselage are design drivers

• The other design aspects such as landing gear, controls & so forth can be made in accordance with design drivers

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Design Drivers for commercial Aircraft 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 41

Design Drivers for commercial Aircraft

Design Drivers for commercial Aircraft 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 41

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Summary

Summary • Technology ‘S’ Curves • Relation between technology ‘s’ curve and product development • Technical

• Technology ‘S’ Curves

• Relation between technology ‘s’ curve and product development

• Technical Questioning • Mission statement • Design drivers identification

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Thank you 15-Oct-16 Product Design MMZG541 BITS Pilani 43

Thank you

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Product Design (MM ZG541) Lecture 4 BITS Pilani Understanding Customer Needs Pilani Campus Srinivas Kota
Product Design (MM ZG541)
Lecture 4
BITS Pilani
Understanding
Customer Needs
Pilani Campus
Srinivas Kota
BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Understanding Customer needs
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus
Understanding
Customer needs

Contents

Contents • Customer • Needs of customer • Types of Customer Needs • Kano diagram •

• Customer • Needs of customer • Types of Customer Needs • Kano diagram • Methods to capture customer requirements

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Customer – Who are “they”

Customer – Who are “they” • Persons who we want to be purchasers of the product

Persons who we want to be purchasers of the product

Different customers use the product differently

Operate them in different environments

Generally have different expectations

...

... ...

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Why Identifying customer needs is important • Organizations needs to – Ensure the product is focused

Why Identifying customer needs is important

Organizations needs to

– Ensure the product is focused on customer needs

– Identify latent needs

or hidden needs

as well

as

explicit

– Provide specifications

a

fact

base

for

justifying

the product

– Create an archival record of the needs activity of the development process

– Ensure that no critical customer forgotten

need

is missed

or

– Develop common understanding of customer needs among members of the development team

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Voice of customer

Voice of customer • Words used by the customers to describe the their expectations are often

• Words

used

by

the

customers

to

describe

the

their

expectations

are often

referred

to

as

voice of

the

customer

• Capturing voice of customer increases the initial planning stage of the project definition phase in the development cycle

But the result is a total reduction of the overall cycle time

in

bringing to the market

customer

a product

that satisfies the

• Sources for determining customer expectations are focus groups, surveys, complaints, consultants, standards, and federal regulations

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Voice of customer

Voice of customer • Customer expectations are vague and general in nature - User friendly -

• Customer expectations are vague and general in nature

  • - User friendly

  • - Vehicle should go fast after Green signal

  • - I want it to be easy to carry

  • - Engineer would think to design light weight

What does the customer really want? What are the customer’s expectations?

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Types of Customer Needs

Types of Customer Needs • Direct Needs – Watch should show right time, Water bottle must

Direct Needs

Watch should show right time, Water bottle must be easy to hold etc.

Latent Needs

Hidden needs (High end mobile phones should never be broken no matter how abusive the drop or fall is!)

Constant Needs

Intrinsic to product – Data storage space in servers / computers.

Variable Needs

As battery technology of laptop matures just like any solar powered calculator, then it does not bother customer how long the power lasts

General Needs

Compliance to National standards, safety etc

Niche Needs

The car should have bullet proof feature

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Classifying Customer Requirements Kano recognized requirements: that there are four levels of customer • Expecters These

Classifying Customer Requirements

Kano

recognized

requirements:

that

there

are

four

levels

of

customer

Expecters

These are the basic attributes that one would expect to see in the product, i.e., standard features

Spokens

These are the specific features that customers say they want in the product – Color, aesthetics etc

Unspokens

These are product attributes the customer does not generally talk about, but they remain important. Customer may not even realize that he or she wants these

Exciters

Often called delighters, these are product features that make the product unique and distinguish it from the competition

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Kano diagram of Customer Satisfaction Customer Satisfaction MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani Function 10 15-Oct-16

Kano diagram of Customer Satisfaction

Customer Satisfaction MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani
Customer Satisfaction
MM ZG541
Product Design
BITS Pilani

Function

10

15-Oct-16

Customer Satisfaction

Customer Satisfaction 15-Oct-16 Satisfaction of Allows a company to … .. - Basic needs - Get

15-Oct-16

Satisfaction of Allows a company to … .. - Basic needs - Get into the market
Satisfaction of
Allows a company to … ..
-
Basic needs
- Get into the market
-
Performance needs
- Remain in the market
-
Excitement needs
- Be world class
MM ZG541
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Examples

Examples 15-Oct-16 MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani 12
Examples 15-Oct-16 MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani 12

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Understanding Customer Needs: Procedure • Gather raw data from customers • Interpret the raw data in

Understanding Customer Needs: Procedure

• Gather raw data from customers

• Interpret

the

raw data

in terms

of customer

needs • Organize the needs into a hierarchy • Establish the relative importance of the needs • Reflect on the results and the process

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Need Gathering Methods

Need Gathering Methods • Interviews • Questionnaires • Focus group • Be the customer • Product

• Interviews • Questionnaires • Focus group • Be the customer • Product clinics • Observations

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Need gathering Methods

Need gathering Methods • Interviews – One customer at a time – Usually held at customer’s

Interviews

– One customer at a time

Need gathering Methods • Interviews – One customer at a time – Usually held at customer’s

– Usually held at customer’s environment where the customer uses the product

Questionnaires

– Develops a list of criteria relevant to customer’s concerns based on their answers to questions in written format

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Need gathering Methods

Need gathering Methods • Focus group – A moderator facilitates a session with a group of

Focus group

Need gathering Methods • Focus group – A moderator facilitates a session with a group of

– A moderator facilitates a session with a group of customers

– Usually held at product developer’s environment

– Exploratory questions will be asked to uncover the needs of customer

Be the customer

– Critical of their own product or competitor’s product

– Role play as if the product is used by product developer and he looks at it’s strength and weakness

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Gathering Information from Customers Interviews with Customers Customer Surveys Customer Complaints Focus Groups Warranty Data 15-Oct-16

Gathering Information from Customers

Interviews with Customers Customer Surveys
Interviews
with
Customers
Customer
Surveys
Customer Complaints
Customer
Complaints

Focus

Groups

Warranty

Data

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Choosing customers

Choosing customers • 10 - 50 • Lead users and or extreme users are “more useful”

10 - 50

Lead users and or extreme users are “more useful”

Lead users

Can articulate their emerging needs, they might have conceptually invented solutions to meet their needs

Extreme users

Professional users, might be people having special needs Sometimes, one person makes the buying decision and

another person (end user) actually uses the product It is better to gather information from end user

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Conducting Interviews: Like / Dislike • Interview customers as they use the product • See that

Conducting Interviews: Like / Dislike

• Interview customers as they use the product

• See that customers describe what they “like” and “dislike

• ‘Why’ questions uncover the latent needs

• Factors

that

determine

the

purchase(what

customer looks at), should be asked at a dealer shop or a retail shop rather than to user himself

• Ask how the customer would change the product to make it better

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Example: Frying Pan (TAWA)

Example: Frying Pan (TAWA) Product : Frying Pan (Tawa) Customer : Mrs. Sita Address: Type of

Product : Frying Pan (Tawa) Customer : Mrs. Sita Address:

Type of user : Home maker

Example: Frying Pan (TAWA) Product : Frying Pan (Tawa) Customer : Mrs. Sita Address: Type of

Interviewer: Raj Date: 10/8/2016 Currently uses : Common utensils, Frying pan Willing to do follow up? Yes

Question

 

Customer Statement

Interpreted need

imp

 

Typical

Frying vegetables, Eggs, Cooking pasta, Cooking gravy

 

Uses

 
 

Contents do not stick to surface

 

Non-stick surface

Must

Size

Compact

Good

Likes

Can stand on its own

Has a better flat bottom to suit stove accessory

Should

Depth of the Frying pan

Deep side walls permitting food not to spill over

Good

Dislikes

After a while in the burner, handles becomes too hot to hold- approx 25 minutes

The handle conducts heat from the pan, there is a thermal bridge

Must

Not good looking

 

Rivets seen in the inner surface of the pan

Nice

Suggested

  • 1. Heat resistant handles

     

improve-

  • 2. Different painting colors at the base

ments

  • 3. Elimination of rivets

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How to have Effective Interaction with the Customer • Go with the Flow (“why” and “How”)

How to have Effective Interaction with the Customer

• Go with the Flow (“why” and “How”) • Use visual stimuli and props • Suppress preconceived notion about the product technology • Have the customer Demonstrate • Be alert for surprises and latent needs • Watch for non verbal information

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Constructing a Survey Instrument • Determine the survey purpose • Identify what specific information is needed

Constructing a Survey Instrument

• Determine the survey purpose • Identify what specific information is needed • Design the questions. Each question should be:

– Unbiased – Unambiguous – Clear – Brief

• Three categories of questions:

– Attitude questions – Knowledge questions – Behavior questions

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Ethnographic studies

Ethnographic studies • Customers are inventive and much can be discovered from them • Study is

• Customers

are

inventive

and

much

can

be

 

discovered from them

 

Study

is

about

way

people

behave

in

their

regular environments

• Observing actual end users interacting with the product under typical use conditions

• Close observation is needed

• Effectiveness lies in discovering certain latent needs of the customer (unspokens)

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Some reflections

Some reflections Deep or Chest freezer 15-Oct-16 MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani 24
Some reflections Deep or Chest freezer 15-Oct-16 MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani 24

Deep or Chest freezer

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Documenting interaction with customers • Audio recording • Notes • Video recording • Photography • Any

Documenting interaction with customers

• Audio recording • Notes • Video recording • Photography • Any other suitable method

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Conducting Interviews: Articulated-Use • Helps in uncovering latent needs • Express the customer statements in terms

Conducting Interviews: Articulated-Use

• Helps in uncovering latent needs • Express the customer statements in terms of what the product must do, not how the product might do it • Use positive, not negative phrasing • Express the need as an attribute of the product

– Makes it easier to translate to product specifications

• Do not use “must” or “should” in the statement (need to be in importance ratings)

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Conducting Interviews: Articulated-Use Fingernail clipper Question / Customer Statement Interpreted Need Weight Activity Prompt When usually

Conducting Interviews: Articulated-Use Fingernail clipper

Question / Customer Statement Interpreted Need Weight Activity Prompt When usually use? In the morning at
Question /
Customer Statement
Interpreted Need
Weight
Activity
Prompt
When usually use?
In the morning at home
Keep in my shaving kit
Reasonably Compact
Must
Store
How big is that?
About 3”x2”x6”, and I
have lot of things in it, it
is always full
Size of things is
important?
Very important. I look for
the smallest size of
everything
Compsct size
Must
Storing
So I dig it out of my bag,
and carry it to the sofa,
where I usually clip my
nails
Striking appearance
Nice
Prepare
for filing
Lightweight
Must
Do you file?
Yes, I file at an angle,
with a vertical and tilted
motion
File at an angle
Must
Files nails
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Example – Frying pan Cont…….

Example – Frying pan Cont……. • In the same interview, customer removed frying pan and put

• In the same interview, customer removed frying pan and put traditional iron tawa on the stove

• The reason is that she wanted to make traditional Dosa

– Frying pan with deep sides will prevent Dosas ejection from the pan seamlessly

• Latent need of customer not expressed in the original interview

• Could be an opportunity to make flat Non-stick pans targeted at Dosa Making

Example – Frying pan Cont……. • In the same interview, customer removed frying pan and put

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28

Organizing and Prioritizing Customer Needs • Grouping the Needs – Affinity Diagram Method – Customer Sort

Organizing and Prioritizing Customer Needs

Grouping the Needs

– Affinity Diagram Method – Customer Sort Method

Need Importance

– Interview Data Method – Questionnaire Method

Customer Use Pattern

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Affinity Diagram Method

Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write
---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------
----------------
-----------------
-----------------
-----------------
------------------
------------------
-----------------
-----------------
------------------
------------------
------------------
------------------
Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write

write on Cards

Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write
Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write
Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write
Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write
Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write
Affinity Diagram Method ---------------- ----------------- ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------- ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ ------------------ write

Group

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Organizing the needs into a hierarchy • Preceding steps should generate 50-300 need statements • Should

Organizing the needs into a hierarchy

• Preceding steps should generate 50-300 need statements

• Should be summarized

– Write each need statement – Eliminate redundant statements

– Group the statements according to the similarity of the needs they express

– For each group , choose a label – Create super groups combining two to five groups – Review and edit the organized needs statements

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Establish the relative importance • Some priority to be attached to those needs collected • Ranking

Establish the relative importance

• Some priority to be attached to those needs collected

• Ranking needs to be done

– Can be done internally – Or a group of customers can be invited to rank them , this being the most preferred

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A typical needs ranking survey For each of following characteristics, please indicate on a scale of

A typical needs ranking survey

For each of following characteristics, please indicate on a scale of 1 to 5 on how important the feature is to you

  • 1. Feature is undesirable, I will not have in the product

  • 2. Feature is not important, I would not mind

  • 3. Feature would be nice to have, but is not necessary

  • 4. Feature is highly desirable, still I will buy the product without it

  • 5. Feature is critical , absence of which I will not consider buying it

Product: Television

Fill the box

Remote control will not break even if it is dropped Low consumption of power when on standby mode

Remote control will not break even if it is dropped Low consumption of power when on

Has games in the module that can be used By inserting a duplicate sim can be used as emergency phone

Has games in the module that can be used By inserting a duplicate sim can be

Outer frame color options available (Instead of usual black)

Outer frame color options available (Instead of usual black)

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Customer Use Patterns

Customer Use Patterns • Nontrivial – different activities • Different customer use patterns - capture and

• Nontrivial – different activities

• Different customer use patterns - capture and represent – different forms

• Sequence

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Activity Network

Activity Network Purchase Transport in package Unpack Throw Away Chain Keys Prepare to Store Prepare to
Purchase Transport in package Unpack Throw Away Chain Keys Prepare to Store Prepare to Clip File/Pick
Purchase
Transport in
package
Unpack
Throw Away
Chain Keys
Prepare to
Store
Prepare to Clip
File/Pick
Clip Nails
Pick Nails
File Nails
Return from
Clipping
Return from
File/Pick
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Completed Activity Diagram

Completed Activity Diagram Purchase Transport in package Unpack Throw Away Chain Keys Prepare to Store Prepare
Purchase Transport in package Unpack Throw Away Chain Keys Prepare to Store Prepare to Clip File/Pick
Purchase
Transport in
package
Unpack
Throw Away
Chain Keys
Prepare to
Store
Prepare to Clip
File/Pick
Clip Nails
Pick Nails
File Nails
Return from
Clipping
Return from
File/Pick
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Reflect on the results and the process • Understand this is not exact science • Should

Reflect on the results and the process

• Understand this is not exact science • Should apply knowledge and intuition • Questions to ask are

Are all important type of customers interacted with

– Who is good participant , co-operative etc

– What do we know now that we didn’t know before? Any surprise for us?

– How might we improve the process in future efforts?

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Do if you like: Assignment 2 Not an evaluation component (Voluntary) • Choose a product that

Do if you like: Assignment 2

Not an evaluation component (Voluntary)

• Choose a product that constantly annoys you • Identify the needs, the developers of this product missed from your perspective • Why do you think these needs were not met • Do you think the developers deliberately ignored these needs

Share in our Discussion forum

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Thank you 15-Oct-16 MM ZG541 Product Design BITS Pilani 39

Thank you

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Product Design (MM ZG541) Lecture 5 BITS Pilani Establishing Product Function Pilani Campus Srinivas Kota
Product Design (MM ZG541)
Lecture 5
BITS Pilani
Establishing
Product Function
Pilani Campus
Srinivas Kota
BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Establishing Product Function
BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus
Establishing Product Function

Contents

Contents • Functional Decomposition • Function Modeling Basics • Functions and Constraints • Modeling Process •

• Functional Decomposition • Function Modeling Basics • Functions and Constraints • Modeling Process • Function Trees

– FAST Method – Subtract and Operate Procedure

• Function Structures

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Why Functional Decomposition

Why Functional Decomposition • Form - previous experience – design • Links - Customer needs –

Form - previous experience – design

Links - Customer needs – concepts – implicit

Minds – Designers

Needs – evaluation – Generation

Customer needs – Functional Descriptions – technologies – satisfy FR

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Advantages

Advantages • Concentrates on “ What ” has to be achieved by a new concept &

Concentrates on “What” has to be achieved by a new concept & not “How” it is to be achieved

Form independent expression of design task

 

Basis for organizing design team, tasks & process

Interfaces, modules

Creativity enhancement - Complexity

Abstraction - Biases

More acceptable solutions can be generated with mapping Needs to Function & then to Form

15 October 2016

MMZG541 Product Design