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1.1 Introduction

1.2 Basic concepts of Heat Transfer

1.3 First Law of Thermodynamics

1.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics

1.5 Ideal Gas

Readings:

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., or Other thermodynamics texts

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the science devoted to the study of energy, its transformations, and its

relation to the status of matter.

entropy the second law (quality of energy)

every naturally occurring transformation of energy is accompanied

somewhere by a loss in the availability of energy for future performance of

work

System: an object, any quantity of matter, any region of space, etc. selected for study

Surroundings: the rest

Basic system types: Closed system (control mass) and Open system (control volume)

density.

A thermodynamic cycle is a process that begins and ends at the same state.

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

The engineering discipline of heat transfer is concerned with methods of calculating rates

of heat transfer. These methods are used by engineers to design components and systems in

which heat transfer occurs.

S.I. oC, K

I-P: oF, oR

• Thermal

• Light

• Mechanical

• Electrical

• Chemical

1 Btu=1055 J

Heat is energy transferred across the system boundary by temperature difference (∆T).

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

Heat capacity = density x specific heat = ρ Cp

Thermal mass = density x volume x specific heat = ρ V Cp

Q=ρ V Cp ∆T

& (Btu/h)

(7) Heat flow (heat transfer rate or energy change rate): Q

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

1

Forms of energy: KE = mv 2 Kinetic (motion of the system)

2

PE = mgz Potential (position of the system)

U = U(T) Internal (stored in matter)

Energy transfer mechanisms are work (W) and heat (Q), which are not properties of the system.

Conventions: Work done by a system is positive.

Heat transfer to a system is positive.

v 2 − v12 g(z 2 − z 1 )

Q1− 2 − W1− 2 = m (u 2 − u 1 ) + 2 +

2g C gC

Example 1

weight

V=const. p=const.

Q Q

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

Example 2

1st Law:

where i = u + pv is enthalpy.

Enthalpy is a property that combines ∆u and pv work that are only forms of energy

change in many processes.

cP = cV + R

where R - specific ideal gas constant, and cP>cV because constant input does work.

1.3.2 First Law for the Open System (Control Volume Formulation)

Heat Transfer ( Q & ) = Net Rate of Energy Flow

(across the system boundary)

dE cv

dt

Ein Eout

- - +

+

&

Q &

W

v2 gz v2 gz dE cv

& −W

Q CV

&

CV = ∑ m

&

out

i + + ∑

- m

& i + +

2g C g C in 2g C g C

+

dt

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

Special case of the 1st law is for steady-state flow that has constant flow across the

boundary and no mass or energy change in CV.

dE dm& cv

1) Steady-state ( cv =0, =0) flow across the system boundary

dt dt

2) KE and PE terms usually small

CV = ∑ m ⋅ i -∑ m ⋅ i

& −W

Q & & &

CV

out in

Example 3

A house/building is a thermal system and its envelope is the boundary. Let us consider some

energy transfer in a single family house.

Q & conduction = 200 Btu/h

Q

Q

& ac= 350 Btu/h

Q

& solar=500 Btu/h

Q

Q

7

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

Since Q& in = Q

& out, the system is in equilibrium. The heat flows are steady state. The temperature

will not change.

8

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

All processes obey the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. However, some 1st law processes

never occur. For example, heat transfer from cold reservoir to hot reservoir or flow from low

pressure to high pressure.

• direction of change for processes

• final equilibrium for spontaneous processes

• criterion for theoretical performance limits of cycles

• quality of energy

Energy changes and transfer involves both conservation principle and degradation in

quality. Therefore, the thermal efficiency of all heat engines must be less than 100% due to

dissipative effects. Processes occurring in a system such as heat engine are irreversible since

either the system or its surroundings cannot be returned to their initial states. A reversible

process is an idealization.

Heat engines (heat pumps) are closed systems, which operates continuously, or

cyclically, and produce (use) work while exchanging heat across its boundaries.

Work produced while heat extracted from high temperature (TH) reservoir and rejected to

low temperature reservoir (TL).

TH

&

Q H

&

W

&

Q L

TL

9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

Work used to extract heat from low temperature reservoir (TL) and reject to high

temperature (TH) reservoir.

TH

&

Q H

&

W

&

Q L

TL

Performance evaluation of cycles: comparisons with the ideal Carnot heat engine that is

a totally reversible heat engine or pump.

Q

Q

η= = H L

= 1− L , 0 < η <1

&

Q Q& &

Q

H H H

10

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

TL

Carnot cycle: η Carnot = 1 − , η Real Process < η Carnot

TH

η Real Process < 1

Real irreversibilities:

• Friction, electrical resistance, heat transfer across finite temperature difference, …

TH

Carnot cycle: COPHeat, Carnot =

TH − TL

TL

Carnot cycle: COPCool, Carnot =

TH − TL

COPActual

Carnot efficiency of a heat pump: η pump =

&

Q Carnot

11

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter1

Ru

pv = T

M

where

p gas pressure, psi, Pa

v specific volume, ft3/lbm, m3/kg, v=1/ρ

M molecular mass, lbm/mol, kg/mol

Ru universal gas constant, Ru=1545.32 ft-lbf/(mol-oR) = 8314 J/(mol-K)

T temperature, oR, K

Define:

Ru

R=

M

where

R specific gas constant

air: Ra=53.34 ft-lbf/(lbm-oR) = 287 J/(kg-K)

water: Rv = 85.76 ft-lbf/(lbm-oR) = 462 J/(kg-K)

Then:

pv=RT

12

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Chapter 2.

Moist Air Properties and Air-Conditioning Processes

2.1 Moist Air and Its Properties

2.2 Methods of Measurements and Analysis

2.3 Typical Air Conditioning Processes

2.4 Characteristics of “Real” Systems

2.5 Psychrometric Analysis of Complete Systems

Readings:

• McQuiston & Parker (M&P) Ch 3

• Texts on moist air in most thermodynamics books

Oxygen 20.948% Water Vapor

Argon 0.934% Dust, Fog, Microbe

Carbon dioxide 0.031%

Ru 1545.32

Ra = = = 53.352(ft − lbf)/(lbm − R) =

Ma 28.965

For water vapor

Ru 1545.32

Rv = = = 85.78ft − lbf/(lbm − R) =

Mv 18.02

The following data for US STANDARD ATSMOPHERE are from ASHARE Handbook of

Fundamentals (Chapter6). Several assumptions are introduced such as:

The atmosphere consists of dry air that behaves as an ideal gas.(see pg.50 in the

textbook)

1

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

p[psi] = 14.696 (1-6.8753×10-6 Z[ft])5.2559

p[bar] = 1.013 (1-2.256×10-6 Z[m])5.2559

2

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

(1) Pressure

The air layer above the earth forms atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure:

• sea level 14.692 psi

• elevation of 6600 ft, 11.513 psi

a,b ---Table 3-2 in M&P

pv—vapor component (change with moisture content)

Note: When applying ideal gas law to each component of a mixture (e.g., moist air), should use

partial pressure for the component.

Example

One lbm H2O vapor in 100 lbm dry air at standard pressure.

(a) What is pv vapor pressure? (b) What is saturation T at this pv?

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

(a) ,

(2) Temperature

Ta = Tb Tb = Tc ⇒ Ta ≡ Tc

between (°F)

Kelvin ( K) K = oC + 27315

. 5

K= R

-- 9

Celsius (°C) o

C = K − 27315

. 5 5

o

C = ( oF − 32) o

C= R − 27315

.

-- 9 9

o

Fahrenheit 9 F = R-459.67

o

F = o C + 32

(°F) 5 --

Rankine (R) 9

R= K

5 --

Example

Temperature in Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Rankine

Water Boiling 100°C 373.15K 212°F 617.67°R

Ice Point 0°C 273.15K 32°F 491.67°R

Absolute Zero -273.15°C 0K -459.67°F 0°R

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

mv

Definition: W = ( Kg / Kg drry air )

ma

i.e. 1 kg dry air + w kg water vapor = (1+W) kg moist air

P

P P

vapor

subcooled saturated quality vapor

P

P P

saturated vapor superheated vapor gas

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

pv p

φ= × 100% = v × 100% pv , s = p s

pv , s ps

ps = partial pressure of the water vapor in a saturated mixture under the same temperature

Difference between W and φ:

pv

Moist air: W = 0.622

P − pv

ps

Saturated air: Ws = 0.622

P − ps

W p P − ps P − ps

∴ = v⋅ =φ⋅

Ws p s P − pv P − pv

W P − pv

φ= × 100%

Ws P − ps

Since P>> pv and P >>ps

Further

Example

Determine the humidity ratio of moist air at a temperature of 24°C and a relative humidity of

50% at a standard pressure 1atm

Given: T, φ

Find: W

Solution:

Td the saturated temperature of a given mixture at the same pressure and humidity ratio.

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

Solution:

(6) Enthalpy

Enthalpy of the moist air = enthalpy of the dry air + enthalpy of the water vapor

Enthalpy is energy per unit mass.

i = ia + W iv

ia = Cp,a T

iv = ig + Cp,v T

where

Cp,v = specific heat of water vapor kJ/(kgoC), Btu/(lboF)

ig = the enthalpy of saturated water vapor at 0oC or 0oF.

ig = 2501.3 kJ/kg at 0oC; ig = 1061.2 Btu/lb at 0oF.

Therefore, we have

Example

Solution:

7

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

• Liquid-in-glass thermometers

• Thermocouples

• Differential pressure P P

Manometers

Pressure transducer

To determine state of moist air, one property in addition to the pressure and temperature

must be known. It can be v, I, φ, or W. However, none of them can be directly measured. As an

alternative, we seek an indirect measuring technique. In this section, the method used to

determine air humidity will be introduced.

ia,1 ia,2

W1 W2

iv,1 iv,2

T1 T2

water

Adiabatic saturation device

1st Law

where m& 1 = m& a + W1 m& a , m& 2 = m& a + W2 m& a , and form mass balance

8

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

dry air + water vapor + water vapor added =dry air + water vapor

(in) (in) (added ) (out ) (out )

so we have

where ifg is enthalpy difference between liquid water and saturated vapor at the temperature T2

pv ,2

W2 = 0.622

P − pv ,2

Then the state of moist are can be determined.

Example

Find: W1 , φ1

Solution:

Since the state 2 is in saturation, from the Table A-1b (McQuiston & Paker, p587), we can find:

for T2 = 26°C, pv,2 = ps = 0.03363×105 (φ=100%), ifg = 2439.1 kJ/kg, iw=109.07 kJ/kg

for T1 = 30°C, iv,1 = 2555.3 kJ/kg

1) Find W1

9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

2) Find φ1

p v ,1

φ= × 100%

p s1

pv,1 can be found via

• The Psychrometer

Tdry ∆T

p+TDB+TWB =>Moist air state

TWB

Key issues to measure TWB

• Wet bulb well ventilated (V>100 fpm)

Then the accuracy is in order of 0.27oC (0.5oF).

10

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Vertical coordinate Humidity Ratio

T = const ⇒ i ∝ W

φ pv,s W P − pv

W = 0.622 φ= × 100%

P − φ pv ,s Ws P − p s

Under a certain P, W = f ( pv ,s ) pv ,s = f (T )

W

Approximately φ ≈ × 100% (equal division)

Ws

11

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

1 1

v= =

ρ ρa + ρv

p p

ρa + ρv = a + v

Ra T RvT

T

v=

p a pv

+

Ra Rv

(5) Wet-Bulb Temperature

12

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Enthalpy/Humidity ratio

See figure: Primary moist air parameter on the psychrometric chart.

TDB W, Tchart.

DP

Find: Primary moist air parameter on psychrometric chart

Solution:

i, TWB

φ W = 0.01971 φ ≈ 74% v

i = 81kJ / Kg v = 0.885 m / Kg

3

Tdewpo int = 24.7o C

13

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

Find: Primary moist air parameter on psychrometric chart

Solution:

14

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

• Cooling and dehumidification

• Heating and humidification

• Adiabatic Humidification

• Adiabatic Mixing of Air

Governing equations:

• Sensible Heat (change TDB, constant W)

• Latent Heat (constant TDB, change W)

• Both

Q&

m& a

W1

T1

i1

∆i Law)

q = i2 − i1 = C p (T2 − T1 ) .

heating W1 = W2

1 2

2 1

cooling

15

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

Determine the energy (heat flux) required for sensible heating of air at 15°C and 50% RH to

32°C. Also find φ2.

Find: q& , φ2

Solution:

Heat Flux:

Relative humidity:

Heat flux is

Relative humidity:

16

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Q&

m& a

W1

T1

i1

m& w

iw

Moisture is removed as saturated liquid.

A 1

cooling

2 B

Sensible heat:

q& sensible = C p (T2 − T1 )

Latent heat

q& latent = (W2 − W1 )i fg

17

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

Air at 60% RH, Tdry =30°C, Cooled to 18°C. Determine φnew, qsensible, qlatent

Solution:

Q& S

Sensible Heat Factor (SHF) is

Q&

Defines process slope on the chart. Use protractor (semicircular scale) in the upper left hand

corner to read the sensible heat factor.

18

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Q

m& a

W1

T1

i1

mw, iw

A

1

enthalpy

-> Look at the semicircular scale in the psychrometric chart.

humidity ratio

Defines the process slope.

Q& = 0

i2 - i1 = ∆W iw

W2 - W1 = ∆W

19

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

In Phoenix, it is possible to use evaporative cooling in summer. In a room of 50 m3, the air

temperature is 45oC and relative humidity is 20%. Comfort standard allows the relative humidity

to be increased to 60% by evaporative cooling. Determine the dry bulb temperature and water

needed if there is no internal heat source and no air infiltration. Assume local pressure is 101325

Pa.

Solution:

This is an adiabatic humidification process. The air process in a psychrometric chart is iso-

enthalpy. For the psychrometric chart, we can determine the starting humidity ratio and ending

humidity ratio as

Steam

Hot water

Super-heated steam

Adiabatic

20

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

∆i

For humidification: i w =

∆W

21

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

m& 1 m& 3

i1 i3

W1 W3

m& 2 i2 W2

3

2

m& 1 (W1 − W3 ) = m& 2 (W3 − W2 )

so

m& 1 i3 − i2 W3 − W2

= =

m& 2 i1 − i3 W1 − W3

Example

Return air at 25°C, 50% relative humidity and flowing at a rate of 5 m3/s is mixed with outside

air at 35°C and 60% relative humidity and flowing at a rate of 1.25 m3/s. Determine the mixed

air condition and flow rate.

Find: T3, φ3, W3, m3

22

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Solution:

From the psychrometric chart (ASHRAE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART NO.1[sea level], chart 1 b), we can

determine the point 1 and 2

i1 (kJ/kg) 50.8 90.5

W1 (kg water/kg dry air) 0.010 0.0215

v1 (m3/kg dry air) 0.858 0.902

23

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

The processes described in the previous chapter are used to condition moist air in a real air-

conditioning systems. The AC system is used to remove both sensible and latent heat from a

space. Relationship between sensible and latent heat is defined as SHF (sensible heat factor).

Sensible loads:

Latent loads:

Example

Dishwasher (100 dishes/h): sensible 167 W (570 Btu/h), and latent 65 W (220 Btu/h)

Person (male, moderate office work): sensible 70 W (250 Btu/h), and latent 30 W (105 Btu/h)

Light bulb: sensible 100 W = 341 Btu/h

• at certain T to meet sensible loads

• at certain W to meet latent loads

where Tsupply and Wsupply must give sensible and latent conditioning proportional to the loads.

Condition line represents line in the psychrometric chart through space conditions with the

slope defined by SHF. This line contains all feasible supply air states.

Supply farther from space condition => Smaller mass flow required

• dry bulb temperature,

• humidity and

• pressure.

Design condition + SHF + Tsupply => Fix mass flow and supply air condition

Example

24

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Space design condition is 72oF and 50% RH. The total cooling load is 1,200,000 Btu/hr

(100ton), and the sensible cooling load is 720,000 Btu/hr (60 ton). Compare flow rates for (a) ∆T

= 10oF and (b) ∆T = 20oF. ∆T = (Tspace − Tsupply )

1ton=12,000 Btu/h

Solution:

1

m& a TDB=72oF

φ = 50%

2

Q&total = 1,200,000 Btu/hr

m& a

25

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

TDB=72oF

φ = 50%

RA

Q& = 1.2 × 10 6 Btu / h

SHF = 0.8

Cooling

Coil

OA MA SA

Q& CC

Example

Cooling design conditions for OA are 16,262 cfm and 90oF db/72oF wb.

Design space cooling load is 1,200,000 Btu/h (80% sensible). Supply air temperature is 55oF.

Determine (a) supply airflow rate and (b) cooling coil load.

Solution:

Assumption of perfect mixing => RA is equal to room air conditions => iRA=26.4 Btu/lbm

OA: iA=35.6 Btu/lbm, vOA=14.1 ft3/lbm

SA: iSA=21.2 Btu/lbm, vSA=13.1 ft3/lbm

26

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

27

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Due to irreversibility, i.e. friction, fan contributes to sensible heat gain, and increases

temperature of moist air.

Fan m& a

m& a

Tout

Tin

PFan

PFan

where − W& ≡ PFan , therefore Tout = Tin +

m& a c p

Example

A 1.5 kW fan moves 1m3/s of dry air entering at 15oC. What is Tout?

Solution:

28

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Example

Space conditioning

(conditioning line)

Cooling Coils

• Air-to-Water

• Air-to-Refrigerants

Water-side --- shape promotes heat transfer (higher turbulence)

φ = 100%

φ < 100%

29

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

• fixed relative humidity (assume coil leaving RH, say 90%)

• bypass factor “b” (assume fraction of flow bypasses the coil, reminder in perfect

contact with coil)

where LA-air leaving the coil, EA - air entering coil, ADP - coil (apparatus) dew point

Example:

A chilled water coil with 8oC entering water conditions air from 26oC db/ 19oC wb to 15oC db/

14oC wb. What are TADP, b, and leaving relative humidity?

Solution:

30

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Evaporative Cooling

If sufficiently dry air is available, an evaporative process can be used to cool the air stream.

Direct evaporative coolers (see Figure) add moisture to air adiabatically. The evaporation uses

air sensible heat => Tair drops.

where εe varies with air flow rate and media thickness. Range is 60-95%. Typical value is 80%.

Applicable if the wet bulb temperature is less than 24oC (75oF). Regional applicability is limited

in U.S.:

• the western U.S.

• the north central states

• the northeastern U.S.

May require large supply airflow rates. May give high space humidity at times.

31

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Indirect evaporative cooling is sensible process of cooling an outdoor air stream without

humidifying (sensible cooling).

Primary Indirect

Air Cooler Heat Supply Air

Secondary Exchanger

Air

Direct

Cooler

Range is 40-80%.

large savings possible, “environmentally friendly”, inexpensive for direct cooling.

Problems of evaporative cooling:

may not meat peak loads, may increase duct size, may allow wider variation of humidity,

potential microbial growth problems.

Example of a system that extends application of direct and indirect coolers. The system better

control humidity by combining evaporative and mechanical cooling, and increase energy

efficiency by including an economizer.

32

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

In operation, the cooling or heating loads are only a part of the design loads. HVAC system

needs to respond to this lower demand, and some of the strategies are:

• CAV-RH (Constant Air Volume)

• VAV-RH (Variable Air Volume)

• Face and bypass coil

• Economizer

• Variable T for the heat exchangers

Problems for cooling systems: thermostat controls TDB, and therefore humidity correct only at

design (in general). As a result, space humidity varies with loads, and may need to iterate to

space conditions. This is not a problem for heating conditions.

CAV-RH

33

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

• good control at part loads

VAV-RH

• lower flow rate in proportion to the sensible loads

• same coil dewpoint temperature => less dehumidification

• bypass fraction is proportional to sensible loads

• no dehumidification of bypassed air => supply humidity is proportional to bypass fract.

Economizer

• used in spring or fall

• supplies outdoor air without operating a cooling coil; potential humidity problems

• limit is 100% outdoor air; control humidity rise with reheat

Return Air

Temperature

Economizer

Enthalpy

B

Economizer Room

D

enthalpy

RA

line

A

C

D: RA Economizer is on => energy penalty results

No reliable, durable and inexpensive enthalpy sensor for the enthalpy economizer.

2.5 Psychrometric Analysis of Complete Systems

34

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Heating Load the maximum probable net rate of heat loss from a conditioned space

which would have to be made up by addition of heat from the heating system to maintain

some desired temperature and humidity conditions in the space

Cooling Load for cooling

Example:

Cooling and heating load of a classroom at PSU with 10 occupants are estimated as follows:

Walls 1000 2000

Window (conduction) 1000 2000

Window (radiation) 1000 -

People: 70 W/person 700 -

Lighting 300 -

People 30 W/person 300 -

Plants 700

T 31oC -14oC

Twet 23oC -

T 25oC 22oC

φ 50% 50%

Fresh air: 8 L/s person 80 L/s 80 L/s

Maximum 60oC

Minimum 15oC

Design the air-conditioning system.

35

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

0.80 50%

O

M

C

I R

M C I

O Q- Q+

Determine the enthalpy at all the status. We use the psych chart in sea level, p = 101325 Pa.

From Table A-1b, ps,wet = 2815 Pa

Wo,wet = 0.622 ps,wet/(p - ps,wet)

= 0.622 x 2815/(101325 - 2815) =0.0178 kgv/kga

C p (To , wet − To ) + Wo , wet i fg 1.01(23 − 31) + 0.0178 × 2447

Wo = = =0.0144 kgv/kga

io − i w 2558 − 96

= 1.01 kJ/(kga oC) x 31oC

+ 0.0144 kgv/kga(2501 kJ/kgv+ 1.86 kJ/(kgv oC) x 31oC)

= 68.15 kJ/kga

From Table A-1B, ps,R = 3174 Pa

WR = 0.622 φ ps,R/(p - φ ps,R)

= 0.622 x 0.5 x 3174 /(101325 -3174)

= 0.01 kgv/kga

iR = 1.01TR + WR(2501 + 1.86TR)

= 1.01 kJ/(kga oC) x 25oC

+ 0.01 kgv/kga(2501 kJ/kgv+ 1.86 kJ/(kgv oC) x 25oC)

= 50.72 kJ/kga

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter2

Qsensible 4000W

Mixture (M): ma = = = 0.396kg / s

Cp (TR − TI ) 1.01x1000 J / kg a (25o C − 15o C)

3

mR = ma - mo = 0.396 - 0.096 = 0.3 kga/s

mo io + mR i R 0.096 × 68.15 + 0.3× 50.72

iM = = = 54.95kJ / kg

mo + m R 0.096 + 0.3

∆W = ma(WR - WI) = Qlatent/ifg

WI = WR - Qlatent/(ifg ma )=

= 0.01kgv/kga - 1 kW /(2454 kJ/kgv x 0.396 kga/s ) = 0.009 kgv/kga

iI = 1.01TI + WI(2501 + 1.86TI)

= 1.01 x 15 + 0.009(2501 + 1.86 x 15)

= 37.91 kJ/kga

Cooling coil (C): φ = 90%

Wc = WI = 0.009 kgv/kga

pC

WC = 0.622

p − pC

pC

0.009 = 0.622

101325 − pC

pC= 1447.5 Pa

ps,C = pC / φ = 1447.5 / 0.9= 1608 Pa

From Table A1-b, TC = 14 oC

iC = 1.01TC + WC(2501 + 1.86TC)

= 1.01 x 14 + 0.009 (2501 + 1.86 x 14)

= 36.88 kJ/kga

Fan: & = m

V & a v = 0.396 kg/s x 0.84 m3/kg = 0.332 m3/s = 1200 m3/hr

& a (iM - iC) = 0.396 kga/s (54.95 kJ/kga - 36.88 kJ/kga)

= 7.156 kW

& a (iI - iC) = 0.396 kga/s (37.91 kJ/kga - 36.88 kJ/kga)

= 0.4 kW

The capacity of the heating coil will be larger in winter. Therefore, the final size of the

equipment should be the greater of the summer and winter capacities. In many cases,

economizers are used to recover energy. Then re-heat in the present design becomes

unnecessary.

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

3.2 Indoor design conditions

Chapters 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 & 26 of ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals, 1997

ASHRAE 62-1999: IAQ Standard

ASHRAE 55-1992: Thermal Comfort Standard

Chapter26.

The 99.6% and 99% indicate the risk level desired. When 99% is selected, it means the

outdoor temperatures have been equaled or exceeded by 99% of the total number of hours in a

year (8760 hrs).

99.0% (1.0%) ~ 88 hrs

98.0 (2.0%) ~ 175 hrs

95.0 (5.0%) ~ 438 hrs

Wind - Column 3

Peak load for infiltration - Columns 4 and 5

ASHRAE Handbook 1997 and the textbook use annual percentiles of 99.6% and 99%.

Design rule of thumb: design outdoor relative humidity in winter 60%

Chapter26.

0.4%, 1% and 2% mean the percentile of the total hours may not meet indoor design conditions.

Cooling towers - Column 3

Peak moisture load - Column 4

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

Thermal Comfort:

Noise level:

Radio and TV broadcasting rooms NC 20-30

Theaters, concert halls, meeting rooms NC 20-30

Private offices NC 35

Gymnasiums NC 40-50

Workshops NC 45-70

Pressure:

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

SBS is often comparable to a cold or influenza

Health complaints: 30% new and remodeled buildings (U.S. EPA)

Occupational illness: 439,000 cases in 1996 (NIOSH)

Economic loss: $40 – 120 billion/year ($200-600/person.year)

Causes of sickness:

• Environmental tobacco smoke ETS (smoking)

• Volatile organic compounds VOC

(building materials: construction materials, furnishings, finishes)

• Particulate matters (outdoor air, activities, ETS)

• Biohazards (molds, bacteria, etc.)

• Radon (soil)

CO2 Human, combustion 1000 ppm Stuffing

CO Combustion, ETS 15 ppm Body chemistry

SOx Combustion Irritation, asthma

NOx Combustion 100 µg/m3 Not very clear

Ra Soil 4 picocuries/l Lung cancer

VOCs Combustion, 0.1 ppm Eyes and mucous

(Formaldehyde) pesticides, building membrane irritation

materials, etc.

Particulate Outdoor air, Lung diseases

(0.01 micro-insects) activities, ETS, Cancer (ETS)

furnishings, pets, etc

The following diagram illustrates the buildup of indoor carbon dioxide (due to occupant

exhalation) throughout a normal day:

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

(ppm)

250-350 normal outdoor ambient air

600 minimal air quality complaints

600-1000 effect on indoor air quality is less clearly interpreted

1000 indicates inadequate ventilation; indoor air quality

complaints are more widespread

=>Less outdoor air (Infiltration) =>

=>High contaminant concentrations (New building materials release VOCs)

Numerous indoor air quality investigations over the last decade by the National Institute for

Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) have found the primary source of indoor air quality

problems are:

• Inadequate ventilation 52%

• Contaminant from inside the building 16%

• Contaminant from outside the building 10%

• Microbial contamination 5%

• Contamination from building fabric 4%

• Unknown Sources 13%

Control of contaminants

New parameters

• Fresh air - Outdoor air

• Infiltration - Uncontrolled air entered to a space

• Exfiltration - Uncontrolled air left a space

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

For mechanical ventilated space, infiltration should be zero because of positive pressure in the

conditioned space.

Ventilation

Most common method for contaminant control is ventilation. Ventilation can be either natural or

forced. Ventilation dilutes contaminants with outdoor air, and requirements are defined by

state/local codes and referenced standards.

Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

Defines:

• Acceptable outdoor air quality

• Procedure for acceptable ventilation

Fixed OA requirements:

• Per person/per m2

• Varies with occupancy type

The standard prescribes the rate at which outdoor air must be delivered to a space.

Example: Office space 8 l/(s person) (15 cfm/person).

Basis:

• Presumed CO2 concentration < 1000 ppm

• Sufficient outdoor air to remove odors

The standard uses CO2 as indicator of IAQ since CO2 is “marker” for human contaminants.

Typical quantities 8-10 l/(s person) (15-20 cfm/person)

Must sense specific contaminants.

Pros: Cons:

• Prescriptive • May fail off-design with VAV

• Low capital cost • Energy cost

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

“Well-Mixed Spaces”:

• Perfect mixing of supply/space

• Exhaust at mixed condition

• Constant contaminant generation rate

• Fixed supply flow rate and conditions

CS - Contaminant concentration of the supplied air (mc3/ma3)

NC - Contaminant sources generated within the space (mc3/s)

CR - Average contaminant concentration in the room (mc3/ma3), (ppm = 10-6×mc3/ma3)

C ,CS

V Room

CR

C ,CR

V

N

Example

In a French home, the CO2 concentration in a bedroom was 4000 ppm. The bedroom size is 12

m2 and room height 2.5 m. Find the air change rate if two occupants were in the bedroom.

Suppose that the outdoor CO2 level was 300 ppm and a person breathes out 0.30 L/min. CO2.

Solution:

ACH = V

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

If outdoor air is mixed with the return air, the supply contaminant concentration has to be

determined form the contaminant balance for the mixing process.

VC R

Room

C R

RV CR

N

C O,CO

V C S

V

C S= V

Steady state: V C R, C S = RV

RV C R, C O = (1-R) V

V C S

C S CR = V

Mass balance: V C O CO + R V

C R CR + N

C = (1-R) V

C S CO + R V

C S CR + N

C

Space concentration:

R=>1 concentration => ∞

HVAC systems are usually serving multiple spaces that have different requirements for airflow

are determined

rate of fresh air. The airflow rate requirements for the fresh (outdoor) air VO,i

from Table 2 (Standard 62) that is presented as Table 4-5 in the textbook (M&P).

A total supply flow rate for each space VS,i

D

V O,i

Fraction of outdoor air OA in supply is defined as:

D

V S, i

V O,i

Z≡

V S, i MAX

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

C R

V

C R

RV Space 1 Space 2 Space n

V

V

V

O,1 O,2 O, n

V

V

V

S,1 S,2 S, n

C O

V C S

V

Most spaces over-ventilated

Energy wasted

• Airflow rate of fresh air is higher than required

• “Unused” fresh air returns to AHU

V

Y≡ OC

VS

• Return and supply flows are equal

• Recirculated fraction is R

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

“Unused” OA in return = (Z-X) V S

-V

V

R≡ S OC

= 1−Y

V S

= ( 1 − Y )( Z − X ) V

Recirculated OA = R ( Z − X ) V

S S

+ ( 1 − Y )( Z − X ) V

V =ZV

OC S S

Y + (1 − Y ) ( Z − X ) = Z

The equation is used to calculate the corrected fraction of outdoor air that takes into account

fraction of the recirculated fresh air. In some cases, the saving are significant if we compare Y

and Z.

Example

Four spaces are air-conditioned from a central AHU. The following table gives airflow rates for

supply air and fresh air:

Spaces 1 2 3 4 Total

Supply air [cfm] 500 400 600 500 2000

Fresh air [cfm] 200 80 80 75 435

Fresh/Supply 0.40 0.20 0.13 0.15 0.22

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

Solution:

OA fraction for the critical space 1:

435 cfm < 540 cfm < 800 cfm

Standard 62-1999 recognizes transients, i.e. high occupancy/low use spaces such as conference

rooms. If the peak occupancy is used to determine required flow rate of OA, calculated Y is

unnecessary high.

To compensate, may:

• Ventilate based on average occupancy

• Lag ventilation start

• Control OA with CO2 concentration

Removal of Contaminants

Adsorption (activated charcoal filters)

Chemisorption (by chemical reaction)

e.g.: UV+TiO2 photocatalytic oxidization of VOCs

Particles:

Size and shape

Specific gravity

Concentration

Electrical properties

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

Air cleaners

Types:

Fibrous media unit filter

Renewable media filter

Electronic air cleaners

Combination air cleaners

Filter Efficiency

ε

CO CS

∆P ~ V2

System with recirculation should use filters.

Adsorption Oxidation

Odors × ×

VOCs × ×

Bio-Aerosols × ×

Dust × ×

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

Example

0, V

, C0 , V

Given N R

Find CR

ε

V R,

0+ V

0 , C0

V CM

CR

V R,

0+ V

N

CS

0 , CR

V 0+ V

V R , CR

Solution:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(2)+(3):

C +V

V C

CS = 0 0 R R

(1 − ε) (4)

V0 + VR

(1)+(4):

C (1 − ε) + N

V

CR = 0 0 (5)

+V

V ε

0 R

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

“That condition of mind in which satisfaction is expressed with the thermal environment.”

Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

• One would wake up from sleep if this person loses 24 W or more. In this case, the skin

temperature decreases 2.8 oC.

• One would feel uncomfortable or sick, if the person’s body temperature is 1 K higher.

Human body obeys the first law of thermodynamics. Energy balance for human body:

M - Rate of metabolic heat production (W/m2 body surface area) (Table 4-1, textbook)

W - Rate of mechanical work

Q - Heat losses

C - Convective heat losses

R - Radiative heat losses

E - Evaporative heat losses

sk - Skin

res - Respiration

1 met = 58.2 W/m2 = 18.4 Btu/(h⋅ft2) body surface area

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

Environmental factors

Air temperature ~

Relative humidity ~

Air velocity near a human body, V ~

Surface temperature of the enclosure and other objects ~

Personal factors

Clothing (insulation)

1 clo = 0.88 F-ft2-hr/Btu

(M is given in Table 4-1 of the textbook. 1 met = 58.2 W/m2 body area)

hc = 2.38 (Tcloth - Tair)0.25 when 2.38 (Tcloth - Tair)0.25 > 12.1 V0.5

hc = 12.1 V0.5 when 2.38 (Tcloth - Tair)0.25 < 12.1 V0.5

- 3.05 [ 5.73 - 0.007 (M - W) - pv]

- 0.42 [ (M - W) - 58.15] - 0.0173 M (5.87 - pv)

- 0.0014 M (34 - Tair)}

m - Body weight (kg)

l - Height (m)

= 1.0 + 0.3 Icl

Rcloth = 0.155 Icl

1 clo = 0.155 m2 K/W

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

ε - Emittance (a value between 0 and 1)

Rsk = 3.96x10-8 [ ( Tcloth + 273 )4 - (Tenclosure + 273 )4] Acloth/Abody

(W/m2)

= 3.05 [ 5.73 - 0.007 (M - W) - pv]

+ 0.42 [ (M - W) - 58.15] (W/m2)

= 0.0014 M (34 - Tair) (W/m2)

= 0.0173 M (5.87 - pv) (W/m2)

Thermal comfort = Always body energy balance

Only in a limited range of environmental parameters, thermal comfort can be

achieved.

+3 hot

+2 warm

+1 slightly warm

PMV = 0 neutral

-1 slightly cool

-2 cool

-3 cold

L = Internal heat production - heat loss to the actual environment

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

PMV PPD

0 5%

± 0.5 10%

± 1.0 25%

Example:

Tair = 25 oC Twall = 25 oC

pv = 2500 Pa hc = 3 W/m2K

mperson = 70 kg lperson = 1.86 m

Icl, person = 1.0 clo (Business suit)

Solution:

Since Tair is 25 oC and person does not do physical work, W = 0.

= 0.202 x 700.425 x 1.860.725 = 1.927 m2

- 3.05 [ 5.73 - 0.007 (M - W) - pv]

- 0.42 [ (M - W) - 58.15] - 0.0173 M (5.87 - pv)

- 0.0014 M (34 - Tair)}

= 35.7 - 0.0275 x (60 -0) - 0.155{(60 - 0)

- 3.05 [ 5.73 - 0.007 (60 - 0) - 2.5]

- 0.42 [ (60 - 0) - 58.15] - 0.0173 x 60 (5.87 - 2.5)

- 0.0014 x 60 (34 - 25)}

= 26.86 oC

= 3 x (26.85 - 25) x 1.3

= 7.254 W/m2

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

= 3.96x10-8 [(26.86 + 273)4 - (25+273)4] x 1.3

= 10.23 W/m2

+ 0.42 [ (M - W) - 58.15]

= 3.05 [ 5.73 - 0.007 (60 - 0) - 2.5]

+ 0.42 [ (60 - 0) - 58.15]

= 9.348 W/m2

= 0.0014 x 60 (34 - 25)

= 0.756 W/m2

= 0.173 x 60 ( 5.87 - 2.5 )

= 3.50 W/m2

L = M - W - [( Csk + Rsk + Esk ) + ( Cres + Eres )]

= 60 - 0 - [( 7.254 + 10.23 + 9.348) + (0.756 + 3.5)]

= 29 W/m2

= [0.303 exp ( -0.036 x 60 ) + 0.028 ] x 29

= 1.825 => Warm

= 100 - 95 exp [ - (0.03353 x 1.8254 + 0.2179 x 1.8252)]

= 68%

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

• Effective temperature (ET*)

• ASHRAE comfort zone

Tmrt = Σ AiTi / Σ Ai

Ai - Area of surface i

The temperature of an environment at 50% relative humidity that results in the same total

(sensible + latent) heat loss from the skin as in the actual environment. It combines operative

temperature and humidity into a single index.

The “comfort zone” represents combinations of air temperature and relative humidity that most

often produce comfort for a seated North American adult in shirtsleeves, in the shade.

76oF) at 2oC (36oF) dew point. Slanting side boundaries correspond to ET* of 20oC (68oF) and

23.5oC (74oF).

80oF) at 2oC (36oF) dew point. Slanting side boundaries correspond to ET* of 23oC (73oF) and

26oC (79oF).

Light and primarily sedentary activity (<=1.2 met)

10% dissatisfaction

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

(Table 4-3)

(2). Air speed V↑ -> To↑ (Fig. 4-3)

(3). Activity (met)↑ -> To↓ (Fig. 4-4)

(4) Adaptation

Draft

Percentage dissatisfied people due to draft can be expressed as:

+ 0.3696 (34 - Tair) (V - 0.05)0.622 V Tu

When PD > 100%, insert PD = 100%.

22

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

V - Air velocity (m/s)

Tair - Air temperature (oC)

Tu - Turbulence intensity (%)

(%)

Asymmetry

Warm ceiling (----)

Cool wall (---)

Cool ceiling (--)

Warm wall (-)

23

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

Thermal stratification

For large temperature gradients, local warm discomfort can occur at the head, and/or cold

discomfort can occur at the feet, although the body as a whole is thermally neutral.

24

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter3

25

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Automatic control systems

4.3 All-air systems

4.4 Air-water systems

4.5 All-water systems

4.6 Unitary and hybrid systems

4.7 Summary of different air-conditioning systems

ASHRAE Systems & Equipment Handbook, ASHRAE Applications Handbook

Kreider J.F, and Rabl A. “Heating and Cooling of Buildings – Design for Efficiency”

4.1 Introduction

Purpose of an air-conditioning system is to control indoor air parameters within required thermal

comfort and indoor air quality. To achieve required indoor air parameters, the system: heat, cool,

humidify, dehumidify and filter outdoor air.

HVAC Subsystems

End Use

Air-conditioning systems = air handling systems + ducts + air distribution devices

• Performance requirements (loads, process)

• Capacity requirements (building types, loads)

• Spatial requirements (building types)

• First costs (location, size of HVAC, investment)

• Operating costs

• Reliability

• Flexibility

• Maintainability

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

-Q,-W

Q Q -Q,-W Q Q -Q,-W

-Q,-W

Q W Q W Q W

Q W

Production

• Coal

• Natural gas

• Fuel oil

• Biomass

Produce steam and electricity.

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Vapor compressor:

• Refrigerant

• Compressor

• Drive (usually electric motor)

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Heat rejection:

• Disposes of heat from cooling process

• Cooling tower, evaporative condenser, air-cooled condenser

• “Sink” for waste heat: ambient dry bulb, ambient wet bulb, ground, surface water

• Trades offs between cost and COP

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Distribution

Water and steam distribution:

Air distribution:

A

centrifugal fan (Courtesy of the Train

Company, LaCrosse, WI)

Packed equipment

Air-handling unit:

Sized for extreme conditions

Most operation is part load / off-design

“A system that reacts to a change or imbalance in the variable it controls by adjusting other

variables to restore the desired balance.”

• Reduce energy use

• Identify maintenance problems

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

“control point” is actual value

7

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

• Open loop (feedforward) control

If yes the control system is closed loop, if no the system is open loop.

In the closed system, controller responds to error in controlled variable. Previous example of the

steam heating coil is a closed loop. In general, HVAC control systems are primarily closed loops.

In the open loop system, there is an indirect link between controller and controlled variable. The

system action is based on external variable. The relationship between external variable and

controlled variable is assumed. An example of open loop is electric blanket.

• Modulating control

8

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Two-position control systems are always at full capacity or off. Best for systems with slow rate

of change for controlled variable. This control is common in low cost systems, and it is relatively

imprecise.

Example: Two-position control for steam valve in the steam heating coil.

Control differential is difference between “on” and “off” values of controlled variable.

Operating differential is difference between extreme values of controlled variable.

9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Modulating control systems produce continuously variable output over a range. This is finer

control system than two-position system, and it is typical in large HVAC systems.

Throttling range (TR) is a range of input variable over which output varies through its full range.

Gain is ∆ output per ∆ input, and it is usually adjustable.

Proportional control is the simplest modulating action for which the controller output is a linear

function of input:

where OP is the proportional controller output, A is the controller output at zero offset, e is the

error (offset), and KP is the proportional gain constant.

10

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Smaller TR (larger gain) =>smaller offset. Smaller TR may cause stability problems.

Instability is tendency for oscillations to grow.

where OPI is the PI controller output, and Ki is the integral gain constant.

Integral term drives offset to zero.

Examples of PI control in buildings include mixed-air control, duct static pressure control, and

coil controls.

11

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) control further speeds up action of PI control

May not be suitable for HVAC that usually do not require rapid control response.

where OPID is the PID controller output, and Kd is the derivative gain constant.

Example of PID application in buildings is duct static pressure control.

Example: Comparison of P, PI, and PID controller response to input step change

12

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Software is replacing “mechanical” logic. More sophisticated schemes are possible. Simulation

and optimization are possible in real time.

13

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

HVAC Systems

Air-handling unit (AHU) usually consists of: coil(s), fan(s), filter(s), air-mixing controls,

humidifier, and heat recovery. The following figure represents AHU for a single zone all-air

system.

14

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

+Q +P -Q +W +Q

O

H1

M1 C H2 M2 I

15

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

O

M1

M H2 R

C I

R

C' I(M2)

O M

H1

Summer cooling Winter heating

Summer:

Single mixing with room air:

O + R => M (cooling + dehumidification) => C (re-heat) => I (Q + W ) => R

O + R => M1 (cooling + dehumidification) => C’ + R => M2 or I (Q + W ) => R

Winter:

O (pre-heat) => H1 + R => M (humidification) => H2 (re-heat) => I (Q + W) => R

Example:

You turn the fan speed up or down in your car.

QD =mD (iR - iI) R

I I’

AHU fan varies power to match loads. Less load => lower fan power.

Pressure in supply ducts is maintained to a fixed value.

Design cooling:

• box is 100% open

• no reheat

Off-design cooling:

• zone temperature drops since cooling load decreases

• box throttles until minimum flow is reached

16

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Dead band:

• no control action

• start reheat at lower limit

Off-design heating:

• minimum primary air

• thermostat increases reheat as space temperature falls

Design heating:

• fully energized

VAV terminals:

• Single-blade dumper (pressure dependent or independent)

• Air valve

• Induction

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AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

18

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

19

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Fan –powered series: Fan is always on and space flow is constant. Damper controls supply of

primary air. Perimeter zones may need baseboard or fan-coil units.

Fan-powered parallel: Fan injects plenum air to reheat. Supply pressure drives primary flow that

is controlled by dumpers. Variable space flow => less fan energy.

Advantages of VAV:

Disadvantages and problems of VAV for off design (low flow rate):

R

Heating coil (reheat) inserted in the zone supply.

I I’

Fixed supply airflow rate as well as heating and cooling coil temperatures. Capacity controlled by

terminal reheat coil.

Summer:

Cooling coil lowers TSA to set point. Reheat coil adds heat to satisfy thermostat. Typical

temperatures for cooling coil are 13oC (55oF). Reheat temperature for full load is 13oC (55oF),

when reheat turns off. For this process energy is wasted by overcool & reheat.

Winter:

Preheat coil raises TSA to set point. Reheat coil adds heat to satisfy thermostat. Typical

temperatures for preheat coil are 13oC (55oF), and reheat under full load are 38oC (100oF). No

wasted energy.

20

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

The system mixes hot and cold air to satisfy zone thermostat. Cold and hot air streams distributed

in separate ducts. This is variation of CAV/RH system.

• Large plenum space required

• Unlimited number of zones

+Q +P +Q

H

O

H1 M

C

-Q, -W (summer)

+W (winter)

O

M H C R

R

I

C I

O M

H1 H

Summer cooling Winter heating

Example:

Design a dual-duct system for the classroom at PSU (Use the data from previous example).

Assume cooling coil could reach a relative humidity of 90%.

Cold duct: M=> C C + H => I

21

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Given:

O: iO =68.15 kJ/kg, Wo =14.4 g/kg

R: iR =50.72 kJ/kg, WR =10 g/kg

I: iI = 37.91 kJ/kg, WI = 9 g/kg

M: iM = 54.95 kJ/kg

Total cooling load = 5000 W

ma =0.396 kg/s

Fresh air: 80 L/s

mD a = 0.396 kg/s

Fan capacity:

3

mD o = 80 L/s = 0.080 m /s x 1.2 kg/s = 0.096 kg/s

WH = WM = ( m D R WR + mD o Wo )/ m

D a = [ (m

D a- m

D o) WR + mo Wo ]/ m

Da

= [(0.396 - 0.096) x 10 + 0.096 x 14.4)]/0.396 = 11 g/kga

From the analysis in the psychrometric chart, no heating in the hot duct is needed. Then,

iH = iM = 54.95 kJ/kg

iC = 36.5 kJ/kg

m H + mC = ma mH + mC = 0.396

m H i H + mC i C = ma i I mH 54.95 + mC 36.5 =0.396 x 37.91

mH = 0.03 kg/s

mC = 0.366 kg/s

The design should be continued for winter condition as well. Then the equipment capacities can

be determined.

22

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

AHU mixing dampers vary OA flow from minimal required flow rate (for people in a space) up

to 100% OA.

Control action:

TOA<TRA => at min OA preheat coil keeps TMA=TSA; increase OA to maintain TMA=TSA

23

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Disadvantages: high VAV energy fan, large OA ducts, humidity control, expensive control

system, complexity, and maintenance.

Air and water are distributed to spaces. Since (Cp ρ)water > (Cp ρ)air, air is supplied for better air

quality while water is used to remove heating/cooling load.

Q = Cp ρ(Treturn - Tsupply)

Primary air has constant volume ≥ minimum OA required for ventilation. In winter, primary air

is heated space temperature and humidifies. In summer, primary air is cooled to dehumidify.

Secondary air is passing through water coil (heat exchanger) before mixing with primary air.

Central plant makes hot or cold water that is distributed via piping system to the water coil. The

water coil heats/ cools to control space temperature, and does not control humidity.

24

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Air is supplied with high pressure for induction. High pressure produces high velocities of

primary air, and therefore secondary air is induced over water (secondary) coil. No fan needed.

25

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

The systems can be with air-water or all water. They can be further divided into

• Two-pipe: Either hot or cold water

• Three-pipe: Two supplies and one for common return

• Four-pipe: Two for supply and the other two for return.

26

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

New fan coils usually have separate coils for heating and cooling that increases first cost

compared to the units with a single coil. However, four-pipe system is more flexible than two-

pipe system, and does not require “changeover” or zone reheat.

The fan coil unit is flexible, can condition w/o primary air and has better filtration than the

induction unit. Primary air is directly supplied to space if the system is air-water.

• Fan-coil

• Unit ventilator

• Radiant panels

Fan coils have no OA, while unit ventilator has OA intake. Infiltration is a mechanism that

provides fresh air in spaces with no OA.

Disadvantages: high maintenance, condensate in occupied space, poor humidity control, and

mediocre ventilation control.

27

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

28

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Examples are motel units and larger single zone units. They are full heating, cooling and air

handling systems with heating coils, cooling coils, refrigerator, and fans, etc.

29

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

30

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

• Water-to-air heat pumps (water serves as heat source)

31

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

Heat source/sink:

Air source - low cost, and it is least efficient. Water (ground) source – high cost, and it is more

efficient than air.

Heat recovery is utilization of “waste” energy streams. Sources for heat recovery are:

• Relief / exhaust air

• Combustion gases

• Coolant stream

• Heat wheel

• Heat pipe

• Heat pump

32

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

• Separation of source and end use

• Non-coincident loads

• “Parasitic” energy

33

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter 4

• No piping in occupied area • Large ducts - space

• Use of outside air (free cooling) • Air balancing difficulties

• Easy seasonal change

• Heat recovery possible

• Closest operating conditions

Water • Separate secondary • Operating complex if two pipes

heating/cooling • Control is numerous

• Less space for ducts • Fan coil clearance problem

• Smaller HVAC central equipment • No-shut off for primary air

• Central filter, humidification • High pressure for induction

• Four pipe system is too expensive

Water • Locally shutoff (individual area

control) • Coil cleaning difficulties

• Quick pull down • Filter

• Good for existing buildings • Open window for IAQ

tary • Simple and inexpensive • No humidity control (general)

• Independent of other buildings • More energy (low efficiency)

• Manufacturer made it ready • Control of air distribution

• Filter

• Overall appearance

34

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

5.2 Construction assemblies

1997 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals, 3.1-3.16, 29.1-29.12

F.P. Incropera and D.P. DeWitt. “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer”

• Conduction

• Convection

• Thermal radiation

5.1.1 Conduction

Fourier’s Law:

dT

q = −k

dx

k = thermal conductivity (W/m K) (material property, Table 5-1 of the text)

dT/dx = temperature gradient (K/m)

In most practical uses, k is approximated as constant. For steady-state heat transfer, q is constant.

Then the equation can be integrated

T1

q T2

x2 T2

x1 x2

∫ x1

qdx = ∫T1−kdT x

1

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

to yield

Q

or T2

T1

k(T2 − T1 ) (T − T1 )

q> = − =− 2 R

(x 2 − x 1 ) R

where

x 2 − x1

R= = thermal resistance (K m2/W) or (hr ft °F/Btu).

k

T1 k1 k2 k3

T2

q1 q2 q3

q

T3

T4

x1 x2 x3 x4

x

T1 T2 T3 T4

(T2 − T1 ) x 2 − x1

q1 = − R1 =

R1 k1

(T3 − T2 ) x − x2

q2 = − R2 = 3

R2 k2

(T − T3 ) x4 − x3

q3 = − 4 R3 =

R3 k3

Since

q1 = q2 = q3 = q

2

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

q2R2 = - (T3 - T2) so that q(R1 + R2 + R3) = - (T4 - T1)

q3R3 = - (T4 - T3)

q

Or T1 T4

(T4 − T1 ) T − T1

q=− =− 4

R1 + R2 + R3 R

R

Here

C = 1/R thermal conductance (W/m2 K).

Example 5.1

An exterior wall of an PSU classroom consists of 0.24 m thick face brick, 0.09 m thick mineral

fiber, and 0.013 m thick plasterboard. If the exterior surface temperature of the wall is 0 oC and

the interior surface 20 oC. Determine the heat flux and temperature distribution in the wall.

Solution:

Common Mineral Plaster

Brick Fiber Board

19.3 20

q = 9.08

1.68

0

From Table 5-1, kbrick = 1.30 W/m K, Rfiber = 1.94 m2 K/W, Rboard =0.078 m2 K/W.

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

5.1.2 Convection

q

Newton’s Law: Tair Tw

q = hc (Tair - Tw)

R =1/hc

2

where q = heat flux due to convection ( W/m )

hc = convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)

Tair = bulk fluid (air) temperature (oC) Tw

Tair

Tw = surface temperature (oC)

q

Newton’s Law can be written as

Tair − Tw 1

q= with R=

R hc

The hc is related to flow state. hc = 3 ~ 6 W/m2K for natural convection and 6 ~ 35 W/m2K for air

flow in and around buildings.

5.1.3 Radiation

Stefan-Boltzmann’s Law:

σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant (= 5.673x10-8 W/m2 K4)or (= 0.1713x10-8 Btu/h.ft2 R)

ε = surface emittance (-)

T = surface temperature (K)

q

The equation can be further written as: T1 T2

q = 4σε1ε 2 T 3 (T1 − T2 )

= h r (T1 − T2 )

T1 T2

q

T1 + T2

where T =

2

and the radiative heat transfer coefficient hr = 4σε1ε 2 T 3 .

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

Example 5.2

Overall film resistance R = 1/h = 1/(hc + hr)

(See Table 5-2 for values)

σ(T14 − T24 )

q=

1 − ε1 1 1− ε2

+ +

A1ε1 A1F12 A 2 ε 2

Tair Rc=1/hc

Tw

Tair Tw

qc

qr

Rr=1/hr

R cR r

Overall film resistance R =

Rc + Rr

Tair − Tw

q=

R

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

It is necessary to consider the heat transfer from inside air to outside air. The heat

transfer processes include conduction, convection, and radiation simultaneously.

R R2 R

To 1 3

qc T

1

qc

T2

q1 q2 qn

q

q

Tn r

qr Tn+1 Ti

x1 x2 xn x n+1

x

Rco Rci

To T1 T2 T3 Ti

R1 R2 R3

Rro Rri

q Ro = To - T1

q R1 = T1 - T2

... ... ...

q Rn = Tn+1 - Tn

q Ri = Tn+1 - Ti

n

+) q[R o + ( ∑ R j ) + R i ] = To − Ti

j=1

To − Ti

q= n

R o + (∑ R j ) + Ri

j =1

n

R = R o + (∑ R j ) + Ri (Overall thermal resistance)

j =1

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

Example 5.3

Continue to work on example 6.1 to determine the outdoor and indoor air temperatures.

Solution:

• Air spaces

glazing

Air conduction resistance

R = δ/λ δ

δ = air layer thickness

λ = thermal conductivity ( 0.023 W/m K for air)

Because of convection and radiation effect, the actual R is between 0.1 to 0.7 m2K/W.

• Windows

Double glazing U = 2.7 W/m2 K R-2

Triple glazing U = 1.8 W/m2 K R-3

5.2.2 Walls

1. Equilibrium or steady-state heat transfer, disregarding effects of heat storage

2. Surrounding surfaces at ambient air temperature

7

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

Example 5.4

Calculate the U-factor of the 38 mm by 90 mm stud wall. The studs are at 400 mm on center.

There is 90-mm mineral fiber batt insulation (R = 2.30 K m2/W) in the stud space. The inside

finish is 13-mm gypsum wallboard; the outside is finished with rigid foam insulating sheathing

(R = 0.70 K m2/W) and 13-mm by 200-mm wood bevel lapped siding. The insulated cavity

occupies approximately 75% of the transmission area and the stud 25%.

1. Outside surface

2. Wood bevel lapped siding

3. Sheathing

4. Mineral fiber batt insulation

5. Wood stud

6. Gypsum wallboard

7. Inside surface

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Solution:

Element R R

(Insulated cavity) (Studs)

1. Outside surface, 3.4 m/s wind 0.03 0.03

2. Wood bevel lapped siding 0.14 0.14

3. Rigid foam insulating sheathing 0.70 0.70

4. Mineral fiber batt insulation 2.30 -

5. Wood stud, 38 mm by 90 mm - 0.63

6. Gypsum wallboard, 13 mm 0.10 0.10

7. Inside surface, still air 0.12 0.12

R1 = 3.39 R2 = 1.72

• Thermal bridges

Thermal conductivity of metals is a thousand times higher than that of insulation material. The

less loss through the metal conduction is considerable.

8

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter5

Example 5.5

The thermal conductance of a 200 mm thick masonry wall is 0.4 W/m2 K. If there is a φ =20 mm

aluminum bar through the wall and thermal conductivity is 220 W/m K, compare the heat loss

through 1 m2 of the masonry wall and the aluminum bar.

Solution

• Below-grade walls

Q = U A (Tground - Ti)

U = U-factor of basement wall (Table 5-8 in the textbook)

A = area of basement wall below grade

Tground = ground surface temperature

Ti = inside air temperature

Amp = amplitude of ground temperature variation (Figure 5-7 in the textbook)

• Below-grade floors

Q = U A (Tground - Ti)

A= basement floor area

• Slab-on-ground construction

Q = U’ P (To - Ti)

where U’ = heat transmission loss per linear meter of slab edge (Table 5-11 in the textbook)

P = perimeter of slab

To = outdoor design temperature

9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter6

6.1 Ventilation

6.2 Infiltration

ASHRAE 1997 Fundamentals Handbook, Chapters 15, 25

6.1 Ventilation

6.1.1 Definition

• Ventilation: intentional and controllable air exchange between indoor and outdoor air

• Infiltration: unintentional and uncontrolled air exchange between indoor and outdoor air

• Natural ventilation: unpowered ventilation

conditions.

where Q

& = airflow rate (m3/s)

V

ρ = air density (kg/m3)

Cp = specific heat of air (J/kg K)

Ti = indoor air temperature (oC)

Ts = supply air temperature (oC)

& = airflow rate (m3/s)

V

ρ = air density (kg/m3)

ifg = latent heat of water vapor at room air temperature (J/kg K)

Wi = indoor air humidity ratio (kgv/kga)

Ws = supply air humidity ratio (kgv/kga)

1

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter6

V must be the same for the sensible and latent heat exchange.

Cs = contaminant concentration of supply air

S = contaminant source

V& = volume airflow rate

Example 6.1

An PSU classroom with 10 occupants has 4000 W sensible cooling load under summer design

conditions. If Ti = 25 oC, Ts = 15 oC, Cs = 300 ppm, and SCO2 = 0.30 L/(min/person), determine

the ventilation rate.

Solution:

For comfort:

Select greater one to meet the demand for both comfort and air quality:

V

• pressure difference caused by wind

• air density difference due to buoyancy (stack effect)

• pressure difference caused by appliance operations (combustion devices, hood, etc.)

2

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter6

∆p = po + pw - pir + ∆ps

po = static pressure at reference height of undisturbed flow (Pa)

pw = wind pressure at location (Pa)

pir = interior static pressure at reference height (Pa)

∆ps = pressure difference due to buoyancy (Pa)

ρ = air density (kg/m3)

V = wind speed (m/s)

+ 0.131 sin3 (2aG) + 0.769 cos (a/2)

+ 0.07 G2 sin2 (a/2) + 0.717 cos2 (a/2)]

where a = angle between wind direction and outward normal of wall under consideration

G = natural log of ratio of wall width under consideration to adjacent wall

hNPL = height of natural pressure level

y y

exfiltration infiltration

Ti ∆p=po-pi ∆p=po-pi

Neutral Ti

To Level To

infiltration exfiltration

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter6

2∆p

Q = CDA

ρ

CD = discharge coefficient (-)

A = cross sectional area of the opening (m2)

ρ = air density (kg/m3)

∆p = pressure difference across opening (Pa)

Q = Cv A V

(0.5 to 0.6 for perpendicular winds and 0.25 - 0.35 for diagonal winds)

A = opening area (m2)

∆hNPL = height from midpoint of lower opening to NPL (m)

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter6

6.2 Infiltration

L = effective leakage area (cm2)

Cs = stack coefficient (L2 s-2 cm-4 K-1)

∆T = average indoor-outdoor temperature difference (K)

Cw = wind coefficient (L2 s-4 cm-4 K-1 m-2)

V = average wind speed measured at local weather station (m/s)

Example 6.2

Estimate the infiltration at design conditions for a two-story house in State College. The house

has an effective leakage area of 500 cm2, a volume of 340 m3, and is surrounded by a thick hedge

(shielding class 3).

Solution:

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter6

low - 0.5 ACH

normal - 1 ACH

high - 2 ACH

extremely high - 3 ACH

Crack method:

Q = A C ∆pn

C = flow coefficient

∆p = pressure difference between outdoor and indoor (Pa)

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

7.2 Heat gain through fenestrations

ASHRAE 1997 Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 29.14-49

The earth’s orbit is elliptical. The sun’s surface temperature is approximately 6,000oC

(10,000oF). The radiant heat flux outside the atmosphere of the earth is 2200 W/m2.

1418 W/m2 on January 4

1325 W/m2 on July 5

1360 W/m2 as mean value

The solar radiation at sea level is 1370 W/m2.

0.29 - 0.40 µm (ultraviolet) 9%

0.40 - 0.70 µm (visible) 39%

0.70 - 3.50 µm (infrared) 52%

Peak value: 0.50 µm

1

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

Apparent solar time (Local solar time) is determined by a sundial (The sun’s position in the sky).

1° longitude → 4 min

Mean time (Standard time): GCT = Greenwich Civil Time (0o longitude)

Local Stand Time: Through the center of a time zone

CST = Central Standard Time (90° W longitude)

MST = Mountain Standard Time (105° W longitude)

PST = Pacific Standard Time (120° W longitude)

Equation of time is a factor of earth orbital velocity. Due to non-symmetry of earth’s orbit,

earth’s rotational speed is irregular (T_Table 6-1 or A_Table 8).

2

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

+ Equation of time

+ 4 (Local standard time meridian - local longitude) [Minutes]

Example 7-1

Longitude of a PSU classroom is 78o W. Determine the local solar time at EST 12:00 noon on

February 21.

Solution:

EST is for longitude of 75o W. From T_Table 6-1 or A_Table 8, equation of time is about -14

minutes. Then

+ 4 (Local standard time meridian - local longitude)

= 12:00 - 0:14 + 0:4 (75 - 78)

= 11:34 am.

• Sun’s position

Solar altitude, β

Solar azimuth from the south, φ

φ

β

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

cos φ = (sin β sin L - sin δ)/(cos β cos L)

δ

δ = solar declination (T_Table 6-1, A_Table 8)

H = local solar time expressed as the hour angle

Example 7-2

Continue from example 7-1. Latitude of the PSU classroom is 41o N. Find the sun’s position.

Solution

L = 41o

H = 11:34 am - 12:00 (true south) = - 26 minutes

= - 26/(60 x 24) x 360o = - 6.5o

= cos 41o cos (- 10.8o) cos (- 6.5o) + sin 41o sin (- 10.8o)

= 0.6136

β = 37.85o

= (sin 37.85o sin 41o - sin (- 10.8o))/(cos 37.85o cos 41o)

= 0.9899

φ = 8.1o

• Incident angle

where θ = angle between the sun’s rays and the normal to the surface

γ = φ−ψ

ψ = surface azimuth defined as:

Orientation N NE E SE S SW W NW

ψ 180o -135 -90o

o

-45o 0o 45o 90o 135o

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

Σ = tilt angle of surface (angle between the normal to the surface and the normal to the

horizontal surface)

Example 7-3

Continue from Example 7-2. Find the incident angle of a vertical window facing east.

Solution

ψ = -90o

Σ = 90o

γ = φ − ψ = 8.1o - (-90o) = 98.1o

= cos 37.85o cos 98.1o sin 90o + sin 37.85o cos 90o

= - 0.1113

θ = 96.39o - No solar on the surface

• Direct radiation, GD

• Diffuse radiation, Gd

• Reflected radiation, GR

All the three parts are the functions of normal direct radiation, GND

A

G ND =

exp(B / sin β)

B = atmospheric extinction coefficient (T_Table 6-1, A_Table 8)

β = solar altitude

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

θ = incident angle

On a horizontal surface, cos θ = sin β

GDH = GND CN sin β

• Diffuse radiation

On a horizontal surface:

where C = ratio of diffuse on a horizontal surface to direct normal radiation (T_Table 6-1,

A_Table 8)

On a tilted surface

For a horizontal surface Fws = 1 and for a vertical surface Fws = 0.5.

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

• Reflected radiation

Fwg - view factor between the surface and the ground

For a horizontal surface Fwg = 0 and for a vertical surface Fwg = 0.5.

Example 7-4

Continue from Example 7-3. If the ground reflectivity is 0.3, find the total solar radiation on the

vertical window surface.

Solution

From T_Figure 6-7, CN = 1.0

A

G ND =

exp( B / sin β )

1187

=

exp(0.142 / sin 37.85o )

= 942 W/m2

=0 No direct solar radiation

= 0.104 x 942 / 1.02

=98 W/m2

= Gd (1 + cos Σ)/2

= 98 (1 + cos 90o)/2

= 49 W/m2

= (GND CN sin β + Gd) ρg (1 - cos Σ)/2

= (942 x 1.0 x sin 37.85 o + 49) x 0.3 x (1 - cos 90o)/2

= 94 W/m2

7

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

= 0 + 49 + 94

= 143 W/m2

CCF = P + Q CC + R CC2

where P. Q. R = coefficients

CC = cloud cover ( a variable between 0 - 10)

Any optical material obey the following law under any given wave length:

τ+α+ρ=1

τ, α, and ρ are function of λ

where τ = transmittance

α = absorptance

ρ = reflectance

λ = wave length (m)

Further,

λf=c

c = light speed (3x108 m/s)

Architectural glass:

Transparent to short-wave radiation (sun light)

This is the well-known greenhouse effect.

8

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

+ (Conduction heat gain)

Define:

Transmitted solar heat gain factor: TSHGF

Absorbed solar heat gain factor: ASHGF

TSHGF = GD τD + Gd τd

with

5

τ D = ∑ t j (cos θ) j

j= 0

and

5

τ d = 2∑ t j /( j + 2)

j= 0

tj = values in T_Table 6-2 or A_Table 23

ASHGF = GD αD + Gd αd

with

5

α D = ∑ a j (cos θ) j

j= 0

and

5

α d = 2∑ a j /( j + 2)

j= 0

9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

Ni = inward flowing fraction of absorbed heat gain.

Ni = hi / (hi + ho)

Example 7-5

Continue from Example 7-4. Assume the window uses a 2.4 mm single-glass with light venetian

blinds. Find the solar heat gain under a clear sky with an outside wind speed of 3.35 m/s and an

inside convective heat transfer coefficient of 4.0 W/m2 K.

Solution

5

τ d = 2∑ t j /( j + 2) = 0.8

j= 0

5

α d = 2∑ a j /( j + 2) = 0.54

j= 0

TSHGF = GD τD + Gd τd

= 0 + (Gdθ + GRθ) τd

= 0 + (49 + 94) x 0.8

= 114 W/m2

= 0.67 x 114

= 76 W/m2

ASHGF = GD αD + Gd αd

= 0 + (Gdθ + GRθ) αd

10

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter7

= 77 W/m2

= 0.67 x 77 x 0.148

= 8 W/m2

= 77 + 8

= 85 W/m2

• Multiple glazing

Venetian blinds are treated as a special type of “glazing”. Multiple transmission, reflection, and

absorption are taken into account.

By draperies:

The air stream removes window load.

11

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

8.2 Residential building heating load

8.3 Nonresidential cooling and heating load (manual methods)

8.4 Nonresidential cooling and heating load (computer methods)

ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals Handbook, Chapters 28 and 29

Residential features:

• 24-hour conditioned

• small internal loads

• single zone

• small capacity

• dehumidification for cooling only

• thermostats control

Heat gain: The rate at which energy is transferred to or generated within a space

Cooling load: The rate at which energy must be removed from a space to maintain the

temperature and humidity at the design values

Heat extraction: The rate at which energy is removed from the space by the cooling and

dehumidification equipment.

1

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

Cooling loads:

• through windows

• by infiltration

• due to occupants and appliances

CLTD/GLF Method

The method uses regression data of computer generated transfer function solution.

Calculation procedure:

difference between indoor and outdoor and solar radiation and considers thermal

capacity of the enclosure.

Q = U A (CLTD)

A = area of roof, wall, or glass

CLTD = cooling load temperature difference; tabulated for flat roofs, walls, glasses

(Table A27-1 and A27-22)

Glass Load Factor (GLF) includes effects of both transmission and solar radiation.

Q = (GLF) A

2

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

B B B B B B

People:

Q = 70 W/person

Appliances:

Q = 470 W for both kitchen and laundry for single family

Q = 350 W for multi-family

Heating loads:

• through floors and walls below grade

• by infiltration

Calculation procedure:

Q = U A (To - Ti)

B B B B

Q = U A (Tearth - Ti)

B B B B

B B B B B B

3

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

(1) the time lag in conductive heat gain through opaque exteriors, and

(2) the thermal storage in converting radiant heat gain to cooling load.

• building characteristics (materials, size, and shape)

• configuration (location, orientation and shading)

• outdoor design conditions

• indoor design conditions

• operating schedules (lighting, occupancy, and equipment)

• date and time

• additional considerations (type of air-conditioning system, fan energy, fan location, duct

heat loss and gain, duct leakage, type and position of air return system,…)

The RTS method is suitable for peak design load calculations, but it should not be used for

annual energy simulations due to its simplified assumptions such as steady-periodic conditions.

Conduction time factor (CTS) and radiant time factor (RTS) takes into account (1) and (2).

Material R-11

1. calculate 24h profile of heat gain for design day; apply CTS

2. split heat gain into radiant and convective part

3. apply RTS

4. calculate cooling load as a sum of convective heat gain and delayed radiant part

of heat gain

4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

1 2

The sol-air temperature represents outdoor design air temperature that combines convection to

the outdoor air, radiation to the ground and sky, and solar radiation heat transfer effects on the

outer surface of a building.

A practical method for cooling load calculations requires computer application. With computer

application available simplified methods are not necessary because heat balance equations can be

numerically solved in a few seconds on a PC.

5

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

U

Q = U A (CLTD)

A = area of roof, wall, or glass

CLTD = cooling load temperature difference (Table A28-32, A28-34)

U

Q = A (SC) (SCL)

SCL = solar cooling load factor (Table A28-36)

U U

Q = U A (Tb - Ti) B B B B

where U = design heat transfer coefficient for partition, ceiling, or floor (Table A24-4)

A = area of partition, ceiling, or floor

Tb = adjacent space temperature

B B

B B

People:

U U

B B

B B

CLF = cooling load factor (Table A28-37)

Lights:

U

B B B B B B

6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

B B

B B

CLF = cooling load factor (a schedule factor, CLF =1 for 24-hour light usage)

(Table A28-38)

Power:

U U

Qp = P EF CLF

B B B B

EF = efficiency factors and arrangements to suit circumstances

B B

Appliances:

U

B B B B B B B B B B

B B B B B B

where Qis, Qil = sensible and latent heat gain from appliances

B B B B

Fua, Fra, Ffl = use factors, radiation factors, flue loss factors

B B B B B B B B

Ventilation and infiltration air:

B B B B B B B B

B B B B B B B B

B B B B B B B B

Vflow = ventilation or infiltration flow rate (Thermal comfort & IAQ requirements)

B B

B B B B

B B B B

B B B B

7

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

Example 8-1

U

A PSU classroom is 6 m long, 6 m wide and 3 m high. There is a 2.5 m x 4 m window in the east

wall. Only the east wall/window is exterior. Assume the thermal conditions in adjacent spaces

(west, south, north, above and below) are the same as those of the classroom. Determine the

cooling load at 9:00 am, 12:00 noon on July 21.

Latitude = 40o N P P

Clear sky with a clearness number = 1.0

Overall window heat transmission coefficient = 7.0 W/m2K P P

Schedule of occupancy: 20 people enter at 8:00 am and stay for 8 hours

Lighting schedule: 300 W on at 8:00 am for 8 hours

Exterior wall structure:

Outside surface, A0

Face brick (100 mm), A2

Insulation (50 mm), B3

Concrete block (100 mm), C3

Inside surface, E0

Exterior window:

Single glazing, 3 mm

No exterior shading, SC = 1.0

Solution:

Layer

U Unit resistance (m2 K/W) UP UP

A0 0.059

A2 0.076

B3 1.173

C3 0.125

E0

U 0.121

Total 1.554

B B B B

B B B B B B

8

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

Ti = inside temperature

B B

B B

B B

Q = U A (CLTD)

= 0.643 (W/m2 K) x (6 x 3 - 4 x 2.5) m2 x 6.1 = 34 W P P P P (at 9 am)

Q = 0.643 (W/m2 K) x (6 x 3 - 4 x 2.5) m2 x 11.1 = 62 W P P P P (at 12 noon)

B B B B B B

CLTDcor = 5 + 0 + (31 - 9/2 - 29.4) = 2.1 K

B B (at 12 noon)

Q = U A (CLTD)

= 7.0 W/m2 K x 4 x 2.5 m2 x (-1.9 K) = -133 W

P P P P (at 9 am)

Q = 7.0 W/m2 K x 4 x 2.5 m2 x 2.1 K = 147 W P P P P (at 12 noon)

From Table A28-36, find CLF = 576 at 9 am and CLF = 211 at 12 noon

Q = A (SC) (SCL)

= (2.5 x 4 m2) x 1.0 x 576 = 5760 W P P (at 9 am)

Q = (2.5 x 4 m2) x 1.0 x 211 =2110 W P P (at 12 noon)

Q=0

(5) People:

From Table A28-3, find sensible/latent heat gain = 70 W.

From Table A28-37, find CLF9:00 (1) = 0.65 and CLF12:00 (3) =0.85 B B B B

B B

Qsensible = 20 x 70 x 0.85 = 1190 W

B B (at 12 noon)

9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Chapter8

B B

(6) Lighting:

From Table A28-38, find CLF9:00 (1) = 0.75 and CLF12:00 (3) = 0.93

B B B B

B B B B B B

Qel = 300 x 1 x 1 x 0.93 = 279 W

B B (at 12 noon)

(7) Appliances:

Qsensible = 0

B B

Qlatent = 0

B B

(8) Infiltration:

Qsensible = 0

B B

Qlatent = 0

B B

Component

U 9:00 am 12:00 noon

Wall 34 62

Window conduction -133 147

Window solar transmission 5,760 2,110

Partitions 0 0

People 910 1,190

Lights 225 279

Appliance 0 0

Infiltration

U 0 0

Total 6,796 W 3,788 W

TETD is called the total equivalent temperature differential method. It is similar to CLTD

method but not the same. More information can be found in ASHRAE Handbook -

Fundamentals (ASHRAE Fundamentals 28.56 - 28.64).

10

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 1

Practicum Assignment #1

1. For a winter heating in a PSU classroom, steam enters a radiator at 16 psia and 0.97 quality.

The steam flows through the radiator, is condensed, and leaves as liquid water at 200oF. If the

heating capacity of the radiator is 5000 Btu/hr, at what rate in lbm/hr must steam be supplied?

2. A solar collector panel, shown in Figure 1, has a surface area of 32 ft2. The panel receives

energy from the sun at a rate of 150 Btu/(hr ft2-of collector surface). Forty percent of the

incoming energy is lost to the surrounding. The reminder is used to warm liquid water from

130oF to 160oF. The water passes through the solar collector with a negligible pressure drop.

(a) (15 points) Neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects, determine at steady state the

mass flow rate of water in [lb/min]. Hint: Write the assumptions.

(b) (10 points) How many solar collectors would be needed to provide a total of 40 gal of

160oF water in 30 min? Hint: To obtain water properties assume the atmospheric

pressure.

3. Steam at 7,000 Pa and 50oC enters a condenser operating at steady state and is condensed to

saturated liquid at 7,000 Pa on the inside of tubes through which cooling water flows. The mass

flow rate of steam is 25 kg/s. In passing through the tubes, the cooling water increases in

temperature by 10oC and experiences no pressure drop. Neglecting kinetic and potential energy

effects and ignoring heat transfer from the outside of the condenser, determine:

(a) the mass flow arte of cooling water, in kg/s

(b) the rate of energy transfer, in kW, from the condenser to the cooling water.

AE 310: Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning PA1

1. For a winter heating in a PSU classroom, steam enters a radiator at 16 psia and 0.97 quality. The steam

flows through the radiator, is condensed, and leaves as liquid water at 200oF. If the heating capacity of

the radiator is 5000 Btu/hr, at what rate in lbm/hr must steam be supplied?

P1 = 16 psia

x1 = 0.97

T2 = 200oF

x2 = 0

QD 5000 Btu / hr

mD = = = 5.236lbm / hr

h1 − h2 1123Btu / lbm − 168.1Btu / lbm

2. A solar collector panel, shown in Figure 1, has a surface area of 32 ft2. The panel receives energy from

the sun at a rate of 150 Btu/(hr ft2-of collector surface). Forty percent of the incoming energy is lost to

the surrounding. The reminder is used to warm liquid water from 130oF to 160oF. The water passes

through the solar collector with a negligible pressure drop.

(a) Neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects, determine at steady state the mass flow rate of water

in [lb/min]. Hint: Write the assumptions.

(b) How many solar collectors would be needed to provide a total of 40 gal of 160oF water in 30 min?

Hint: To obtain water property use thermophysical properties table in your text assuming the

atmospheric pressure.

Solution of PA1 1 of 4

AE 310: Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning PA1

Figure 1.

(a) Assumptions:

1. The control volume is at steady state

2. For the control volume shown, Wcv = 0

3. Kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible

Btu

4. The water is modeled as an incompressible liquid, with constant specific heat c = 1 .

lb ⋅ R

Analysis:

The mass flow rate is determined using the steady-state energy balance as follow:

D D V12 − V22

0 = Qcv − Wcv + mD [(i1 − i 2 ) + ( ) + g ( Z 1 − Z 2 )]

2

1 = m 2 = m with Q cv = Q in = Q loss and assumption (3)

Where m

0 = Q − Q + m (h − h )

in loss 1 2

Thus

Q in − Q loss

m =

c (T2 − T1 )

From the given data, Q in = (150 )(32 ft 3 ) = 4800 and Q loss = (0.4)Q in = 1920

2

hr ⋅ ft hr hr

Inserting values:

Solution of PA1 2 of 4

AE 310: Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning PA1

Btu

(4800 − 1920)

h 1h lb

m = ( ) = 1.6

Btu 60 min min

1 × (620 − 590) R

lb ⋅ R

lb

(b) The mass of water in 40 gallon is with density ρ = 60.01

ft 3

lb 0.13368 ft 3

mtot = ρV = (60.98 3 )(40 gal )( ) = 326 lb of water

ft 1gal

Each collector provides

t lb lb

m = ∫ m dt = (1.6 )(30 min) = 48

t1 min Collector

Thus

326

No of Collectors= ≈7

48

Comments:

Forty gallons is about the capacity of a typical home water heater, the total collector area required is 224 ft2.

3. Steam at 7,000 Pa and 50oC enters a condenser operating at steady state and is condensed to

saturated liquid at 7,000 Pa on the inside of tubes through which cooling water flows. The mass flow

rate of steam is 25 kg/s. In passing through the tubes, the cooling water increases in temperature by

10oC and experiences no pressure drop. Neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects and ignoring

heat transfer from the outside of the condenser, determine:

(a) the mass flow arte of cooling water, in kg/s

(b) the rate of energy transfer, in kW, from the condenser to the cooling water.

Given: Steam and water pass through separate streams through a condenser.

2.) Heat transfer from outside is negligible.

3.) Potential and Kinetic Energy effects are negligible.

4.) Cooling water is idealized as an incompressible fluid w/ constant specific heat.

b.) Heat transfer rate to the cooling water. Q(dot) cw

Solution:

Solution of PA1 3 of 4

AE 310: Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning PA1

0=Q(dot)cv-W(dot)cv+m(dot)st[(h1-h2)+((v1-v2)/2)+g(z1-z2)]+m(dot)cw[(ha-hb)+((va-vb)/2)+g(za-z

b)]

0=m(dot)st (h1-h2)+m(dot)cw(ha-h b)

Q(dot)cw =m(dot)cw(h-h)=m(dot)Cp(Ta-T b)

Solution of PA1 4 of 4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 2

Practicum Assignment #2

1. Running water is heated from 50°F to 120°F by mixing it with saturated steam. Steam gauge

pressure may vary from 15 to 25 psi.

(a) Sketch the system.

(b) For a heated water flow rate of 14 cfm, calculate and plot (create graph of) steam mass

flow rate in lb/s. Assume sea level atmospheric pressure for water flow.

2. By supplying 90,000 Btu/h, a heat pump maintains the temperature of dwelling at 70oF when

the outside air is at 32oF.

(a) Sketch the system.

(b) What is the minimum work required for this cycle? Define the assumptions.

3. A heat pump driven by a 0.4 kW electric motor provides heating for a building on a day when

the outside is at –10oC and energy is lost through the walls and roof at rate of 16200 kJ/h. What

is the maximum theoretical temperature that can be maintained within building, in oF?

4. Infiltration of outside air into building through miscellaneous cracks can represent a

significant load on the heating or cooling equipment. A particular office building has a total

crack length of 440 ft around its doors and windows. On windy day, about 0.4 cfm of air enters

per foot of crack. In addition, door openings account for about 100 cfm of outside air infiltration

on average. The internal volume of the building is 20,000 ft3. Assuming ideal gas behavior,

estimate n the number of times per hour (ACH – air change rate per hour), at steady state, that

the air within building is changed due to infiltration. Hint: n[ACH] = Volume flow rate/Volume.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 2

1. Running water is heated from 50°F to 120°F by mixing it with saturated steam. Steam gauge

pressure may vary from 15 to 25 psi.

(a) Sketch the system.

(b) For a heated water flow rate of 14 cfm, calculate and plot (create graph of) steam mass

flow rate in lb/s. Assume sea level atmospheric pressure for water flow.

(a)

msteam,

isteam mout,

iout

mwater,

iwater

(b)

First, lets write a governing energy conservation equation for out process. Ein=Eout

D w1 ∗ i w1 + m

m D steam ∗ i steam = m

D w2 ∗ i w2

Note that w1 refers to the cool water and w2 refers to the heated water. Now lets rearrange to

create an expression for m(dot)steam.

w2 ∗ i w2 − m

m w1 ∗ i w1

steam =

m

i steam

We are given a volumetric flow rate fom the heated water of 14 cfm. V(dot)ρ=m(dot)

As for the cool water, the mass flow rate is constant so it will not affect the shape of our graph.

The enthalpy for the 50 degree water is 18.1 btu/lb.

Use table A-1a for the above values.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 2

Ok here’s the trick, you now go to the steam tables and look up enthalpies for 15psi to 25psi. At

each enthalpy you run the above equation and calculate the m(dot)steam. This is how you graph

steam pressure Vs steam mass flow rate. Actually you could of came up with a graph based off

of our initial equation with out any numbers at all, IF you realize the direct relationship between

pressure and enthalpy as well as the indirect relationship between enthalpy and mass flow rate.

Mass

MassFlow Vs Pressure Flow

Pressure Rate

52.7 (psi) Lb/Min

52.65

15 52.66

52.6

16 52.63

Mass Flow (lb/min)

52.55 17 52.6

52.5 18 52.58

Series1 19 52.55

52.45

20 52.52

52.4 21 52.5

52.35 22 52.47

52.3 23 52.45

24 52.42

52.25

25 52.4

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Pressure (psi)

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 2

2. By supplying 90,000 Btu/h, a heat pump maintains the temperature of dwelling at 70oF when

the outside air is at 32oF.

(a) Sketch the system.

(b) What is the minimum work required for this cycle? Define the assumptions.

Figure 1.

(a) Assumptions:

1. The system shown on the accompanying figure undergoes a heat pump cycle.

2. The data are for operation at steady state.

3. The dwelling and the surroundings play the roles of hot and cold reservoirs, respectively.

(b) Analysis:

The minimum theoretical cost for any heat pump cycle under the stated conditions is the cost for a

reversible cycle operating between reservoirs at TH=530R (70 °F) and TC=492R (32°F). The power

required by such a cycle can be obtained from:

Q out

W cycle =

COPcarnot

TH 530

COPcarnot = = = 13.95

TH − TL 530 − 492

Btu

90,000

Q hr = 6451.6 Btu

W cycle = out

=

COPcarnot 13.95 hr

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 2

3. A heat pump driven by a 0.4 kW electric motor provides heating for a building on a day when

the outside is at –10oC and energy is lost through the walls and roof at rate of 16200 kJ/h. What

is the maximum theoretical temperature that can be maintained within building, in oF?

Figure 2.

(a) Assumptions:

1. The system shown in the accompanying figure undergoes a heat pump cycle.

2. The data are for operation at steady state.

3. The dwelling and the surroundings play the roles of hot and cold reservoirs, respectively.

(b) Analysis:

At steady state, the heat pump cycle must provide energy to the dwelling equal to the energy leaking

through the walls and roof.

QD H = 16,200kJ / h

From Section 5.4.2, we know that the coefficient of performance of the heat pump must be less than or

equal to the coefficient of performance of a reversible heat pump operating between reservoirs at

TC=263K (-10°C) and TH. Then with equation 5.10:

QD H TH

≤

D

Wcycle TH − TC

1hr

[16,000kJ / hr ]×

3600 s ≤ TH

TH − 263

[0.4kW ]× 1kJ / s

1kW

1

11.11 ≤

1 − 263 / TH

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 2

4. Infiltration of outside air into building through miscellaneous cracks can represent a

significant load on the heating or cooling equipment. A particular office building has a total

crack length of 440 ft around its doors and windows. On windy day, about 0.4 cfm of air enters

per foot of crack. In addition, door openings account for about 100 cfm of outside air infiltration

on average. The internal volume of the building is 20,000 ft3. Assuming ideal gas behavior,

estimate n the number of times per hour (ACH – air change rate per hour), at steady state, that

the air within building is changed due to infiltration. Hint: n[ACH] = Volume flow rate/Volume.

Figure 3.

(a) Assumptions:

1. The control volume shown is at steady state.

2. The air behaves as an ideal gas.

3. The densities of the incoming air and of the air in the building are nearly equal.

(b) Analysis:

At the steady state, the mass balance reduces to:

mD outflow = mD cracks + mD door openings

ρ i ( AV ) outflow = ρ o [( AV ) cracks + ( AV ) door openings ]

Where ρ i and ρ o are the inside and outside air densities, respectively. Assuming ideal gas behavior:

ρi P / RTi

= i

ρ o Po / RTo

If Pi = Po and Ti = To , ρ i = ρ o , Thus

( AV ) outflow = ( AV ) cracks + ( AV ) door openings

ft 3 ft 3

= ( 0 .4 )( 440 ft ) + 100

min⋅ ft min

ft 3 ft 3

= 276 = 16,560

min hr

ft 3

16,5600

AirChanges AVoutflow hr air changes

= = 3

= 0.828

hr V ft hr

20,000

air change

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 3

Practicum Assignment #3

1. Calculate values of humidity ratio, enthalpy, and specific volume for saturated air at one

standard atmosphere using perfect gas relations for temperature of 20 oC and 0 oC.

2. The temperature of a certain room is 22 oC and the relative humidity is 50%. The

barometric pressure is 100 kPa. Find (a) the partial pressures of the air and water vapor,

(b) the vapor density, and humidity ratio of the mixture.

3. Compute the enthalpy of moist air at 16 oC and 80% relative humidity for an elevation of

(a) sea level and (b) 1500 m.

4. The condition within a room is 20 oC (dry bulb), 50% relative humidity, and 101325 Pa

pressure. The inside surface temperature of the window is 5 oC. Will moisture condense

on the window glass? Explain why.

5. Moist air exists at a relative humidity of 60%, and a pressure of 96.5 kPa. The dewpoint

temperature of this moist air is 18 oC. Determine (a) the humidity ratio and (b) the

volume in m3/kg.

6. A duct has moist air flowing at a rate of 2 m3/s. What is the mass flow rate of the dry air,

where the dry bulb temperature is 16 oC, the relative humidity is 80% and where the

pressure inside the duct corresponds to (a) sea level, and (b) 2000 m?

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 3

1. Calculate values of humidity ratio, enthalpy, and specific volume for saturated air at one

standard atmosphere using perfect gas relations for temperature of 20 oC and 0 oC.

2. The temperature of a certain room is 22 oC and the relative humidity is 50%. The

barometric pressure is 100 kPa. Find (a) the partial pressures of the air and water vapor,

(b) the vapor density, and humidity ratio of the mixture.

3. Compute the enthalpy of moist air at 16 oC and 80% relative humidity for an elevation of

(a) sea level and (b) 1500 m.

4. The condition within a room is 20 oC (dry bulb), 50% relative humidity, and 101325 Pa

pressure. The inside surface temperature of the window is 5 oC. Will moisture condense

on the window glass? Explain why.

5. Moist air exists at a relative humidity of 60%, and a pressure of 96.5 kPa. The dewpoint

temperature of this moist air is 18 oC. Determine (a) the humidity ratio and (b) the

volume in m3/kg.

6. A duct has moist air flowing at a rate of 2 m3/s. What is the mass flow rate of the dry air,

where the dry bulb temperature is 16 oC, the relative humidity is 80% and where the

pressure inside the duct corresponds to (a) sea level, and (b) 2000 m?

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 3

1. Calculate values of humidity ratio, enthalpy, and specific volume for saturated air at

one standard atmosphere using perfect gas relations for temperature of 20 oC and 0 oC.

Ps

W = 0.622

Table A1b P − Ps

Sat. air, 0°C, 20 °C Ps , @ 0°C, 20 °C W

T

V=

P − Ps Ps

+

Ra Rv i = C p,a t + W (i fg + C p,v t )

i V

Constants:

P = 101325 Pa, Cp,a = 1.01 kJ/kg⋅K, if,g = 2501.3 kJ/kg⋅K, Cp,v = 1.86 kJ/kg⋅K

Ra = 287 J/ kg⋅K, Rv = 462 J/ kg⋅K

0° 611.3 3.78×10-3 9.45 0.775

20° 2339 1.47×10-2 57.5 0.838

Comments:

Check your answer in the psychrometric chart.

2. The temperature of a certain room is 22 oC and the relative humidity is 50%. The

barometric pressure is 100 kPa. Find (a) the partial pressures of the air and water

vapor, (b) the vapor density, and humidity ration of the mixture.

Pv

φ = , Pv = φPv , s = 1336 Pa Pa = P − Pv = 98,664 Pa

Pv , s

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 3

Pv 1336

ρv = = = 9.80 × 10 −3 (kg / m 3 )

Rv T 462 ⋅ 295.15

Pv 1336

W = 0.622 = 0.622 = 8.42 × 10−3 (kgw/ kga)

P − Pv 1×10 − 1336

5

3. Compute the enthalpy of moist air at 16 oC and 80% relative humidity for an elevation

of (a) sea level and (b) 1500 m.

Pv , s = 1836 Pa Pv = φPv , s = 1468.8 Pa

Pv

W = 0.622 = 9.15×10−3 (kgw/ kga)

P − Pv

i = C p ,a t + W (2501.3 + 1.86t ) = 39.3 (kJ / kg )

Pv 1468.8

W = 0.622 = 0.622 = 0.0110 (kgw / kga)

P − Pv 84436 − 1468.8

4. The condition within a room is 20 oC (dry bulb), 50% relative humidity, and 101325 Pa

pressure. The inside surface temperature of the window is 5 oC. Will moisture condense

on the window glass? Explain why.

(1) Calculate the dewpoint temperature Td,

if Td > Tsurface , condensation occurs.

if W|20°C, 50% > W|5°, 100%, condensation occurs.

(3) Calculate partial pressure of vapor at 20°C, 50% RH and 5C, 100% RH

if Pv|20°C, 50% > Pv,s|5°, 100%, condensation occurs.

Pv,s|20°C = 2339 Pa, Pv = φPv ,s = 1169.5 Pa

From table A-1b, we can find Td ≅ 9.25 °C

Td > Tsurface, condensation occurs!

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 3

5. Moist air exists at a relative humidity of 60%, and a pressure of 96.5 kPa. The

dewpoint temperature of this moist air is 18oC. Determine (a) the humidity ratio and

(b) the volume in m3/kg.

This is the most confusing problem in this problem set. Let's do it step by step.

1) Recall what you heard in weather forecast (if you watch TV sometime). The told you "the

temperature in State College is 68°F, dewpoint temperature is 65°F, raining in the

morning ......" They are talking about out HVAC concept: The current temperature of air

does not necessarily equal to the dewpoint temperature of the air.

2) So, the temperature if the air, in other words, the dry-bulb temperature of the air must be

some temperature other than 18°C since Φ = 60%. Let's imagine a psychart (you can use

it actually, but at this moment, I just use formula), when you know "2" quantities, either

Tdry, Twet, or Tdew, Φ, you are able to determine a point on the psychart. Now, you have Td

and Φ, so be confident!

3) Recall the definition of the dewpoint temperature from our text: "Dewpoint temperature

td is the temperature of saturated moist air at the same pressure and humidity ratio as the

given mixture."

Pv1, Ps1 until saturated Pv2/Ps2 = 100%

Pv1/Ps1 = 60% W2

W1 W1 = W2 Td = 18 °C

Given Mixture Pv1 = Pv2 Saturated moist air

4) Now we are quite clear what we are going to do: since W and Pv do not change, From

Table A-1b, At 18°C, Ps= 2064 Pa , Pv|t = Ps|18°C

Ps 2064

W = 0.622 = 0.622 = 0.0136(kgw/ kga)

P − Ps 96500− 2064

Pv

Pv = 2064 Pa Pv , s = = 3440 Pa

φ

From Table A-1b: T ≅ 26.37 °C=299.5 K

T 299.5

V= = = 0.898(m3 / kg )

P − Ps Ps 96500 − 2064s 2064

+ +

Ra Rv 287 462

Comments:

Note the keys of this problem are:

• Td ≠Tdrybulb when Φ ≠ 100%

• W and Pv do not change during our sensible cooling process

• Using chart or computer program is much easier

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 3

6. A duct has moist air flowing at a rate of 2 m3/s. What is the mass flow rate of the dry

air, where the dry bulb temperature is 16oC, the relative humidity is 80% and where

the pressure inside the duct corresponds to (a) sea level, and (b) 2000 m?

(a) Sea level: P=101325 Pa Pa = P − Pv = 99.87kPa

P 99870

ρa = a = = 1 . 203 ( kg / m 3 )

Ra T 287 ⋅ 289 . 15

mD = ρ VD = 2.407 (kg / sec)

a a

Pa = P − Pv = 79436 − 1454.5 = 77981.5 Pa

P 77981 . 5

ρa = a = = 0 . 94 ( kg / m 3 )

Ra T 287 ⋅ 289 . 15

mD = ρ VD = 1.879 ( kg / sec)

a a

Comments:

VD

• Some useful relationships: mD a = ρ aVD =

v

• The mass flow rate changes with elevation but the volumetric flow rate does not.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

Practicum Assignment #4

1. Air leaves the cooling coil of an air conditioning system has a relative humidity of 90%

and a dewpoint temperature of 55oF at 5000 ft elevation. From the psychrometric chart

find:

(a) Dry bulb air temperature

(b) Wet bulb temperature

(c) Air density

(d) Humidity ratio

(e) Enthalpy

Identify your results in the chart and submit the chart with the solutions.

2. To save energy, the environmental conditions in a room are to be regulated so that the dry

bulb temperature will be greater than or equal to 78oF (24oC) and the dew point will be

less than or equal to 64oF (17oC). Find the maximum relative humidity that can occur for

standard barometric pressure.

3. It is desired to heat and humidify 2000 cfm of air from an initial state defined by a

temperature of 60oF db and relative humidity of 30% to a final state of 110oF db and 30%

relative humidity. The air will first be heated by a hot water coil followed with saturated

vapor at 5psig. Assume sea level pressure Using the psychrometric chart:

(a) Find the heat transfer rate for the heating coil

(b) Find the mass flow rate of the water vapor

(c) Sketch the processes on a psychrometric chart.

4. Moist air enters a cooling coil at 28oC dry-bulb temperature and 50% relative humidity

and exits the coil at 13oC dry-bulb temperature and 90% relative humidity. The flow rate

through the coil is 1.50 kg/s and the process occurs at the sea level pressure.

(a) Determine the sensible heat factor (SHF) for the process

(b) Determine the cooling coil capacity (heat transfer-rate)

(c) Sketch the process in the psychrometric chart denoting sensible and latent heat

5. Saturated steam is sprayed into a stream of moist air. The initial condition of the air is

55oF dry-bulb temperature and 35oF dew-point temperature. The mass airflow rate is

2000 lbm/min. Barometric pressure is 14.696 psi. Determine:

(a) How much steam must be added in lbm/min to produce a saturated air condition, and

(b) The resulting dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature of the saturated air

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

Practicum Assignment #4

1. Air leaves the cooling coil of an air conditioning system has a relative humidity of 90%

and a dewpoint temperature of 55oF at 5000 ft elevation. From the psychrometric chart

find:

(a) Dry bulb air temperature

(b) Wet bulb temperature

(c) Air density

(d) Humidity ratio

(e) Enthalpy

Identify your results in the chart and submit the chart with the solutions.

2. To save energy, the environmental conditions in a room are to be regulated so that the dry

bulb temperature will be greater than or equal to 78oF (24oC) and the dew point will be

less than or equal to 64oF (17oC). Find the maximum relative humidity that can occur for

standard barometric pressure.

3. It is desired to heat and humidify 2000 cfm of air from an initial state defined by a

temperature of 60oF db and relative humidity of 30% to a final state of 110oF db and 30%

relative humidity. The air will first be heated by a hot water coil followed with saturated

vapor at 5psig. Assume sea level pressure Using the psychrometric chart:

(a) Find the heat transfer rate for the heating coil

(b) Find the mass flow rate of the water vapor

(c) Sketch the processes on a psychrometric chart.

4. Moist air enters a cooling coil at 28oC dry-bulb temperature and 50% relative humidity

and exits the coil at 13oC dry-bulb temperature and 90% relative humidity. The flow rate

through the coil is 1.50 kg/s and the process occurs at the sea level pressure.

(a) Determine the sensible heat factor (SHF) for the process

(b) Determine the cooling coil capacity (heat transfer-rate)

(c) Sketch the process in the psychrometric chart denoting sensible and latent heat

5. Saturated steam is sprayed into a stream of moist air. The initial condition of the air is

55oF dry-bulb temperature and 35oF dew-point temperature. The mass airflow rate is

2000 lbm/min. Barometric pressure is 14.696 psi. Determine:

(a) How much steam must be added in lbm/min to produce a saturated air condition, and

(b) The resulting dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature of the saturated air

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

1. Air leaves the cooling coil of an air conditioning system and has a relative humidity

of 90% and a dewpoint temperature of 55oF at 5000 ft elevation. From the

psychrometric chart find:

(a) Dry bulb air temperature

(b) Wet bulb temperature

(c) Air density

(d) Humidity ratio

(e) Enthalpy

Identify your results in the chart and submit the chart with the solutions.

If you follow a constant humidity ratio (w) line from 55 degrees and saturation to where

it intersects with the 90% relative humidity line you will have the condition of the air.

Read all other properties off of the chart.

W = 0.011 lbv/lba, i = 25.9 Btu/lb

the dry bulb temperature will be greater than or equal to 78oF (24oC) and the dew

point will be less than or equal to 64oF (17oC). Find the maximum relative humidity

that can occur for standard barometric pressure.

Follow maximum humidity ratio (w) line (where dew point = 17oC) until it intersects

with dry bulb temperature = 24oC line. Read relative humidity lines off of chart as shown

below.

Remember - relative humidity for a constant humidity ratio decreases as dry bulb

increases.

b a

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

3. It is desired to heat and humidify 2000 cfm of air from an initial state defined by a

temperature of 60oF db and relative humidity of 30% to a final state of 110oF db

and 30% relative humidity. The air will first be heated by a hot water coil followed

with saturated vapor at 5 psig. Using the psychrometric chart:

(a) find the heat transfer rate for the heating coil

(b) find the mass flow rate of the water vapor

(c) sketch the processes on a psychrometric chart.

Assume sea level pressure.

The air here undergoes two distinct processes - a sensible only (constant humidity ratio)

heating through the coil and the addition of humidity as saturated steam. In this case the

steam is saturated and therefore that process follows a constant dry bulb line.

Air at initial state 1:

TDB,1 = 60°F, Φ1 = 30%, i1= 17.1 Btu/lb,

3

v1 = 13.18 ft /lb, W1= 0.00335 lbv/lba

Air at state 2:

TDB,2 = 110°F, i2 = 30.2 Btu/lb, W2 = 0.00335 lbv/lba

TDB,3 = 110°F, Φ3 = 30%, i3 = 45 Btu/lb,

v3 = 14.75 ft3/lb, W3= 0.01679 lbv/lba

Coil load is only the part of the load that increases the dry bulb temperature since the coil only

adds heat and no moisture.

Coil load:

∀D 2000

QD coil = mD a (i2 − i1 ) = (i 2 − i1 ) = (30.2 − 17.1) = 1988 ( Btu / min) = 119280 ( Btu / hr )

v1 13.18

∀D 2000

mD v = mD a (W3 − W2 ) = (W3 − W2 ) = (0.01679 − 0.00335) = 2.04 (lb/min) = 122.4

v1 13.18

(lb/min)

ALTERNATE SOLUTION

An energy balance can also be used to solve this problem keeping in mind that the

properties given on the psych. table are given per mass of DRY air. When solving for the

mass flow rate of dry air, however, you can neglect the contribution of the water in the

volume flow rate given.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

Diagram:

Qcoil mwater

ma * i2 +mw * is – ma * i3 = 0

from table A-1b in text)

2000 ( 45 − 30.2)

m w = m a ∗ (i3 − i2 ) / i s = = 1.99 (lb / min)

13.18 1131

3

1 2

4. Moist air enters a cooling coil at 28oC dry-bulb temperature and 50% relative

humidity and exits the coil at 13oC dry-bulb temperature and 90% relative

humidity. The flow rate through the coil is 1.50 kg/s and the process occurs at the

sea level pressure.

(a) Determine the sensible heat factor (SHF) for the process

(b) Determine the cooling coil capacity (heat transfer-rate)

(c) Sketch the process in the psychrometric chart denoting sensible and latent heat

Neglecting condensate,

QD CC = m

D a × (i1 − i2 ) = (1.50kg / s ) × (58.6kJ / kg − 34.2kj / kg ) = 36.6kW

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

5. Saturated steam is sprayed into a stream of moist air. The initial condition of the air

is 55oF dry-bulb temperature and 35oF dew-point temperature. The mass airflow

rate is 2000 lbm/min. Barometric pressure is 14.696 psi. Determine:

(a) How much steam must be added in lbm/min to produce a saturated air

condition, and

(b) The resulting dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature of the saturated air

mD v = m

D a × ( w2 − w1 ) = (2000lbm / min) × (0.010 − 0.0043lbm / lba ) = 11.4lbm / min

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 4

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 5

Practicum Assignment #5

1. A space is to be maintained at 72oF and 30% relative humidity during the winter months.

The sensible heat loss from the space is 500,000 Btu/hr and the latent heat loss due to

infiltration is 50,000 Btu/hr. Construct the condition line in the psychrometric chart.

2. Air at 10oC db and 5oC wb is mixed with air at 25oC db and 18oC wb in a steady-flow

process at standard atmospheric pressure. The volume flow rates are 10 m3/s and 6m3/s,

respectively.

(a) Compute the mixture conditions (enthalpy and humidity ratio)

(b) Find the mixture conditions using the psychrometric chart.

3. A building has a total load of 200,000 Btu/hr. The sensible heat factor for this space is

0.8. The space is to be maintained at 72oF and 40% relative humidity. Outdoor air at 40oF

and 20% relative humidity in the amount of 1000 cfm is required. Air is supplied to the

space at 120oF. Find:

(a) the conditions and amount of air supplied to the space,

(b) the temperature rise of the air through the furnace,

(c) the amount of water at 50oF required by the humidifier, and

(d) the capacity of the furnace.

Assume sea pressure level.

using an evaporative cooling system. Assume that the space is to be maintained at 80oF

and 50% relative humidity by a 100% outdoor air system. Outdoor design conditions are

91oF dry bulb and 59oF wet bulb. The cooling load is estimated to be 100 tons with a

sensible heat factor of 0.9. The supply air fan is located just downstream of the spray

chamber and is estimated to require 20 hp. Determine the volume flow rate of air to the

space, and sketch the process on a psychrometric chart.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 5

1. A space is to be maintained at 72oF and 30% relative humidity during the winter months.

The sensible heat loss from the space is 500,000 Btu/hr and the latent heat loss due to

infiltration is 50,000 Btu/hr. Construct the condition line in the psychrometric chart.

2. Air at 10oC db and 5oC wb is mixed with air at 25oC db and 18oC wb in a steady-flow

process at standard atmospheric pressure. The volume flow rates are 10 m3/s and 6m3/s,

respectively.

(a) Compute the mixture conditions (enthalpy and humidity ratio)

(b) Find the mixture conditions using the psychrometric chart.

3. A building has a total load of 200,000 Btu/hr. The sensible heat factor for this space is

0.8. The space is to be maintained at 72oF and 40% relative humidity. Outdoor air at 40oF

and 20% relative humidity in the amount of 1000 cfm is required. Air is supplied to the

space at 120oF. Find:

a. the conditions and amount of air supplied to the space,

b. the temperature rise of the air through the furnace,

c. the amount of water at 50oF required by the humidifier, and

d. the capacity of the furnace.

Assume sea pressure level.

using an evaporative cooling system. Assume that the space is to be maintained at 80oF

and 50% relative humidity by a 100% outdoor air system. Outdoor design conditions are

91oF dry bulb and 59oF wet bulb. The cooling load is estimated to be 100 tons with a

sensible heat factor of 0.9. The supply air fan is located just downstream of the spray

chamber and is estimated to require 20 hp. Determine the volume flow rate of air to the

space, and sketch the process on a psychrometric chart.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 5

1. A space is to be maintained at 72oF and 30% relative humidity during the winter months.

The sensible heat loss from the space is 500,000 Btu/hr and the latent heat loss due to

infiltration is 50,000 Btu/hr. Construct the condition line in the psychrometric chart.

500,000

SHF = = 0.91

550,000

2. Air at 10oC db and 5oC wb is mixed with air at 25oC db and 18oC wb in a steady-flow

process at standard atmospheric pressure. The volume flow rates are 10 m3/s and 6 m3/s,

respectively.

(a) Compute the mixture conditions (enthalpy and humidity ratio)

(b) Find the mixture conditions using the psychrometric chart.

Use mass weighted averages in order to find the mixed condition of the air.

/ v = 10 / 0.81 = 12.346 kg / s

(a) m a1 = Q1 1

m a 2 = 6 / 0.86 = 6.977 kg /s

i3 = = 30.26 kJ / kg

(12.346 + 6.977)

W3 =

( 12.346 + 6.977)

(b) The ratio between the mass flow rates of the air streams locates where the mixed

condition is on a line drawn between the two incoming states on the psych. chart.

mD a1 12.346 32

= = 0.64 =

mD a 3 (12.346 + 6.977) 12

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 5

This indicates the mixed condition is 64% of the way on the line towards air stream 1

3. A building has a total load of 200,000 Btu/hr. The sensible heat factor for this space is

0.8. The space is to be maintained at 72oF and 40% relative humidity. Outdoor air at 40oF

and 20% relative humidity in the amount of 1000 cfm is required. Air is supplied to the

space at 120oF. Find:

a. the conditions and amount of air supplied to the space,

b. the temperature rise of the air through the furnace,

c. the amount of water at 50oF required by the humidifier, and

d. the capacity of the furnace.

Assume sea pressure level.

t s = 120 / 76 F

qC 200,000

Cs =

m = r s

(i s − ir ) (39.4 − 24.4) l

3

2

1

= 13,333 lb/hr = m 0

40 61 72 120 142 F

Qs = m s vs = m s (14.8) / 60 = 3280 ft / min

3

m v 13,333 − 4762

= = 0.642; From Chart t 1 = 61 / 49 F

m 1 13,333

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 5

∆t fur = t3 − t1 = 143 - 61 = 82 F

using an evaporative cooling system. Assume that the space is to be maintained at 80oF

and 50% relative humidity by a 100% outdoor air system. Outdoor design conditions are

91oF dry bulb and 59oF wet bulb. The cooling load is estimated to be 100 tons with a

sensible heat factor of 0.9. The supply air fan is located just downstream of the spray

chamber and is estimated to require 20 hp. Determine the volume flow rate of air to the

space, and sketch the process on a psychrometric chart.

D = mD (i − i )

qD r = mD s (ir − is ); Wfan s s c

qD r = 1,200,000 Btu/hr

i3 = 28.1 Btu/lbm; m

D s = 480,000 lba/hr

0.9

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

Practicum Assignment #6

1. A condition exists where it is necessary to cool and dehumidify air from 80oF db and

67oF wb to 60oF db and 54oF wb.

(a) Discuss the feasibility of doing this in one process with a cooling coil. (Hint:

Determine the apparatus dewpoint temperature for the process.)

(b) Describe a practical method of achieving the required process, and sketch it on a

psychrometric chart.

2. Continue to design the air-conditioning system of the classroom at PSU for winter

heating. The example in the lecture notes (pg. 36 of Chapter2) specifies design

conditions.

(a) Design a heating system with a heating coil and a saturated-steam humidifier and

identify the corresponding air-handling processes in a psychrometric chart. The

system should include the components used for summer cooling.

(b) Size the equipment of the air-conditioning system proposed in (a). Use the data for

cooling if necessary.

3. A space is to be maintained at 78oF db and 68oF wb. The cooling system is a variable-air-

volume (VAV) type where the quantity of air supplied and the supply temperature are

controlled. Under design conditions, the total cooling load is 150 tons with a sensible heat

factor of 0.6, and the supply temperature is 60oF db. At minimum load, about 18 tons

with SHF of 0.8, the air quantity may be reduced no more than 80% by volume of the full

load design value.

(b) Show all the conditions on a psychrometric chart.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

1. A condition exists where it is necessary to cool and dehumidify air from 80oF db and

67oF wb to 60oF db and 54oF wb.

(a) Discuss the feasibility of doing this in one process with a cooling coil. (Hint:

Determine the apparatus dewpoint temperature for the process.)

(b) Describe a practical method of achieving the required process, and sketch it on a

psychrometric chart.

2. Continue to design the air-conditioning system of the classroom at PSU for winter

heating. The example in the lecture notes (pg. 36 of Chapter 2) specifies design

conditions.

(a) Design a heating system with a heating coil and a saturated-steam humidifier and

identify the corresponding air-handling processes in a psychrometric chart. The

system should include the components used for summer cooling.

(b) Size the equipment of the air-conditioning system proposed in (a). Use the data for

cooling if necessary.

3. A space is to be maintained at 78oF db and 68oF wb. The cooling system is a variable-air-

volume (VAV) type where the quantity of air supplied and the supply temperature are

controlled. Under design conditions, the total cooling load is 150 tons with a sensible heat

factor of 0.6, and the supply temperature is 60oF db. At minimum load, about 18 tons

with SHF of 0.8, the air quantity may be reduced no more than 80% by volume of the full

load design value.

(b) Show all the conditions on a psychrometric chart.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

1. A condition exists where it is necessary to cool and dehumidify air from 80oF db and

67oF wb to 60oF db and 54oF wb.

(a) Discuss the feasibility of doing this in one process with a cooling coil. (Hint:

Determine the apparatus dewpoint temperature for the process.)

(b) Describe a practical method of achieving the required process, and sketch it on a

psychrometric chart.

(a) It is probably impossible to cool the air from 1 to 2 in one process. The extension of line

1-2 does not intersect the saturation curve. Therefore, there is no feasible apparatus dew

point.

(b) Cool the air to state 1’ and then sensibly heat to state 2.

2

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

2. Continue to design the air-conditioning system of the classroom at PSU for winter

heating. The example in the lecture notes (pg. 36 of Chapter 2) specifies design

conditions.

(a) Design a heating system with a heating coil and a saturated-steam humidifier and

identify the corresponding air-handling processes in a psychrometric chart. The

system should include the components used for summer cooling.

(b) Size the equipment of the air-conditioning system proposed in (a). Use the data for

cooling if necessary.

Required: HVAC system Design.

Solution:

This problem is a continuous design of the example in chapter 3.5, which is given as: (only winter

conditions are listed below):

Walls 2000 T -14°C

Windows 2000 Twet /

/ / T 22°C

φ 50%

Air Supply Temperature: 60°C (max)

outdoor

air I

Filter Q+ Mixing Fan Q- W+ Q+ Room

preheat

heat

recover exhaust

Please Note:

• Preheat is needed in winter heating since condensation (freezing) may occur if out air mixes with

return air directly.

• Heat recover system is often used by taking heat out of exhaust air

• Cooling coil will be turned off in winter heating

• Heating coil only supplies sensible heat

1) Outdoor (O):

To = Tdry = -14 °C, φo=60% (design rule of thumb for winter RH)

From low T psych chart (attached at end of problem): Wo=0.00068 (kgw/kga), io= -12.5 (kJ/kg)

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

2) Indoor (R):

TR = 22 °C, φR=50%

From psych chart: WR = 0.008225 (kgw/kga), iR = 43.13 (kJ/kg)

Make a choice of supply air temperature TI < 60 °C , so pick up TI = 45 °C.

Since no latent heat to remove,

WI = WR = 0.008225 (kgw/kga)

From psych chart: iI = 66.71 kJ/kg

Heating Coil only adds sensible heat - humidification adds the rest of the heat in the form of

latent energy - see Psych chart below.

iI' = 55.6 kJ/kg - from psychrometric chart

Suppose we use heat recovery system to preheat the outdoor air, Tp =12.8°C [55°F] is a design

rule of thumb.

Tp = 12.8 °C

Wp = Wo = 0.00068 kgw/kga

From psych chart: ip = 14.6 (kJ/kg)

Wsen 4000

ma = = = 0.1722 (kg/s)

C p ∆T 1.01 × 10 3 × ( 45 − 22)

iM = = = = 27.22 (kJ/kg)

mo + mR ma 0.1722

WM = = = 0.00402 (kgw/kga)

ma 0.1722

(b) Now, it is our choice to size the equipments- heating coil, humidifier and fan. Suppose we heat the air

from mixing point to same temperature and use adiabatic humidification (maybe not the best way), then

Q humidification

Q heating coil

Ii'

Toa Tp Tra Ti

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

For heating coil Qheating = ma (iI' - iM ) = 0.1722 (55.6 – 27.22) = 4.89 (kW)

For humidifier: ∆W = WI - WM = 0.008225 - 0.00402 = 0.004205 (kgw/kga)

For fan: VD = ma /ρ = ma × v = 0.1722 × 0.828 = 0.1426 m3/s = 513 (m3/hr)

For preheater: Qpreh = mo (iP - io ) = 0.096 (14.6 - (-12.5)) = 2.60 (kW)

This equipment should be use in both heating (winter) and summer conditions. So we should pick up

the great value to size them.

From example: Fan 1200 m3/hr Our calc: Fan 513 m3/hr

Qcooling 7.156 kW Qcooling

Qheating 0.4 kW Qheating 4.89 kW

Fan: 1200 m3/hr

Cooling Coil: 7.156 kW

Heating Coil: 4.89 kW

Humidifier: 0.004205 (kgw/kga)

Pre-heater: 2.60 kW

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 6

3. A space is to be maintained at 78oF db and 68oF wb. The cooling system is a variable-air-

volume (VAV) type where the quantity of air supplied and the supply temperature are

controlled. Under design conditions, the total cooling load is 150 tons with a sensible heat

factor of 0.6, and the supply temperature is 60oF db. At minimum load, about 18 tons

with SHF of 0.8, the air quantity may be reduced no more than 80% by volume of the full

load design value.

(b) Show all the conditions on a psychrometric chart.

(a) qD d = mD d (ir − i s )

Using psych chart 1a, ir = 32.4 Btu/hr, is = 25.0Btu/hr

12,000 Btu / hr

(150tons ) ×

qD d 1ton

mD d = = = 243,243lbm / hr

(ir − is ) 32.4 − 25.0 Btu / lb

Vd = m d υ s =

D = 53,920cfm

60 min/ hr

mD m = = = 47,928lbm / hr where υ m is assumed

υm 13.5 ft 3 / lb

qD m = mD m (ir − im )

12,000 Btu / hr

(18tons ) ×

qD 1ton = 27.9 Btu / lb

im = ir − m = 32.4 Btu / lb −

mD m 47,928lbm / hr

(b) TDB ,m = 64 F

TWB ,m = 62 F

r

m

s

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 7

Practicum Assignment #7

1. During the winter months it is possible to cool and dehumidify a space using outdoor air.

Suppose an interior zone of a large building is designed to have a supply airflow rate of

5000 cfm, which can be all outdoor air. The cooling load is constant at 10 tons with a

SHF of 0.8 the year round. Indoor conditions are 78oF db and 67oF wb.

(a) What is the maximum outdoor air dry bulb temperature and humidity ratio that would

satisfy the load condition?

(b) Consider a different time when the outdoor air has a temperature of 40oF db and 20%

relative humidity. Return air and outdoor air may be mixed to cool the space, but

humidification will be required. Assume that saturated water vapor at 14.7 psia is

used to humidify the mixed air, and compute the amounts of outdoor and return air in

cfm.

(c) At another time, outdoor air is at 70oF db with a relative humidity of 90%. The

cooling coil is estimated to have a minimum apparatus dew point of 50oF. What

amount of outdoor air and return air should be mixed before entering the coil to

satisfy the given load condition?

(d) What is the refrigeration load for the coil of part (c) above?

2. An economizer mixes outdoor air with room return air to reduce the refrigeration load on

the cooling coil.

(a) For a space condition of 25oC db and 20oC wb, describe the maximum wet bulb and

dry bulb temperatures that will reduce the coil load.

(b) Suppose a system is designed to supply 5m3/s abd 18oC db and 17oC wb to a space

maintained at the conditions given in part (a) above. What amount outdoor air at 20oC

db and 90% relative humidity can be mixed with the return air if the coil SHF is 0.6?

(c) What are the apparatus dew point and the bypass factor in part (b) above?

(d) Compare the coil refrigeration load in part (b) above with the outdoor air to that

without outdoor air.

AE 310 Fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Practicum Assignment 8

Practicum Assignment #8

(a) What is the minimum amount of fresh outdoor air required?

(b) The floor area is 1500 ft2. What is the outdoor air ventilation requirement on the

bases of floor area?

2. What level, in ppm, will the CO2 concentration be in a space in steady state, if CO2 is being

released into the space at the rate of 0.25 cfm and outdoor air with a CO2 concentration of

200 ppm is being supplied to the space at the rate of 1000 cfm? Assume complete mixing.

3. The same space as in problem 2 uses a mixing with the recirculation rate of 0.4 in order to

conserve energy. If the CO2 release rate and fresh air supply is the same as in problem 2,

calculate the CO2 concentration (ppm) in the space in steady state. Note: Recirculation rate

R=Recirculated Air / Total Supply Air