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# Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Introduction -

1. What is abacus?

Abacus is a tool used to do arithmetic calculations easier and faster. The tool is made up of a
rectangular frame, a bar, columns and beads.

## 2. What is Indian abacus?

The Indian Abacus is also an Abacus tool but with advanced features. Movement of the sliders towards
the bar in Indian Abacus project colour images. Since the colour images get registered better requiring
no big effort, learning image based arithmetic calculations using Indian Abacus will be effortless and
stress-free and will result in better image memory.

Indian Abacus Digital is also a manually operable Abacus with the required built in Hardware and
software and thus the student can work accessing the On-line Indian Abacus Program portal to learn and
practice Abacus calculations and could take assessments also on-line.

3. What is frame?

## 5. What are columns?

The Columns / the slots in Indian Abacus are the vertical grooves running from top to bottom of the
Abacus, in which the lower and upper sliders are made to move for value and no values positions.

## There are totally thirteen columns / slots in Indian Abacus.

7. What is bar?

The bar is the horizontal member within the frame of the Abacus which is positioned more towards the
top and runs from the left side of the frame to the right side of the frame.
8. What are sliders?

Sliders are the moving members in Indian Abacus, which are the replacement for the beads of the
conventional abacus. Like the beads, the sliders of Indian Abacus can be made to move up and down.
In Indian Abacus, there are 4 Lower sliders and 1 Upper slider in each column. By the movement of
sliders towards the bar, value/s is added and by moving them away from the bar, value/s is subtracted.
Movement of the sliders therefore determine values while doing Abacus calculations.

## 9. What is 9th column pointer in Indian Abacus?

The 9th column pointer is called home column. It is the start point for the positive numbers, it is used to
start the computation and it represents unit value.

## 10. What is clearance of abacus?

Before the start of a fresh computation in abacus it must be cleared to get zero position in all the
columns, which means the sliders have to be moved to the no-value positions (away from the bar)

## 11. How many types of clearence of abacus are there?

There are two types of clearance of abacus. They are the long clearance and short clearance.

## 12. What are the mental sums?

The sums meant to be solved mentally using Abacus image based computation / calculation are the
mental sums. The students doing mental sums, visualize the mental abacus and move the slider images
of the abacus mentally to calculate and arrive at the correct answer.

## 13. What is mental orals?

Mental orals are the Oral sums meant to be solved using mental abacus, i.e. visualizing the mental
abacus the students solve oral sums called out by the Abacus Tutor.

Sliders
14. What are lower sliders?

The sliders which are below the Bar are called Lower Sliders. Lower sliders are moved up towards the
bar for value positions. Each lower sliders value when moved towards the bar is ONE

## 15. What are the upper sliders?

The sliders which are above the Bar are called Upper Sliders. Upper sliders are moved down towards
the bar for value positions. Each Upper sliders value when moved towards the bar is FIVE

16. How many Lower and Upper sliders are there in each column / slot?

There are totally 5 sliders in each column / slot - 4 Lower Sliders and 1 Upper slider
17. When does a slider assign value?

## 18. When does the slider lose its value?

The sliders when moved away from the bar they lose value.

Operations
19. What is a plus operation?

## 20. What is a minus operation?

The movement of the sliders away from the bar is (-) minus operation.

21. Which finger should be used for lower slider in the 9th column for plus (+) operation in
Indian Abacus?

Right hand thumb finger should be used for lower slider in the 9th column for plus (+) operation.

22. Which finger should be used for upper slider in the 9th column for plus (+) operation in
Indian Abacus?

Right hand index finger should be used for upper slider in the 9th column for plus (+) operation.

23. Which finger should be used for lower slider in the 9th column for minus (-) operation in
Indian Abacus?

Right hand index finger should be used for lower sliders in the 9th column for minus (-) operation.

24. Which finger should be used for upper slider in the 9th column for minus (-) operation in
Indian Abacus?

Right hand index finger should be used for upper slider in the 9th column for minus (-) operation.

25. Which finger should be used for upper slider in the 10th column for plus (+) operation?

Left hand middle finger should be used for upper slider in the 10th column for plus (+) operation.

26. Which finger should be used for lower slider in the 10th column for plus (+) operation?

Left hand index finger should be used for lower sliders in the 10th column for plus (+) operation.

27. Which finger should be used for lower slider in the 10th column for minus (-) operation?

Left hand index finger should be used for lower sliders in the 10th column for minus (-) operation.
28. Which finger should be used for upper slider in the 10th column for minus (-) operation?

Left hand middle finger should be used for upper sliders in the 10th column for minus (-) operation.

## 29. What is sitting posture?

Sitting erect on the half chair with back straight, keeping only palms on the table is called sitting
posture.

## 30. How Right hand writers should hold the pencil?

Right Hander's should hold the pencil with last 3 fingers of right hand, index finger and thumb.
pointing out, allowing 2.5 cm projection at end of Pencil.

## 31. How Left Hand writers should hold the pencil?

Left Hander's should hold pencil in left hand passing between thumb and index finger and out of ring and
last finger allowing 2.5 cm projection at end of Pencil. Hold abacus along with holding the pencil in the
left hand.

## 32. How the abacus should be held?

Abacus must be held in left hand using thumb, ring and small fingers together.

## 33. How abacus should be positioned on the table?

Abacus must be placed 4 fingers away from the edge of the table ensuring the 7th column pointer of
Indian Abacus Digital, in alignment with the nose.

## 34. How abacus should be positioned on the book?

The abacus should be placed on the book below the row in which sums are being done, the unit point
should be placed below the sum which is being currently solved or within a group of 5 sums.

## 35. What is long clearance and why it is used?

Long clearance is used to clear abacus sliders in all the columns. This is used when small friend formulae
fingering exercise is practiced.

## 36. What is short clearance and why it is used?

Short clearance is used to clear a very few columns in abacus to keep the abacus in zero position short
clearance is mostly used to practice sums.

## 37. What is the method of long clearance?

Hold the abacus using left hand small finger, ring finger and thumb finger and hold the bar by using right
hand index finger and thumb finger on either side of the bar sweep all the sliders from left side to right
side.
38. What is the method for short clearance?

Hold the abacus using left hand small finger, ring finger and thumb finger, by using right hand index and
thumb finger hold either side of the bar and sweep the sliders from right to left side where it is required.

## 39. What is the benefit of learning abacus concept?

Learning and practicing of the concept of Abacus based calculation skills, using physical Abacus initially &
mental Abacus in the later stage, the children learning, would benefit through the enhancement of brain
skills like - concentration, visualization, Speed & accuracy and Memory power.

Values of columns

40. What is the value of the 9th column in Indian Abacus Digital?

This column represents the value in units/ones. This column is also called home column.

## 47. What is formula?

Formula is a derived rule arrived at after methodical application. Using of the formula helps in doing the
computation faster & methodically too.

## 48. When and why do we use formula?

While doing Abacus based calculations, the formula is used when there are no direct numbers available to
move the sliders within the column. In such cases, formula must be applied to get the right answer.

49. What are the fingers to be used for direct numbers in the 9th column in Indian Abacus?

Right hand thumb finger must be used to do addition (move lower sliders towards the bar) and right hand
index finger to be used to do subtraction (move lower sliders away from the bar) in the 9th column in
Indian Abacus. Use right hand index finger to move upper slider for both addition and subtraction.

50. What are the fingers to be used for direct numbers in the 10th column?

Left hand index finger must be used to do both subtraction and addition of lower sliders and Left hand
middle finger must be used to move upper slider in the 10th column.

## 51. What are friends?

Friends are the pair of two numbers to complete supplement (10) or complement (5) numbers.

## Only one column must be used to apply small friend formula.

54. What are the fingers to be used to apply small friend formula?

Right hand index and thumb fingers together simultaneously in the 9th column and Left hand middle
fingers and index fingers together sumultaneously in 10th column must be used to apply small friend
formula when working with the Indian Abacus Digital

## Basically two columns are required to apply big friend formula.

57. Which of the fingers are to be used to apply big friend formula?

Both hands index fingers should be used simultaneoulsy right hand index finger for -1 to -5 and right hand
thumb finger for +1 to +4 and both index and thumb fingers together for +/- 6 to +/- 9 and left hand
index finger for +10

## 58. What are the combination/mixed friends?

Combination/Mixed Friend numbers are the combination of 5 & 10 to get values above 10.

59. How many columns are required to use combination/mixed friends formula?

Basically 9th & 10th columns require to apply combination/mixed friends formula.
60. Which of the fingers are to be used to apply combination/mixed friends formula?

Right hand index and thumb fingers and left hand index finger together simultaneously should be moved
in the same direction.

## Procedure for arithmetic operations

61. What is the procedure to do double digit addition and subtraction sums?

Always start calculating sums from left side numbers first and follow with right side numbers for each row
and row by row by applying required formula.

62. What is the procedure to do triple digit addition and subtraction sums in abacus?

Always start doing sums from left side numbers first and follow with right side numbers for each row and
row by row. E.g. start with 3rd digit first and apply 2nd digit and then apply the 1st digit number. Follow
same procedure for more number of digits.

63. Which of the fingers are to be used in abacus for double digits addition and subtraction
sums?

Left hand middle and index fingers and right hand index finger and thumb finger

64. Which of the fingers are to be used in Indian abacus-Digital for triple digits addition and
subtraction sums?

In the 9th & 8th column left hand should be used and in the 7th column right hand should be used. If 2
digits are applied simultaneously then left hand must be used in the 9th column and right hand must be
used in the 8th column and again right hand should be used in the 7th column.

Activities

## 65. What is speed writing?

Speed writing is an activity to increase writing speed in a child, while maintaining / improving the legibility
and neatness.

## 66. What should be done for Direct View speed writing?

Write normally numbers as 1234567890 repeatedly row after row for a period of one minute.

## 67. What should be done for Indirect View speed writing?

Write numbers as 1234567890 repeatedly row after row without looking at what you are writing for a
period of one minute.
68. What should be done for Left Hand speed writing?

Write numbers as 1234567890 repeatedly row after row using left hand for a period of one minute.

69. When right hand writers will write using left hand, how left hand writers will write the same?

## 71. What is the role of Left handers in speed writing?

Left handers must write the same numbers for Direct view, Indirect View using left hand. The last activity
must be done using right hand.

## 72. What is the use of fingering /speed writing note book?

The activities like orals - the answers to oral questions, speed writing - writing numbers for Direct view,
Indirect view and Left hand writing in the speed writing note book, random writing - listening to the
called out numbers and writing the same are all done in the fingering/speed writing note book.

## 73. What is random writing?

Listening to the called out numbers and writing the same in the note book or entering in the portal
page.

## 74. What are flash cards?

Flash cards are the tools used to test the image memory of the students. The Flash cards will have
number value of the image/s on its rear. The tutor will show the image side of the flash cards and expect
the students to write the value of the image/s seen. Practicing done using flash cards will result in
improved visualization and will be effective when the Image Memory for the corresponding number/s is
strengthened.

## 75. What is the benefit of using flash cards?

Flash cards (number) are very effective in improving the Visual Short Term Memory.

## 76. What are the uses of flash cards?

Flash cards are helpful in improving the reading speed and are also used for visual orals in the class.

## 77. What is fingering exercise? Why it is used?

Fingering exercise is an activity to make strong usage of fingers on sliders. It is aslo helpful in practicing
formulae repeatedly to attain skills and speed.

78. How many types of fingering exercise are there? What are they?

There are five types of fingering exercises. They are fixed numbers, repeated numbers, continuous
numbers, horizontal addition and subtraction and basic fingering exercise based on formulae.
79. What is fixed number exercise?

## 80. What is repeated numbers?

Computing two, three, four and so on digits repeatedly on abacus or mentally. Eg. 23/625/3452/79164 in
a given time.

## 81. What are continuous numbers?

Computing numbers continuously using required formulae until the target is reached. Eg: 1 to 10/
1 to 100/1 to 500/ 1 to 1000/ 1 to 5000.

## 82. What is horizontal addition and subtraction?

Adding numbers 123456789 repeatedly using 9 columns (same number in the same column) until the
answer is reached to 1111111101.

Subtracting numbers 123456789 repeatedly from 1111111101 using 9 columns (same number in the
same column) until the answer is reached to 0

## 83. What is basic exercise?

The fingering exercise which is practiced based on the particular formula. (This practice is done in the first
level course).

## 84. What are orals?

Orals are basically numbers call out for computation using abacus or mentally which helps to increase
listening skills and speed of computation.

## 85. How many types of Orals are there?

There are two types of Orals. They are Abacus Orals and Mental Orals.

## 88. What is the benefit of orals practice?

To achieve good proficiency in abacus computation, to develop listening skills and to develop
concentration orals must be practiced.

## 89. What is random writing?

Listening and writing numbers - listening to the called out numbers and writing the same in the note book.
Contents of books in each level

## 91. What is the basic content of Movers?

Arithmetic operations - Addition & subtraction with increased number of digits and rows.

## 95. What is the basic content of Endeavours?

Arithmetic operations - Addition & subtraction, multiplication and division with increased number
of digits and rows.

## 96. What is the basic content of Achievers?

Arithmetic operations - Introduction of decimal Addition & subtraction, multiplication and division with
increased number of digits and rows.

## 97. What is the basic content of Stars?

Arithmetic operations - Introduction of decimal Addition & subtraction, multiplication and division with
increased number of digits and rows.

## Mental sums are introduced in the 2nd level

Regards
N. Basheer Ahamed
Inventor Indian Abacus
www.indianabacus.com

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