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612 SIMANCAS SlMIYA'

SIMANCAS [see SHANT MANKASH]. beside simd, simd3 (Kur'an, XLVIII, 29 etc.; al-Baydawi,
SIMAW, modern Turkish SIMAV, a town of ed. Fleischer, i, 326, 14, 15), in the sense "mark, sign,
northwestern Anatolia, lying on the river of the badge" (Lane 1476a; Sahdh, s.v., ed. Bulak, 1282, ii,
same name and just to the south-east of the Simav 200; Hamdsa, ed. Freytag, 696; L'A, xv, 205). But the
Golii, 90 km/58 miles as the crow flies to the south- word, as a name for certain genres of magic,
west of Kiitahya [q.v.] and on the road connecting had a quite different derivation; in that sense it is
Bahkesir with Usak (lat. 39 05' N., long. 28 59' E., from oTijieia, through the Syriac simya (pi.), and means
altitude 823 m/2,700 feet). In later Ottoman times, "signs, letters of the alphabet" (Dozy, SuppL, i, 708b,
it was the chef-lieu of a kadd3 of the same name, and and references there; Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus,
is now the centre of the ilfe or district of Simav in ii, col. 2614). In Bocthor, Dictionnaire Jranf ais-arabe, i,
the il or province of Kiitahya. One should not con- 154b, under Chiromancie, simiyd3 is given as one of
fuse it, as did Babinger in his EP art., with Simawna three Arabic renderings. By Barhebraeus (d. 685/1286)
in eastern Thrace, the birthplace of the early Ottoman the Syriac and Arabic forms are used together (Chron.
rebel, Shaykh Badr al-Dm b. Kadi Simawna [q.v.]. Syr., ed. Paris, 14, 7; Mukhtasar, ed. Pococke, 33); ac-
In Antiquity, it was the Synaos of western Phrygia, cording to these passages the science (cilni) was
and vestiges of the town's classical past remain. In "invented" in the time of Moses by a certain ^^Jyl,
Byzantine times it was the seat of a bishop, and there which Bruns and Kirsch rendered "Eunumius", but
are relics of the Byzantine citadel. In the 8th/14th he seems to be quite unknown. The Muhit al-muhtt,
century it came within the beylik or principality of the ii, 1032b, suggests a derivation from TOtf "name of
Germiyan Oghullari [q.v.], but was ceded to the Otto- Allah", and the Names of Allah certainly play a large
man sultan Murad I in 783/1381 (see N. Vatin, in part in simiyd3 (Doutte, Magie et religion, 344, who also
R. Mantran (ed.), Histoire de I'empire ottoman, Paris 1989, suggests, 102, that the form of the word has been
43). Simaw was the birthplace of several well-known affected by kimiyd3; but see above).
Ottoman scholars, such as Shaykh cAbd Allah Ilahf The term, apart from this dubious sense of "chiro-
(d. 896/1491) and Kara Shams al-Dm (see Ewliya mancy", has been and is applied to two quite different
Celebi, Seydhat-ndme, iii, 377). It was visited by sev- branches of magic. (1) It is very widely applied at
eral 19th-century scholars, including Wm. Hamilton, the present day to what is often called "natural magic",
A.D. Mordtmann Senr., K. Buresch and Th. Wiegand. but is evidently hypnotism. Ibn Khaldun (Mukaddima,
Modern Simaw was rebuilt after a fire of 1911. ed. Quatremere, iii, 126, tr. Rosenthal, iii, 158) gives
After the First World War, it was occupied by the this as the third division of magic (sihr) in his arrange-
Greek army from July 1921 to September 1922. ment and says that the philosophers (al-faldsifa) call it
Carpet-weaving has been one of its industries. In 1965 shacwadha and shacbadha [q.v]. Ibn Khaldun expresses
the population was 7,877. it very clearly as a working of the nafs of the magi-
Bibliography: PW, 2nd ser., iv. A.2, cols. 1326-7 cian on the imagination of his subject, conveying cer-
(Ruge); Ewliya Celebi, Seydhat-ndme, ix, Istanbul tain ideas and forms which are then transferred to
1935, 44-50; WJ. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, the senses of the subject and objectify themselves exter-
London 1842, ii, 124; Sh. Samf Frasheri, Kdmus nally in appearances which have no external reality.
al-acldm, iv, 2625; V. Cuinet, La Turquie d'Asie, iv, Well-described cases of this will be found in Lane's
222 ff.; K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, Leipzig 1898, 142 Arabian nights, ch. i, n. 15, ii, Modern Egyptians, ch. xii;
ff.; Th. Wiegand, in Athenische Mitteilungen, xxix Ibn Battuta, iii, 452, iv, 277; Noldeke, Doctor und
(Athens 1904), 324 (with view); A.D. Mordtmann, Garkoch, 5 and passim. Cf. also Doutte, Magie et religion,
ed. F. Babinger, Anatolien, Hanover 1925, 40-1; 102, 345, who calls it also mranfi; Muhit, ii, 1032b;
Admiralty Handbooks, Turkey, London 1942-3, i, Chauvin, Bibl. ar., part vii, 102, and references there.
129, ii, 207, 421-2, 581; Belediyeler yilligi, Ankara (2) The second is dealt with at length by Ibn
1945, iii, 334-40; I A, art. Simav (Besim Darkot). Khaldun in a special section (ed. Quatremere, iii,
(C.E. BOSWORTH) 137 ff., tr. Rosenthal, iii, 170 ff.). In Ibn Khaldun's
SIMDJURIDS, a line of Turkish comman- time (d. 808/1405) it was called distinctly simiyd3. Ibn
ders and governors, originally of slave origin, for Khaldun prefers to call it the science of the secret
the Samanids in 4th/1 Oth-century Khurasan. powers of letters (huruf [q.v]} because simiyd3 was origi-
The founder, Abu Imran Sfmdjur, was the amir nally a broader term applied to the whole science of
Isma'il b. Ahmad's [q.v] ceremonial ink-stand bearer talismans and this limited use only originated in the
(dawdfi). He became Samanid governor of Slstan [q.v] extremist school of Sufi's, who professed to be able
in 300-1/913-14 when the local dynasty of the Saffarids to control (tasarrafa) the material world by means of
[q.v] were temporarily driven out. Thereafter, the fam- these letters and the names and figures compounded
ily was prominent as governors of Khurasan for the from them. It was thus considered a possible study
amirs, involved in warfare with the Samanids' rivals and practice for pious Muslims. But the Suits who
in northern Persia such as the Buyids, and they ac- took it up were of the speculative and pantheistic
quired a territorial base of estates in Kuhistan [q.v]. school and claimed control of the elemental world
They were active in the tortuous politics and cam- and power to invade its order (khawdrik al-cdda) and
paignings of the last decades of the Samanids. The asserted that all existence descended in a certain
last-mentioned member of the family is Abu '1-Kasim sequence from a Unity (the Neoplatonic Chain). In
'All, commander in Khurasan till 392/1002. their system the entelechy (kamdl) of the Divine Names
Bibliography: Sam'anf, Ansdb, ed. Haydarabad, proceeds from the help of the spirits of the spheres
vi, 351-5; Barthold, Turkestan; 246 ff.; Erdogan and of the stars, and the natures and secret powers
Mercil, Simcunler. I-IV, Istanbul n.d. [ca. 1986], origi- of the letters circulate in the Names built out of them.
nally published in various journals; C.E. Bosworth, Then they circulate similarly in the changes of tran-
The history of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of sient becoming (al-akuudn) in this world and these akwdn
Mmruz, Costa Mesa and New York 1994, 271-3; pass from the first initial creation (al-ibdd{) into the
idem, The New Islamic dynasties, Edinburgh 1996, different phases of that creation and express clearly
no. 86. (C.E. BOSWORTH) its secrets. This seems to mean that letters contain
SIMIYA', in form like kibriyd3, belongs to old Arabic the primal secrets of creation and the secret powers
SIMIYA5 SIMNAN 613

which still circulate in the akwan and that the Divine 431, fols. 131-54; Ibn al-Hadjdj al-Maghribl al-
Names and Allocutions (kalimdt [q.v]) are produced Tilimsanf (d. 736/1336), R.fi 'l-Simiyd3, Cairo, Fihris,
from letters; therefore the elemental world and the vi, 418; Djlli (d. 831/1428), cUyun al-hadd3ik fi Ml
akwan in it can be controlled by these names and md yuhmal min cilm al-tard3ik, B.N. Paris ms. 2595.
allocutions when used by spiritual souls (nufus rab- There are three anonyma in the B.N., Paris: al-
bdniyyd). That is the doctrine of al-Bunf [q.v], Ibn Shardsim al-hindiyya Ji cilm al-simiyd'', mss. 2634-5; al-
c
ArabI [q.v.] and their followers. As to the nature and Shacbadha wa 'l-simiyd3, ms. 2595, fols. 136-48; and
origin of this secret power in letters, there is dispute. Simiyd3, ms. 2357, fols. 143-56.
Some assign it to an elemental nature or constitution On these texts, see the refs. in M. Ullmann, Die
(mizddj.) and divide letters into four classes according Natur- und Geheimwissenschajten im Islam, HdO, Leiden-
to the four elements. Others ascribe it to a numeri- Cologne 1972, 391 ff.; A. Kovalenko, Magie et Islam.
cal relationship (nisba cadadiyya] based on the value of Les concepts de magie (sihr) et de sciences occultes ('Urn al-
the letters as numbers (abajad). Ibn Khaldun admits ghayb) en Islam, diss. Strasbourg 1979, publ. Geneva
that there does exist such control of the material world 1981, 22 ff., 434.
but it is by divine grace in the kardmdt [q.v.] of the (D.B. MAcDoNALD-[T. FAHD])
waits [q.v.], and when those who lack that divine grace SIMNAN, a town of northern Persia (long.
and insight endeavour to exert the same control by 53 24' E., lat. 35 33' N., alt. 1,138 m/3,734 ft),
means of these names and allocutions, they are in in mediaeval Islamic times coming within the province
the same class as the workers of magic by means of of Kumis [q.v] and lying on the great highway con-
talismans, except that they have not the scientific train- necting Rayy with the administrative centre of Kumis,
ing and system of these magicians. They may pro- sc. Damghan [q.v], and Khurasan. To its north is
duce effects through the influence of the human nafs situated the Elburz Mountain chain and to its south,
and purpose (himma)which for Ibn Khaldun is the the Great Desert.
basis of all such working, licit and illicitbut these 1. History.
effects are contemptible besides those of the profes- Simnan comes within what was the heartland of
sional magicians. Ibn Khaldun, therefore, disapproves the Parthians (whose capital almost certainly was at
of this attempt by al-Bunl and others to produce a Shahr-i Kumis, southeast of Damghan on the Simnan
pious and licit magic; but there is no question that road), but nothing is known of any pre-Islamic his-
al-Bunf has imposed his system upon Islam. The best tory for the town, even though legend later attrib-
description of this state of mind which sees in letters uted its foundation to Tahmurath (Mustawfi, Nuzha,
relations to the universe and a science of the uni- 161, tr. 157). At the time of the Abbasid Revolution
verse is in Louis Massignon's Al-Halldaj, 588 ff.; see (131/748-9) it was described as a mere village, occu-
also Doutte, 172 ff. It is evident that this is a sister pied by the forces of the ddci Kahtaba's son al-Hasan
phase of thought to the Jewish Kabbala of the alpha- in the course of the march westwards in pursuit of
betic and thaumaturgic type connected with the divine the Umayyad governor Nasr b. Sayyar [q.v] (al-Tabarl,
names, teaching that the science of letters is the sci- iii, 2-3). In 267/880-1 the soldier of fortune Ahmad
ence of the essences of things and that by letters God al-Khudjistanl, who had seized Khurasan from the
created and controls the world and that men by suit- Saffarid cAmr b. al-Layth, reached as far as Simnan
able knowledge of these can control material things in an abortive attack on Rayy (ibid., iii, 2008).
(see C.D. Ginsburg, The Kabbalah, 127; art. KABBALA, By the time of the 4th/10th century geographers,
by H. Loewe, in Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Rel and however, Simnan had become a flourishing town, with
Ethics, vii, 622-8). fertile gardens and agricultural lands watered by the
Finally, one should note that the term simd, men- stream which came down from the Elburz and ran
tioned in the Kur'an (II, 273, VII, 46, 48, XLVIII, through it. The waters were canalised and allotted to
29, LV, 41), denotes a mark of recognition of the the users in rotation, and also stored in cisterns.
believer, either physical (mark on the forehead from Simnan is mentioned in the accounts of the fighting
practising the Muslim worship) or moral (the result between various Caspian princes and the generals of
of his good or bad behaviour). Likewise in Hadith, the Samanids in the early 4th/10th century (see Ibn
simd, simd3, denotes the distinctive mark of Muslims al-Athlr, ed. Beirut, viii, 191, 390). In Ghaznawid
in relation to other peoples (umam) (Muslim, Tahdra, times, the local governor Abu Harb Bakhtiyar car-
36-7) and the mark resulting from the effects of the ried out building works in the town (see 2. below),
worship on their foreheads, allowing one to distin- and although in 427/1036 it was plundered by the
guish them from other peoples on the Day of so-called '"Iraki" Turkmens en route for Rayy and
Resurrection (al-Tirmidhf, Dfum'a, 74). This term has Adharbaydjan '(Ibn al-Athlr, ix, 379), by 437/1046 it
thus no connection with simiyd3, a transliteration of must have been rebuilt enough for Nasir-i Khusraw
CTrpeux, a derivative of muieiov, with the same sense to have halted there on his Pilgrimage westwards and
as simd. But just as simiyd3 evokes sihr "magic, white to have had learned discussions with local scholars
or phantasmagoric", simd evokes firdsa [q.v] "physiog- (Safar-ndma, ed. M. Dabir-Siyakl, Tehran 1335/1956,
nomy". In Persian, simyd "natural magic" is distin- 3, Eng. tr. W.M. Thackston, Albany 1986, 2-3). When
guished from simyd3 "mark, sign", according to Yakut described Simnan (probably utilising earlier
Steingass, Dictionary, 718. information of al-Sam'&nf), there were signs of ruin
Bibliography: On simiyd3, see Ibn Khaldun. and decline (Mu'ajam dtl-bulddn, ed. Beirut, iii, 251-2),
Mukaddima, ed. Quatremere, iii, 137-61, tr. idem, which must have been intensified by the devasta-
iii,'188-200 (pp. 147-91 of text not tr. by him), tion in 618/1221 of the Mongol commander Siibetey
Eng. tr. Rosenthal, iii, 182-227; Hadjdjr Khalifa, (Djuwaynf-Boyle, i, 146-7).
Kashf, iii, 646-7. There are several works on simiyd3, Simnan has nevertheless survived as a town of mod-
from which one may cite Abu '1-Kasim Ahmad al- erate importance, largely because of its position on
TrakT, known as al-Sfmawf (7th/13th century), cUyun the Khurasanian highway. It was the home town of
al-hadd3ik wa-lddh al-tard3ik, Cairo 1321/1906; the famous Sunn! mystic cAlaJ al-Dawla Simnam (659-
Ahmad b. Muh b. al-Banna' (d. ca. 721/1321), 736/1261-1336 [q.v]). At the end of the 19th century,
c
Uyun al-hadd3ikfi cilm al-simiyd3, B.N. of Tunis, ms. Curzon found it prosperous enough, with tobacco