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Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry February 2007

ver. 1

www.traditionaltree.org

Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis
on Pacific island cultivars
Musaceae (banana family)

Randy C. Ploetz, Angela Kay Kepler, Jeff Daniells, and Scot C. Nelson

photo: C. Elevitch
INTRODUCTION
The plant family Musaceae, composed of ba-
nanas, plantains, and ornamental bananas,
originally evolved in Southeast Asia and sur-
rounding tropical and subtropical regions (in-
cluding New Guinea). Africa is a secondary
center of diversity.
The two genera Ensete and Musa in the family
Musaceae are covered here.
Please note that this manuscript is not all-in-
clusive and that much of the complex species
and cultivar taxonomy is in the process of re-
vision and expansion. Readers are encouraged
to consult with the many excellent online re-
sources listed in the “Bibliography” for current
information.

‘Manini’, a variegated Hawaiian banana.

Part 1: Taxa in the Musaceae Cheesman, E. holstii (Schumann) Cheesman, E. ulugurense
(Warburg) Cheesman, E. fecundum (Stapf ) Cheesman, E.
laurentii (De Wild.) Cheesman, E. bagshawei (Rendle and
Greves) Cheesman, E. davyae (Stapf ) Cheesman, E. ruan-
Ensete dense (De Wild.) Cheesman, E. rubronervatum (De Wild.)
The genus Ensete ranges throughout Africa and southern Cheesman, M. africana Hort.
Asia. Depending on the authority, the genus Ensete contains Description: This is the most important species in the ge-
as many as nine species. They are monocarpic, unbranched nus. Reaching 5–7 m (16–23 ft) tall, it ranges throughout
herbs that sucker rarely and are used for food, fiber, and as much of the African continent, and produces a rhizome
ornamentals. They resemble banana plants, but their wide- that is used as a staple food by approximately 8 million
spreading and immensely long, paddle-shaped leaves with people in the Ethiopian highlands. The variety ‘Maurelii’,
usually crimson midribs, are unmistakable. Their fruits are ‘Red Abyssinian’, or ‘Black banana’ (synonym E. maurelii)
similar in appearance to those of banana, but they are dry, is the most colorful, with the brightest red midribs, above
seedy, and inedible. The entire plant dies after fruiting. and below, with rich dark red leaf stalks (petioles) and
Ensete gilletii (De Wild.) Cheesman blackish-red leaf blades. Its flower cluster, embraced in
maroon bracts, may reach 3 m (10 ft) long. The seeds are
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman. Common names: Wild
large, about 18 mm diameter x 14 mm deep (0.7 in x 0.5
banana, Seeded sweet banana, “Virgin” banana, or Virgin
in). Introduced into Hawai‘i, it is rare or no longer present
(Philippines)
there.
Synonyms: M. glauca Roxb., M. nepalensis Wallich in
Roxb., M. troglodytarum L. var. dolioliformis F. M. Blanco,
M. gigantea Kuntze, M. calosperma von Mueller, M. wilsonii
Tutcher, E. calospermum (von Mueller) Cheesman, E. wil-
sonii (Tutcher) Cheesman, M. agharkarii Chakravorti, E.
gigantea (Kuntze) T. Nakai, E. nepalensis (Wallich) Chees-
man, err. cal. Simmonds, E. agharkarii (Chakravorti) Hore,
Sharma and Pandey
Description: This species has small, oval bananas in a very
small, compact bunch, atop a huge bud with green turning
to pale brown, persistent bracts producing a “messy” rachis
similar to dwarf edible bananas (for example, ‘Dwarf Cav-
endish’, ‘Prata Aña’). The seeds are about 10 mm diameter
x 11 mm deep (0.4 in x 0.43 in). The seeds are strung into
necklaces in PNG.
Ensete homblei (Bequaert) Cheesman
Ensete perrieri (Claverie) Cheesman
Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman
Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman. Common names:
Enset, Ensete, Abyssinian banana or Plantain, Ethiopian,
Black, Bruce’s or wild banana
Synonyms: Musa ensete Gmel., M. ventricosa Welw., M.
buchananii Baker, M. schweinfurthii Schumann and War-
burg ex Schumann, M. arnoldiana De Wild., M. holstii
Schumann, M. ulugurensis Warburg and Moritz ex War-
burg, M. fecunda Stapf, M. laurentii De Wild., M. bagsha-
wei Rendle and Greves, M. davyae Stapf, M. ruandensis De
Wild., M. rubronervata De Wild., E. edule Horan., E. bu-
chanani (Baker) Cheesman, E. schweinfurthii (Schumann
and Warburg) Cheesman, E. arnoldianum (De Wild.)
Ensete ventricosum. photo: J. Daniells 

  Banana and plantain overview 

org)   . Constan- M. acuminata and interspecific hy. A great number of important plants Fe‘i are robust plants bearing erect bunches of brilliant or- are found in the genus. lolodensis Cheesman ber: x = 10) Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. Abacá cultivars to which these names refer were recognized as M. jackeyi W. erecta (Simmonds) Argent smooth. produces a shiny. acuminata and M. maclayi von Muell. namatani Argent Guinea and northern Queensland into the western Pacific. correct names. M. Callimusa. which sia. paradisiaca (‘French’ plantain) islanders still use hand-looms to weave abacá fiber into and M. an enormous green bud pointing skyward. Australimusa. Sepik region of Papua New Guinea and parts of Indone- late or irregularly angled. ex Mikl. nana. var. four sections have been recognized in Musa. Contains the Fe‘i bananas. and Rhodochlamys. with a bunch of fruits tipped with a narrow in canoes by Polynesian seafarers as far back as 250 BC green bud which is pendent. especially if the slices are swathed in fresh provide many cultures with medicines. those that bear edible fruit are the ange-gold fruit. and system is abandoned. However. etc. as a source of fiber. the familiar of reddish-amber to red urine by those who consume the eating bananas are naturally occuring hybrids among the fruit. Micronesian Fe‘i bananas enjoyed spotlighting in it was found in the Philippines (Palawan) in 1960. In addition to fruit. (Marquesas Islands) and later in ~800 AD (Tahiti). rather than reaching skyward. ‘Karat’. This has only a small range in North Queensland. Fe‘i-like tions. It greatly resembles a Fe‘i. are important in the Pacific. peekelii Lauterb. partly joined together laterally. various subspecies of M. M. balbisiana. May be synonymous with M. or irregularly angled. cent molecular analyses indicate a reduction to two sec. “bloody” sap. fuel. sapientum (‘Silk’) are still used decades after the women’s wrap-around skirts or lavalavas (pareus). ‘Utin lap’ and other ba- Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. With few exceptions.-Maclay may involve as many as three species. maclayi Section Australimusa ranges naturally from New var. In the outer islands of Yap. bananas and plantains baked or boiled. Intro- Pacific agricultural circles. lolodensis. become famous because of their association with French Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. ancient domestication. and in some varieties. Section Australimusa (chromosome num. peekelii. Lin. Australia. In Its geographical range includes Papua New Guinea. Additional characteristics (also in M. Hill. Also included in the section is an im. M. striate. the Fe‘i bananas have M. The fruits are portant source of fiber. with upright fruit stalk.traditionaltree. naean binomials such as M. bukensis Argent tine summarized the confusion (Constantine. coconut cream. striate. tuberculate. fibers. ailuluai. and to a certain extent in some Musa taxonomy is confused by several factors including traditional islands of Micronesia. Plants in the Australimusa section are generally tall. 2004). Re. A very tall plant Polynesia. The the sterility. Common name: Johnstone River ba- Historically. smooth. acuminata × M.Musa nanas have been shown to contain the high levels of beta The genus Musa’s center of origin is Asia (primarily south. steam for cooking. balbisiana hybrids (see Part 2). ern and southeastern). For example. Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. appressed together in tight bunches. textilis (abacá or Manila hemp) is particularly impor- brids between M. thin strips of abacá pseudostem. subspecies maclayi sification purposes. eyi) are a “bloody” purple-magenta sap and the production wrapping materials. var. dyes. a principal component. and hybrid origins of translucent. M. apple-green bud. jack- edible floral parts. viz. ma- clayi and M. maclayi subsp. which are delicious and nutritious when most significant. and the unwillingness pino men on important occasions are woven from paper- of many to adopt newer. cordage. with seeded fruit. tubercu. where they were transported long distances (>10 m [33 ft]). tant in Philippine culture. rounded. beverages. abacá (M. textilis). and distinctive green or greenish-yellow subspecies ailuluai Argent buds (if present). musa (formerly known as EUMUSA). Their seed structure is important for clas. and 2004. M. Native to the West Seeds subglobose or compressed. but much further study is required before the above bananas. carotene (vitamin A precursor). Their origins are complex and M. either subglobose or compressed. silky shirts (often embroidered) worn by Fili- the cultivated varieties (cultivars).

in the hopes that banana breeders will be able to M. upright bud source of one of the world’s premier fibers—soft. 10) Bracts plain. Fruits are green and skinny. together with increasing world banana populations. Native to China and Indochina. Common Names: Red (flowering) develop more—and better—strains of disease-resistant ba- Thai banana. gracilis Holttum the Philippines and Central America. sanay Synonyms: M. violascens Ridley Tropical Botanical Garden (Kaua‘i). Okinawan banana flower. G. M. with narrow. Occasionally grown in Hawai‘i at commer- subspecies peekelii cial heliconia farms. textilis. formosana Hayata. Its shiny green bud hides purple inner linings. breeders are expending great effort to develop desirable seedless bananas. maguindanao (Philippines) M. Recent expeditions have focused on finding. scarlet banana. corniculata Kurz. This Section Callimusa (chromosome number: x = species is often confused with M. flavida M. A variable species with six to nine subspecies. Section Musa (former section) Eumusa (chro- cous and strongly imbricate when closed.8 cm [2 in] long). non Rumph. floor mats. Introduced into Hawai‘i for commercial purposes in the late 1800s. this banana can be seen at the Waimea This species bears a rounder red flower cluster than M. M. bec- Valley Audubon Center. M. sp. M. for many cultural food preferences. are enclosed tubular yellow flowers. Hotta pean paper money. alinsanaya Valmayor. rarely glau. Valmayor. variously colored buds and flowers. M. salaccensis Zoll. Occasionally found in Hawai‘i’s botanical gardens. campestris Beccari species. nov. M. angustigemma Simmonds are small (ca. carii. studies have identified which subspecies were probable with green-tipped bracts. balbisiana. and fine-textured. Manila hemp. textilis Née. Commercial production was greatest in M. fancy place mats. elliptical. Common name: Javanese wild banana musa section. acuminata and fruit. but has now all but A beautiful plant (<2 m [6. acuminata’s native   Banana and plantain overview  . chinensis Sweet. Because of the increasing incidence of debilitating Okinawa torch. M. M. Argent the Waimea Valley Audubon Center (O‘ahu) and National M. and small seedy nated from two species in this section. exotica R. Common name: Alin- Musa acuminata Colla. firm. magenta disappeared. composed of erect spirals of red bracts. Native to Malaysia and Thailand. and an upright pink-purple bud. inside which subspecies angustigemma (Simmonds) Argent Syn. These plants are mosome number: x = 11) most important as ornamentals. Its orange. coccinea Andrews. non Colla. Synonyms: M. shiny on the outer surface. and attempting to protect the myriad forms of this M. with mauve bud bracts. nanas. Vietnam. ana- lyzing. tall plant. cellophane. Thai red banana. below which small yellow bananas de- glistening. ornata. borneënsis Beccari Part 2). sp nov. suratii G. amukid.6 ft] tall). was the Binh Province. silky. Hawai‘i. M. var. 0. and its small rumphiana Kurz. seeded fruit onym: M. M. for other manufactured products such as rayon. It has a clear orange. M. typical of the Australi- M. parents of some important edible cultivars worldwide (see M. tashi- A species described in 2004. C. O‘ahu. Common names: abacá. A fairly short ornamental plant. Musa wide range of environmental conditions and appropriate uranoscopos Lour. it is now rare. Niche markets now cater to intricately woven and green striped fruits. exotica was originally col- roi Hayata lected from the Cuc Phuong Forest Reservation. It was even a constituent in some Euro.duced into Hawai‘i. It can be found at M. coccinea. simiarum Kurz fruit are “long bottle-nosed” and seedy. and newsprint. Recent genetic This species bears a narrow. beccarii Simmonds on the authority (eight are described here). Abacá is a beautiful. and specialty paper. suitable for growing under a Synonyms: Musa uranoscopos Lour. depending M. and male flowers. especially on Maui and the island of M. textilis Née. Most bear upright flower Most cultivated varieties (cultivars) of edible banana origi- stalks. red ornamental pests and banana diseases. bright scarlet bud. Its fibers were also suitable velop. Ninh Before the advent of synthetic textiles..

where it is called ‘Fa‘i This plant has striking dark green leaves splotched with Taemanu’ (rare today). Maoli bananas. textilis). used for fiber. botoan Makino. the Pacific. shiny bud and inedible fruit. saging chongo. liukiuensis (Matsum. hybrid bananas that arose within the Pacific. Synonyms: M. this is probably the world’s Thailand.. japonica hol’. North In. full of grape-like seeds. it is called ‘Mai‘a ‘Oa’. seedy forms are much less variable than subspecies malaccensis (Ridley) Simmonds.habitat ranges throughout SE Asia (west to Myanmar) This subspecies was transported not only eastwards into and Papua New Guinea. abacá (M. eastward to Samoa. M. Muell. and as an ornamental. rounded. resistant. prominently “beaked” fruits This is a key subspecies for those interested in edible. although there has been much local confusion with other seeded bananas. sumatrana ‘Rubra’ Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. scribed. and northern AAA (aka East African Highland Bananas). Musa × sapientum var. and the maternal par. liukiuensis Matsum. var. It is of cultural significance in Hawai‘i. Java.N. particularly subspecies burmannica Simmonds. var. banana (Maui. large subspecies truncata. Peninsular M. sausage-shaped gardens.) A. tually became a useful windbreak. Common names: Balbisiana. It is native to “apple” bananas of Hawai‘i). sumatrana. M. where it evidently became subspecies banksii (F.org)   . elegant fabrics. likely having Synonym: M. subspecies microcarpa (Beccari) Simmonds. It even- Paternal parent of ‘Silk’ AAB. Mealy banana. brachycarpa Back. primarily in Plantain and ‘Pōpō‘ulu’ subgroups. Devil banana and Seeded “apple” banane des Philippines.. As such. variably sized maroon patches. Balbis banana. Starchy banana. balbisiana. M.) errans. it may be seen only occasionally. M. are the primary clone represent.. since it is considered to be both maternal and paternal parents of In Hawai‘i. Other. slender.) Simmonds. Native to Japan (in- subspecies siamea Simmonds. M. sumatrana (Becc. Botohan. saging na ligao. km (>4000 mi) eastwards to the Marquesas Islands. banksii F. Laos and cluding the Ryuku Islands). fast-growing. sapientum L. with a blue-violet This species is extremely robust. Cambodia. Common Name: Blood banana Synonyms: M. M. The wild. char. Pisang Klutuk Wulung. Common names: Fleur de Wild (starchy) banana. Papua New Guinea. southern M. M. the “true apple” banana. Used for fiber and as an ornamental. Seedy banana. Borneo. subspecies errans Argent. Queensland. It is a medium-sized plant (to 5 m [16 ft]) similar to abacá. agutay (Philippines) and Pacol (Philippines). liukiuensis Matsum. malaccensis Ridley been introduced from the Philippines into O‘ahu in the late 1800s with the fiber plant. most cold-hardy banana. Synonym: M. subspecies burmannicoides DeLanghe. Southern India. basjoo Sieb. acuminata. Another banana that was significant in the past for its sapientum L. balbisiana Colla. and rarely in private acterized in part by 15–20 cm (6–8 in). and drought- pendent bud and very pale green immature fruit. troglodytarum L. The clone ‘Pisang Lilin’ is a Southeast Asia from Sri Lanka to the Philippines. Common names: Japanese (fiber) banana This subspecies has given rise to the clone ‘Veinte Co. Mueller shade. M. saging maching. ranging from the western Pacific >6400 as a medicinal plant by pre-Cook Polynesians. errans Teodoro. because fruit with rounded tips. Nasution. Burma. and Lyon Arboretum (O‘ahu). It is a very pretty subspecies. botanical gardens such as Waimea Valley Audubon Cen- ent of the ‘Maia Maoli’ subgroup. O‘ahu). balbisiana is one of common in the West Indies (not to be confused with the parents of many edible seedless bananas. it is also characterized by very slender pseud- ostems and small. M. although five morphotypes have been de- Malaysia and Sumatra. derivative of this subspecies. errans Teodoro var. M.traditionaltree. the paternal parent of the Mutika/Lujugira subgroup donesian islands. but west to Africa. Hawai‘i). with a beautiful. E. acuminata Colla subsp. it is possibly the only seeded banana variety introduced ed in Oceania. India and Sri Lanka. var. Synonyms: M. maternal contributions to many AA and AAA dessert pruinosa bananas. Peninsular Malaysia (highlands) green and yellow. It is also subspecies zebrina (Van Houtte) R. ter. acuminata Colla ‘Sumatrana’ Hort. M. Thriving under heavy Synonym: M. It is found in Hawai‘i (Maui.

this one (like M. Burma and India. M. propagated. velutina H. M. halabanensis Meijer. sanguinea Welw. 1 m [3. schizocarpa Simmonds fat. M. fuzzy. f. “self-peeling banana”. The   Banana and plantain overview  . are bright pink-purple fruiting stems and bud bracts. A dwarf is found on the island of New Guinea between 1000 and ornamental (ca. cially in wet. and can reach 15 m (49 ft) recently been discovered by horticulturalists. M. M. its most notable features 2100 m (3300–6900 ft) in elevation. resembling abacá (M.3 ft] tall). mannii) has a pink-purple bud and fruit stalk. It and made available to tropical plant enthusiasts. and immature fruits are pale green. this species is probably the most widely planted ornamental banana in the tropics and subtropics. and Drude. produce small. self-peeling banana. number: x = 11) In Hawai‘i. Incertae sedis (taxa with uncertain taxonomic posi- nana. Section RHODOCHLAMYS (chromosome true to its alternate common name. cheesmani Simmonds bud bracts are whitish inside. as indeed it is. laterita Cheesman. tions) Native to Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. boman Argent (x = ?) ange-red budded ornamental bearing yellow female flow- ers. espe- Many highly ornamental species are found in this section. hot pink banana.5 m (8 ft) in circumference at the base. mannii H. A tall plant from New Guinea with a glossy yellow bud.) Another striking ornamental from northern India. sapientum (L. means “vel- Synonym: M. in height and 2. rosacea Jacq.M. It can grow at least as high M.) Kun- tze var. flaviflora Simmonds M. ex Baker. nagensium Prain tanical gardens. Common name: West Sumatra M. bright pink bananas. M. Wendl. although rather slowly. particularly along the wet. or- nata is occasionally grown in botanical and private gardens. this is an or- M. When ripe. ex Kurz M. Synonym: Musa × paradisiaca L. Maui. textilis). ornata Roxb. whose bracts are crowded with bright yellow flowers. Its upright “hot” pink bud. Common names: Fuzzy wild banana (pink) banana. windward regions. ingens Simmonds (chromosome number: x = 7) This little known species from Assam. this species thrives wherever it is planted. Common name: Indian dwarf ba. aurantiaca Mann ex Baker as 1100 m (3600 ft) on Haleakalā. Their white inner flesh is packed M. ochracea Shepherd homegardens. dwarf banana M. Wendl. sikkimensis Kurz with black seeds. This banana’s species name. M. and is becomingly increasingly available for M. which germinate readily. In Hawai‘i. pink banana. Originally hailing from Bangladesh. sanguinea Hook. rare in the wild. it is widespread in tropical bo- M. hookerii King vety”. ssp. velutina. ornata Synonym: Musa rubra Wall. Velutina M. M. then proceeds to “peel itself ”. rubra Wall. Common names: Ornamental banana. Common name: Mannii. windward coasts. rosea Baker M. flowering banana. the banana’s flesh bursts through its skin at the apex. has This is the world’s largest herb. itinerans Cheesman Native to northern India.

balbisiana. fruit size. Other. However. which can be used to propagate flow cytometry. Estimates of the spectively. aka Pacific Plantains). with genome AA and BB.” Many cannot interbreed because they are sterile. all cultivars discussed below are natural hybrids. east Asia and its hybrids with M. tetraploid (four sets). of duplicate names and close clonal relatives found in ev- ery region of every banana-growing country. or ABB. shape. acuminata and M. pigmentation. acumniata and M. and Thus. With the exception of hybrids from the breeding (three sets. size. shape. and AA and AB clones are cultivated. an individual plant vegetatively. and Papua Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. cultivars and groups of cultivars with an acuminata/balbisiana heritage are listed alpha- betically within a given genome. tex- tilis. variable traits include: plant stature and architecture. balbisiana originated in mon- or regions is a daunting task. Hybrid numbers of cultivars that occur worldwide range from 300 triploids are classified as AAA. and M. or programs. Where it first appears. fruit stalk (peduncle) hairi- origins of the hybrids begun to be understood (see Part 1). which is called “parthe- thickness. There are so M. Polynesia (Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu and are either hybrids among subspecies of M. AA genome Cultivars with an AA genome are most abun- Seeded fruit of M. balbisiana. photo: R. AB. ploidy is best determined by chromosome counts or local word for “children”). the ever. balbisiana are diploids. and M. they were selected by people and duce a variety’s genome (i. AAAB. whereas M. Most edible bananas originated from two species in the sec- Major secondary centers of diversity occur in West Af- tion Musa. acuminata and M. ‘Lady(’s) Finger’ soon areas in northern Southeast Asia. How- Bananas produce basal suckers (called keiki in Hawai‘i. balbisiana arose where distributions of the two species overlapped. balbisiana. more opportunities for hybridization arose. bunch size. As newly In the following list. (cultivars) of edible bananas especially since not all were completely sterile.. Some of the most the male flowers. When denoting each cultivar’s genome. acuminata and er production. orientation. triploid Bananas). variation in the crop in its secondary centers resulted pri- marily from mutations in the cultivars. Indonesia. For example.org)   . and details of The edible bananas are highly diverse. are covered separately at the end of Part 2. schizocarpa are unimportant and not included below.e.traditionaltree. Ploetz dant in Malaysia. M. tem that considers 15 morphological characteristics. aka East African Highland hybrids are diploid (two sets of chromosomes). re.Part 2: Cultivated varieties discovered hybrids were carried by indigenous peoples by land and sea. These (Mutika/Lujugira subgroup. acuminata (see Iholena subgroups. The Fe‘i bananas. its ploidy and relative content henceforth propagated vegetatively as clones. suck- a lettering system is used. The cultivars rica (Plantain subgroup). M. scars left from fall- ing flowers on the lower fruit stalk (rachis). Only recently have the leaf stem (petiole) structure. acuminata evolved primarily in tropical rainforests in many names that even compiling lists for specific countries Southeast Asia. Common names that have been given bananas (mostly products of breeding programs) may be to some of the cultivars are ambiguous. They can from M. For example. less commonly used names are listed thereafter. These include pseudostem (“trunk”) color. and orientation. and taste. Bananas that are hybrids between M. A perceptive observer can usually de- Over thousands of years. color. Tetraploid to more than 1000. the most widely used common name of a cultivar is listed in boldface type. There are hundreds AAAA. and East Africa Part 1) or between M. acuminata and M. in the Australimusa section. ness. acuminata cultivars developed first in South- AAB clones. shape and size of the male bud. has been used to name at least four distinct AA. balbisiana) by observing leaf produce fruit without fertilization. acuminata and M. AABB. and by using a scoring sys- nocarpy. and specific countries or regions in which the names are used are listed in parentheses. which arose from a different group of Musa spp. and southern Asia. pure M. the most common and important ploidy). AAB. India. or ABBB.

New Guinea (the only place where AA clones are com. photo: I. ‘Kamoros’ (Philippines). Not to be confused with the tall Cavendish sweet. Mapang ‘Sucrier’ (Fr. Sucrier subgroup sia). Maguire Right: ‘Sucrier’ fruit. Kepler   Banana and plantain overview  . Indonesia) ‘Inarnibal’ (Philippines) lit. ‘Amas’. lit. fine quality fruit.) Thong Ki Maew’. ‘Pisang Empat Puluh Other common names: ‘Pisang Lemak Manis’ (Malaysia). “sugar bowl or basin”) Other common names: ‘Lady’s Finger’ (Hawai‘i). triploid cultivars. ‘Pisang Lemak Ma- Lakatan subgroup (There is an accession of this nis’. ‘Pisang Lidi’. photo: A. ‘Kluai Hom Maew’. They are cultivated due to their extraordinarily Philippines. Hari’. ‘Kluai Lep Mu Nang’ . ‘Pisang Lemak Manis Terenganu’. they are less hardy than cultivar ‘Lacatan’ (AAA). Pisang Muli’ (Indonesia).‘Kluai cultivar in Australia with an AAA genome. ‘Pisang Mas’ (Ma- Left: ‘Sucrier’. ‘Caramelo’. ‘Lakatan’ (Philippines) Other names: ‘Pisang Berangan Merah/Kuning’ (Malay. commonly grown in the mon). ‘Pisang Mas Sagura’. K. ‘Kluai Thong Kap Dam’ (Thailand). In general. Pisang Lilin subgroup Inarnibal subgroup ‘Pisang Lilin’ (Malaysia. ‘Pisang Barangan Merah/Kuning’ (Indonesia). ‘Pisang Ekor Kuda’ (Malaysia). much-loved cultivar. ‘Kluai Ngang Phaya’ (Thailand). ‘Pisang Lemak ‘Pisang Lampung’ (Indonesia). ‘Chuoi Tien’ (Vietnam). “syrup” Other names: ‘Lidi’. A delicious. Pisang Berlin (Indonesia) Manis Kelantan’. ‘Mama-on’ (Philippines).

based on morphological characters. Older reports that indicate that the cultivar resists Panama disease are in error. ‘Lady Finger’. causing a swelling that is reminis- cent of pregnancy. ‘Kluai Khai’ (Thailand). Other AA cultivars ‘Chingan’ (India) Other common name: ‘Manniyilla Chingan’ (India) ‘Hapai’ (Hawai‘i) lit. ‘Banana Ouro’ (Brazil). ‘Cambur Titiaro’ (Latin America). laysia. ‘Lady’s Finger’ (West Indies) and numerous PNG cooking cultivars. growing in Pohnpei. ‘Peru’. rine France’. ‘Nino’ (Florida). It is rare in Hawai‘i. ‘Parika’ (Guyana). ‘Sukali Ndizi’) (Uganda) AAA genome Other common name: ‘Kamarangasenge’ (Rwanda) Cavendish subgroup This is a most significant subgroup of edible bananas. due to its exceptional flavor. ‘Kunnan’ (India) Kamarangasenge subgroup ‘Sukari Ndizi’ (also. Occasionally. ‘Ney Poovan’ is Other AB cultivar grown most widely. ‘Senorita’ (Philippines). ‘Fig’. Indonesia). the bananas of this clone develop within the pseudostem. ‘Kisubi’ (Uganda). ‘Fa- laysia). ‘Fig’. ‘Golden Early’. rare Polynesian banana.6–2 in (4–5 in) under perfect growing conditions. ‘Rose’. ‘Datil’. ‘Ney Poovan’ (India) Miscellaneous AA cultivars Other common names: ‘Safet Velchi’ and ‘Chini Champa’ ‘Malaysian Blood’. subacid fruit with white flesh. Its fruit length de- pends on soil and climate. Its finger-sized fruit are deliciously sweet. ‘Sucrier’. ‘de Rosa’. ‘Su- crier Fig’. ‘Pisang Jari Buaya’ (Indonesia. thus the name. originating in Malaysia. “pregnant” The AA genome has been assigned to this previously un- classified. ‘Ranel’ (Sri Lanka). The plant resists Panama disease (Fusarium wilt) and thrives when grown in partial shade. ‘Bocadillo’ (Colombia). ‘Guineo Blanco’.traditionaltree. ‘Tapo’. Among these. The Cavendish cultivars produce fruit that are used in inter- Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Rose’ (Indonesia). “pregnant” Other names: ‘Hapū’ (Tahiti) lit. ‘Dedo de Dama’. ‘Ney Poovan’ produces a sweet. ‘Fig Sucré’ (West Indies). Daniells A variety introduced into several Pacific islands with a dis- tinctive long bud and “messy” rachis is resistant to black Ney Poovan subgroup Sigatoka disease and is used in breeding. Ma. photo: J. ‘Sagale Nget- Pyaw’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Kudud’ (Pohnpei. ‘Fig’. ‘Niño’.org)   . ‘Honey’. is the most widely culti- vated AA cultivar and is one of the world’s most popular local bananas. ‘Orito’ (Ecuador). reaching 1. ‘Surya Kadali’ (India). (India). ‘Tuu Ghia/Gia’ AA cultivar ‘Peleu’ typical of PNG. Federated States of Micronesia). AB genome AB cultivars are uncommon. Tinito (French Polynesia). ‘Manices’. ‘Apple’. ‘Sucrier’. ‘Date’.

‘Johnson’ (Ca- 10  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Veimama’ (Fiji) Paxt. ‘Congo’ (Surinam—see also ‘Pisang Masak nya). ‘Pisang Ambon Hijau’ (Indonesia). ‘Nanukehel’. ‘Amoa produced worldwide. ‘Mons Mari’. cavendishii Paxt. elevations. ‘Giant Chi.e. Mid-way in stature between ‘Pisang Masak Hi- mercial production. the trades finger. characteristics of the bunch and fruit. ‘Kin- (Hawai‘i). ‘Mouz siny’.. ‘Congo’ (West Indies). ‘Ai Keuk Heung Ngar Tsiu’ (Queensland). and rachis morphology and color. badak’ (Indonesia). ‘Wet-ma-lut’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Fa‘i Pa- have not yet found it elsewhere in the State. ‘Vama- dies). ‘Utin Wai’ (Pohnpei. Local production of these (Tonga. when artifically ripened. ‘Siaine Ha‘amoa’ ambient temperatures are high. ‘Mes- ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ tiça’ (Brazil). Jamaica. lit. & endish Group). ‘Siaine’ Africa.). West Chang’ (Thailand). In Hawai‘i. and used for coffee Other common names: ‘Cavendish’. ‘Giant Governor’ (West In. ‘Thihm. ‘Sapumal Anamalu’ (Sri Lanka). soil conditions. All Other common names: ‘Umalog’ (‘Umalag’ is another but ‘Extra Dwarf Cavendish’ are productive if they are pro- spelling) (Philippines). ‘Indian’. Hawaii). i. and the Philippines. ‘Poyo’ guruwe’. ‘Bout Rond’ and ‘Giant Fig’. have chosen productive cultivars of moderate stature (tall ‘Grande Naine’ (also ‘Grand Nain’) (Fr. ‘Nyoro’ (Ke- (Guadeloupe). In total. ‘Williams Hybrid’ (Australia (Hong Kong). ‘Williams’. ‘Bazrai’ (Pakistan). ‘Canary Banana’. ‘Vaimama Leka’ (Fiji). ‘Chuoi Duu’ (IndoChina). “green ripe banana”) stature. ‘Moz Hindi’. fruits turn greenish-yellow (Tonga). ‘Williams’ (Egypt). ‘Basrai’. M. guishable. ‘Tall Mons Mari’ ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ (Australia). they are major export commodities pines). man. but is susceptible to the Sigatoka leaf spots. ‘Amoa Kauare’ (Cook Islands). Chinese’. also name for general Cavendish Group). ‘Kluai Hom Khieo Khom’. It should be understood that these height designa- Other common names: ‘Hamakua’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Monte risto’ (Puerto Rico). ‘Bhusawal’.. ‘Nanicó’ (Brazil). ‘Binkehel’.national commerce. ‘Porto Rique’ (Dominica. ‘Pisang Buai’. although where temperatures are a bit cooler or Federated States of Micronesia). non Lour. temperature. ‘Bijiaw’ (China). trunk. side-by-side. Synonyms: M. ‘Kaina Vavina’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Jainaleka’ (Fiji). also general name for Cavendish Group). it is occasionally seen at high we’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Maghrabi’. lagi’ (also refers to ‘Giant Cavendish’ in Samoa) (Samoa). There are several ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivars that are so The subgroup is resistant to Panama disease in the western similar that they cannot be distinguished unless they are tropics. ‘Pisang Ambon Lo. when ripe. the authors ‘Sulay Baguio’ (Philippines). ‘Harichal’ Kom’ (Thailand).. ‘Giuba’ (Somalia). growing simultaneously in the same lo- ‘Pisang Embun Lumut’ (Malaysia). ‘Pisang Cina’ (Malaysia). ‘Kabulee’. they turn bright yellow. and water supply). ‘Taiwan’ (India). they comprise over 40% of these fruit that are (New Guinea). including Hawai‘i). ‘Robusta’. ‘Bana- (India). ‘Saina’ bananas. Pachawara’. ‘Hindi’. Even their male flowers are indistin- agement of the latter disease is a major expense in com. ‘Chuoi Va Huong’ (Vietnam) descending order of the height to which they will grow in a given location (for a given cultivar. It is grown in Jamaica and Puerto Rico. ‘Hamoa’ (French Polynesia). ‘Congo’ (Surinam). cavendishii Lamb. jau’ and ‘Dwarf Cavendish’. In equatorial lowlands where the Taunga’. ly wiped out on O‘ahu by bunchy top disease. ‘Pandi’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Jahaji’ ‘Valery’ (Central America. Cavendish Palagi (Samoa. ‘Amoa Kauare’ (Cook Is. cation. cavendishii Lamb. Fa‘i clones is of even greater importance. ‘Basrai’ (Egypt). the Caribbean. ‘Chuoi Tieu Cao #1’ (Vietnam). especially in areas with high rainfall. ‘Chinese’. ‘Lacatan’ (western tropics). nakeli’. it was recent. ‘Bungulan’ tions assume that the different clones are being compared (Philippines). ne Gabou’ (Seychelles). ‘Kluai Hom and most Pacific islands. ‘Chuoi Tieu Nho’ (Vietnam). ‘Tumok’ (Philip. South America. they may differ in height by The various clones are similar except for their height and about 40 cm (1 ft) and exhibit subtle differences in bunch. ‘Pisang Other common names: ‘Veimama’ (Fiji). ‘Poot’. nese’ (general name). ‘Pisang Ambon Jepang’ (Indone- vided with ample fertilizer and water. ‘Siaine’ (Tonga. “big dwarf ”) clones lodge in high wind and are difficult to harvest). planted side by side. ‘Dwarf Ca- ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivars vendish’ (general). It can be sensitive to drought and other adverse emoet’ (Indonesia). In general. ‘Kluai Khlong in Central America. ‘Tampohin’. Tampihan. The list below is in sia). ‘Mauritius’. ‘Malindi’ (Tanzania and Zanzibar). si- nensis Sweet ex Sagot This cultivar is usually too tall for commercial production. worldwide due to its resistance to wind throw and produc- tion of large bunches and fingers despite its relatively small ‘Pisang Masak Hijau’ (Malaysia) (lit. ‘Robusta’. M. ‘Pisang Serendah’ (Malaysia). In Hawai‘i. West Indies). also general name for Cav. ‘Pake’ (Hawai‘i). nana auct. height varies greatly ‘Grande Naine’ is the most important commercial clone with elevation. M. cultivars are the most popular and valuable of the edible ‘Amoa Taunga’ (Cook Is. ‘Dwarf shade in Colombia and Ecuador..). Hijau’). ‘Kluai Hom Kiau’ (Thailand). M. ‘Pacha Vazhai’. ‘Nain Gánt’..

org)  11 . “dwarf ”) (Latin America). ‘Camyenne’ (Guinea). Right: Young ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ bunch. Sometimes called ‘Māhoe’ or ‘Mahoi’ in error.traditionaltree. (approximately 1300 m [4260 ft]). and is well suited for ‘Extra Dwarf Cavendish’ homegarden. windward Maui. a ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivar. ‘Camburi Pigmeo’. ‘Ca- ‘Double’ turra’ (Brazil). commercial. Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. atures below 15°C (59°F) occur for extended periods. but evidently occur wherever this clone duction. Maui. ‘Siaine Tonga’ (Tonga). because it ‘Amoa Taunga Potopoto’ (Cook Is. ‘Pe. It bears good-quality fruit. ceptable fruit and is used as an ornamental plant. Haiku. In Hawai‘i. ‘Dwarf Chinese’ is grown everywhere from the Left: ‘Williams’. lowlands to the coldest elevations which banana tolerates tite Naine’. K. ‘Guineo Enano’. ‘Enano’ (lit. ‘Kira’ (French Polyne- sia). photos: A. ‘Mei‘a’.3 ft) tall. and This clone. Hawai‘i. and agroforestry cultivation.). is a ‘Dwarf Chinese’ mutant that produces 2–7 This is the most widely distributed clone of edible banana bunches per plant (these are surprisingly common in worldwide. less than 1 m (3. (Israel) it is highly susceptible to banana bunchy top virus. Other names: ‘Dwarf Parfitt’ (Australia). ‘Meika Kina’. nary Islands). ‘Chuoi Tieu Lun’ (Vietnam). ‘Governor’ (West Indies). does not produce ac- chokethroat (impeded bunch emergence) where temper. However. life if picked at the correct maturity (which is a general character of Cavendish subgroup). with a long transport is grown. it is relatively cold-tolerant. ‘Dwarf Nathan’ Short and compact. Ananica’. it is also the shortest used for commercial pro- French Polynesia). ‘Ana’. ‘Park-yuk’ (China) is different from the true ‘Māhoe’ in the Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu Group. Ulaino.

Mutika/Lujugira subgroup ‘Cocos’ (Honduras). They are found nowhere else in the world. ‘Disu’ (Papua New Guinea). members of the Cavendish Kepler subgroup replaced this clone in most of the affected areas. bottle- necked fruit.g. ‘Chuoi Tieu Cao #2’ (Vietnam) ‘Gros Michel’ is a vigorous plant. ‘Siaine Fisi’ (Tonga). K. Puohokumoa Stream. It was the standard for export until the mid-1900s. 12  Banana and plantain overview  . They are currently being introduced to many ing outside Southeast Asia. especially in Burundi. nanas that are being weakened and killed by introduced ‘Musakala’. and of generally ac. French for beer. Ibota subgroup cially where disease suppressive soils exist. Over 200 cultivars are recognized Polynesia) to eventually supplement more established ba. ‘Raimbaud’. ‘Lowgate’ (Honduras) This smallest version of ‘Gros Michel’ is used in the FHIA breeding program. ‘Habano’. ‘Fa‘i Fia Palagi’ (Samoa). five clone sets of which are recognized: ‘Beer’. ‘Ambon’ (Philippines). ‘Kluai Hom Thong’ (Thailand). pests and diseases. ‘Guineo’ (Colombia). ‘Nakitembe’. short pedicels. ‘Thihmwe’ (Burma/Myanmar). are staple foods in the Rift Valley re- Honduras. ‘Pisang Ambon’ (Malaysia). They can be confused with members of the Cavendish subgroup (note common names in Burma and Sri Lanka). Uganda. Maui. and ‘Nfuuka’. ‘Kluai Dok Mai’. and extreme suscepti- bility to Panama disease in the Americas and Africa. ‘Banano’. ‘Pisang Embun’. in Uganda. These clones produce a few seed when pollinated and have been used in the breeding programs.Gros Michel subgroup Members of this subgroup are listed below in descending order of height. and are diverse.. ‘Guineo Gigante’. These smaller versions of ‘Gros Michel’ were used exten. ‘Ava- bakor’. especially in Jamaica and Highland Bananas. and are highly productive. They are cooked and brewed Pacific islands (e. Samoa. ‘Jainabalavau’ (Fiji). ‘Nakabululu’. ‘Plantano Roatan’ (Mexico). It produces excellent fruit that are more durable than those of the ‘Cavendish’ cultivars. Several hybrid bananas developed in Honduras gion of East Africa. ‘Highgate’ ( Jamaica) Synonym: Musa brieyi De Wild. As a result. Rwanda. ‘Anamala’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Makanguia’ (French Antilles). Isolated pockets of ‘Gros Michel’ production remain. ‘Guaran’ (Puerto Rico). Panama disease. ‘Pisang Ambon Putih’ (Indone- sia). ‘Gros Michel’ (West Indies) Other common names: ‘Bluefields’ (Hawai‘i). Jainabalavu (Fiji). and in the FHIA program have proven to be disease-resistant. These bananas. the ‘Yangambi Km 5’ cultivar’s name in Hawai‘i. Cultivars in the Gros Michel subgroup can be distinguished from those in the Cavendish subgroup by their green/pale pink vs bright red undersheath. photo: A. but is tall (7 m [23 ft] or more) and very prone to wind damage. ripening to full yellow color at ambient equa- torial temperatures. basically seedless. Tonga. is the port in Nicaragua from which the clone was sent to the island. espe. ‘Au Malie’. known generically as the East African sively in breeding programs. but was eliminated from commercial pro- duction due to widespread and destructive epidemics of ‘Gros Michel’. an example of secondary diversity in the bananas develop- ceptable taste. ‘Bluefields’. Micronesia.

‘Warabia’ (Papua New Guinea). and light orange flesh. Plants of the red clones are highly pigmented and produce fruit that have a red to deep maroon skin. ‘Green Red’ Other common names: ‘Pisang Mundam’ (Malaysia). photo: C. ‘Galanamalu (Sri Lan- ka). ‘Red Raja’ (Queensland).traditionaltree. ‘Colora- do Blanco’. ‘Akadahn’ (Pohnpei). ‘Tara Puakanio’ (Cook Islands). ‘Claret’ (West Indies). They are moderate producers that are grown primarily for their attractive and unusual fruit. Other AAA cultivar ‘Lakatan’ (Philippines) (Note that some clones by this name are supposed to be AA. ‘Red’. Waip’io Bay. ‘Mzungu Mweupe’ (East Africa). photo: A. ‘Green Dacca’. Elevitch Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Morado’. in that those in the red series often give rise to a green form (the reverse has not been recorded). ‘Lal Kera’ (India). ‘Kluai different Pacific archipelagos over thousands of years. ‘Fa‘i Suka’. Kepler Bottom: ‘Dwarf Red’ female flowers. ‘Pisang Telor’ (Indonesia). ‘Pink banana’ (Hawai‘i) A beautifully pigmented plant with deep red trunk. ‘Akadahn Weitahta’ (Pohnpei). ‘Rong Rong’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Rouge’ (Seychelles). ‘Green-Red’. It produces moderately sized bunches of fruit that have a reddish-green to deep maroon skin (depending on age and exposure to direct sunlight). K. and midribs. ‘Figue Rouge’. ‘Pisang Raja Udang’ of bananas from which many similar varieties evolved on (Malaysia). ‘Shwe Nget-Pyaw’ (Burma/Mynamar). They are used as ornamental plants in Hawai‘i and elsewhere in the Pacific. ‘Colorado’. ‘Caru Verde’ (Brazil). ‘Banana Roxa’ (Bra- zil). ‘Venkadali’ (India). ‘Figue Rose Blanche’. ‘Neuse’. Top: ‘Dwarf Red’.Red subgroup AAB genome ‘Red’ The Iholena and Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu subgroups together form Other common names: ‘Jainadamu’ (Fiji). although they can be cooked in their jackets. al- though dwarf versions exist. ‘Colorado Blanco’ (old name) (Hawai‘i). ‘Mora- dong Puti’ (Philippines). ‘Red Dacca’ (Queensland). ‘Cuban Red’. Maui. ‘Tafetan Verde’ (Colombia). ‘Kinaki Tangata’ (Cook Islands).) Other common names: ‘Pisang Berangan’ (Malaysia). ‘Mzungu Mwekundu’ (East Africa). ‘Nyekundu Ya Kisungu’. The fruits are usually eaten raw. They are usually eaten raw before getting mushy and fall apart when cooked or too ripe. ‘Morado Verde’. ‘Morado’ (Philippines). ‘Banane Monsieur’ (Seychelles). They are usually tall plants.” the principal Polynesian basic types Niue’ (Samoa). ‘Chenkadali’. Their Nak (Thailand). ‘Nyeupe Ya Kisungu’. petioles.org)  13 . ‘Green Red’ (West Indies). ‘Kluia Kung Khieo’ (Thailand). and light orange flesh. ‘Pi- sang Barangan’ (Indonesia). ‘Rathambala’ (Sri Lan- ka). ‘Red’. ‘Green Macaboo’ (Florida) The Red/Green Red cultivars are related. ‘Tafetan’ (Colombia). ‘Fa‘i the “Pacific plantains.

and perhaps elsewhere including ally tended by islanders who recognize that they are part Tonga. and bluntly square at their tips. Like all Polynesian bananas. and three rare clones still survive on Tahiti and Raiatea. Pōpō‘ulu. new discoveries. they have sadly become neglected. unfolding (cigar) leaves with plumper and square-ended like a Pōpō‘ulu. both forms of Mai‘a [Iholena] Lele) and a Dwarf were In Hawai‘i. However. French Polynesia. rare or extinct. c) fruit arranged types. In Tonga the striking mauve or coppery undersides. These distinctive bananas occur throughout Oceania. This subgroup is best known historically. usu- Vanuatu.2 m [4 ft] long) and long pointed fruits with lengthly pointed tips. in Vanuatu. It also bears a dark red peduncle (up to 1. arrow- Early visitors to Hawai‘i in the late 1700s and 1800s were shaped. this clone is characterized by a distinct red peti. Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu subgroup Iholena subgroup Iholena types are poorly represented in the Pacific these Maoli subdivision days. ‘Iholena Kāpua’ (the name refers to the slender. Cook This is the French Polynesian equivalent of Iholena. ‘Yamunamba’. Their dissemination across the Pacific occurred Extremely rare in Hawai‘i. only approximately half of the varieties that are known across Polynesia exist in Hawai‘i. because a market economy. 2004). Their most outstanding sess characters of both subgroups: long like a Maoli. together with several subvarieties. gradually. beautiful flower bud). sent to the mainland USA more than 30 years ago. and d) male flow. and French Polynesia still have some of these ba. Land clearing. b) fruit pointed term Hopa means bananas of both Maoli and Pōpō‘ulu at both ends with salmon-colored flesh. They Islands. trans. re- or raw. haps also on Huahine. Maoli varieties—the base clone ‘Mama‘e Ulu’. and most are rare. Once staple dietary items on high islands from with a pale yellow-green pseudostem (blackish in ‘Ha‘a’). and short-tapered fruit tips. (Papua New Guinea) unpublished).g. but still survive (barely) in Samoa. lavender stamens. ‘Morpa’. fruit stalk (peduncle). but characteristics are: a) new. Further west. However. they are the most common traditional of their Polynesian heritage. In Hawai‘i. rare. Iholenas are characterized more common ‘Karat’ bananas. 14  Banana and plantain overview  . and Lorens. in the western Pacific. copra plantations. New Guinea. This short-fruited Iholena was used in religious ceremonies. “yellow core”) and its possibly extinct ported as suckers over relatively short distances (island to dwarf form. Today. kets. records exist for at least eleven Maoli ‘Fa‘i Mamae’ (Samoa) varieties. bananas to be found in upland forests and are eaten cooked they are particularly susceptible to pests and diseases. which are Fe‘i) (Englberger by pale yellow-green immature fruits from earliest devel. Of approximately 50 “native” Hawaiian varieties quiring replanting every few years. opment. The Maoli types are long. have all contributed to the demise of it was said to cause the souls of the house occupants to “fly” Polynesian bananas and plantains across the Pacific.. ‘Iholena Ha‘a Ha‘a’ (lit. In ancient Hawai‘i. “to fly”) sweeter “dessert” bananas have largely displaced the native bananas since the 1850s. ‘Uzakan’. Tonga. Other names: ‘Puapuanui’ amazed at the prodigious numbers of “native” bananas This is easily recognized by its extremely long. whereas Pōpō‘ulu types are fat able numbers. ole rim and bright waxy-purple leaf undersides. slender (primarily Maoli-type) which were grown by the Hawai. e. Three varieties (“Red” and “White” Iholenas. five are still found naturalized in reason. the two subdivisions are easily distinguished. “short-short”) island). at least seven were Iholenas. per- Iholena types may still be found abundantly in local mar. plus It was planted at heiau (temples). ‘Ōre‘a’ (Tahiti) Polynesian high islands such as the Samoas.history is closely linked to Polynesian migrations. ‘Numeijo’. red. there are currently twelve extant cultivars. dietary tastes have changed. New Guinea to the Marquesas. this banana is a semi-dwarf. Most are recognized by its sausage-shaped fruit with blunt ends. pests and diseases (especially banana bunchy top). ‘Iholena Iholena’ (lit. Other Iholena clones include ‘Mamae Hehefanga’ (Ton- Full descriptions and photographs of Hawaiian (with some ga). Along with Very rare. ian people. and virtually unknown in many cultures. In Pohnpei (FSM) bananas of this intermediate type loosely and at right angles on the bunch. and the ‘Iholena Lele’ (lit. appear to have been lost from the Marquesas but two or nanas here and there. bananas exist which pos- Iholena types are graceful plants. not near houses. and squat. ‘Luba’ Pacific) varieties are being documented (Kepler and Rust. Maoli. exist also such as ‘Peleu’ and ‘Karat en Iap’ (unrelated to the ers with long. Also called In the rest of the Pacific. away.

K. Its fruit is long. ‘Iri pa‘o’ (“black skin/ thrives best in cloudy or lightly shaded areas. ‘Koa‘e’ (referring to Banana’ (Florida) the bold. shaded locales). Its variants. ‘Hinupua‘a’ (“shiny like gation that covers the entire plant: leaves. This Tahitian variety appears to be virtually identical to Hawai‘i’s ‘Ele‘ele’. The achlorophyllous tissues have a tendency to sunburn.org)  15 . Maui Nui Botanical Garden. fried. ‘Hawaiian Black ‘Manini’ (lit. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Maui. The fruit are bark”) best cooked. but are palatable raw when fully ripe. Other common names: ‘Black Hawaiian’. left photo: C. leaf stalks. Kahului. “hair prematurely gray- ish-burgundy trunk. Grows to height of 6–7 m (20–23 ft).traditionaltree. immature and ripe fruit. striped plumage of tropicbirds in juvenile plum. “black-black”) soil (<pH 6).‘Iholena Lele’. black- Other common names: ‘A‘ea‘e’ (lit. preferring streambeds and well-watered forested areas. and midribs (especially in ing”). “black-black”) little better than Pōpō‘ulu and Iholena bananas. “striped surgeon fish”). ‘Hawaiian Variegated’ (Hawai‘i) wild. Elevitch. will not tolerate neutral or basic soils. leaf stalks (peti. meaty. and delicious ‘Manini’ is a Hawaiian cultivar with green and white varie. right photo: A. even the male and female are less black overall. ‘Poni’ (“purple”). prefers acid ‘Ere‘ere’ (lit. Kepler for the majority of Polynesian plantains—have survived a ‘Ele‘ele’ (lit. hog grease”) and ‘Puna’ (region on the island of Hawai‘i) oles). It is immediately recognizable by its shiny. An attractive Hawaiian banana. and Other names: ‘Iri mo‘o’ (“lizard skin”). flowers. this is extremely uncom- age) mon.

These can usually be seen on mon in a few areas. and ‘Fa‘i Samoa Lap Lapa’ are all rare. Elevitch ‘Fa‘i Samoa’ (lit. ‘Hualua’ and Maoli-Pōpō’ulu types of cooking bananas. ‘Māo‘i 16  Banana and plantain overview  . and ‘M.) and ‘Mā‘ohi’ (Tahiti) As indicated above. Rare (or nearly extinct) Mangaro varieties from Very rare in Hawai‘i. ‘Mana-lua’. Most are rare. although they are not Appears to be extinct. Selected varieties still in existence (as Tongan farms in Hawai‘i. photo: A. K. Akamou’. Taanga’. Kepler Right: ‘Manini’ leaves of young plant. ‘M. ‘Fa‘i types. At least five varieties still exist. Aumarei’. Two varieties of clone almost revered in some areas because of its ancient these sausage-like Maolis still in existence are: ‘Feta‘u’ and cultural associations.Left: ‘Manini’ variegated leaves and fruit. of 2004) are: ‘Māohi Huamene’. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Puputa’. only very rarely. common: ‘Fa‘i Samoa’ (most often seen). ‘Māo‘i Koka’. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Au ‘Mangaro’ (Aitutaki. a Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu. and Pōpō‘ulu types. large bunch of fruit of plump fruits. ‘Hopa’ (Tonga) ‘Māo‘i’ (Marquesas Is. photo: C. ‘M. Several (Hawai‘i) varieties are still grown in gardens. Māo‘i are the French Polynesian equivalents of Maoli. Samoa Lautele’. which are perfectly sweet and delicious when ‘Hai’/‘Haikea’ (waxy form of ‘Hai’. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Pau Manifi’ (“thin-skinned” Samoan banana). very pink flowers. meaning “pale”) still green. “Samoan native bananas”) ‘Māhoe’ This group of plantains is the Samoan equivalent of Maoli Other common names: ‘Palua’. Cook Islands) Malie’ (“shark-handle”. this clone has a reddish trunk and the Cook Islands are ‘Mangaro Manii’. ‘Mangaro Torotea’ has a very even. the Tongan “Hopas” include Maoli. but are locally com- ‘Feta‘u Hina’ (a whiter form). with longer fruit than Fa‘i Samoa These are the Cook Island equivalents of Hawai‘i’s Maoli and less even fruit bunches).

this type of banana is found throughout the Pacific. although Other rare. ‘Mei‘a Mao‘i Maita’ (Fatu Hiva. sausage-shaped bananas. of which six are extant. Marquesas). Doz. extant Hawaiian Maoli varieties are: ‘Kaua- in ever-decreasing numbers. Right: ‘Fa‘i Samoa’. so they are usually harvested shortly be- western Pacific (Solomon Isands?). ‘Mei‘a Ma‘ohi Hai’ (Marquesas. it has large bunches of even. Like Maoli. “like the male fruiting young.Ku‘uhua’. with some ‘Huamoa’ in Hawai‘i recently found ‘Pacific Plantain’ measuring 30 cm (12 in) in circumference.org)  17 . it fore fully ripening on the stalk.traditionaltree. The (with tough trunk fibers used for stringing leis). They are delicious sauteed resembles the dark ‘Ele‘ele’/‘Ere‘ere’ varieties (black trunk or boiled. ‘Comino’. K. Beautiful and dark. Other cultivars elsewhere include ‘Mei‘a Ma‘ohi Hai’ and Tahiti). Pōpō‘ulu is a Hawaiian word. sausage-shaped fruit. “native”) A very attractive plant with pink coloration especially when ‘Pōpō‘ulu’ subdivision (lit. ‘Mānai ‘ula’ bored at least eight cultivars. Left: ‘Ele‘ele’ bunch. ‘Pompo’ and ‘Maqueño’ (Ec- uador). Maui. photos: A. ‘Māo‘i Pukiki’. in long). ‘Mei‘a Mao‘i Maita’ (French Polynesia). The fruits tend This striking Maoli cultivar has an unknown origin in the to split when ripe. Samoa. and ‘Puhi’ most famous because of its size is the ‘Huamoa’ (see below). ‘Pacific Plantain’ (Australia) ‘Maoli’ (lit. Apia. and leafstalks). Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Pom- ens of varieties have become extinct. (whose young fruits are complexly oriented like a bunch Pōpō‘ulu cooking bananas range in size from 5–22 cm (2–9 of young eels). Hawai‘i har- lau’ (with distinctive dark red male flowers). Throughout Polynesia there are equivalents to this clone. structure of breadfruit”) It can be seen in botanical gardens in Hawai‘i. Historically. however. especially with coconut cream added. po’ (Colombia). with dark green. Ko‘olau Forest Reserve. ‘Comino’.

‘Mysore’. Most acces- in West Africa and Latin America. Four subsets 18  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Mysore’. photo: A. donesia). assuming their greatest dietary importance Panama disease and the Sigatoka leaf spots. purple. With a predomi- nantly red trunk. ‘Nget-pyaw Chin’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Pōpō‘ulu Pōpō‘ulu’ (lit. This diverse group of “true” plantains is not to be confused sand Grain’. ‘Kikonde’ (Zanzibar). but with fruit ranging from small eggs to 20 cm (8 in) in length by 6 cm (2. bitter gourd”) The smallest of the Hawaiian Pōpō‘ulu fruit. formerly widespread in French Polynesia.‘Huamene’ (Tahiti) On the verge of extinction. this clone’s fruit is longer than most Pōpō‘ulu fruit. with Pacific plantains or with other cooking bananas with ‘Pang’. ssp. ‘Embul’. “like the round. ‘Mysore’ (Australia). ‘Kahiki Hae’. Its taste varies from inferior to delicious. discolor Horan. and display symptoms caused oles). extraordinarily large fruit on the bunch.5 in) in diameter. ‘Grindy’ (Windward Islands). and yellow leaf stalks (peti. this beautiful “hopa” is associated with Tongans. Hawai‘i. “ball-shaped like a breadfruit”) Very rare. ‘Misiluki’ (Samoa). This is a notable Polynesian specialty with several greener variants than the popular Pisang Raja subgroup ‘Putalinga Kula’. champa. Kepler their homeland. Māui. ‘Mangaro Akamou’ (Aitutaki. out perpendicularly to the axis. K. ‘Lahi’. ‘Lahilahi’. sions of it are infected with. They comprise 21% of annual Musa produc- This widely spread dessert clone is vigorous and resists tion worldwide.) Kuntze Other common names: ‘Pisang Raja’ (Malaysia and In- var. ‘Putalinga’ (Tonga) Probably the most red of all the Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu Group. ‘Kalamanawudu’ (Papua New Guinea). red. Plantain fruit are often longer and far more pointed. imported from Hawai‘i) This clone occasionally forms only a few. ‘Champa’. Synonym: M. Cook Islands) This Cook Islands’ Pōpō‘ulu has relatively few fruit. ‘Larip’. ‘Houdir’. “chicken” or “goose egg”) Other names: ‘Hawaiiano’ (Florida. ‘Kluai Kai Ferang’ Plantain subgroup (Thailand). Waipi‘o Bay. the bunch is normal. ‘Huamoa’ or ‘Moa’ (lit. The Samoan ‘Fa‘i Samoa Fua Moa’ is extremely similar and has a name with the same meaning. ‘Pisang Raja’ Mysore subgroup Synonym: M. and ‘Dwarf Waimea’ (Hawai’i) an ABB genome. or ‘Ili Lahilahi’ (lit. of which only one cluster of plants is known. either in ‘Huamoa’. sapientum (L. ‘Lal Velchi’ (India). more resembling the parental Maoli-type. “thin-skinned”) Hawai‘i A thin-skinned form of ‘Pōpō‘ulu Pōpō‘ulu’. ‘Biu Raja’ ( Java) Other common names: ‘Liganimarama’ (Fiji). ‘Fillbasket’ (West Indies). ‘Honde- rawala’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Thou. ‘Ka‘io’ (lit. ‘Pisang Keling’ (Malaysia). × paradisiaca L. In these regions they are a major source of dietary carbohydrates. and a broadly oval bunch of chubby fruit that project by. otherwise. or elsewhere. sapientum L. champa Baker. Banana streak virus (BSV). M. regia Rumphias Synonyms: M. ‘Poovan’. var.

Kepler Some common cultivars: ‘Ishitim’ (Nigeria). M. of cultivars are recognized based on the size and shape of ‘Pisang Tandok’ (Malaysia) the bunch and fruit. Pome subgroup Members of the plantain subgroup are characterized by The Pome subgroup. ‘Kerepiha/Kerepifa’ velop. French banana. States of Micronesia). Some particularly large India. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Brazilian Tall’ (Hawai‘i). cornic- ulata Lour. M. ‘Rio auct. some over. photo: A. ‘Cuerno’ (Central America). and the Americas. e. plantains are known only in India. These plants are sturdy. curved. slightly small- Wild. ‘Tall Apple’.). Hawai‘i.. Waihe‘e.. ‘Pome’ (Canary Islands). In Hawai‘i and French Polynesia. paradisiaca L.. is characterized horn plantains are the size and shape of bull horns. decrescens de Briey Some common cultivars: ‘Agbagba’ and ‘Or- ishele’ (Nigeria). Cameroon. They are the Kon’. ‘Rio Rouge’. M. ‘Krishna Vazhai’ (black-trunked sport. M. very starchy bananas. ‘Wine’.. ‘Pisang Kelat Jambi’ (Ma- the Horn plantains have a “clean” rachis. French plantains have a Other names or similar clones: ‘Apple’. ‘Lady’s cultivars. Marquesas). ‘Vannan’. Intermediate inflorescence characteristics (Sri Lanka). Federated Many ill-defined forms of French plantain exist. whereafter the rachis falls vertically. ‘Barragante’ (Ecuador) ‘Batard’ ‘Horn’ Synonyms: M. ‘Preisihl’ (Pohnpei. whereas Horn plantains develop a small or nonexistent bud (putting all their energy into ‘Pome’ the huge fruit). subacid or “apple-like” taste. Maui.org)  19 . corniculata Rumphias. most common home-grown and island-grown commercial ‘Dominico’ (Colombia). ‘Pime pukiki’ (red-stemmed sport. and Australia. long. below). ‘Tiger’. paradisiaca L. local Some common cultivars: ‘Obino l’Ewai’ (Nigeria).. lapping with the next two clonal clusters: ‘Green French’. ‘Virupakshi’. ‘Rio’ (Tahiti. (rachis) below the fruit. Within the different sets are numer- ous cultivars. Because of this piquant flavor. emasculata de Briey ex De Wild. ‘Bra- very “messy” rachis and big bud below the fruit. ‘Sirumalai’ (India). and ‘3 Vert’ (Cameroon) ‘False Horn’ Synonyms: M.traditionaltree. vigorous. and ‘Giant’. Synonym: M. ‘Bobby Tannap’ (Cameroon). ‘Dominico-Hartón’ (Colom- bia). ‘Nendran’ (India).g. M. see ‘Pacha Naadan’. and are by fruit stalks that emerge at an angle until the fruit de- named thus in different languages. ‘Pime’ (Nuku ‘French’ Hiva. × paradisiaca er fruit). ‘Kijakazi’ (Zanzibar). the more widely recognized plantains by their retention of bud bracts on the stalk “apple” banana. protractorachis De Wild. ‘Puwalu’ bud on the end. non L. ‘Bakweri’ (West Afri- are found in the French Horn and False Horn subsets of ca). Marquesas). In other words. ‘Tarapuakanio’ (Cook Is. M. var. ‘French Horn’ Some common cultivars: ‘Mbang Okon’ (Ni- geria). with little or no laysia). dy’s Finger’ (Australia. whereas zilian’. ‘Brazilian Red’. Egypt. Africa. highly productive and ‘Pink French’. ‘Rio ‘Ute‘ute’. western Pacific islands. prominent in places such as Brazil. purpureo-tomentosa De Wild. can be quite tall. ‘Putalinga Kula’. Tongan-owned farm. Fruit are dis- or “beef ’s horn” (Marquesas) and ‘Tara puatoro’ or “bull’s tinctly “beaked” or “bottle-nosed” and have a particularly horn”. K. various cultivars have been named “apple” thereby confus- French plantains are generally differentiated from Horn ing these cultivars with ‘Silk’.. viridis De India). ‘Njock Pome-type clones are favored above all others. ‘Brazilian’ (Florida). Below are listed some prominent members in Finger’ (Queensland) and a newer variety ‘Improved La- each. ‘Black French’. Pukiki’ (French Polynesia).

‘Miti Ruki’. ‘Chuoi Goong’ (Vietnam) . ‘Kluai Nam’ (Thailand). Maui. It is drought hardy and resists strong winds. ‘Pacha Naadan’ gal’ (Philippines). ‘Worodong’. Australia). ‘Manzana’ (Latin America). Its delicious fruit command high prices Colla. paradisiaca L. ‘Lady plants are sturdy.‘Prata Aña’ Silk subgroup Other names: ‘Dwarf Apple’. ‘Sabari’ (India). ‘Tordan’. ‘Katun- ‘Pacovan’ (Brazil). sapientum L. ‘Pukusa’ (Zanzibar). M. berteri Colla. ‘Kipukusu’. ‘Improved Lady Finger’ Pomme’. photos: A. Right: ‘Silk’. berteroniana von Steudel due to their sweet-acid flavor and long shelf-life. ‘Pisang Rastali’ (Malaysia). this clone ranks second in cultivated area. ‘Turdan’. ‘Silk’ tarina’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Figue Other names: ‘Pachanadan’ (India). ‘Manzano’. Tahiti. ‘Letondal’. Papeete. tum (L. M. vigorous and relatively tolerant to pests Finger’ (Hawai‘i). Kepler 20  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Santa Ca.) Kuntze var. Cantong’. ‘Tundan’. berteroi and production. ‘Apple’ (West Indies). ‘Sonkel’. The Other names: ‘Amorosa’. ‘Sugar’ (Queensland. production. ‘Dwarf Brazilian’. ‘Rasthali’. ‘Mu- (Queensland). ‘Kipungusu’ (East Africa). ‘Manzana’. and diseases. ‘Avundumong’ (Papua New Guinea). M. ‘Prata Santa Catarina’ (Brazil) Synonyms: M. K. ‘Kolikutt’ (Sri Lan- This dessert cultivar represents about 5% of Australian ka). ssp. ‘Maça’ (Brazil). ‘Morthoman’. ‘Manzano’. ‘Lady’s Finger’ (Western Pacific islands) theli’. ‘Silk Fig’. ‘Amorosa’. ‘Manzano’. ‘Maramba’. Kīpahulu. cubensis.. ‘Hta-bat’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Latundan’. ‘Apple’ (Florida). sapien- In Hawai‘i. M. ‘Manzana’. ‘Tiki’ Left: ‘Pome’. yield.

Som’ (Thailand). ‘Hog Banana’ (Ameri- (Pohnpei. ‘Puataelo’ (Samoa). this cultivar was thought to have an ABBB ge- hozi’. ‘Mafoubay’ (West Indies) it is found almost exclusively within Filipino communi. ‘Cachaco En- cal and subtropical regions. ‘Chamaluco’. ‘Buccament’. and is astringent when not. ‘Pisang Abu Keling’ ‘Pisang Siam’ (Malaysia). ‘Kluai Plihai’ ‘Hpi Gyan’ (Burma/Myanmar). cultivar. Other common name: ‘Chamaluco Enano’. ‘Chuoi Ngop Cau’ (Vietnam) Bluggoe subgroup Not considered prime quality. ‘Moko’. ‘Punda’. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. usu- ally. ‘Tarua Matie’ (Cook Is- flesh is white when ripe. ‘Tiparot’. ‘Thella Bontha’ (India). and resistance to drought. ‘Pisang Batu’ ( Java). ‘Pisang Batu’. Other names: ‘Monthan’ (India). ‘Chato’. ‘Kivivu’ (East Africa). It lands). it their Philippine name. Grown at elevations ‘Dwarf Bluggoe’ above 500 m (1640 ft) or in poor soils. ‘Kid- Formerly. ‘Kluai Nom Mi’ (Thailand). ‘Utin Menihle’. bountiful productivity. ‘Poro‘ini’. ‘Tarua sand Fingers’ (Florida) Teatea (Cook Is. Klue Teparod subgroup ‘Bluggoe’ ‘Kluai Tiparod’ Other common names: ‘Largo’ (Hawai‘i). pronounced susceptibility to Panama disease. They are suscep- tible to race 2 of Panama disease and Moko disease. bunch size ‘Pacha Monthan Bathees’ (India) and the fruit skin (green. They produce widely spaced. ‘Bokoboko’. ‘Silver Bluggoe’ Other common names: ‘Katsila’ (Philippines). ‘Largo’ (French a sub-acid. ‘Poro‘ini blanc’ (Marquesas Is.). primarily used for cooking. ‘Mondan’ (Sri Lanka). Only ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ is found more widely than this Dominican Republic. ‘Kluai Sangkivo’. ano’ (Puerto Rico) tasteless. ‘Pya-ye San’ (Burma/Myanmar) ‘Mkojosi’.). ‘Silver Moko’ (West Indies). ‘Fa‘i Pata Samoa’. ‘Utin Kuam’. ‘Pata Sina’ (Samoa). or waxy). ‘Pisang Abu Bujal’ (Malaysia). ‘Burro’. ‘Horse Banana’. ‘Maduranga’ (Philip- erally resist the Sigatoka leaf spot diseases. ‘Kproboi’. ‘Bluggoe’ is grown in many countries due to its excellent ties. ‘Majoncho’. ‘Cuatrofilos’. The plants are drought resistant and gen. this Indian variety is none- theless widespread in SE Asia. ‘Horse Plantain’ ( Jamaica. and dry. silver. a common occurrence in tropi. apple-like taste. large. commonly named in This is an important clone in Pohnpei. ‘Cacambou’. resembling ‘Bluggoe’ but larger. the fruit’s flesh becomes hard. It produces exceptionally flavorful fruit with ‘Poro‘ini Pa‘afa‘afa‘a’. ‘Inahsio Pehsehs’ (Pohnpei. ‘Chuoi Ngop Lun’ (Vietnam). bringing with taste. ‘Kluai Hakmuk’ (Thai- ‘Pisang Seribu’ (Malaysia) land).(Cook Islands). large bulbous tips. ‘Amorosa’. ‘Orinoco’ (Cuba). angular. ‘Poro‘ini pivai. ‘Kluai nome. ‘Cachaco’. ‘Largo’. ‘Kluai Teparod’. ‘Thou- ‘Cenizo’ (tropical America). especially those defi- cient in calcium and boron. ‘Mondolpin’ (Australia). ‘Poro‘ini rehu’ (Tahiti). (Thailand). In Hawai‘i. ‘Jamani’ (Fiji). ‘Poro‘ini Pa‘amanina’. The ‘Sambrani Monthan’ (India) various cultivars are distinguished by stature. ippines). ‘Muskat’. ‘Balongkaue’ (Phil- (Malaysia). ‘Burro’. Synonym: Musa chiliocarpa Backer. Trinidad and Tobago) . ‘Whitehouse Plan- has declined in importance there and elsewhere due to its tain’. who perhaps introduced it to Hawai‘i. ‘Nalla Bontha’ (India). ‘Poro‘ini hinuhinu’. pines). ‘Pata Tonga’ (Tonga). straight fruit that have long peduncles. Federated ‘Pisang Kelat’ (Malaysia) States of Micronesia) Other names: ‘Taiwang’ (Pohnpei) ‘Silver Bluggoe’ is an attractive plant. Its characteristic fruits bear These are vigorous clones. ‘Uht Tikitik ‘Apple Plantain’. ‘Matavia’ (Philippines).org)  21 . found to have fairly high levels of beta carotene. ‘Bluggoe’. ‘Silver Blug- Other AAB cultivars goe’. only four to seven hands are produced on a bunch. ‘Poro‘ini Hima‘a umu’.traditionaltree. ‘Square Cooker’. Federated States of Micronesia) cas). ‘Poteau’. where it has been local languages for its silvery fruit coating. Monthan subgroup ‘Nalla Bontha Bathees’ (India) ABB genome ‘Monthan’ (India) These cultivars produce relatively starchy fruit. The fruit peel splits and the Polynesia). ‘Pisang Nipal’ (Malaysia). Other common names: ‘Kluai Roi Wi’ (Thailand). Other common names: ‘Pisang Abu Siam’.

‘Blue Lubin’ The fruit is named for its flavor and texture. ‘Pata Hina’. ‘Pata papalagi’ (Samoa). K. ‘Karpuravalli’ (India). ‘Ney Mannan’(India). ‘Alukehel’. ‘Sail Kola’ (India). ‘Uht Kapakap’ (Pohnpei). ‘Vata’. A dwarf version. ‘Blue Java’. sweet and smooth. Kepler ‘Bluggoe’. the flesh can be eaten with a spoon. Saba subgroup ‘Benedetta’ ‘Inabaniko’. ‘Monohar’. Pisang Awak subgroup ‘Pisang Awak’ (Malaysia) Other common names: ‘Katali’ (Philippines). ‘Pey Kunnan’. due to its persistent bracts. When fully ripe. Top: ‘Bluggoe’ female flowers. Is. Pelipita subgroup ‘Pelipia’ (Central America) Other common name: ‘Pilipia’ (Philippines) This clone tolerates Moko disease. ‘Ripping’ (Philippines) ‘Cardaba’ A Philippine cooking banana. photo: I. Externally. Florida). ‘Kluai Namwa Khom’. it was classified erroneously as having a BBB genome. ‘Balaliki’. due to a heavy coating of wax.). ‘Pisang Klotok’ (Indonesia). ‘Nyeupe’ (Kenya). ‘Kluai Hin’ (Thailand) The male bud of this clone is a popular vegetable in the Philippines. ‘Ash Plantain’ (Sri Lanka). comes from Thailand and is now being widely distributed in the Pacific islands including Samoa and the Cook Islands. photo: A. Maguire 22  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Pisang Abu Nipah’ (Malaysia). ‘Kayinja’ (East Africa). ‘Dukuru’ (Pohnpei. ‘Yakhine (Burma/Myanmar). but is susceptible to race 1 of Panama disease. ‘Pata Lahelahe’ (Tonga). 70% of all bananas that are grown in Thailand are of this clone. ‘Choui Tay’ (Vietnam). ‘Tarua Teatea’ (Cook Other names: ‘Ice Cream’ (Hawai‘i. ‘Pata’ (Fiji. With ‘Saba’. It is vigorous and tolerates adverse conditions.). It was offered as a resistant replacement for ‘Blug- goe’ in the Americas where that clone was decimated by Moko disease. ‘Saba’ (Philippines) Other common names: ‘Pisang Kepok’ (Indonesia). Federated States of Micronesia) ‘Java Blue’. the fruit is colored a beautiful silver- green. ‘Kostha Bontha’. ‘Paradaika’ (Egypt) This is the most widely disseminated ABB cultivar. ‘Ducasse’ (Australia). especially drought. ‘Praying Hands’ (Florida).Ney Mannan subgroup (Australia). ‘Blue Java’. ‘Fa‘i ‘Ney Mannan’ (India) Pata Sina’. ‘Kluai Nam- wa’ (Thailand).

‘FHIA-17’ and ‘FHIA-23’. dessert AAAB. ‘FHIA-20’ and ‘FHIA-21’. Maguire Right: Saba type ‘Utin Ruk’ in Pohnpei. M. they have resulted from crosses between triploid female and dip- loid male parents. balbisiana as it did in There are no natural AAAA and very few natural AAAB. Tetraploids that are most common in cultivation are (Thailand). do not exist.traditionaltree. Most notable among classified previously as BBB. Thus. Particularly associated with the Marquesas and Society Islands (French Polynesia). none of which are impor. such as ‘Tani’ tant. AABB and ABBB BB genome genomes Parthenocarpy did not evolve in M. ‘FHIA-03’. photo: I.AAAA. BB clones that are cultivated. photo: J. In general. Fe‘i bananas like AAAB. edible diploid cultivars of the species AABB. and ABBB bananas. Whether an uncommon clone the bred tetraploids are those from the FHIA program in in Thailand.org)  23 . Daniells Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. AAAB. Honduras: dessert AAAA. and cooking or The Fe‘i cultivars range naturally from the Moluccas dessert AABB. are grown for their leaves and for animal feed. Fe‘i were staple and ceremonial foods since the Marquesas were first settled from the Samoa-Tonga region (~250 BC) Left: ‘Benedetta’. ‘Kluai Lep Chang Kut’. is BBB is unclear. acuminata. to French Polynesia. ‘FHIA-02’ (aka ‘Mona Lisa’). plantain. products of the breeding programs. A few promising varieties are found in BBB genome cultivation (including some Pacific islands) in those areas Philippine ABB clones such as ‘Cardaba’ and ‘Saba’ were where banana diseases are rampant. ‘FHIA-01’ (aka ‘Goldfinger’) and cooking and dessert ‘FHIA-18’.

Recent genetic work indicated that they are closest genetically to 24  Banana and plantain overview  . heavily ridged. fehi Bert. suggested as probable parents of the extant clones. an experimental AAAB dessert banana. the Fe‘i alence has declined drastically in recent decades. they also can be recognized among the Fe‘i cultivars is as great as that that is found in by their bright magenta to dark purple sap. M. ‘Daak’ (New Caledonia) phology) and M. ex Vieill. Prominent clones on different establishment phase and some are susceptible to Panama islands are listed below as distinct although some may be disease. M. and taxonomic work on this group. Although they are clearly in the section Australimusa. Genetic diversity tion to their erect bunches. lolodensis (based on DNA studies) were Synonym: M. the entire section Australimusa (see Part 1). Kepler and Tahiti around 700–800 AD.Left: ‘FHIA-03’. photos: A. Both photos: Nu‘u Agricultural Station. Samoa. ‘Pisang Tongkat Langit’ (eastern Indonesia) and ‘Pisang These bananas are unique and distinct from the acuminata/ Tongkat Langit Papua’ (Irian Jaya) balbisiana cultivars in the section Musa. Shar- squarish red/coppery fruit.g. Thus. ally high in beta carotene (see e. and near-iridescent orange or rock (2001) provided a recent summary of the history of yellow fruit flesh. troglodytarum L. and pests. these plus an additional species. bananas may be interspecific hybrids. The fruit of some clones is exception. origins are poorly understood. ‘Upolu. Englberger and Lorens Relationships and common names for the various clones in 2004). Right: ‘FHIA-01’ (aka ‘Goldfinger’). Although they can be quite sensitive during the different areas are unclear. they are generally vigorous. K. peekelii. and require little care once established. Unfortunately their prev. tolerate most diseases synonymous. In addi. their precise Synonym: M. maclayi (based on mor. an experimental AABB cooking or dessert banana..

Papeari. some clones brighter than others. Bottom right: All Fe‘i have bright magenta sap.Top left: ‘Fe‘i ‘A‘ata’. Papeari.org)  25 . Tahiti.traditionaltree. photos: A. Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Tahiti. K. Tahiti. Top right: ‘Fe‘i ‘Auiri’. Bottom left: ‘Fe‘i Tati‘a’. Papeari.

‘Utafan’. al Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain. Constantine. Musa and Musella. Pohnpei-Bananas: A Photo Collection: Carotenoid-rich Varieties. BIBLIOGRAPHY Constantine. Networking Banana (Marquesas). L. pp. Bananas in Hawai‘i: ‘Fe‘i’ (Society Islands) Living Polynesian Heirlooms.. ‘Soa‘a’ (Samoa). and A. Sharrock. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND Stover. 1962. co. Simmonds.. Suva. and ‘Kulasr’ and ‘Kolontol’ (Kosrae. Montpellier. Guinea).. In- foMusa 2: 8. D. 2001. 2004. Networking Banana and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Re- port 2001. Synonym: M. 1994. London.H. INFOMU- nei’. <http://www. Ploetz. <http:// www. aiori Sagot Nelson.. The Evolution of the Bananas. ‘Me. Musa The most common cultivars in home gardens today are species (bananas and plantains). (ed.. France. INIBAP. In: Elevitch.C. C. Englberger. 26  Banana and plantain overview  . Constantine. Musalogue: a catalogue of Musa germplasm. htm>. Abacá and Enset. <http://www. UK. Häkkinen. Per- manent Agriculture Resources (PAR). Rust. InfoMusa 12: 2–5. clude ‘Borabora’. ‘Fe‘i Aiuri’ and ‘Fe‘i Tatia’. AGROFORESTRY EXTENSION Longmans. Extension offices for agroforestry and forestry in the Pa- cific: <http://www. Jenny.R. Montpellier.users. 1987.. M. and Sharrock. Constantine listed accepted names for taxa and their synonyms. and Tomekpe. R.globalnet. Kepler. France. 1999 onwards. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. compil.uk/~drc/>. 2002. C. org/publications/musalogue.‘Soaqa’ (Fiji) Jones.).co. 16–25. Ploetz. D. Diversity in the genus Musa.C. 2003. (ed. In: INIBAP. D.users. Muell. Diversity in the genus Musa (E. In: INIBAP. 15–20. ‘Rimina’.inibap. Diversity in the genus Musa­—Focus on Rhodochlamys. Hawai‘i. Focus on (Tonga). Kepler. ‘Huetu’ Australimusa. London. and N. Hōlualoa. Synonym: M. Simmonds. ‘Chongk’ (New Hebrides).users. Long- mans. K.uk/~drc/Nomenclature.). 1993.G. ‘Utu’ (Cook Islands). ‘Polapola’.org>. S. S. pp.. Some common cultivars and synonyms elsewhere in. The nomenclature of the genus Musa. Carotenoid-rich bananas in Micronesia.globalnet. A.K.co. CABI Publishing. Federated States of Micronesia) Montpellier.traditionaltree.W. N. Daniells.org/extension. S.. R. Karamura.traditionaltree. R. and A.pdf>. Musa ingens—The world’s tallest banana. ver. 2004. seemanii F. J. The Musaceae—an annotat- ed list of the species of Ensete.W. <http://www. International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain. and F. and ‘Wain’ (Papua New SA 3: 16–18. France. Banana production in Egypt. D.html>. 2001. Wallingford. Federated and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Report 2000. v. 3rd ed. Arnaud and S. ‘Mai‘a Ha‘i’ (Hawai‘i). Fiji Islands: Secretariat of the Pacific Community.globalnet. Lorens. In prep. Bananas.R.) 2000. 2.uk/~drc/>. In- ternational Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP). L. Diseases of Banana. ‘Utin Iap’ and ‘Karat’ (Pohnpei. 2000. Englberger.C. ‘Fe‘i’ and ‘Soanga’ Sharrock. ‘Sar’. Internation- States of Micronesia).K. D. 2006. <www.

traditionaltree. E-mail: par@agroforestry. Hawai‘i 96725. R. A. © 2006 Permanent Agriculture Resources. E-mail: akk@pacificwideconsulting. Florida 33031. and Extension Service. USA. Hawai‘i.traditionaltree. <http://www.ufl. (ed. All rights reserved. Hilo.net. J. 280 Street. South Johnstone 4859. Elevitch Publisher: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR). Daniells. Nelson.R. USA Acknowledgments: Photo contributions from Ian Maguire are gratefully acknowledged. Tropical Research and Education Center. SPC/GTZ Pacific-German Regional Forestry Project. Pacific-wide Consulting. This institution is an equal opportunity provider. Home- stead. USA.. Permanent Ag- riculture Resources (PAR). PO Box 20. E-mail: jeff. PO Box 1298.org)  27 .daniells@dpi. Angela Kay Kepler.au 4. Kepler.W. Education. and Muriel and Kent Lighter. Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). Hawaii 96720.gov. C. 18905 S. This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research.C. under Cooperative Agreement 2002-47001-01327.net>. an Urban Forestry Program of the DLNR Division of Forestry and Wildlife and the USDA Forest Service. Utah State University. and Scot C. Department of Plant Pathology. Cooperative Extension Service.traditionaltree. 1. Web: <http://www.. and Agricultural Experiment Station.                 Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. 2007.org>. Depart­ment of Plant & Envi- ronmental Protection Sciences (PEPS).qld. Horticulture & Forestry Science.com 3.S. In: Elevitch.org>. University of Florida. Hōlualoa. Haiku. ver. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. Series editor: Craig R. Tel: 808-324-4427. USA. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. This publication may be repro- duced for noncommercial educational purposes only. The authors are deeply thankful for the generous support they have received from academic colleagues and farmers throughout the Pacific. 875 Komohana St.org) Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars Authors: Randy C. Hawaii 96708. E-mail: rcp@ifas. University of Hawai‘i at Manoa. Jeff Daniells. USDA Forest Service Forest Lands Enhancement Program.K.edu 2. of Maui.). Department of Agriculture. Recommended citation: Ploetz. PO Box 428. Ploetz. Fax: 808-324- 4129. Sponsors: Publication was made possible by generous support of the United States Department of Agriculture Western Region Sus- tainable Agriculture Research and Education (USDA-WSARE) Program. with credit given to the source. Hōlualoa.traditionaltree.agroforestry.C. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Reproduction: Copies of this publication can be downloaded from <http://www. Australia. Is. Nelson 1. and S. State of Hawai‘i Department of Land & Natural Resources Division of Forestry & Wildlife. Kaulunani. U. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA NRCS).