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Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry February 2007

ver. 1

www.traditionaltree.org

Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis
on Pacific island cultivars
Musaceae (banana family)

Randy C. Ploetz, Angela Kay Kepler, Jeff Daniells, and Scot C. Nelson

photo: C. Elevitch
INTRODUCTION
The plant family Musaceae, composed of ba-
nanas, plantains, and ornamental bananas,
originally evolved in Southeast Asia and sur-
rounding tropical and subtropical regions (in-
cluding New Guinea). Africa is a secondary
center of diversity.
The two genera Ensete and Musa in the family
Musaceae are covered here.
Please note that this manuscript is not all-in-
clusive and that much of the complex species
and cultivar taxonomy is in the process of re-
vision and expansion. Readers are encouraged
to consult with the many excellent online re-
sources listed in the “Bibliography” for current
information.

‘Manini’, a variegated Hawaiian banana.

Part 1: Taxa in the Musaceae Cheesman, E. holstii (Schumann) Cheesman, E. ulugurense
(Warburg) Cheesman, E. fecundum (Stapf ) Cheesman, E.
laurentii (De Wild.) Cheesman, E. bagshawei (Rendle and
Greves) Cheesman, E. davyae (Stapf ) Cheesman, E. ruan-
Ensete dense (De Wild.) Cheesman, E. rubronervatum (De Wild.)
The genus Ensete ranges throughout Africa and southern Cheesman, M. africana Hort.
Asia. Depending on the authority, the genus Ensete contains Description: This is the most important species in the ge-
as many as nine species. They are monocarpic, unbranched nus. Reaching 5–7 m (16–23 ft) tall, it ranges throughout
herbs that sucker rarely and are used for food, fiber, and as much of the African continent, and produces a rhizome
ornamentals. They resemble banana plants, but their wide- that is used as a staple food by approximately 8 million
spreading and immensely long, paddle-shaped leaves with people in the Ethiopian highlands. The variety ‘Maurelii’,
usually crimson midribs, are unmistakable. Their fruits are ‘Red Abyssinian’, or ‘Black banana’ (synonym E. maurelii)
similar in appearance to those of banana, but they are dry, is the most colorful, with the brightest red midribs, above
seedy, and inedible. The entire plant dies after fruiting. and below, with rich dark red leaf stalks (petioles) and
Ensete gilletii (De Wild.) Cheesman blackish-red leaf blades. Its flower cluster, embraced in
maroon bracts, may reach 3 m (10 ft) long. The seeds are
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman. Common names: Wild
large, about 18 mm diameter x 14 mm deep (0.7 in x 0.5
banana, Seeded sweet banana, “Virgin” banana, or Virgin
in). Introduced into Hawai‘i, it is rare or no longer present
(Philippines)
there.
Synonyms: M. glauca Roxb., M. nepalensis Wallich in
Roxb., M. troglodytarum L. var. dolioliformis F. M. Blanco,
M. gigantea Kuntze, M. calosperma von Mueller, M. wilsonii
Tutcher, E. calospermum (von Mueller) Cheesman, E. wil-
sonii (Tutcher) Cheesman, M. agharkarii Chakravorti, E.
gigantea (Kuntze) T. Nakai, E. nepalensis (Wallich) Chees-
man, err. cal. Simmonds, E. agharkarii (Chakravorti) Hore,
Sharma and Pandey
Description: This species has small, oval bananas in a very
small, compact bunch, atop a huge bud with green turning
to pale brown, persistent bracts producing a “messy” rachis
similar to dwarf edible bananas (for example, ‘Dwarf Cav-
endish’, ‘Prata Aña’). The seeds are about 10 mm diameter
x 11 mm deep (0.4 in x 0.43 in). The seeds are strung into
necklaces in PNG.
Ensete homblei (Bequaert) Cheesman
Ensete perrieri (Claverie) Cheesman
Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman
Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman. Common names:
Enset, Ensete, Abyssinian banana or Plantain, Ethiopian,
Black, Bruce’s or wild banana
Synonyms: Musa ensete Gmel., M. ventricosa Welw., M.
buchananii Baker, M. schweinfurthii Schumann and War-
burg ex Schumann, M. arnoldiana De Wild., M. holstii
Schumann, M. ulugurensis Warburg and Moritz ex War-
burg, M. fecunda Stapf, M. laurentii De Wild., M. bagsha-
wei Rendle and Greves, M. davyae Stapf, M. ruandensis De
Wild., M. rubronervata De Wild., E. edule Horan., E. bu-
chanani (Baker) Cheesman, E. schweinfurthii (Schumann
and Warburg) Cheesman, E. arnoldianum (De Wild.)
Ensete ventricosum. photo: J. Daniells 

  Banana and plantain overview 

rounded. For example. cent molecular analyses indicate a reduction to two sec. musa (formerly known as EUMUSA). This has only a small range in North Queensland. The the sterility. Abacá cultivars to which these names refer were recognized as M. Also included in the section is an im. either subglobose or compressed. ma- clayi and M. acuminata and interspecific hy. erecta (Simmonds) Argent smooth. where they were transported long distances (>10 m [33 ft]). Section Australimusa (chromosome num. acuminata and M.Musa nanas have been shown to contain the high levels of beta The genus Musa’s center of origin is Asia (primarily south. bukensis Argent tine summarized the confusion (Constantine. appressed together in tight bunches. M. especially if the slices are swathed in fresh provide many cultures with medicines. and to a certain extent in some Musa taxonomy is confused by several factors including traditional islands of Micronesia. but much further study is required before the above bananas. Re. steam for cooking. and the unwillingness pino men on important occasions are woven from paper- of many to adopt newer. partly joined together laterally. tuberculate. fibers. subspecies maclayi sification purposes. a principal component. maclayi Section Australimusa ranges naturally from New var. and 2004. which are delicious and nutritious when most significant. Callimusa. Intro- Pacific agricultural circles. Plants in the Australimusa section are generally tall. viz. fuel. Contains the Fe‘i bananas. maclayi subsp. beverages. With few exceptions. In the outer islands of Yap. and in some varieties.traditionaltree. and hybrid origins of translucent. sapientum (‘Silk’) are still used decades after the women’s wrap-around skirts or lavalavas (pareus). peekelii Lauterb. M. textilis (abacá or Manila hemp) is particularly impor- brids between M. the Fe‘i bananas have M. ern and southeastern). ancient domestication. In Its geographical range includes Papua New Guinea. silky shirts (often embroidered) worn by Fili- the cultivated varieties (cultivars). M. jack- edible floral parts. become famous because of their association with French Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. peekelii. four sections have been recognized in Musa. striate. Micronesian Fe‘i bananas enjoyed spotlighting in it was found in the Philippines (Palawan) in 1960. apple-green bud. smooth. ‘Karat’. M. thin strips of abacá pseudostem. namatani Argent Guinea and northern Queensland into the western Pacific. ‘Utin lap’ and other ba- Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. In addition to fruit. and Rhodochlamys. striate. those that bear edible fruit are the ange-gold fruit. Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. abacá (M. Fe‘i-like tions. Constan- M. tubercu. var. lolodensis. which sia. cordage. M. the familiar of reddish-amber to red urine by those who consume the eating bananas are naturally occuring hybrids among the fruit. coconut cream. nana. It greatly resembles a Fe‘i. Australia.-Maclay may involve as many as three species. with a bunch of fruits tipped with a narrow in canoes by Polynesian seafarers as far back as 250 BC green bud which is pendent. acuminata × M. The fruits are portant source of fiber. and system is abandoned. ex Mikl. var. 2004). rather than reaching skyward. an enormous green bud pointing skyward. Hill. correct names. maclayi von Muell. ailuluai. Common name: Johnstone River ba- Historically. are important in the Pacific. bananas and plantains baked or boiled. Additional characteristics (also in M. or irregularly angled. with seeded fruit. produces a shiny. textilis). A very tall plant Polynesia. jackeyi W.org)   . However. tant in Philippine culture. Their origins are complex and M. dyes. balbisiana hybrids (see Part 2). with upright fruit stalk. Their seed structure is important for clas. and distinctive green or greenish-yellow subspecies ailuluai Argent buds (if present). Native to the West Seeds subglobose or compressed. paradisiaca (‘French’ plantain) islanders still use hand-looms to weave abacá fiber into and M. (Marquesas Islands) and later in ~800 AD (Tahiti). etc. A great number of important plants Fe‘i are robust plants bearing erect bunches of brilliant or- are found in the genus. Sepik region of Papua New Guinea and parts of Indone- late or irregularly angled. Lin. balbisiana. naean binomials such as M. Australimusa. as a source of fiber. May be synonymous with M. various subspecies of M. carotene (vitamin A precursor). lolodensis Cheesman ber: x = 10) Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. “bloody” sap. eyi) are a “bloody” purple-magenta sap and the production wrapping materials.

sp nov. and small seedy nated from two species in this section. acuminata’s native   Banana and plantain overview  . for other manufactured products such as rayon. M. floor mats. coccinea Andrews. Common name: Javanese wild banana musa section. M. G. parents of some important edible cultivars worldwide (see M. Vietnam. Because of the increasing incidence of debilitating Okinawa torch. Hawai‘i. nanas. for many cultural food preferences. and specialty paper. Thai red banana. M. typical of the Australi- M. sanay Synonyms: M. violascens Ridley Tropical Botanical Garden (Kaua‘i). M. 0. scarlet banana. A variable species with six to nine subspecies. rarely glau. was the Binh Province. Native to Malaysia and Thailand. Common name: Alin- Musa acuminata Colla. and male flowers. Section Musa (former section) Eumusa (chro- cous and strongly imbricate when closed. coccinea. A fairly short ornamental plant. chinensis Sweet. angustigemma Simmonds are small (ca. suitable for growing under a Synonyms: Musa uranoscopos Lour. ornata. Introduced into Hawai‘i for commercial purposes in the late 1800s. exotica was originally col- roi Hayata lected from the Cuc Phuong Forest Reservation. maguindanao (Philippines) M. Native to China and Indochina. tall plant. Synonyms: M. Commercial production was greatest in M. O‘ahu. Its shiny green bud hides purple inner linings. textilis Née. carii. inside which subspecies angustigemma (Simmonds) Argent Syn. Argent the Waimea Valley Audubon Center (O‘ahu) and National M. below which small yellow bananas de- glistening. Musa wide range of environmental conditions and appropriate uranoscopos Lour. and its small rumphiana Kurz. in the hopes that banana breeders will be able to M. exotica R. Its fibers were also suitable velop. Fruits are green and skinny. magenta disappeared. borneënsis Beccari Part 2). firm. non Rumph. simiarum Kurz fruit are “long bottle-nosed” and seedy. It has a clear orange.. depending M. Manila hemp. textilis. It can be found at M. Recent expeditions have focused on finding. textilis Née. corniculata Kurz. shiny on the outer surface. This Section Callimusa (chromosome number: x = species is often confused with M. amukid. are enclosed tubular yellow flowers. and attempting to protect the myriad forms of this M. Valmayor. upright bud source of one of the world’s premier fibers—soft. gracilis Holttum the Philippines and Central America. Ninh Before the advent of synthetic textiles. variously colored buds and flowers. M. it is now rare. Its orange.duced into Hawai‘i. campestris Beccari species. M. bec- Valley Audubon Center. Recent genetic This species bears a narrow.8 cm [2 in] long). M. suratii G. formosana Hayata. cellophane. with mauve bud bracts. Abacá is a beautiful. breeders are expending great effort to develop desirable seedless bananas. salaccensis Zoll. M. composed of erect spirals of red bracts. balbisiana. especially on Maui and the island of M. These plants are mosome number: x = 11) most important as ornamentals. Hotta pean paper money. Common names: abacá. acuminata and fruit. bright scarlet bud. 10) Bracts plain. flavida M. Occasionally grown in Hawai‘i at commer- subspecies peekelii cial heliconia farms. red ornamental pests and banana diseases.6 ft] tall). seeded fruit onym: M. together with increasing world banana populations. alinsanaya Valmayor. Common Names: Red (flowering) develop more—and better—strains of disease-resistant ba- Thai banana. this banana can be seen at the Waimea This species bears a rounder red flower cluster than M. It was even a constituent in some Euro. fancy place mats. with narrow. and fine-textured. C. M. silky. non Colla. M. nov. Most bear upright flower Most cultivated varieties (cultivars) of edible banana origi- stalks. sp. Okinawan banana flower. tashi- A species described in 2004. elliptical. but has now all but A beautiful plant (<2 m [6. Niche markets now cater to intricately woven and green striped fruits. and newsprint. var. ana- lyzing. Occasionally found in Hawai‘i’s botanical gardens. beccarii Simmonds on the authority (eight are described here). studies have identified which subspecies were probable with green-tipped bracts. M. and an upright pink-purple bud.

where it evidently became subspecies banksii (F. Pisang Klutuk Wulung. Common names: Balbisiana. Hawai‘i). errans Teodoro. and Lyon Arboretum (O‘ahu).) Simmonds. Laos and cluding the Ryuku Islands). prominently “beaked” fruits This is a key subspecies for those interested in edible. japonica hol’. primarily in Plantain and ‘Pōpō‘ulu’ subgroups. M. M. textilis). abacá (M. slender. and the maternal par. subspecies microcarpa (Beccari) Simmonds. Muell. As such. sumatrana (Becc. but west to Africa. botanical gardens such as Waimea Valley Audubon Cen- ent of the ‘Maia Maoli’ subgroup. E. Native to Japan (in- subspecies siamea Simmonds. Maoli bananas. Synonym: M. with a blue-violet This species is extremely robust.) errans. Common names: Fleur de Wild (starchy) banana. sapientum L. Another banana that was significant in the past for its sapientum L. southern M.) A. basjoo Sieb. Borneo. Java. Mueller shade. derivative of this subspecies. errans Teodoro var. liukiuensis (Matsum. Common Name: Blood banana Synonyms: M. M. Devil banana and Seeded “apple” banane des Philippines. M. liukiuensis Matsum. Botohan. banksii F. Southern India.habitat ranges throughout SE Asia (west to Myanmar) This subspecies was transported not only eastwards into and Papua New Guinea. M. Mealy banana. with a beautiful. tually became a useful windbreak. ranging from the western Pacific >6400 as a medicinal plant by pre-Cook Polynesians. this is probably the world’s Thailand. large subspecies truncata.org)   . M. It is of cultural significance in Hawai‘i. It is a very pretty subspecies. and as an ornamental. Queensland. the “true apple” banana. eastward to Samoa. seedy forms are much less variable than subspecies malaccensis (Ridley) Simmonds.traditionaltree. acuminata. elegant fabrics. shiny bud and inedible fruit. scribed. it is also characterized by very slender pseud- ostems and small. Nasution. acuminata Colla ‘Sumatrana’ Hort. North In.. The wild. Papua New Guinea. banana (Maui. M. balbisiana Colla. it may be seen only occasionally. M. var. sumatrana. It is a medium-sized plant (to 5 m [16 ft]) similar to abacá. M. liukiuensis Matsum. balbisiana. most cold-hardy banana. likely having Synonym: M. Burma. resistant. it is possibly the only seeded banana variety introduced ed in Oceania. because fruit with rounded tips. saging maching. km (>4000 mi) eastwards to the Marquesas Islands. where it is called ‘Fa‘i This plant has striking dark green leaves splotched with Taemanu’ (rare today). hybrid bananas that arose within the Pacific. M. used for fiber. rounded. balbisiana is one of common in the West Indies (not to be confused with the parents of many edible seedless bananas. Musa × sapientum var. variably sized maroon patches. particularly subspecies burmannica Simmonds. acuminata Colla subsp.N. The clone ‘Pisang Lilin’ is a Southeast Asia from Sri Lanka to the Philippines. and rarely in private acterized in part by 15–20 cm (6–8 in). the paternal parent of the Mutika/Lujugira subgroup donesian islands. saging chongo. var. the Pacific. agutay (Philippines) and Pacol (Philippines). since it is considered to be both maternal and paternal parents of In Hawai‘i. it is called ‘Mai‘a ‘Oa’. Synonyms: M. Thriving under heavy Synonym: M. It even- Paternal parent of ‘Silk’ AAB. full of grape-like seeds. M. sumatrana ‘Rubra’ Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. O‘ahu). maternal contributions to many AA and AAA dessert pruinosa bananas. Starchy banana. Used for fiber and as an ornamental. Synonyms: M. It is also subspecies zebrina (Van Houtte) R. although five morphotypes have been de- Malaysia and Sumatra. char. are the primary clone represent. and northern AAA (aka East African Highland Bananas). and drought- pendent bud and very pale green immature fruit. Cambodia. sausage-shaped gardens. Balbis banana. ter. Seedy banana. malaccensis Ridley been introduced from the Philippines into O‘ahu in the late 1800s with the fiber plant. brachycarpa Back. India and Sri Lanka. subspecies burmannicoides DeLanghe. It is found in Hawai‘i (Maui. Peninsular M. var. Peninsular Malaysia (highlands) green and yellow. troglodytarum L.. saging na ligao. fast-growing. It is native to “apple” bananas of Hawai‘i). Other. Common names: Japanese (fiber) banana This subspecies has given rise to the clone ‘Veinte Co. subspecies errans Argent.. botoan Makino. although there has been much local confusion with other seeded bananas.

Common name: Indian dwarf ba. produce small. has This is the world’s largest herb. boman Argent (x = ?) ange-red budded ornamental bearing yellow female flow- ers. the banana’s flesh bursts through its skin at the apex. ex Kurz M. ssp. tions) Native to Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand.5 m (8 ft) in circumference at the base. self-peeling banana. which germinate readily. this species is probably the most widely planted ornamental banana in the tropics and subtropics. although rather slowly. rubra Wall. its most notable features 2100 m (3300–6900 ft) in elevation. or- nata is occasionally grown in botanical and private gardens. and immature fruits are pale green. flaviflora Simmonds M. Burma and India. number: x = 11) In Hawai‘i. Its upright “hot” pink bud. windward regions. are bright pink-purple fruiting stems and bud bracts.3 ft] tall). resembling abacá (M. bright pink bananas. sanguinea Hook. When ripe. rosea Baker M. it is widespread in tropical bo- M. this species thrives wherever it is planted. and Drude. means “vel- Synonym: M. laterita Cheesman. M. ex Baker.M. and is becomingly increasingly available for M. It and made available to tropical plant enthusiasts. velutina. Synonym: Musa × paradisiaca L. schizocarpa Simmonds fat. M. sapientum (L. Common name: Mannii. “self-peeling banana”. Incertae sedis (taxa with uncertain taxonomic posi- nana. hookerii King vety”. ingens Simmonds (chromosome number: x = 7) This little known species from Assam. nagensium Prain tanical gardens. Common names: Ornamental banana. in height and 2. textilis). dwarf banana M. rare in the wild. A dwarf is found on the island of New Guinea between 1000 and ornamental (ca. Their white inner flesh is packed M. 1 m [3. It can grow at least as high M. sanguinea Welw. then proceeds to “peel itself ”. this one (like M. Common name: West Sumatra M. whose bracts are crowded with bright yellow flowers. aurantiaca Mann ex Baker as 1100 m (3600 ft) on Haleakalā. Velutina M. hot pink banana. rosacea Jacq. sikkimensis Kurz with black seeds. cially in wet. velutina H. windward coasts. ornata Roxb. Originally hailing from Bangladesh. cheesmani Simmonds bud bracts are whitish inside. M. itinerans Cheesman Native to northern India. particularly along the wet. this is an or- M. Wendl. propagated. Maui. In Hawai‘i. halabanensis Meijer. ochracea Shepherd homegardens. Section RHODOCHLAMYS (chromosome true to its alternate common name. M. as indeed it is. A tall plant from New Guinea with a glossy yellow bud. fuzzy. M. This banana’s species name.) Another striking ornamental from northern India. f. pink banana. mannii H. M. Wendl. Common names: Fuzzy wild banana (pink) banana. The   Banana and plantain overview  . M. M. ornata Synonym: Musa rubra Wall. espe- Many highly ornamental species are found in this section.) Kun- tze var. and can reach 15 m (49 ft) recently been discovered by horticulturalists. flowering banana. mannii) has a pink-purple bud and fruit stalk.

fruit size. aka East African Highland hybrids are diploid (two sets of chromosomes). balbisiana. triploid Bananas). and details of The edible bananas are highly diverse.Part 2: Cultivated varieties discovered hybrids were carried by indigenous peoples by land and sea. With the exception of hybrids from the breeding (three sets. As newly In the following list. acuminata and er production. ‘Lady(’s) Finger’ soon areas in northern Southeast Asia.traditionaltree. acuminata and M. they were selected by people and duce a variety’s genome (i. AABB. tem that considers 15 morphological characteristics. The Fe‘i bananas. These include pseudostem (“trunk”) color. shape. the ever. in the Australimusa section. more opportunities for hybridization arose. AB. and specific countries or regions in which the names are used are listed in parentheses. tetraploid (four sets). M. the most widely used common name of a cultivar is listed in boldface type. the most common and important ploidy). variable traits include: plant stature and architecture. and Papua Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. acuminata and M. There are hundreds AAAA. The cultivars rica (Plantain subgroup). balbisiana. its ploidy and relative content henceforth propagated vegetatively as clones. pure M. Other. and taste. balbisiana originated in mon- or regions is a daunting task. Common names that have been given bananas (mostly products of breeding programs) may be to some of the cultivars are ambiguous. ploidy is best determined by chromosome counts or local word for “children”). fruit stalk (peduncle) hairi- origins of the hybrids begun to be understood (see Part 1). shape. and by using a scoring sys- nocarpy. balbisiana arose where distributions of the two species overlapped. pigmentation. Bananas that are hybrids between M. shape and size of the male bud. whereas M. an individual plant vegetatively. A perceptive observer can usually de- Over thousands of years. and East Africa Part 1) or between M. less commonly used names are listed thereafter. They can from M. and southern Asia. Most edible bananas originated from two species in the sec- Major secondary centers of diversity occur in West Af- tion Musa. Only recently have the leaf stem (petiole) structure. There are so M.” Many cannot interbreed because they are sterile.e. which arose from a different group of Musa spp. acuminata and M. cultivars and groups of cultivars with an acuminata/balbisiana heritage are listed alpha- betically within a given genome. For example. or ABB. color. balbisiana. bunch size. scars left from fall- ing flowers on the lower fruit stalk (rachis).org)   . (cultivars) of edible bananas especially since not all were completely sterile. size. Estimates of the spectively. re. balbisiana are diploids. variation in the crop in its secondary centers resulted pri- marily from mutations in the cultivars. which is called “parthe- thickness. Polynesia (Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu and are either hybrids among subspecies of M. Where it first appears. photo: R. and Thus. and M. and AA and AB clones are cultivated. balbisiana) by observing leaf produce fruit without fertilization. schizocarpa are unimportant and not included below. and orientation. AAB. acuminata evolved primarily in tropical rainforests in many names that even compiling lists for specific countries Southeast Asia. Ploetz dant in Malaysia. all cultivars discussed below are natural hybrids. Some of the most the male flowers. acumniata and M. aka Pacific Plantains). suck- a lettering system is used. which can be used to propagate flow cytometry.. east Asia and its hybrids with M. has been used to name at least four distinct AA. How- Bananas produce basal suckers (called keiki in Hawai‘i. acuminata and M. and M. or ABBB. India. AAAB. ness. tex- tilis. Hybrid numbers of cultivars that occur worldwide range from 300 triploids are classified as AAA. or programs. Indonesia. When denoting each cultivar’s genome. However. acuminata cultivars developed first in South- AAB clones. are covered separately at the end of Part 2. Tetraploid to more than 1000. of duplicate names and close clonal relatives found in ev- ery region of every banana-growing country. orientation. with genome AA and BB. For example. M. These (Mutika/Lujugira subgroup. AA genome Cultivars with an AA genome are most abun- Seeded fruit of M. acuminata (see Iholena subgroups.

“sugar bowl or basin”) Other common names: ‘Lady’s Finger’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Caramelo’. Indonesia) ‘Inarnibal’ (Philippines) lit. ‘Pisang Mas’ (Ma- Left: ‘Sucrier’. They are cultivated due to their extraordinarily Philippines. lit. K. Sucrier subgroup sia). Pisang Berlin (Indonesia) Manis Kelantan’. In general. ‘Kluai Ngang Phaya’ (Thailand). ‘Pisang Lemak Ma- Lakatan subgroup (There is an accession of this nis’. Kepler   Banana and plantain overview  . Not to be confused with the tall Cavendish sweet. they are less hardy than cultivar ‘Lacatan’ (AAA). Pisang Lilin subgroup Inarnibal subgroup ‘Pisang Lilin’ (Malaysia. Maguire Right: ‘Sucrier’ fruit. triploid cultivars. Mapang ‘Sucrier’ (Fr. ‘Pisang Lidi’.New Guinea (the only place where AA clones are com. ‘Chuoi Tien’ (Vietnam). commonly grown in the mon). A delicious. “syrup” Other names: ‘Lidi’. Pisang Muli’ (Indonesia). ‘Pisang Empat Puluh Other common names: ‘Pisang Lemak Manis’ (Malaysia).‘Kluai cultivar in Australia with an AAA genome. photo: A. fine quality fruit. ‘Pisang Barangan Merah/Kuning’ (Indonesia).) Thong Ki Maew’. Hari’. photo: I. ‘Pisang Mas Sagura’. ‘Kamoros’ (Philippines). ‘Pisang Lemak ‘Pisang Lampung’ (Indonesia). ‘Pisang Ekor Kuda’ (Malaysia). much-loved cultivar. ‘Kluai Hom Maew’. ‘Kluai Thong Kap Dam’ (Thailand). ‘Pisang Lemak Manis Terenganu’. ‘Lakatan’ (Philippines) Other names: ‘Pisang Berangan Merah/Kuning’ (Malay. ‘Mama-on’ (Philippines). ‘Kluai Lep Mu Nang’ . ‘Amas’.

Daniells A variety introduced into several Pacific islands with a dis- tinctive long bud and “messy” rachis is resistant to black Ney Poovan subgroup Sigatoka disease and is used in breeding. ‘Fa- laysia). Older reports that indicate that the cultivar resists Panama disease are in error. Ma. ‘Lady’s Finger’ (West Indies) and numerous PNG cooking cultivars. the bananas of this clone develop within the pseudostem. ‘Fig Sucré’ (West Indies). ‘Sukali Ndizi’) (Uganda) AAA genome Other common name: ‘Kamarangasenge’ (Rwanda) Cavendish subgroup This is a most significant subgroup of edible bananas. thus the name.6–2 in (4–5 in) under perfect growing conditions. ‘Peru’. ‘Date’. ‘Tapo’. ‘Sucrier’. Tinito (French Polynesia). AB genome AB cultivars are uncommon. Indonesia). rine France’. ‘Kunnan’ (India) Kamarangasenge subgroup ‘Sukari Ndizi’ (also. subacid fruit with white flesh. ‘Honey’. ‘Ney Poovan’ is Other AB cultivar grown most widely. ‘Ney Poovan’ (India) Miscellaneous AA cultivars Other common names: ‘Safet Velchi’ and ‘Chini Champa’ ‘Malaysian Blood’. ‘Kluai Khai’ (Thailand). ‘Golden Early’. ‘Fig’. growing in Pohnpei. Its finger-sized fruit are deliciously sweet. ‘Datil’. ‘Bocadillo’ (Colombia). based on morphological characters. ‘Fig’. photo: J. ‘Guineo Blanco’. “pregnant” Other names: ‘Hapū’ (Tahiti) lit. laysia. rare Polynesian banana. Other AA cultivars ‘Chingan’ (India) Other common name: ‘Manniyilla Chingan’ (India) ‘Hapai’ (Hawai‘i) lit. ‘Ney Poovan’ produces a sweet. ‘Banana Ouro’ (Brazil). ‘Su- crier Fig’. originating in Malaysia. ‘Sucrier’. ‘Dedo de Dama’. It is rare in Hawai‘i. ‘Kudud’ (Pohnpei. ‘Lady Finger’.org)   . ‘Ranel’ (Sri Lanka). causing a swelling that is reminis- cent of pregnancy. ‘Apple’. The plant resists Panama disease (Fusarium wilt) and thrives when grown in partial shade. reaching 1. ‘Kisubi’ (Uganda). ‘Tuu Ghia/Gia’ AA cultivar ‘Peleu’ typical of PNG. ‘Surya Kadali’ (India). ‘Manices’. is the most widely culti- vated AA cultivar and is one of the world’s most popular local bananas. ‘Rose’ (Indonesia). Its fruit length de- pends on soil and climate. ‘Pisang Jari Buaya’ (Indonesia. ‘Sagale Nget- Pyaw’ (Burma/Myanmar). Among these. ‘Rose’. ‘Fig’. due to its exceptional flavor. “pregnant” The AA genome has been assigned to this previously un- classified. Occasionally. ‘Orito’ (Ecuador). ‘Nino’ (Florida). ‘Parika’ (Guyana). (India). ‘Senorita’ (Philippines).traditionaltree. The Cavendish cultivars produce fruit that are used in inter- Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Federated States of Micronesia). ‘de Rosa’. ‘Cambur Titiaro’ (Latin America). ‘Niño’.

badak’ (Indonesia). ‘Canary Banana’. South America. ‘Basrai’. ‘Nain Gánt’. lagi’ (also refers to ‘Giant Cavendish’ in Samoa) (Samoa). ‘Jahaji’ ‘Valery’ (Central America. ‘Nyoro’ (Ke- (Guadeloupe). ‘Amoa Kauare’ (Cook Is. Hijau’).. it is occasionally seen at high we’ (Burma/Myanmar). it was recent.. ‘Siaine’ (Tonga. West Indies).national commerce. ‘Pandi’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Poot’. growing simultaneously in the same lo- ‘Pisang Embun Lumut’ (Malaysia). Pachawara’. ‘Chuoi Tieu Nho’ (Vietnam). characteristics of the bunch and fruit. Hawaii). ‘Pisang Other common names: ‘Veimama’ (Fiji). ‘Hindi’. In Hawai‘i. cultivars are the most popular and valuable of the edible ‘Amoa Taunga’ (Cook Is. ‘Moz Hindi’. jau’ and ‘Dwarf Cavendish’. nakeli’. cavendishii Paxt. soil conditions. and water supply). In general. cation. ‘Tall Mons Mari’ ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ (Australia). and the Philippines. Chinese’. although where temperatures are a bit cooler or Federated States of Micronesia). ‘Bungulan’ tions assume that the different clones are being compared (Philippines). ‘Williams’. ‘Bazrai’ (Pakistan).. ly wiped out on O‘ahu by bunchy top disease. and used for coffee Other common names: ‘Cavendish’. The list below is in sia). elevations. ‘Pisang Ambon Jepang’ (Indone- vided with ample fertilizer and water. ‘Chuoi Tieu Cao #1’ (Vietnam). ‘Robusta’. when ripe. ‘Veimama’ (Fiji) Paxt. ‘Siaine’ Africa. ‘Malindi’ (Tanzania and Zanzibar). Synonyms: M. ‘Saina’ bananas. ‘Indian’. nese’ (general name). ‘Siaine Ha‘amoa’ ambient temperatures are high. ‘Johnson’ (Ca- 10  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Vaimama Leka’ (Fiji). Local production of these (Tonga. ‘Kluai Hom Khieo Khom’. ‘Tumok’ (Philip. especially in areas with high rainfall. It is grown in Jamaica and Puerto Rico. ‘Congo’ (Surinam). guishable. Tampihan. ‘Congo’ (Surinam—see also ‘Pisang Masak nya). ‘Kin- (Hawai‘i). the authors ‘Sulay Baguio’ (Philippines). West Chang’ (Thailand). ‘Giuba’ (Somalia). ‘Taiwan’ (India). ‘Chinese’. ‘Tampohin’. “green ripe banana”) stature. ‘Robusta’. but is susceptible to the Sigatoka leaf spots. ‘Kluai Hom and most Pacific islands. ‘Giant Chi. and rachis morphology and color. when artifically ripened. In Hawai‘i. also general name for Cav. ‘Bhusawal’. M. the trades finger. ‘Amoa Kauare’ (Cook Islands). they are major export commodities pines). It should be understood that these height designa- Other common names: ‘Hamakua’ (Hawai‘i). including Hawai‘i). trunk. ‘Giant Governor’ (West In. non Lour. “big dwarf ”) clones lodge in high wind and are difficult to harvest). ‘Amoa produced worldwide. ‘Chuoi Va Huong’ (Vietnam) descending order of the height to which they will grow in a given location (for a given cultivar. M. ne Gabou’ (Seychelles). ‘Wet-ma-lut’ (Burma/Myanmar). worldwide due to its resistance to wind throw and produc- tion of large bunches and fingers despite its relatively small ‘Pisang Masak Hijau’ (Malaysia) (lit. ‘Pacha Vazhai’. they may differ in height by The various clones are similar except for their height and about 40 cm (1 ft) and exhibit subtle differences in bunch. ‘Nanukehel’. ‘Dwarf shade in Colombia and Ecuador. ‘Bana- (India). lit. ‘Mauritius’.e. cavendishii Lamb. Fa‘i clones is of even greater importance. Jamaica. ‘Sapumal Anamalu’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Poyo’ guruwe’. temperature. There are several ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivars that are so The subgroup is resistant to Panama disease in the western similar that they cannot be distinguished unless they are tropics. Even their male flowers are indistin- agement of the latter disease is a major expense in com. Cavendish Palagi (Samoa. & endish Group). It can be sensitive to drought and other adverse emoet’ (Indonesia). fruits turn greenish-yellow (Tonga). have chosen productive cultivars of moderate stature (tall ‘Grande Naine’ (also ‘Grand Nain’) (Fr. In total. ‘Porto Rique’ (Dominica. side-by-side. they comprise over 40% of these fruit that are (New Guinea). In equatorial lowlands where the Taunga’. ‘Basrai’ (Egypt). ‘Kabulee’. ‘Thihm. ‘Kluai Hom Kiau’ (Thailand). ‘Jainaleka’ (Fiji). ‘Chuoi Duu’ (IndoChina). ‘Pisang Ambon Hijau’ (Indonesia). they turn bright yellow. ‘Binkehel’. ‘Kluai Khlong in Central America. ‘Mons Mari’. cavendishii Lamb.). ‘Pisang Serendah’ (Malaysia). si- nensis Sweet ex Sagot This cultivar is usually too tall for commercial production. ‘Utin Wai’ (Pohnpei. man. ‘Mouz siny’. ‘Hamoa’ (French Polynesia). ‘Pisang Cina’ (Malaysia). ‘Williams’ (Egypt). All Other common names: ‘Umalog’ (‘Umalag’ is another but ‘Extra Dwarf Cavendish’ are productive if they are pro- spelling) (Philippines). ‘Mes- ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ tiça’ (Brazil). ‘Pake’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Vama- dies). ‘Nanicó’ (Brazil). i.). M. ‘Maghrabi’. the Caribbean. nana auct. M. ‘Kaina Vavina’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Bijiaw’ (China). ‘Fa‘i Pa- have not yet found it elsewhere in the State. ‘Pisang Ambon Lo.. ‘Congo’ (West Indies). also general name for Cavendish Group). also name for general Cavendish Group). Mid-way in stature between ‘Pisang Masak Hi- mercial production. ‘Lacatan’ (western tropics). ‘Bout Rond’ and ‘Giant Fig’. ‘Pisang Buai’. ‘Ai Keuk Heung Ngar Tsiu’ (Queensland). planted side by side. ‘Monte risto’ (Puerto Rico). ‘Dwarf Ca- ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivars vendish’ (general).. ‘Williams Hybrid’ (Australia (Hong Kong). height varies greatly ‘Grande Naine’ is the most important commercial clone with elevation. ‘Harichal’ Kom’ (Thailand).

because it ‘Amoa Taunga Potopoto’ (Cook Is. Right: Young ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ bunch. commercial. It bears good-quality fruit. but evidently occur wherever this clone duction. However. does not produce ac- chokethroat (impeded bunch emergence) where temper. (Israel) it is highly susceptible to banana bunchy top virus. ‘Dwarf Nathan’ Short and compact. photos: A. it is relatively cold-tolerant. lowlands to the coldest elevations which banana tolerates tite Naine’. ‘Siaine Tonga’ (Tonga).traditionaltree. Ulaino. and agroforestry cultivation. Hawai‘i. ‘Mei‘a’. Other names: ‘Dwarf Parfitt’ (Australia). life if picked at the correct maturity (which is a general character of Cavendish subgroup). a ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivar. ‘Pe. is a ‘Dwarf Chinese’ mutant that produces 2–7 This is the most widely distributed clone of edible banana bunches per plant (these are surprisingly common in worldwide. K. ‘Guineo Enano’. nary Islands). it is also the shortest used for commercial pro- French Polynesia). ‘Governor’ (West Indies). (approximately 1300 m [4260 ft]). and This clone. ‘Dwarf Chinese’ is grown everywhere from the Left: ‘Williams’. ‘Ca- ‘Double’ turra’ (Brazil). Ananica’. ‘Meika Kina’. and is well suited for ‘Extra Dwarf Cavendish’ homegarden. ‘Enano’ (lit. Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. “dwarf ”) (Latin America). windward Maui.). atures below 15°C (59°F) occur for extended periods. ‘Park-yuk’ (China) is different from the true ‘Māhoe’ in the Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu Group.org)  11 . In Hawai‘i. ‘Camburi Pigmeo’. ‘Camyenne’ (Guinea). Sometimes called ‘Māhoe’ or ‘Mahoi’ in error. Haiku. ‘Ana’. Maui.3 ft) tall. ceptable fruit and is used as an ornamental plant. ‘Kira’ (French Polyne- sia). with a long transport is grown. less than 1 m (3. ‘Chuoi Tieu Lun’ (Vietnam).

Uganda. ‘Pisang Ambon Putih’ (Indone- sia). They are cooked and brewed Pacific islands (e. Several hybrid bananas developed in Honduras gion of East Africa. These smaller versions of ‘Gros Michel’ were used exten. ‘Banano’. and in the FHIA program have proven to be disease-resistant. ripening to full yellow color at ambient equa- torial temperatures. ‘Ava- bakor’. five clone sets of which are recognized: ‘Beer’. ‘Guineo Gigante’.Gros Michel subgroup Members of this subgroup are listed below in descending order of height. It was the standard for export until the mid-1900s. French for beer. and of generally ac. Panama disease. but was eliminated from commercial pro- duction due to widespread and destructive epidemics of ‘Gros Michel’. are staple foods in the Rift Valley re- Honduras. Mutika/Lujugira subgroup ‘Cocos’ (Honduras). They are currently being introduced to many ing outside Southeast Asia. short pedicels. They are found nowhere else in the world. Maui. ‘Gros Michel’ (West Indies) Other common names: ‘Bluefields’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Siaine Fisi’ (Tonga). ‘Nakitembe’. ‘Disu’ (Papua New Guinea). photo: A. ‘Plantano Roatan’ (Mexico). is the port in Nicaragua from which the clone was sent to the island. nanas that are being weakened and killed by introduced ‘Musakala’. 12  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Kluai Hom Thong’ (Thailand). in Uganda. known generically as the East African sively in breeding programs. ‘Guaran’ (Puerto Rico). Jainabalavu (Fiji). ‘Nakabululu’. espe. ‘Chuoi Tieu Cao #2’ (Vietnam) ‘Gros Michel’ is a vigorous plant. ‘Pisang Ambon’ (Malaysia). Cultivars in the Gros Michel subgroup can be distinguished from those in the Cavendish subgroup by their green/pale pink vs bright red undersheath. Over 200 cultivars are recognized Polynesia) to eventually supplement more established ba. bottle- necked fruit. and extreme suscepti- bility to Panama disease in the Americas and Africa. These bananas. especially in Burundi. ‘Lowgate’ (Honduras) This smallest version of ‘Gros Michel’ is used in the FHIA breeding program. ‘Au Malie’. ‘Guineo’ (Colombia). ‘Raimbaud’. and are highly productive. ‘Habano’. but is tall (7 m [23 ft] or more) and very prone to wind damage. Tonga. ‘Ambon’ (Philippines). ‘Thihmwe’ (Burma/Myanmar). Samoa. Ibota subgroup cially where disease suppressive soils exist. Rwanda. ‘Anamala’ (Sri Lanka). They can be confused with members of the Cavendish subgroup (note common names in Burma and Sri Lanka). It produces excellent fruit that are more durable than those of the ‘Cavendish’ cultivars. ‘Makanguia’ (French Antilles). ‘Jainabalavau’ (Fiji). pests and diseases. and ‘Nfuuka’. Puohokumoa Stream. K. ‘Kluai Dok Mai’. ‘Fa‘i Fia Palagi’ (Samoa).g. Isolated pockets of ‘Gros Michel’ production remain. As a result. ‘Bluefields’. an example of secondary diversity in the bananas develop- ceptable taste. and are diverse. the ‘Yangambi Km 5’ cultivar’s name in Hawai‘i. Micronesia. basically seedless. ‘Pisang Embun’. especially in Jamaica and Highland Bananas. ‘Highgate’ ( Jamaica) Synonym: Musa brieyi De Wild. members of the Cavendish Kepler subgroup replaced this clone in most of the affected areas. These clones produce a few seed when pollinated and have been used in the breeding programs..

‘Neuse’. and light orange flesh. ‘Red’. Plants of the red clones are highly pigmented and produce fruit that have a red to deep maroon skin. ‘Nyekundu Ya Kisungu’. ‘Mora- dong Puti’ (Philippines).) Other common names: ‘Pisang Berangan’ (Malaysia). Kepler Bottom: ‘Dwarf Red’ female flowers. ‘Figue Rose Blanche’. The fruits are usually eaten raw.traditionaltree. al- though dwarf versions exist. It produces moderately sized bunches of fruit that have a reddish-green to deep maroon skin (depending on age and exposure to direct sunlight). ‘Green Red’ Other common names: ‘Pisang Mundam’ (Malaysia). ‘Banana Roxa’ (Bra- zil). ‘Rouge’ (Seychelles).org)  13 . ‘Colorado Blanco’ (old name) (Hawai‘i). Maui. ‘Pisang Raja Udang’ of bananas from which many similar varieties evolved on (Malaysia). ‘Caru Verde’ (Brazil). They are used as ornamental plants in Hawai‘i and elsewhere in the Pacific. although they can be cooked in their jackets. photo: C. ‘Shwe Nget-Pyaw’ (Burma/Mynamar). ‘Green Red’ (West Indies). ‘Mzungu Mwekundu’ (East Africa). Top: ‘Dwarf Red’.Red subgroup AAB genome ‘Red’ The Iholena and Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu subgroups together form Other common names: ‘Jainadamu’ (Fiji). Their Nak (Thailand). ‘Pi- sang Barangan’ (Indonesia). ‘Rathambala’ (Sri Lan- ka). Elevitch Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Lal Kera’ (India). ‘Kluia Kung Khieo’ (Thailand). ‘Venkadali’ (India). photo: A. They are usually tall plants. ‘Green-Red’. ‘Fa‘i the “Pacific plantains. Waip’io Bay. ‘Red Raja’ (Queensland). petioles. ‘Nyeupe Ya Kisungu’. ‘Galanamalu (Sri Lan- ka). ‘Morado’. in that those in the red series often give rise to a green form (the reverse has not been recorded). ‘Figue Rouge’. ‘Akadahn’ (Pohnpei). ‘Colora- do Blanco’. ‘Morado Verde’. ‘Banane Monsieur’ (Seychelles). ‘Kinaki Tangata’ (Cook Islands). ‘Claret’ (West Indies). ‘Fa‘i Suka’. ‘Rong Rong’ (Papua New Guinea). and midribs. ‘Akadahn Weitahta’ (Pohnpei). ‘Red Dacca’ (Queensland). ‘Red’. ‘Kluai different Pacific archipelagos over thousands of years. They are usually eaten raw before getting mushy and fall apart when cooked or too ripe. ‘Colorado’. They are moderate producers that are grown primarily for their attractive and unusual fruit. Other AAA cultivar ‘Lakatan’ (Philippines) (Note that some clones by this name are supposed to be AA. ‘Tafetan’ (Colombia). K. ‘Chenkadali’. and light orange flesh. ‘Mzungu Mweupe’ (East Africa). ‘Warabia’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Tara Puakanio’ (Cook Islands). ‘Pink banana’ (Hawai‘i) A beautifully pigmented plant with deep red trunk. ‘Pisang Telor’ (Indonesia). ‘Cuban Red’. ‘Morado’ (Philippines).” the principal Polynesian basic types Niue’ (Samoa). ‘Green Dacca’. ‘Green Macaboo’ (Florida) The Red/Green Red cultivars are related. ‘Tafetan Verde’ (Colombia).

sent to the mainland USA more than 30 years ago. In Tonga the striking mauve or coppery undersides. haps also on Huahine. this clone is characterized by a distinct red peti. This subgroup is best known historically. five are still found naturalized in reason. This short-fruited Iholena was used in religious ceremonies. 14  Banana and plantain overview  . only approximately half of the varieties that are known across Polynesia exist in Hawai‘i.2 m [4 ft] long) and long pointed fruits with lengthly pointed tips. bananas to be found in upland forests and are eaten cooked they are particularly susceptible to pests and diseases. away. and three rare clones still survive on Tahiti and Raiatea. copra plantations. kets.history is closely linked to Polynesian migrations. beautiful flower bud). this banana is a semi-dwarf. appear to have been lost from the Marquesas but two or nanas here and there. have all contributed to the demise of it was said to cause the souls of the house occupants to “fly” Polynesian bananas and plantains across the Pacific. ole rim and bright waxy-purple leaf undersides. in the western Pacific. opment. However. at least seven were Iholenas. both forms of Mai‘a [Iholena] Lele) and a Dwarf were In Hawai‘i. ‘Uzakan’. ‘Numeijo’. ‘Morpa’. plus It was planted at heiau (temples). ‘Ōre‘a’ (Tahiti) Polynesian high islands such as the Samoas. ‘Yamunamba’. However. Maoli varieties—the base clone ‘Mama‘e Ulu’. bananas exist which pos- Iholena types are graceful plants. red. Other names: ‘Puapuanui’ amazed at the prodigious numbers of “native” bananas This is easily recognized by its extremely long. “to fly”) sweeter “dessert” bananas have largely displaced the native bananas since the 1850s. (Papua New Guinea) unpublished). French Polynesia. but characteristics are: a) new. and bluntly square at their tips. The Maoli types are long. and the ‘Iholena Lele’ (lit. usu- Vanuatu. Tonga. Iholenas are characterized more common ‘Karat’ bananas. Further west. and French Polynesia still have some of these ba. In ancient Hawai‘i. Maoli. Land clearing. and virtually unknown in many cultures. new discoveries. and d) male flow. rare or extinct. Like all Polynesian bananas. the two subdivisions are easily distinguished. These distinctive bananas occur throughout Oceania. Other Iholena clones include ‘Mamae Hehefanga’ (Ton- Full descriptions and photographs of Hawaiian (with some ga). In Pohnpei (FSM) bananas of this intermediate type loosely and at right angles on the bunch. ‘Iholena Iholena’ (lit. ‘Luba’ Pacific) varieties are being documented (Kepler and Rust. Today. arrow- Early visitors to Hawai‘i in the late 1700s and 1800s were shaped. slender (primarily Maoli-type) which were grown by the Hawai. ‘Iholena Kāpua’ (the name refers to the slender. dietary tastes have changed. It also bears a dark red peduncle (up to 1. and squat. They Islands. Their dissemination across the Pacific occurred Extremely rare in Hawai‘i. 2004). b) fruit pointed term Hopa means bananas of both Maoli and Pōpō‘ulu at both ends with salmon-colored flesh. lavender stamens. they are the most common traditional of their Polynesian heritage. pests and diseases (especially banana bunchy top). ‘Iholena Ha‘a Ha‘a’ (lit.g. but still survive (barely) in Samoa. “yellow core”) and its possibly extinct ported as suckers over relatively short distances (island to dwarf form. because a market economy. e. Pōpō‘ulu. and most are rare. New Guinea to the Marquesas. exist also such as ‘Peleu’ and ‘Karat en Iap’ (unrelated to the ers with long. Most are recognized by its sausage-shaped fruit with blunt ends. Of approximately 50 “native” Hawaiian varieties quiring replanting every few years. trans. New Guinea. Once staple dietary items on high islands from with a pale yellow-green pseudostem (blackish in ‘Ha‘a’). Also called In the rest of the Pacific. and Lorens. records exist for at least eleven Maoli ‘Fa‘i Mamae’ (Samoa) varieties.. whereas Pōpō‘ulu types are fat able numbers. they have sadly become neglected. ian people. there are currently twelve extant cultivars. fruit stalk (peduncle). Three varieties (“Red” and “White” Iholenas. not near houses. unfolding (cigar) leaves with plumper and square-ended like a Pōpō‘ulu. c) fruit arranged types. in Vanuatu. gradually. rare. together with several subvarieties. per- Iholena types may still be found abundantly in local mar. “short-short”) island). Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu subgroup Iholena subgroup Iholena types are poorly represented in the Pacific these Maoli subdivision days. Along with Very rare. which are Fe‘i) (Englberger by pale yellow-green immature fruits from earliest devel. Their most outstanding sess characters of both subgroups: long like a Maoli. Cook This is the French Polynesian equivalent of Iholena. and short-tapered fruit tips. In Hawai‘i. and perhaps elsewhere including ally tended by islanders who recognize that they are part Tonga. re- or raw.

‘Koa‘e’ (referring to Banana’ (Florida) the bold. Other common names: ‘Black Hawaiian’. but are palatable raw when fully ripe. Kepler for the majority of Polynesian plantains—have survived a ‘Ele‘ele’ (lit. Grows to height of 6–7 m (20–23 ft). ‘Iri pa‘o’ (“black skin/ thrives best in cloudy or lightly shaded areas. ‘Poni’ (“purple”). and Other names: ‘Iri mo‘o’ (“lizard skin”).traditionaltree. immature and ripe fruit. striped plumage of tropicbirds in juvenile plum. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. and midribs (especially in ing”). meaty. This Tahitian variety appears to be virtually identical to Hawai‘i’s ‘Ele‘ele’. The achlorophyllous tissues have a tendency to sunburn. even the male and female are less black overall. ‘Hawaiian Black ‘Manini’ (lit.‘Iholena Lele’. Maui. leaf stalks. Maui Nui Botanical Garden. Elevitch. ‘Hawaiian Variegated’ (Hawai‘i) wild. and delicious ‘Manini’ is a Hawaiian cultivar with green and white varie. hog grease”) and ‘Puna’ (region on the island of Hawai‘i) oles). right photo: A. leaf stalks (peti. prefers acid ‘Ere‘ere’ (lit. Kahului. The fruit are bark”) best cooked. Its variants. shaded locales). “black-black”) little better than Pōpō‘ulu and Iholena bananas. this is extremely uncom- age) mon. An attractive Hawaiian banana. left photo: C. black- Other common names: ‘A‘ea‘e’ (lit.org)  15 . flowers. “striped surgeon fish”). K. will not tolerate neutral or basic soils. preferring streambeds and well-watered forested areas. Its fruit is long. “hair prematurely gray- ish-burgundy trunk. It is immediately recognizable by its shiny. ‘Hinupua‘a’ (“shiny like gation that covers the entire plant: leaves. “black-black”) soil (<pH 6). fried.

These can usually be seen on mon in a few areas. K. a Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu. large bunch of fruit of plump fruits. Taanga’. Māo‘i are the French Polynesian equivalents of Maoli. with longer fruit than Fa‘i Samoa These are the Cook Island equivalents of Hawai‘i’s Maoli and less even fruit bunches). of 2004) are: ‘Māohi Huamene’. Aumarei’. Kepler Right: ‘Manini’ leaves of young plant. Samoa Lautele’. ‘Māo‘i Koka’. Several (Hawai‘i) varieties are still grown in gardens. Akamou’. but are locally com- ‘Feta‘u Hina’ (a whiter form). and Pōpō‘ulu types. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Au ‘Mangaro’ (Aitutaki. Cook Islands) Malie’ (“shark-handle”. common: ‘Fa‘i Samoa’ (most often seen). photo: A. Two varieties of clone almost revered in some areas because of its ancient these sausage-like Maolis still in existence are: ‘Feta‘u’ and cultural associations. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Puputa’. the Tongan “Hopas” include Maoli. although they are not Appears to be extinct. very pink flowers. ‘Mana-lua’. meaning “pale”) still green. photo: C. which are perfectly sweet and delicious when ‘Hai’/‘Haikea’ (waxy form of ‘Hai’. ‘M. At least five varieties still exist. Most are rare. and ‘Fa‘i Samoa Lap Lapa’ are all rare. Elevitch ‘Fa‘i Samoa’ (lit. only very rarely. ‘Mangaro Torotea’ has a very even. ‘Fa‘i types. ‘Māo‘i 16  Banana and plantain overview  .Left: ‘Manini’ variegated leaves and fruit. ‘Hualua’ and Maoli-Pōpō’ulu types of cooking bananas. and ‘M. ‘Hopa’ (Tonga) ‘Māo‘i’ (Marquesas Is. this clone has a reddish trunk and the Cook Islands are ‘Mangaro Manii’. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Pau Manifi’ (“thin-skinned” Samoan banana). “Samoan native bananas”) ‘Māhoe’ This group of plantains is the Samoan equivalent of Maoli Other common names: ‘Palua’. Selected varieties still in existence (as Tongan farms in Hawai‘i. Rare (or nearly extinct) Mangaro varieties from Very rare in Hawai‘i.) and ‘Mā‘ohi’ (Tahiti) As indicated above. ‘M.

K. ‘Mānai ‘ula’ bored at least eight cultivars. Hawai‘i har- lau’ (with distinctive dark red male flowers). “native”) A very attractive plant with pink coloration especially when ‘Pōpō‘ulu’ subdivision (lit. it has large bunches of even.Ku‘uhua’. “like the male fruiting young. ‘Mei‘a Ma‘ohi Hai’ (Marquesas. Doz. and ‘Puhi’ most famous because of its size is the ‘Huamoa’ (see below). Maui. Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. although Other rare. so they are usually harvested shortly be- western Pacific (Solomon Isands?). and leafstalks). ‘Comino’. The (with tough trunk fibers used for stringing leis). Pōpō‘ulu is a Hawaiian word. Historically. ‘Māo‘i Pukiki’. ‘Mei‘a Mao‘i Maita’ (Fatu Hiva. Apia. ‘Pompo’ and ‘Maqueño’ (Ec- uador). Ko‘olau Forest Reserve. Beautiful and dark. of which six are extant. photos: A. ‘Pom- ens of varieties have become extinct. ‘Comino’. ‘Pacific Plantain’ (Australia) ‘Maoli’ (lit. Right: ‘Fa‘i Samoa’. in long). Samoa. sausage-shaped bananas. Like Maoli. however. Marquesas). extant Hawaiian Maoli varieties are: ‘Kaua- in ever-decreasing numbers. with some ‘Huamoa’ in Hawai‘i recently found ‘Pacific Plantain’ measuring 30 cm (12 in) in circumference. ‘Mei‘a Mao‘i Maita’ (French Polynesia). sausage-shaped fruit. structure of breadfruit”) It can be seen in botanical gardens in Hawai‘i.traditionaltree. especially with coconut cream added. The fruits tend This striking Maoli cultivar has an unknown origin in the to split when ripe.org)  17 . with dark green. Other cultivars elsewhere include ‘Mei‘a Ma‘ohi Hai’ and Tahiti). this type of banana is found throughout the Pacific. Throughout Polynesia there are equivalents to this clone. (whose young fruits are complexly oriented like a bunch Pōpō‘ulu cooking bananas range in size from 5–22 cm (2–9 of young eels). it fore fully ripening on the stalk. They are delicious sauteed resembles the dark ‘Ele‘ele’/‘Ere‘ere’ varieties (black trunk or boiled. Left: ‘Ele‘ele’ bunch. po’ (Colombia).

M. Hawai‘i. “ball-shaped like a breadfruit”) Very rare.) Kuntze Other common names: ‘Pisang Raja’ (Malaysia and In- var. assuming their greatest dietary importance Panama disease and the Sigatoka leaf spots. “chicken” or “goose egg”) Other names: ‘Hawaiiano’ (Florida. imported from Hawai‘i) This clone occasionally forms only a few. but with fruit ranging from small eggs to 20 cm (8 in) in length by 6 cm (2. ‘Poovan’. out perpendicularly to the axis. ‘Houdir’. var. Most acces- in West Africa and Latin America. and ‘Dwarf Waimea’ (Hawai’i) an ABB genome. ‘Thou. of which only one cluster of plants is known. this beautiful “hopa” is associated with Tongans. discolor Horan. Māui. otherwise. With a predomi- nantly red trunk. ‘Mysore’. regia Rumphias Synonyms: M. Banana streak virus (BSV). ‘Embul’. Plantain fruit are often longer and far more pointed. Synonym: M. ‘Lal Velchi’ (India). ‘Mangaro Akamou’ (Aitutaki. ‘Pisang Keling’ (Malaysia). ‘Misiluki’ (Samoa). and display symptoms caused oles). ‘Huamoa’ or ‘Moa’ (lit. They comprise 21% of annual Musa produc- This widely spread dessert clone is vigorous and resists tion worldwide. This is a notable Polynesian specialty with several greener variants than the popular Pisang Raja subgroup ‘Putalinga Kula’. sapientum (L. and a broadly oval bunch of chubby fruit that project by. “thin-skinned”) Hawai‘i A thin-skinned form of ‘Pōpō‘ulu Pōpō‘ulu’. ‘Larip’. or elsewhere. more resembling the parental Maoli-type. ‘Fillbasket’ (West Indies). with Pacific plantains or with other cooking bananas with ‘Pang’. ‘Pōpō‘ulu Pōpō‘ulu’ (lit. × paradisiaca L. Cook Islands) This Cook Islands’ Pōpō‘ulu has relatively few fruit. K. This diverse group of “true” plantains is not to be confused sand Grain’. ‘Champa’. ‘Lahi’. ‘Kahiki Hae’. ‘Ka‘io’ (lit. extraordinarily large fruit on the bunch. Four subsets 18  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Honde- rawala’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Biu Raja’ ( Java) Other common names: ‘Liganimarama’ (Fiji).‘Huamene’ (Tahiti) On the verge of extinction. ssp. champa Baker. ‘Kikonde’ (Zanzibar). ‘Putalinga’ (Tonga) Probably the most red of all the Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu Group. ‘Pisang Raja’ Mysore subgroup Synonym: M. this clone’s fruit is longer than most Pōpō‘ulu fruit. and yellow leaf stalks (peti. ‘Grindy’ (Windward Islands).5 in) in diameter. The Samoan ‘Fa‘i Samoa Fua Moa’ is extremely similar and has a name with the same meaning. bitter gourd”) The smallest of the Hawaiian Pōpō‘ulu fruit. photo: A. the bunch is normal. ‘Nget-pyaw Chin’ (Burma/Myanmar). sapientum L. ‘Lahilahi’. ‘Mysore’ (Australia). Its taste varies from inferior to delicious. ‘Mysore’. ‘Kalamanawudu’ (Papua New Guinea). Waipi‘o Bay. either in ‘Huamoa’. ‘Kluai Kai Ferang’ Plantain subgroup (Thailand). “like the round. donesia). In these regions they are a major source of dietary carbohydrates. red. formerly widespread in French Polynesia. purple. champa. Kepler their homeland. or ‘Ili Lahilahi’ (lit. sions of it are infected with.

). and ‘3 Vert’ (Cameroon) ‘False Horn’ Synonyms: M. viridis De India). ‘Bakweri’ (West Afri- are found in the French Horn and False Horn subsets of ca). ‘Pisang Kelat Jambi’ (Ma- the Horn plantains have a “clean” rachis. M. paradisiaca L. Cameroon. Waihe‘e. ‘Sirumalai’ (India). highly productive and ‘Pink French’. × paradisiaca er fruit). ‘Black French’. decrescens de Briey Some common cultivars: ‘Agbagba’ and ‘Or- ishele’ (Nigeria). Hawai‘i. ‘Pome’ (Canary Islands). photo: A. ‘Tiger’. Egypt. French plantains have a Other names or similar clones: ‘Apple’. ‘Rio’ (Tahiti. and the Americas. ‘Brazilian Red’. western Pacific islands. (rachis) below the fruit. In Hawai‘i and French Polynesia. long. Intermediate inflorescence characteristics (Sri Lanka). M. below). Because of this piquant flavor. emasculata de Briey ex De Wild. ‘Rio Rouge’. Pome subgroup Members of the plantain subgroup are characterized by The Pome subgroup. ‘Tarapuakanio’ (Cook Is. ‘Pime pukiki’ (red-stemmed sport. Kepler Some common cultivars: ‘Ishitim’ (Nigeria). ‘Kijakazi’ (Zanzibar). non L. whereas Horn plantains develop a small or nonexistent bud (putting all their energy into ‘Pome’ the huge fruit). plantains are known only in India. They are the Kon’. In other words. ‘Preisihl’ (Pohnpei. Marquesas).g. slightly small- Wild. prominent in places such as Brazil. M. Pukiki’ (French Polynesia). very starchy bananas. ‘Bra- very “messy” rachis and big bud below the fruit. K.. ‘Rio ‘Ute‘ute’. ‘Krishna Vazhai’ (black-trunked sport. States of Micronesia). ‘Wine’. cornic- ulata Lour. ‘Puwalu’ bud on the end. and are by fruit stalks that emerge at an angle until the fruit de- named thus in different languages. M. dy’s Finger’ (Australia. var.. ‘Pime’ (Nuku ‘French’ Hiva. ‘Brazilian Tall’ (Hawai‘i). can be quite tall. ‘Virupakshi’.traditionaltree. some over.. Maui. whereafter the rachis falls vertically. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. the more widely recognized plantains by their retention of bud bracts on the stalk “apple” banana. ‘Tall Apple’. is characterized horn plantains are the size and shape of bull horns. purpureo-tomentosa De Wild. vigorous. Tongan-owned farm. ‘Putalinga Kula’. and ‘Giant’. M. with little or no laysia). Africa. subacid or “apple-like” taste.. corniculata Rumphias. M. local Some common cultivars: ‘Obino l’Ewai’ (Nigeria). Fruit are dis- or “beef ’s horn” (Marquesas) and ‘Tara puatoro’ or “bull’s tinctly “beaked” or “bottle-nosed” and have a particularly horn”. e. most common home-grown and island-grown commercial ‘Dominico’ (Colombia). ‘Cuerno’ (Central America). ‘Bobby Tannap’ (Cameroon). of cultivars are recognized based on the size and shape of ‘Pisang Tandok’ (Malaysia) the bunch and fruit. whereas zilian’. Within the different sets are numer- ous cultivars. Some particularly large India. see ‘Pacha Naadan’. ‘Kerepiha/Kerepifa’ velop. ‘Njock Pome-type clones are favored above all others. lapping with the next two clonal clusters: ‘Green French’. and Australia. French banana. ‘Rio auct. protractorachis De Wild. ‘Dominico-Hartón’ (Colom- bia). ‘Brazilian’ (Florida). ‘Vannan’.org)  19 . ‘French Horn’ Some common cultivars: ‘Mbang Okon’ (Ni- geria). Below are listed some prominent members in Finger’ (Queensland) and a newer variety ‘Improved La- each. curved. Federated Many ill-defined forms of French plantain exist. ‘Nendran’ (India). Synonym: M.. various cultivars have been named “apple” thereby confus- French plantains are generally differentiated from Horn ing these cultivars with ‘Silk’. These plants are sturdy. ‘Lady’s cultivars. ‘Barragante’ (Ecuador) ‘Batard’ ‘Horn’ Synonyms: M.. paradisiaca L. Marquesas).

‘Kipungusu’ (East Africa). ssp. ‘Silk Fig’. sapien- In Hawai‘i. M. M. ‘Chuoi Goong’ (Vietnam) . ‘Tordan’. ‘Kluai Nam’ (Thailand). production. berteroniana von Steudel due to their sweet-acid flavor and long shelf-life. berteroi and production. sapientum L. ‘Avundumong’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Sugar’ (Queensland. Its delicious fruit command high prices Colla. ‘Maça’ (Brazil). paradisiaca L. ‘Manzana’. ‘Latundan’.. ‘Manzana’ (Latin America). vigorous and relatively tolerant to pests Finger’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Sabari’ (India). ‘Amorosa’.) Kuntze var.‘Prata Aña’ Silk subgroup Other names: ‘Dwarf Apple’. ‘Worodong’. and diseases. ‘Apple’ (Florida). Australia). ‘Turdan’. ‘Hta-bat’ (Burma/Myanmar). K. ‘Manzano’. ‘Pisang Rastali’ (Malaysia). ‘Tundan’. ‘Maramba’. ‘Pacha Naadan’ gal’ (Philippines). Kīpahulu. ‘Manzana’. yield. Kepler 20  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Pukusa’ (Zanzibar). M. ‘Manzano’. ‘Rasthali’. Cantong’. ‘Apple’ (West Indies). this clone ranks second in cultivated area. Tahiti. ‘Sonkel’. Papeete. ‘Manzano’. It is drought hardy and resists strong winds. ‘Katun- ‘Pacovan’ (Brazil). photos: A. cubensis. ‘Lady plants are sturdy. Right: ‘Silk’. ‘Tiki’ Left: ‘Pome’. ‘Dwarf Brazilian’. ‘Letondal’. ‘Miti Ruki’. ‘Improved Lady Finger’ Pomme’. The Other names: ‘Amorosa’. tum (L. ‘Santa Ca. ‘Morthoman’. M. berteri Colla. ‘Figue Other names: ‘Pachanadan’ (India). Maui. ‘Silk’ tarina’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Kipukusu’. ‘Mu- (Queensland). ‘Prata Santa Catarina’ (Brazil) Synonyms: M. ‘Lady’s Finger’ (Western Pacific islands) theli’. ‘Kolikutt’ (Sri Lan- This dessert cultivar represents about 5% of Australian ka).

‘Fa‘i Pata Samoa’. The plants are drought resistant and gen. They produce widely spaced. ‘Kproboi’. bringing with taste.(Cook Islands). ‘Whitehouse Plan- has declined in importance there and elsewhere due to its tain’. ‘Cachaco En- cal and subtropical regions. ‘Silver Blug- Other AAB cultivars goe’. ‘Poro‘ini’.). who perhaps introduced it to Hawai‘i. Som’ (Thailand). ‘Mafoubay’ (West Indies) it is found almost exclusively within Filipino communi. ‘Hog Banana’ (Ameri- (Pohnpei. Other common names: ‘Pisang Abu Siam’. ‘Cacambou’. ‘Burro’. They are suscep- tible to race 2 of Panama disease and Moko disease. ‘Muskat’. ‘Pisang Abu Keling’ ‘Pisang Siam’ (Malaysia). (Thailand). ‘Cuatrofilos’. usu- ally. silver. ‘Majoncho’. and dry. ‘Largo’. ‘Poteau’. bunch size ‘Pacha Monthan Bathees’ (India) and the fruit skin (green. ‘Pata Sina’ (Samoa). ‘Punda’. ‘Kivivu’ (East Africa). ‘Kid- Formerly. ‘Tarua sand Fingers’ (Florida) Teatea (Cook Is. Other names: ‘Monthan’ (India). and is astringent when not. ‘Chuoi Ngop Cau’ (Vietnam) Bluggoe subgroup Not considered prime quality. ‘Horse Plantain’ ( Jamaica. apple-like taste. pines). this Indian variety is none- theless widespread in SE Asia. ‘Burro’. ‘Kluai nome. ‘Poro‘ini Pa‘amanina’. ‘Thou- ‘Cenizo’ (tropical America). pronounced susceptibility to Panama disease. ‘Uht Tikitik ‘Apple Plantain’. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Jamani’ (Fiji). ‘Poro‘ini pivai. The ‘Sambrani Monthan’ (India) various cultivars are distinguished by stature. ‘Bluggoe’. ‘Bluggoe’ is grown in many countries due to its excellent ties. Federated ‘Pisang Kelat’ (Malaysia) States of Micronesia) Other names: ‘Taiwang’ (Pohnpei) ‘Silver Bluggoe’ is an attractive plant. ‘Pya-ye San’ (Burma/Myanmar) ‘Mkojosi’. this cultivar was thought to have an ABBB ge- hozi’. ‘Pisang Abu Bujal’ (Malaysia). ‘Pata Tonga’ (Tonga). ‘Kluai Hakmuk’ (Thai- ‘Pisang Seribu’ (Malaysia) land). only four to seven hands are produced on a bunch. ‘Kluai Sangkivo’. ‘Chamaluco’. ‘Largo’ (French a sub-acid. ‘Mondolpin’ (Australia). where it has been local languages for its silvery fruit coating. ‘Puataelo’ (Samoa). ano’ (Puerto Rico) tasteless.org)  21 . Klue Teparod subgroup ‘Bluggoe’ ‘Kluai Tiparod’ Other common names: ‘Largo’ (Hawai‘i). It produces exceptionally flavorful fruit with ‘Poro‘ini Pa‘afa‘afa‘a’. ‘Chato’. ippines). Federated States of Micronesia) cas). Other common name: ‘Chamaluco Enano’. In Hawai‘i. large. ‘Square Cooker’. ‘Poro‘ini hinuhinu’. ‘Inahsio Pehsehs’ (Pohnpei. The fruit peel splits and the Polynesia). It lands). ‘Kluai Teparod’. it their Philippine name. ‘Pisang Batu’ ( Java). ‘Utin Menihle’. ‘Poro‘ini blanc’ (Marquesas Is. bountiful productivity. ‘Kluai Nom Mi’ (Thailand). ‘Tiparot’. Trinidad and Tobago) . ‘Balongkaue’ (Phil- (Malaysia). large bulbous tips. ‘Silver Moko’ (West Indies). the fruit’s flesh becomes hard. ‘Matavia’ (Philippines).). commonly named in This is an important clone in Pohnpei. primarily used for cooking. straight fruit that have long peduncles. and resistance to drought. ‘Cachaco’. ‘Nalla Bontha’ (India). Monthan subgroup ‘Nalla Bontha Bathees’ (India) ABB genome ‘Monthan’ (India) These cultivars produce relatively starchy fruit.traditionaltree. ‘Poro‘ini rehu’ (Tahiti). Its characteristic fruits bear These are vigorous clones. ‘Thella Bontha’ (India). ‘Orinoco’ (Cuba). ‘Kluai Plihai’ ‘Hpi Gyan’ (Burma/Myanmar). a common occurrence in tropi. cultivar. ‘Maduranga’ (Philip- erally resist the Sigatoka leaf spot diseases. ‘Utin Kuam’. ‘Poro‘ini Hima‘a umu’. resembling ‘Bluggoe’ but larger. ‘Chuoi Ngop Lun’ (Vietnam). Grown at elevations ‘Dwarf Bluggoe’ above 500 m (1640 ft) or in poor soils. especially those defi- cient in calcium and boron. Only ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ is found more widely than this Dominican Republic. ‘Buccament’. ‘Moko’. Synonym: Musa chiliocarpa Backer. ‘Mondan’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Pisang Nipal’ (Malaysia). found to have fairly high levels of beta carotene. ‘Silver Bluggoe’ Other common names: ‘Katsila’ (Philippines). angular. ‘Tarua Matie’ (Cook Is- flesh is white when ripe. ‘Bokoboko’. Other common names: ‘Kluai Roi Wi’ (Thailand). ‘Amorosa’. ‘Pisang Batu’. ‘Horse Banana’. or waxy).

With ‘Saba’. ‘Sail Kola’ (India). but is susceptible to race 1 of Panama disease. ‘Yakhine (Burma/Myanmar). especially drought. Pisang Awak subgroup ‘Pisang Awak’ (Malaysia) Other common names: ‘Katali’ (Philippines). ‘Kluai Namwa Khom’. ‘Monohar’. ‘Vata’. It is vigorous and tolerates adverse conditions. ‘Ash Plantain’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Pey Kunnan’. ‘Dukuru’ (Pohnpei. ‘Kayinja’ (East Africa). ‘Ney Mannan’(India). ‘Saba’ (Philippines) Other common names: ‘Pisang Kepok’ (Indonesia). the fruit is colored a beautiful silver- green. sweet and smooth. ‘Praying Hands’ (Florida). Saba subgroup ‘Benedetta’ ‘Inabaniko’. ‘Alukehel’.).). due to a heavy coating of wax. ‘Pata’ (Fiji. Kepler ‘Bluggoe’. it was classified erroneously as having a BBB genome. Florida). ‘Kluai Nam- wa’ (Thailand). ‘Pisang Abu Nipah’ (Malaysia). ‘Pata papalagi’ (Samoa). ‘Choui Tay’ (Vietnam). 70% of all bananas that are grown in Thailand are of this clone. Maguire 22  Banana and plantain overview  . the flesh can be eaten with a spoon. It was offered as a resistant replacement for ‘Blug- goe’ in the Americas where that clone was decimated by Moko disease. ‘Nyeupe’ (Kenya). photo: I. Top: ‘Bluggoe’ female flowers. ‘Ducasse’ (Australia). ‘Tarua Teatea’ (Cook Other names: ‘Ice Cream’ (Hawai‘i. A dwarf version. photo: A. Federated States of Micronesia) ‘Java Blue’. ‘Pisang Klotok’ (Indonesia). Pelipita subgroup ‘Pelipia’ (Central America) Other common name: ‘Pilipia’ (Philippines) This clone tolerates Moko disease. Is. ‘Blue Lubin’ The fruit is named for its flavor and texture. ‘Fa‘i ‘Ney Mannan’ (India) Pata Sina’. K.Ney Mannan subgroup (Australia). ‘Balaliki’. comes from Thailand and is now being widely distributed in the Pacific islands including Samoa and the Cook Islands. ‘Kluai Hin’ (Thailand) The male bud of this clone is a popular vegetable in the Philippines. ‘Paradaika’ (Egypt) This is the most widely disseminated ABB cultivar. ‘Uht Kapakap’ (Pohnpei). due to its persistent bracts. ‘Blue Java’. ‘Pata Lahelahe’ (Tonga). ‘Ripping’ (Philippines) ‘Cardaba’ A Philippine cooking banana. ‘Blue Java’. ‘Pata Hina’. Externally. ‘Kostha Bontha’. ‘Karpuravalli’ (India). When fully ripe.

photo: I. BB clones that are cultivated. Tetraploids that are most common in cultivation are (Thailand). balbisiana as it did in There are no natural AAAA and very few natural AAAB. ‘FHIA-02’ (aka ‘Mona Lisa’).org)  23 . Fe‘i bananas like AAAB. Whether an uncommon clone the bred tetraploids are those from the FHIA program in in Thailand. they have resulted from crosses between triploid female and dip- loid male parents. Particularly associated with the Marquesas and Society Islands (French Polynesia). Thus. ‘FHIA-03’. do not exist. none of which are impor. M. A few promising varieties are found in BBB genome cultivation (including some Pacific islands) in those areas Philippine ABB clones such as ‘Cardaba’ and ‘Saba’ were where banana diseases are rampant. and ABBB bananas. products of the breeding programs. Most notable among classified previously as BBB.AAAA. dessert AAAB. edible diploid cultivars of the species AABB. ‘FHIA-20’ and ‘FHIA-21’. In general. Maguire Right: Saba type ‘Utin Ruk’ in Pohnpei. plantain. Honduras: dessert AAAA. ‘Kluai Lep Chang Kut’. are grown for their leaves and for animal feed. and cooking or The Fe‘i cultivars range naturally from the Moluccas dessert AABB. Fe‘i were staple and ceremonial foods since the Marquesas were first settled from the Samoa-Tonga region (~250 BC) Left: ‘Benedetta’.traditionaltree. ‘FHIA-01’ (aka ‘Goldfinger’) and cooking and dessert ‘FHIA-18’. photo: J. AABB and ABBB BB genome genomes Parthenocarpy did not evolve in M. is BBB is unclear. ‘FHIA-17’ and ‘FHIA-23’. Daniells Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. such as ‘Tani’ tant. to French Polynesia. acuminata. AAAB.

ally high in beta carotene (see e. Samoa. lolodensis (based on DNA studies) were Synonym: M. M. troglodytarum L. and taxonomic work on this group. Unfortunately their prev. Although they are clearly in the section Australimusa. tolerate most diseases synonymous. their precise Synonym: M. peekelii. fehi Bert. ex Vieill. Englberger and Lorens Relationships and common names for the various clones in 2004).g. ‘Pisang Tongkat Langit’ (eastern Indonesia) and ‘Pisang These bananas are unique and distinct from the acuminata/ Tongkat Langit Papua’ (Irian Jaya) balbisiana cultivars in the section Musa. the Fe‘i alence has declined drastically in recent decades. and pests. an experimental AAAB dessert banana. The fruit of some clones is exception. Right: ‘FHIA-01’ (aka ‘Goldfinger’). Shar- squarish red/coppery fruit. bananas may be interspecific hybrids. Although they can be quite sensitive during the different areas are unclear. Thus. the entire section Australimusa (see Part 1). suggested as probable parents of the extant clones.Left: ‘FHIA-03’. Kepler and Tahiti around 700–800 AD. they are generally vigorous. Recent genetic work indicated that they are closest genetically to 24  Banana and plantain overview  . Prominent clones on different establishment phase and some are susceptible to Panama islands are listed below as distinct although some may be disease. an experimental AABB cooking or dessert banana. K. they also can be recognized among the Fe‘i cultivars is as great as that that is found in by their bright magenta to dark purple sap. Genetic diversity tion to their erect bunches. and near-iridescent orange or rock (2001) provided a recent summary of the history of yellow fruit flesh. heavily ridged. these plus an additional species. ‘Upolu.. and require little care once established. In addi. M. ‘Daak’ (New Caledonia) phology) and M. Both photos: Nu‘u Agricultural Station. photos: A. maclayi (based on mor. origins are poorly understood.

Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Papeari.org)  25 . Tahiti. Bottom right: All Fe‘i have bright magenta sap. Bottom left: ‘Fe‘i Tati‘a’. photos: A. Tahiti.traditionaltree. Top right: ‘Fe‘i ‘Auiri’. K. some clones brighter than others.Top left: ‘Fe‘i ‘A‘ata’. Tahiti. Papeari. Papeari.

In: INIBAP. 2002. and Sharrock. 16–25. Ploetz. 2004. J. Hōlualoa. Musa and Musella. Karamura. ‘Me. Englberger. (ed. compil. and Tomekpe. Banana production in Egypt. Ploetz. R.org>.globalnet.uk/~drc/>. v. UK. Synonym: M. Muell. Federated and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Report 2000. pp.pdf>. pp. INIBAP. ‘Rimina’.. Internation- States of Micronesia). Diversity in the genus Musa­—Focus on Rhodochlamys. and A. and N. al Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain. The Evolution of the Bananas. Wallingford. 2001. ‘Chongk’ (New Hebrides). ‘Sar’.globalnet. INFOMU- nei’.W. Suva. France. clude ‘Borabora’. International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain..uk/~drc/>. and ‘Wain’ (Papua New SA 3: 16–18. htm>. A.K. and A. Diseases of Banana. <http://www. 2004. and F. org/publications/musalogue. Kepler. Some common cultivars and synonyms elsewhere in. D.co.users. ‘Huetu’ Australimusa. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Guinea).traditionaltree.C. D. Sharrock. seemanii F. aiori Sagot Nelson.). ‘Soa‘a’ (Samoa). Networking Banana (Marquesas). 1993. 15–20. 2. L. <http://www. Häkkinen. ‘Fe‘i Aiuri’ and ‘Fe‘i Tatia’. <http://www. Networking Banana and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Re- port 2001. S. 2006. The nomenclature of the genus Musa. Musa ingens—The world’s tallest banana. Abacá and Enset. In- ternational Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP).globalnet. <www.org/extension. Constantine listed accepted names for taxa and their synonyms.users. K.‘Soaqa’ (Fiji) Jones.) 2000.. ‘Utu’ (Cook Islands).. 3rd ed. Diversity in the genus Musa.K. (ed. CABI Publishing. ‘Mai‘a Ha‘i’ (Hawai‘i). Musalogue: a catalogue of Musa germplasm. London. R. Constantine. C. Focus on (Tonga). In: Elevitch. 1962. Extension offices for agroforestry and forestry in the Pa- cific: <http://www. 2001. D. L. Constantine. ‘Polapola’.C.uk/~drc/Nomenclature. <http:// www. BIBLIOGRAPHY Constantine. In prep. AGROFORESTRY EXTENSION Longmans. 1987. In: INIBAP. Hawai‘i. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND Stover. 26  Banana and plantain overview  . 1994. Per- manent Agriculture Resources (PAR). Long- mans. co. ver. M. France. Lorens. Musa The most common cultivars in home gardens today are species (bananas and plantains).R. 2000. Jenny. D. ‘Utafan’. The Musaceae—an annotat- ed list of the species of Ensete. 1999 onwards.. InfoMusa 12: 2–5. ‘Utin Iap’ and ‘Karat’ (Pohnpei.W. In- foMusa 2: 8.G.H. Simmonds. Montpellier. Diversity in the genus Musa (E.). Rust. Pohnpei-Bananas: A Photo Collection: Carotenoid-rich Varieties. Englberger.traditionaltree. N.html>. S. Carotenoid-rich bananas in Micronesia.R.. C. London.co. France. Arnaud and S.. Federated States of Micronesia) Montpellier.users. ‘Fe‘i’ and ‘Soanga’ Sharrock. 2003. Bananas in Hawai‘i: ‘Fe‘i’ (Society Islands) Living Polynesian Heirlooms. Montpellier. and ‘Kulasr’ and ‘Kolontol’ (Kosrae. Synonym: M.C. S. D. Bananas. Simmonds. Fiji Islands: Secretariat of the Pacific Community..inibap. Daniells. R. Kepler.

). © 2006 Permanent Agriculture Resources. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. Ploetz. Cooperative Extension Service.traditionaltree. Web: <http://www. USA. This publication may be repro- duced for noncommercial educational purposes only. Tel: 808-324-4427. E-mail: jeff. E-mail: par@agroforestry. Kaulunani. Hawaii 96720. Reproduction: Copies of this publication can be downloaded from <http://www.com 3. (ed. under Cooperative Agreement 2002-47001-01327. 875 Komohana St.traditionaltree.agroforestry. Angela Kay Kepler. All rights reserved. 1. Kepler. PO Box 20. Elevitch Publisher: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR).                 Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Nelson 1. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR).C.edu 2.. Department of Agriculture. Hōlualoa. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. State of Hawai‘i Department of Land & Natural Resources Division of Forestry & Wildlife. University of Hawai‘i at Manoa. USA Acknowledgments: Photo contributions from Ian Maguire are gratefully acknowledged. Department of Plant Pathology.daniells@dpi. Jeff Daniells.org)  27 . Permanent Ag- riculture Resources (PAR). USDA Forest Service Forest Lands Enhancement Program. J. E-mail: akk@pacificwideconsulting. The authors are deeply thankful for the generous support they have received from academic colleagues and farmers throughout the Pacific. PO Box 1298. and Extension Service. Florida 33031. Is. of Maui. This institution is an equal opportunity provider. R. and Agricultural Experiment Station. Tropical Research and Education Center. University of Florida. Australia. This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research. C. and Scot C. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. 2007.net>. Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars.traditionaltree.K. Daniells. Education. Recommended citation: Ploetz.S. Nelson.au 4.. PO Box 428. E-mail: rcp@ifas. SPC/GTZ Pacific-German Regional Forestry Project.qld. USA. and Muriel and Kent Lighter. U.org>.gov. USA. 18905 S. Haiku. Hilo. In: Elevitch.C. Home- stead. ver. Utah State University. A. Sponsors: Publication was made possible by generous support of the United States Department of Agriculture Western Region Sus- tainable Agriculture Research and Education (USDA-WSARE) Program. 280 Street. Fax: 808-324- 4129. Hawai‘i.traditionaltree. Hawai‘i 96725. Series editor: Craig R. Depart­ment of Plant & Envi- ronmental Protection Sciences (PEPS). and S.R. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). Pacific-wide Consulting. South Johnstone 4859.ufl. <http://www.net. Horticulture & Forestry Science. an Urban Forestry Program of the DLNR Division of Forestry and Wildlife and the USDA Forest Service.W. with credit given to the source. Hawaii 96708. Hōlualoa.org>.org) Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars Authors: Randy C.