You are on page 1of 27

Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry February 2007

ver. 1

www.traditionaltree.org

Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis
on Pacific island cultivars
Musaceae (banana family)

Randy C. Ploetz, Angela Kay Kepler, Jeff Daniells, and Scot C. Nelson

photo: C. Elevitch
INTRODUCTION
The plant family Musaceae, composed of ba-
nanas, plantains, and ornamental bananas,
originally evolved in Southeast Asia and sur-
rounding tropical and subtropical regions (in-
cluding New Guinea). Africa is a secondary
center of diversity.
The two genera Ensete and Musa in the family
Musaceae are covered here.
Please note that this manuscript is not all-in-
clusive and that much of the complex species
and cultivar taxonomy is in the process of re-
vision and expansion. Readers are encouraged
to consult with the many excellent online re-
sources listed in the “Bibliography” for current
information.

‘Manini’, a variegated Hawaiian banana.

Part 1: Taxa in the Musaceae Cheesman, E. holstii (Schumann) Cheesman, E. ulugurense
(Warburg) Cheesman, E. fecundum (Stapf ) Cheesman, E.
laurentii (De Wild.) Cheesman, E. bagshawei (Rendle and
Greves) Cheesman, E. davyae (Stapf ) Cheesman, E. ruan-
Ensete dense (De Wild.) Cheesman, E. rubronervatum (De Wild.)
The genus Ensete ranges throughout Africa and southern Cheesman, M. africana Hort.
Asia. Depending on the authority, the genus Ensete contains Description: This is the most important species in the ge-
as many as nine species. They are monocarpic, unbranched nus. Reaching 5–7 m (16–23 ft) tall, it ranges throughout
herbs that sucker rarely and are used for food, fiber, and as much of the African continent, and produces a rhizome
ornamentals. They resemble banana plants, but their wide- that is used as a staple food by approximately 8 million
spreading and immensely long, paddle-shaped leaves with people in the Ethiopian highlands. The variety ‘Maurelii’,
usually crimson midribs, are unmistakable. Their fruits are ‘Red Abyssinian’, or ‘Black banana’ (synonym E. maurelii)
similar in appearance to those of banana, but they are dry, is the most colorful, with the brightest red midribs, above
seedy, and inedible. The entire plant dies after fruiting. and below, with rich dark red leaf stalks (petioles) and
Ensete gilletii (De Wild.) Cheesman blackish-red leaf blades. Its flower cluster, embraced in
maroon bracts, may reach 3 m (10 ft) long. The seeds are
Ensete glaucum (Roxb.) Cheesman. Common names: Wild
large, about 18 mm diameter x 14 mm deep (0.7 in x 0.5
banana, Seeded sweet banana, “Virgin” banana, or Virgin
in). Introduced into Hawai‘i, it is rare or no longer present
(Philippines)
there.
Synonyms: M. glauca Roxb., M. nepalensis Wallich in
Roxb., M. troglodytarum L. var. dolioliformis F. M. Blanco,
M. gigantea Kuntze, M. calosperma von Mueller, M. wilsonii
Tutcher, E. calospermum (von Mueller) Cheesman, E. wil-
sonii (Tutcher) Cheesman, M. agharkarii Chakravorti, E.
gigantea (Kuntze) T. Nakai, E. nepalensis (Wallich) Chees-
man, err. cal. Simmonds, E. agharkarii (Chakravorti) Hore,
Sharma and Pandey
Description: This species has small, oval bananas in a very
small, compact bunch, atop a huge bud with green turning
to pale brown, persistent bracts producing a “messy” rachis
similar to dwarf edible bananas (for example, ‘Dwarf Cav-
endish’, ‘Prata Aña’). The seeds are about 10 mm diameter
x 11 mm deep (0.4 in x 0.43 in). The seeds are strung into
necklaces in PNG.
Ensete homblei (Bequaert) Cheesman
Ensete perrieri (Claverie) Cheesman
Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman
Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman. Common names:
Enset, Ensete, Abyssinian banana or Plantain, Ethiopian,
Black, Bruce’s or wild banana
Synonyms: Musa ensete Gmel., M. ventricosa Welw., M.
buchananii Baker, M. schweinfurthii Schumann and War-
burg ex Schumann, M. arnoldiana De Wild., M. holstii
Schumann, M. ulugurensis Warburg and Moritz ex War-
burg, M. fecunda Stapf, M. laurentii De Wild., M. bagsha-
wei Rendle and Greves, M. davyae Stapf, M. ruandensis De
Wild., M. rubronervata De Wild., E. edule Horan., E. bu-
chanani (Baker) Cheesman, E. schweinfurthii (Schumann
and Warburg) Cheesman, E. arnoldianum (De Wild.)
Ensete ventricosum. photo: J. Daniells 

  Banana and plantain overview 

lolodensis. an enormous green bud pointing skyward. musa (formerly known as EUMUSA). or irregularly angled. but much further study is required before the above bananas. the Fe‘i bananas have M. Additional characteristics (also in M. and in some varieties. namatani Argent Guinea and northern Queensland into the western Pacific. ancient domestication. In addition to fruit. (Marquesas Islands) and later in ~800 AD (Tahiti). ‘Karat’. M. with a bunch of fruits tipped with a narrow in canoes by Polynesian seafarers as far back as 250 BC green bud which is pendent. balbisiana. smooth. This has only a small range in North Queensland. ex Mikl. M. acuminata and interspecific hy. Abacá cultivars to which these names refer were recognized as M. apple-green bud. Lin. bananas and plantains baked or boiled. Australimusa. rounded. maclayi von Muell. 2004). var. acuminata and M. jackeyi W. those that bear edible fruit are the ange-gold fruit. correct names. It greatly resembles a Fe‘i. peekelii Lauterb. Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas.traditionaltree. rather than reaching skyward. acuminata × M. become famous because of their association with French Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. “bloody” sap. The the sterility. Their seed structure is important for clas. paradisiaca (‘French’ plantain) islanders still use hand-looms to weave abacá fiber into and M. Plants in the Australimusa section are generally tall. carotene (vitamin A precursor). Micronesian Fe‘i bananas enjoyed spotlighting in it was found in the Philippines (Palawan) in 1960. peekelii. abacá (M. with upright fruit stalk. maclayi Section Australimusa ranges naturally from New var. ma- clayi and M. a principal component. In Its geographical range includes Papua New Guinea.org)   . silky shirts (often embroidered) worn by Fili- the cultivated varieties (cultivars). ‘Utin lap’ and other ba- Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. various subspecies of M. jack- edible floral parts. and hybrid origins of translucent. For example. ern and southeastern). and 2004. Also included in the section is an im. Intro- Pacific agricultural circles. etc. cent molecular analyses indicate a reduction to two sec. The fruits are portant source of fiber. May be synonymous with M. However. erecta (Simmonds) Argent smooth. cordage. maclayi subsp. balbisiana hybrids (see Part 2). textilis (abacá or Manila hemp) is particularly impor- brids between M. A great number of important plants Fe‘i are robust plants bearing erect bunches of brilliant or- are found in the genus. coconut cream. thin strips of abacá pseudostem. Contains the Fe‘i bananas. Their origins are complex and M. where they were transported long distances (>10 m [33 ft]). and to a certain extent in some Musa taxonomy is confused by several factors including traditional islands of Micronesia. which sia. either subglobose or compressed. partly joined together laterally. var.Musa nanas have been shown to contain the high levels of beta The genus Musa’s center of origin is Asia (primarily south. With few exceptions. and the unwillingness pino men on important occasions are woven from paper- of many to adopt newer. viz. and system is abandoned. are important in the Pacific. subspecies maclayi sification purposes. which are delicious and nutritious when most significant. steam for cooking. sapientum (‘Silk’) are still used decades after the women’s wrap-around skirts or lavalavas (pareus). fuel. tubercu. M. tuberculate. bukensis Argent tine summarized the confusion (Constantine. Native to the West Seeds subglobose or compressed. with seeded fruit. and Rhodochlamys. ailuluai. produces a shiny. striate. Constan- M. M. Callimusa. as a source of fiber. Hill. dyes. nana. M. the familiar of reddish-amber to red urine by those who consume the eating bananas are naturally occuring hybrids among the fruit. Australia. Fe‘i-like tions. Common name: Johnstone River ba- Historically. and distinctive green or greenish-yellow subspecies ailuluai Argent buds (if present). eyi) are a “bloody” purple-magenta sap and the production wrapping materials. Section Australimusa (chromosome num. appressed together in tight bunches. Sepik region of Papua New Guinea and parts of Indone- late or irregularly angled. Re. especially if the slices are swathed in fresh provide many cultures with medicines. beverages. striate. four sections have been recognized in Musa.-Maclay may involve as many as three species. lolodensis Cheesman ber: x = 10) Possible precursor of the Fe‘i bananas. In the outer islands of Yap. textilis). fibers. tant in Philippine culture. A very tall plant Polynesia. naean binomials such as M.

non Colla.. M. nanas. simiarum Kurz fruit are “long bottle-nosed” and seedy. M. silky. M. It can be found at M. balbisiana. cellophane. ana- lyzing. typical of the Australi- M. together with increasing world banana populations. Vietnam. 10) Bracts plain. suratii G. gracilis Holttum the Philippines and Central America. depending M. red ornamental pests and banana diseases. chinensis Sweet. sp nov. floor mats. Ninh Before the advent of synthetic textiles. textilis. Occasionally found in Hawai‘i’s botanical gardens. rarely glau. borneënsis Beccari Part 2). nov. magenta disappeared. Abacá is a beautiful. Common Names: Red (flowering) develop more—and better—strains of disease-resistant ba- Thai banana. and attempting to protect the myriad forms of this M. formosana Hayata. and specialty paper. A fairly short ornamental plant. suitable for growing under a Synonyms: Musa uranoscopos Lour. and newsprint. and fine-textured. Because of the increasing incidence of debilitating Okinawa torch. G. with narrow. These plants are mosome number: x = 11) most important as ornamentals. bright scarlet bud. Recent genetic This species bears a narrow. sp. Section Musa (former section) Eumusa (chro- cous and strongly imbricate when closed. Okinawan banana flower. textilis Née. Its orange. breeders are expending great effort to develop desirable seedless bananas. M. flavida M. Native to China and Indochina. coccinea. scarlet banana. inside which subspecies angustigemma (Simmonds) Argent Syn. M. O‘ahu. for many cultural food preferences. especially on Maui and the island of M. Fruits are green and skinny. Its fibers were also suitable velop. This Section Callimusa (chromosome number: x = species is often confused with M. upright bud source of one of the world’s premier fibers—soft. variously colored buds and flowers. acuminata’s native   Banana and plantain overview  . exotica R. violascens Ridley Tropical Botanical Garden (Kaua‘i). parents of some important edible cultivars worldwide (see M.duced into Hawai‘i. acuminata and fruit. Recent expeditions have focused on finding. but has now all but A beautiful plant (<2 m [6. it is now rare. angustigemma Simmonds are small (ca. Common names: abacá. salaccensis Zoll. elliptical. M. are enclosed tubular yellow flowers. textilis Née. shiny on the outer surface. with mauve bud bracts. sanay Synonyms: M. maguindanao (Philippines) M. Introduced into Hawai‘i for commercial purposes in the late 1800s. composed of erect spirals of red bracts. Native to Malaysia and Thailand. Argent the Waimea Valley Audubon Center (O‘ahu) and National M. Synonyms: M. Occasionally grown in Hawai‘i at commer- subspecies peekelii cial heliconia farms. Its shiny green bud hides purple inner linings. alinsanaya Valmayor. and male flowers. var. C. It was even a constituent in some Euro. Commercial production was greatest in M. for other manufactured products such as rayon. M. exotica was originally col- roi Hayata lected from the Cuc Phuong Forest Reservation. Common name: Javanese wild banana musa section. Valmayor. tashi- A species described in 2004. carii. 0. and its small rumphiana Kurz. in the hopes that banana breeders will be able to M. tall plant. Common name: Alin- Musa acuminata Colla. bec- Valley Audubon Center. non Rumph. amukid. It has a clear orange. campestris Beccari species. Most bear upright flower Most cultivated varieties (cultivars) of edible banana origi- stalks. was the Binh Province. seeded fruit onym: M.8 cm [2 in] long). Thai red banana. this banana can be seen at the Waimea This species bears a rounder red flower cluster than M. corniculata Kurz. M. M. Musa wide range of environmental conditions and appropriate uranoscopos Lour. Niche markets now cater to intricately woven and green striped fruits. A variable species with six to nine subspecies. ornata. Hotta pean paper money. studies have identified which subspecies were probable with green-tipped bracts. below which small yellow bananas de- glistening. coccinea Andrews. M. beccarii Simmonds on the authority (eight are described here). and small seedy nated from two species in this section.6 ft] tall). M. Hawai‘i. fancy place mats. Manila hemp. and an upright pink-purple bud. firm.

Other. Starchy banana. balbisiana. it is possibly the only seeded banana variety introduced ed in Oceania. the Pacific. Pisang Klutuk Wulung. Southern India. The wild.) Simmonds. M. although five morphotypes have been de- Malaysia and Sumatra. botoan Makino. Borneo. Nasution. japonica hol’. M. Peninsular Malaysia (highlands) green and yellow. acuminata Colla ‘Sumatrana’ Hort. It is found in Hawai‘i (Maui. Peninsular M. var. eastward to Samoa. with a beautiful. particularly subspecies burmannica Simmonds. prominently “beaked” fruits This is a key subspecies for those interested in edible.. brachycarpa Back. botanical gardens such as Waimea Valley Audubon Cen- ent of the ‘Maia Maoli’ subgroup. It even- Paternal parent of ‘Silk’ AAB. derivative of this subspecies. and northern AAA (aka East African Highland Bananas). Devil banana and Seeded “apple” banane des Philippines. Common names: Japanese (fiber) banana This subspecies has given rise to the clone ‘Veinte Co. char. tually became a useful windbreak.. Botohan. rounded. but west to Africa. Musa × sapientum var. and Lyon Arboretum (O‘ahu). subspecies burmannicoides DeLanghe. most cold-hardy banana. and rarely in private acterized in part by 15–20 cm (6–8 in). it may be seen only occasionally. Thriving under heavy Synonym: M. basjoo Sieb. sapientum L. malaccensis Ridley been introduced from the Philippines into O‘ahu in the late 1800s with the fiber plant. Seedy banana. are the primary clone represent. maternal contributions to many AA and AAA dessert pruinosa bananas. var. Another banana that was significant in the past for its sapientum L. errans Teodoro var. M. elegant fabrics. subspecies microcarpa (Beccari) Simmonds. hybrid bananas that arose within the Pacific. likely having Synonym: M. the paternal parent of the Mutika/Lujugira subgroup donesian islands. M. E. it is also characterized by very slender pseud- ostems and small. liukiuensis Matsum. since it is considered to be both maternal and paternal parents of In Hawai‘i. this is probably the world’s Thailand. balbisiana is one of common in the West Indies (not to be confused with the parents of many edible seedless bananas. and the maternal par. large subspecies truncata. slender. M. acuminata. Native to Japan (in- subspecies siamea Simmonds. subspecies errans Argent. The clone ‘Pisang Lilin’ is a Southeast Asia from Sri Lanka to the Philippines. fast-growing. liukiuensis Matsum. M. sumatrana (Becc. saging na ligao. km (>4000 mi) eastwards to the Marquesas Islands. and drought- pendent bud and very pale green immature fruit. It is also subspecies zebrina (Van Houtte) R. because fruit with rounded tips.) errans. M. Cambodia. shiny bud and inedible fruit. agutay (Philippines) and Pacol (Philippines). errans Teodoro. with a blue-violet This species is extremely robust. It is of cultural significance in Hawai‘i. Burma. scribed. full of grape-like seeds.N. Java. Queensland. banksii F. Balbis banana. Used for fiber and as an ornamental. used for fiber. Mueller shade.org)   .. although there has been much local confusion with other seeded bananas. sausage-shaped gardens. resistant. M. North In. abacá (M. variably sized maroon patches. Common names: Fleur de Wild (starchy) banana. Maoli bananas. Common Name: Blood banana Synonyms: M. Common names: Balbisiana. Papua New Guinea. Synonyms: M. liukiuensis (Matsum. textilis).traditionaltree. and as an ornamental. As such.habitat ranges throughout SE Asia (west to Myanmar) This subspecies was transported not only eastwards into and Papua New Guinea. M. It is a very pretty subspecies. where it is called ‘Fa‘i This plant has striking dark green leaves splotched with Taemanu’ (rare today). acuminata Colla subsp. it is called ‘Mai‘a ‘Oa’. India and Sri Lanka. Laos and cluding the Ryuku Islands). var. the “true apple” banana. Mealy banana. sumatrana. O‘ahu). M. saging chongo. It is native to “apple” bananas of Hawai‘i). Hawai‘i). where it evidently became subspecies banksii (F. sumatrana ‘Rubra’ Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. balbisiana Colla. M. Synonym: M. ranging from the western Pacific >6400 as a medicinal plant by pre-Cook Polynesians.) A. It is a medium-sized plant (to 5 m [16 ft]) similar to abacá. seedy forms are much less variable than subspecies malaccensis (Ridley) Simmonds. troglodytarum L. banana (Maui. primarily in Plantain and ‘Pōpō‘ulu’ subgroups. Synonyms: M. saging maching. southern M. ter. Muell.

although rather slowly. ex Kurz M. ingens Simmonds (chromosome number: x = 7) This little known species from Assam.M.) Kun- tze var. M. In Hawai‘i. ornata Roxb. as indeed it is. mannii) has a pink-purple bud and fruit stalk. Common name: West Sumatra M. rare in the wild. hot pink banana. “self-peeling banana”. and immature fruits are pale green. windward regions. are bright pink-purple fruiting stems and bud bracts. laterita Cheesman. espe- Many highly ornamental species are found in this section. hookerii King vety”. Wendl.3 ft] tall). ochracea Shepherd homegardens. this is an or- M. pink banana. The   Banana and plantain overview  . Their white inner flesh is packed M. halabanensis Meijer. sanguinea Hook. Common name: Indian dwarf ba. or- nata is occasionally grown in botanical and private gardens. rosea Baker M. Section RHODOCHLAMYS (chromosome true to its alternate common name. ex Baker. windward coasts. sapientum (L. M. particularly along the wet. propagated. rosacea Jacq. When ripe. Originally hailing from Bangladesh. Its upright “hot” pink bud.5 m (8 ft) in circumference at the base. sanguinea Welw. Common names: Fuzzy wild banana (pink) banana. the banana’s flesh bursts through its skin at the apex. ornata Synonym: Musa rubra Wall. bright pink bananas. rubra Wall. aurantiaca Mann ex Baker as 1100 m (3600 ft) on Haleakalā. cially in wet. fuzzy. schizocarpa Simmonds fat. Maui. mannii H. M. Common names: Ornamental banana. M. nagensium Prain tanical gardens. and Drude. M. Common name: Mannii. Velutina M. tions) Native to Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. This banana’s species name.) Another striking ornamental from northern India. It can grow at least as high M. It and made available to tropical plant enthusiasts. textilis). self-peeling banana. whose bracts are crowded with bright yellow flowers. M. this species is probably the most widely planted ornamental banana in the tropics and subtropics. itinerans Cheesman Native to northern India. f. A tall plant from New Guinea with a glossy yellow bud. means “vel- Synonym: M. flaviflora Simmonds M. cheesmani Simmonds bud bracts are whitish inside. which germinate readily. flowering banana. this species thrives wherever it is planted. M. Wendl. dwarf banana M. velutina. velutina H. 1 m [3. sikkimensis Kurz with black seeds. in height and 2. Burma and India. has This is the world’s largest herb. number: x = 11) In Hawai‘i. boman Argent (x = ?) ange-red budded ornamental bearing yellow female flow- ers. and is becomingly increasingly available for M. A dwarf is found on the island of New Guinea between 1000 and ornamental (ca. Incertae sedis (taxa with uncertain taxonomic posi- nana. and can reach 15 m (49 ft) recently been discovered by horticulturalists. it is widespread in tropical bo- M. produce small. its most notable features 2100 m (3300–6900 ft) in elevation. ssp. M. resembling abacá (M. this one (like M. Synonym: Musa × paradisiaca L. then proceeds to “peel itself ”.

fruit stalk (peduncle) hairi- origins of the hybrids begun to be understood (see Part 1). the most widely used common name of a cultivar is listed in boldface type. AB. Tetraploid to more than 1000.e. acuminata and er production. Bananas that are hybrids between M. Other. shape. and M. acuminata and M. fruit size. (cultivars) of edible bananas especially since not all were completely sterile. and M. Hybrid numbers of cultivars that occur worldwide range from 300 triploids are classified as AAA. aka East African Highland hybrids are diploid (two sets of chromosomes). or ABB. The Fe‘i bananas. M. When denoting each cultivar’s genome. which can be used to propagate flow cytometry. variation in the crop in its secondary centers resulted pri- marily from mutations in the cultivars. India. Where it first appears. balbisiana arose where distributions of the two species overlapped.” Many cannot interbreed because they are sterile. triploid Bananas). all cultivars discussed below are natural hybrids.Part 2: Cultivated varieties discovered hybrids were carried by indigenous peoples by land and sea. are covered separately at the end of Part 2. scars left from fall- ing flowers on the lower fruit stalk (rachis). size. Indonesia. orientation. There are hundreds AAAA. an individual plant vegetatively. aka Pacific Plantains). However. they were selected by people and duce a variety’s genome (i. These include pseudostem (“trunk”) color. pure M. the most common and important ploidy). in the Australimusa section. ness. cultivars and groups of cultivars with an acuminata/balbisiana heritage are listed alpha- betically within a given genome. and orientation. shape. whereas M. The cultivars rica (Plantain subgroup). and East Africa Part 1) or between M. the ever. They can from M. acuminata evolved primarily in tropical rainforests in many names that even compiling lists for specific countries Southeast Asia. and AA and AB clones are cultivated. tetraploid (four sets). re. AAAB. balbisiana originated in mon- or regions is a daunting task. its ploidy and relative content henceforth propagated vegetatively as clones. tex- tilis. Only recently have the leaf stem (petiole) structure. variable traits include: plant stature and architecture. Polynesia (Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu and are either hybrids among subspecies of M. less commonly used names are listed thereafter. As newly In the following list. balbisiana. shape and size of the male bud. has been used to name at least four distinct AA. acuminata (see Iholena subgroups. and Papua Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. of duplicate names and close clonal relatives found in ev- ery region of every banana-growing country. bunch size. Ploetz dant in Malaysia. There are so M.traditionaltree. and Thus. A perceptive observer can usually de- Over thousands of years. which arose from a different group of Musa spp. These (Mutika/Lujugira subgroup. ploidy is best determined by chromosome counts or local word for “children”). or programs. acuminata cultivars developed first in South- AAB clones. color. and taste. AAB. balbisiana. acuminata and M. Most edible bananas originated from two species in the sec- Major secondary centers of diversity occur in West Af- tion Musa. Some of the most the male flowers. With the exception of hybrids from the breeding (three sets. For example. and details of The edible bananas are highly diverse.. ‘Lady(’s) Finger’ soon areas in northern Southeast Asia. or ABBB. with genome AA and BB. schizocarpa are unimportant and not included below. acuminata and M. east Asia and its hybrids with M. more opportunities for hybridization arose. acumniata and M. balbisiana are diploids.org)   . suck- a lettering system is used. How- Bananas produce basal suckers (called keiki in Hawai‘i. and southern Asia. which is called “parthe- thickness. Common names that have been given bananas (mostly products of breeding programs) may be to some of the cultivars are ambiguous. balbisiana) by observing leaf produce fruit without fertilization. Estimates of the spectively. photo: R. balbisiana. acuminata and M. tem that considers 15 morphological characteristics. and specific countries or regions in which the names are used are listed in parentheses. AA genome Cultivars with an AA genome are most abun- Seeded fruit of M. M. For example. and by using a scoring sys- nocarpy. pigmentation. AABB.

‘Pisang Empat Puluh Other common names: ‘Pisang Lemak Manis’ (Malaysia). ‘Pisang Lemak Manis Terenganu’. ‘Kluai Hom Maew’. ‘Pisang Mas’ (Ma- Left: ‘Sucrier’. ‘Mama-on’ (Philippines). Kepler   Banana and plantain overview  . Indonesia) ‘Inarnibal’ (Philippines) lit.New Guinea (the only place where AA clones are com.‘Kluai cultivar in Australia with an AAA genome. ‘Pisang Barangan Merah/Kuning’ (Indonesia). lit. ‘Kamoros’ (Philippines). Hari’. much-loved cultivar. ‘Lakatan’ (Philippines) Other names: ‘Pisang Berangan Merah/Kuning’ (Malay. Mapang ‘Sucrier’ (Fr. Pisang Berlin (Indonesia) Manis Kelantan’. photo: I. they are less hardy than cultivar ‘Lacatan’ (AAA). In general. ‘Chuoi Tien’ (Vietnam). ‘Pisang Lemak ‘Pisang Lampung’ (Indonesia).) Thong Ki Maew’. A delicious. photo: A. triploid cultivars. ‘Kluai Thong Kap Dam’ (Thailand). commonly grown in the mon). “syrup” Other names: ‘Lidi’. ‘Pisang Lemak Ma- Lakatan subgroup (There is an accession of this nis’. ‘Pisang Mas Sagura’. fine quality fruit. ‘Caramelo’. K. Sucrier subgroup sia). Pisang Muli’ (Indonesia). ‘Kluai Ngang Phaya’ (Thailand). ‘Amas’. ‘Pisang Lidi’. ‘Pisang Ekor Kuda’ (Malaysia). Not to be confused with the tall Cavendish sweet. Pisang Lilin subgroup Inarnibal subgroup ‘Pisang Lilin’ (Malaysia. ‘Kluai Lep Mu Nang’ . They are cultivated due to their extraordinarily Philippines. Maguire Right: ‘Sucrier’ fruit. “sugar bowl or basin”) Other common names: ‘Lady’s Finger’ (Hawai‘i).

‘Cambur Titiaro’ (Latin America). ‘Manices’. ‘Pisang Jari Buaya’ (Indonesia. ‘Kudud’ (Pohnpei. ‘Guineo Blanco’. ‘de Rosa’. originating in Malaysia. photo: J. growing in Pohnpei. ‘Sukali Ndizi’) (Uganda) AAA genome Other common name: ‘Kamarangasenge’ (Rwanda) Cavendish subgroup This is a most significant subgroup of edible bananas. ‘Niño’. Tinito (French Polynesia). ‘Banana Ouro’ (Brazil). ‘Honey’. ‘Ney Poovan’ (India) Miscellaneous AA cultivars Other common names: ‘Safet Velchi’ and ‘Chini Champa’ ‘Malaysian Blood’. ‘Sucrier’. Federated States of Micronesia). ‘Fig Sucré’ (West Indies).traditionaltree. the bananas of this clone develop within the pseudostem. The plant resists Panama disease (Fusarium wilt) and thrives when grown in partial shade. ‘Parika’ (Guyana). ‘Datil’. thus the name. ‘Fig’. ‘Ranel’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Fig’. Older reports that indicate that the cultivar resists Panama disease are in error. ‘Kunnan’ (India) Kamarangasenge subgroup ‘Sukari Ndizi’ (also. ‘Surya Kadali’ (India). due to its exceptional flavor. ‘Kluai Khai’ (Thailand). ‘Nino’ (Florida). ‘Rose’ (Indonesia). ‘Fa- laysia). based on morphological characters. rine France’.org)   . The Cavendish cultivars produce fruit that are used in inter- Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. AB genome AB cultivars are uncommon. Daniells A variety introduced into several Pacific islands with a dis- tinctive long bud and “messy” rachis is resistant to black Ney Poovan subgroup Sigatoka disease and is used in breeding. ‘Tapo’. ‘Ney Poovan’ produces a sweet. Its fruit length de- pends on soil and climate. “pregnant” Other names: ‘Hapū’ (Tahiti) lit. ‘Dedo de Dama’. reaching 1. ‘Lady’s Finger’ (West Indies) and numerous PNG cooking cultivars. ‘Sucrier’.6–2 in (4–5 in) under perfect growing conditions. laysia. ‘Tuu Ghia/Gia’ AA cultivar ‘Peleu’ typical of PNG. causing a swelling that is reminis- cent of pregnancy. Indonesia). ‘Fig’. rare Polynesian banana. Ma. ‘Lady Finger’. ‘Kisubi’ (Uganda). ‘Sagale Nget- Pyaw’ (Burma/Myanmar). Other AA cultivars ‘Chingan’ (India) Other common name: ‘Manniyilla Chingan’ (India) ‘Hapai’ (Hawai‘i) lit. is the most widely culti- vated AA cultivar and is one of the world’s most popular local bananas. (India). ‘Date’. ‘Senorita’ (Philippines). ‘Ney Poovan’ is Other AB cultivar grown most widely. ‘Rose’. ‘Su- crier Fig’. ‘Apple’. Its finger-sized fruit are deliciously sweet. ‘Orito’ (Ecuador). ‘Peru’. Among these. subacid fruit with white flesh. It is rare in Hawai‘i. ‘Golden Early’. “pregnant” The AA genome has been assigned to this previously un- classified. Occasionally. ‘Bocadillo’ (Colombia).

characteristics of the bunch and fruit. ‘Bungulan’ tions assume that the different clones are being compared (Philippines). ‘Monte risto’ (Puerto Rico). side-by-side. M. ‘Nanukehel’. ‘Veimama’ (Fiji) Paxt. ‘Amoa produced worldwide. guishable. they comprise over 40% of these fruit that are (New Guinea). ‘Kluai Hom Kiau’ (Thailand). “green ripe banana”) stature. ‘Williams’ (Egypt). Hawaii). ‘Congo’ (Surinam). lagi’ (also refers to ‘Giant Cavendish’ in Samoa) (Samoa). ‘Utin Wai’ (Pohnpei. ‘Tall Mons Mari’ ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ (Australia). ‘Vaimama Leka’ (Fiji). have chosen productive cultivars of moderate stature (tall ‘Grande Naine’ (also ‘Grand Nain’) (Fr. In Hawai‘i. ‘Kabulee’. ly wiped out on O‘ahu by bunchy top disease. ‘Canary Banana’. ‘Sapumal Anamalu’ (Sri Lanka). Synonyms: M. also general name for Cav. ‘Binkehel’. ‘Taiwan’ (India). ‘Harichal’ Kom’ (Thailand). ‘Chuoi Tieu Cao #1’ (Vietnam). ‘Giuba’ (Somalia). The list below is in sia). ‘Kluai Hom Khieo Khom’. cavendishii Paxt. ‘Chinese’. ‘Nyoro’ (Ke- (Guadeloupe).. ‘Kluai Hom and most Pacific islands. especially in areas with high rainfall. when ripe. ‘Amoa Kauare’ (Cook Is. ‘Pisang Cina’ (Malaysia). nese’ (general name). ‘Robusta’. cation. ‘Mouz siny’. Tampihan. Local production of these (Tonga. ‘Mes- ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ tiça’ (Brazil). ‘Kin- (Hawai‘i). they turn bright yellow. planted side by side. also general name for Cavendish Group).. ‘Williams’. ‘Pandi’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Pacha Vazhai’. ‘Chuoi Tieu Nho’ (Vietnam). West Indies). badak’ (Indonesia). ‘Malindi’ (Tanzania and Zanzibar). it is occasionally seen at high we’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Mauritius’. Pachawara’. ‘Bout Rond’ and ‘Giant Fig’. worldwide due to its resistance to wind throw and produc- tion of large bunches and fingers despite its relatively small ‘Pisang Masak Hijau’ (Malaysia) (lit. ‘Giant Governor’ (West In. “big dwarf ”) clones lodge in high wind and are difficult to harvest). cavendishii Lamb.). nakeli’. In general.e. ‘Siaine’ Africa. ‘Kaina Vavina’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Bhusawal’. In total. and rachis morphology and color.. although where temperatures are a bit cooler or Federated States of Micronesia). ‘Kluai Khlong in Central America. ‘Dwarf Ca- ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivars vendish’ (general). All Other common names: ‘Umalog’ (‘Umalag’ is another but ‘Extra Dwarf Cavendish’ are productive if they are pro- spelling) (Philippines). ‘Maghrabi’. Cavendish Palagi (Samoa. ‘Thihm. ‘Tumok’ (Philip. fruits turn greenish-yellow (Tonga). ‘Williams Hybrid’ (Australia (Hong Kong). ‘Dwarf shade in Colombia and Ecuador. ‘Chuoi Duu’ (IndoChina). non Lour. also name for general Cavendish Group). but is susceptible to the Sigatoka leaf spots. height varies greatly ‘Grande Naine’ is the most important commercial clone with elevation. There are several ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivars that are so The subgroup is resistant to Panama disease in the western similar that they cannot be distinguished unless they are tropics. In Hawai‘i. ‘Pisang Ambon Hijau’ (Indonesia). ‘Johnson’ (Ca- 10  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Poot’. ‘Robusta’. Fa‘i clones is of even greater importance. ‘Hindi’. ‘Fa‘i Pa- have not yet found it elsewhere in the State. ‘Pisang Ambon Jepang’ (Indone- vided with ample fertilizer and water. ‘Saina’ bananas. M. the authors ‘Sulay Baguio’ (Philippines). nana auct. ‘Siaine’ (Tonga. ‘Nanicó’ (Brazil). ‘Basrai’.).. it was recent. including Hawai‘i). si- nensis Sweet ex Sagot This cultivar is usually too tall for commercial production. ‘Bijiaw’ (China). temperature. ‘Pisang Other common names: ‘Veimama’ (Fiji).national commerce. It can be sensitive to drought and other adverse emoet’ (Indonesia). and used for coffee Other common names: ‘Cavendish’.. i. South America. ‘Moz Hindi’. ‘Congo’ (Surinam—see also ‘Pisang Masak nya). man. the trades finger. lit. ‘Congo’ (West Indies). ‘Bazrai’ (Pakistan). Jamaica. In equatorial lowlands where the Taunga’. ne Gabou’ (Seychelles). they may differ in height by The various clones are similar except for their height and about 40 cm (1 ft) and exhibit subtle differences in bunch. ‘Wet-ma-lut’ (Burma/Myanmar). the Caribbean. Mid-way in stature between ‘Pisang Masak Hi- mercial production. ‘Chuoi Va Huong’ (Vietnam) descending order of the height to which they will grow in a given location (for a given cultivar. It should be understood that these height designa- Other common names: ‘Hamakua’ (Hawai‘i). ‘Basrai’ (Egypt). ‘Jainaleka’ (Fiji). ‘Mons Mari’. M. soil conditions. ‘Amoa Kauare’ (Cook Islands). It is grown in Jamaica and Puerto Rico. ‘Pisang Buai’. ‘Giant Chi. ‘Pisang Ambon Lo. & endish Group). cultivars are the most popular and valuable of the edible ‘Amoa Taunga’ (Cook Is. ‘Bana- (India). ‘Lacatan’ (western tropics). ‘Vama- dies). ‘Nain Gánt’. ‘Pisang Serendah’ (Malaysia). elevations. growing simultaneously in the same lo- ‘Pisang Embun Lumut’ (Malaysia). ‘Porto Rique’ (Dominica. ‘Siaine Ha‘amoa’ ambient temperatures are high. Hijau’). ‘Tampohin’. and the Philippines. ‘Jahaji’ ‘Valery’ (Central America. Chinese’. Even their male flowers are indistin- agement of the latter disease is a major expense in com. cavendishii Lamb. trunk. ‘Pake’ (Hawai‘i). and water supply). ‘Indian’. when artifically ripened. ‘Poyo’ guruwe’. ‘Ai Keuk Heung Ngar Tsiu’ (Queensland). they are major export commodities pines). jau’ and ‘Dwarf Cavendish’. M. ‘Hamoa’ (French Polynesia). West Chang’ (Thailand).

‘Siaine Tonga’ (Tonga). (approximately 1300 m [4260 ft]). In Hawai‘i.). ‘Pe. “dwarf ”) (Latin America). photos: A.traditionaltree. ‘Camburi Pigmeo’. with a long transport is grown. K. ‘Guineo Enano’. it is also the shortest used for commercial pro- French Polynesia). but evidently occur wherever this clone duction. windward Maui. ceptable fruit and is used as an ornamental plant. a ‘Giant Cavendish’ cultivar. and agroforestry cultivation. ‘Kira’ (French Polyne- sia). ‘Meika Kina’. it is relatively cold-tolerant. commercial. and is well suited for ‘Extra Dwarf Cavendish’ homegarden. ‘Enano’ (lit.3 ft) tall. (Israel) it is highly susceptible to banana bunchy top virus. does not produce ac- chokethroat (impeded bunch emergence) where temper. and This clone. ‘Dwarf Chinese’ is grown everywhere from the Left: ‘Williams’. Haiku. is a ‘Dwarf Chinese’ mutant that produces 2–7 This is the most widely distributed clone of edible banana bunches per plant (these are surprisingly common in worldwide. less than 1 m (3. Right: Young ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ bunch. atures below 15°C (59°F) occur for extended periods. ‘Park-yuk’ (China) is different from the true ‘Māhoe’ in the Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu Group. because it ‘Amoa Taunga Potopoto’ (Cook Is.org)  11 . life if picked at the correct maturity (which is a general character of Cavendish subgroup). It bears good-quality fruit. ‘Camyenne’ (Guinea). Maui. Ulaino. ‘Chuoi Tieu Lun’ (Vietnam). Other names: ‘Dwarf Parfitt’ (Australia). ‘Ana’. lowlands to the coldest elevations which banana tolerates tite Naine’. Sometimes called ‘Māhoe’ or ‘Mahoi’ in error. Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Governor’ (West Indies). ‘Mei‘a’. However. ‘Ca- ‘Double’ turra’ (Brazil). ‘Dwarf Nathan’ Short and compact. Hawai‘i. Ananica’. nary Islands).

Puohokumoa Stream. ‘Ava- bakor’. ‘Highgate’ ( Jamaica) Synonym: Musa brieyi De Wild. ‘Disu’ (Papua New Guinea). Uganda. Isolated pockets of ‘Gros Michel’ production remain. is the port in Nicaragua from which the clone was sent to the island. ‘Pisang Embun’. espe. Mutika/Lujugira subgroup ‘Cocos’ (Honduras). ‘Nakitembe’. ‘Raimbaud’. ‘Pisang Ambon Putih’ (Indone- sia). ‘Pisang Ambon’ (Malaysia). ‘Kluai Hom Thong’ (Thailand). photo: A. ‘Fa‘i Fia Palagi’ (Samoa).Gros Michel subgroup Members of this subgroup are listed below in descending order of height. but was eliminated from commercial pro- duction due to widespread and destructive epidemics of ‘Gros Michel’. These clones produce a few seed when pollinated and have been used in the breeding programs. ‘Guineo Gigante’.. and in the FHIA program have proven to be disease-resistant. ‘Ambon’ (Philippines). ‘Gros Michel’ (West Indies) Other common names: ‘Bluefields’ (Hawai‘i). but is tall (7 m [23 ft] or more) and very prone to wind damage. ‘Habano’. They are currently being introduced to many ing outside Southeast Asia. especially in Burundi. ‘Makanguia’ (French Antilles). are staple foods in the Rift Valley re- Honduras. ‘Nakabululu’. ‘Chuoi Tieu Cao #2’ (Vietnam) ‘Gros Michel’ is a vigorous plant. especially in Jamaica and Highland Bananas. It produces excellent fruit that are more durable than those of the ‘Cavendish’ cultivars. French for beer. and of generally ac. They are found nowhere else in the world. short pedicels. basically seedless. ‘Lowgate’ (Honduras) This smallest version of ‘Gros Michel’ is used in the FHIA breeding program. Ibota subgroup cially where disease suppressive soils exist. members of the Cavendish Kepler subgroup replaced this clone in most of the affected areas. Panama disease. Maui. ‘Guineo’ (Colombia). They can be confused with members of the Cavendish subgroup (note common names in Burma and Sri Lanka). ‘Guaran’ (Puerto Rico). ‘Bluefields’. ripening to full yellow color at ambient equa- torial temperatures.g. ‘Au Malie’. and ‘Nfuuka’. in Uganda. known generically as the East African sively in breeding programs. five clone sets of which are recognized: ‘Beer’. the ‘Yangambi Km 5’ cultivar’s name in Hawai‘i. bottle- necked fruit. and are highly productive. ‘Siaine Fisi’ (Tonga). It was the standard for export until the mid-1900s. Jainabalavu (Fiji). ‘Kluai Dok Mai’. and extreme suscepti- bility to Panama disease in the Americas and Africa. Rwanda. They are cooked and brewed Pacific islands (e. ‘Plantano Roatan’ (Mexico). K. ‘Thihmwe’ (Burma/Myanmar). pests and diseases. nanas that are being weakened and killed by introduced ‘Musakala’. Samoa. ‘Jainabalavau’ (Fiji). ‘Anamala’ (Sri Lanka). Micronesia. Over 200 cultivars are recognized Polynesia) to eventually supplement more established ba. As a result. Tonga. 12  Banana and plantain overview  . an example of secondary diversity in the bananas develop- ceptable taste. These smaller versions of ‘Gros Michel’ were used exten. and are diverse. Cultivars in the Gros Michel subgroup can be distinguished from those in the Cavendish subgroup by their green/pale pink vs bright red undersheath. Several hybrid bananas developed in Honduras gion of East Africa. ‘Banano’. These bananas.

photo: C. ‘Green Red’ (West Indies). ‘Figue Rouge’. ‘Claret’ (West Indies). Top: ‘Dwarf Red’. ‘Pisang Raja Udang’ of bananas from which many similar varieties evolved on (Malaysia). Elevitch Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Mora- dong Puti’ (Philippines). ‘Red Raja’ (Queensland). ‘Green Dacca’. ‘Morado’. ‘Fa‘i Suka’. ‘Akadahn’ (Pohnpei). Maui. ‘Galanamalu (Sri Lan- ka). petioles. ‘Figue Rose Blanche’. Kepler Bottom: ‘Dwarf Red’ female flowers. ‘Red’. ‘Warabia’ (Papua New Guinea).” the principal Polynesian basic types Niue’ (Samoa). ‘Akadahn Weitahta’ (Pohnpei). ‘Banana Roxa’ (Bra- zil). ‘Tafetan Verde’ (Colombia). ‘Red Dacca’ (Queensland). ‘Lal Kera’ (India). ‘Green Macaboo’ (Florida) The Red/Green Red cultivars are related. ‘Venkadali’ (India). photo: A.traditionaltree. They are usually tall plants. al- though dwarf versions exist. It produces moderately sized bunches of fruit that have a reddish-green to deep maroon skin (depending on age and exposure to direct sunlight). ‘Colorado Blanco’ (old name) (Hawai‘i). Plants of the red clones are highly pigmented and produce fruit that have a red to deep maroon skin. and light orange flesh. ‘Chenkadali’. ‘Rouge’ (Seychelles). ‘Neuse’. ‘Fa‘i the “Pacific plantains.) Other common names: ‘Pisang Berangan’ (Malaysia). The fruits are usually eaten raw. in that those in the red series often give rise to a green form (the reverse has not been recorded). ‘Green-Red’. ‘Tara Puakanio’ (Cook Islands). Other AAA cultivar ‘Lakatan’ (Philippines) (Note that some clones by this name are supposed to be AA. They are usually eaten raw before getting mushy and fall apart when cooked or too ripe. ‘Pisang Telor’ (Indonesia). ‘Kluai different Pacific archipelagos over thousands of years. and light orange flesh. ‘Colora- do Blanco’. ‘Morado’ (Philippines). ‘Nyekundu Ya Kisungu’. ‘Morado Verde’. ‘Rong Rong’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Kinaki Tangata’ (Cook Islands). and midribs. ‘Nyeupe Ya Kisungu’. Their Nak (Thailand). ‘Colorado’. ‘Mzungu Mwekundu’ (East Africa). ‘Shwe Nget-Pyaw’ (Burma/Mynamar). Waip’io Bay. ‘Tafetan’ (Colombia).org)  13 . although they can be cooked in their jackets. ‘Pink banana’ (Hawai‘i) A beautifully pigmented plant with deep red trunk. ‘Kluia Kung Khieo’ (Thailand). ‘Red’. ‘Rathambala’ (Sri Lan- ka). They are moderate producers that are grown primarily for their attractive and unusual fruit. ‘Banane Monsieur’ (Seychelles). ‘Pi- sang Barangan’ (Indonesia). ‘Mzungu Mweupe’ (East Africa). ‘Caru Verde’ (Brazil). They are used as ornamental plants in Hawai‘i and elsewhere in the Pacific. ‘Green Red’ Other common names: ‘Pisang Mundam’ (Malaysia). K. ‘Cuban Red’.Red subgroup AAB genome ‘Red’ The Iholena and Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu subgroups together form Other common names: ‘Jainadamu’ (Fiji).

bananas exist which pos- Iholena types are graceful plants. rare. per- Iholena types may still be found abundantly in local mar. which are Fe‘i) (Englberger by pale yellow-green immature fruits from earliest devel. and squat. This short-fruited Iholena was used in religious ceremonies. the two subdivisions are easily distinguished. not near houses. plus It was planted at heiau (temples).. new discoveries. Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu subgroup Iholena subgroup Iholena types are poorly represented in the Pacific these Maoli subdivision days. Their most outstanding sess characters of both subgroups: long like a Maoli. red. and bluntly square at their tips. trans.g. In Hawai‘i. and d) male flow. ‘Iholena Ha‘a Ha‘a’ (lit. “to fly”) sweeter “dessert” bananas have largely displaced the native bananas since the 1850s. this clone is characterized by a distinct red peti. and the ‘Iholena Lele’ (lit. New Guinea. ‘Morpa’. This subgroup is best known historically. Along with Very rare.history is closely linked to Polynesian migrations. in Vanuatu. beautiful flower bud). Maoli varieties—the base clone ‘Mama‘e Ulu’. copra plantations. rare or extinct. Today. Maoli. at least seven were Iholenas. Also called In the rest of the Pacific. away. unfolding (cigar) leaves with plumper and square-ended like a Pōpō‘ulu. and French Polynesia still have some of these ba. fruit stalk (peduncle). they are the most common traditional of their Polynesian heritage. However. have all contributed to the demise of it was said to cause the souls of the house occupants to “fly” Polynesian bananas and plantains across the Pacific. They Islands. five are still found naturalized in reason. sent to the mainland USA more than 30 years ago. Three varieties (“Red” and “White” Iholenas. Once staple dietary items on high islands from with a pale yellow-green pseudostem (blackish in ‘Ha‘a’). However. “short-short”) island). and virtually unknown in many cultures. It also bears a dark red peduncle (up to 1. ‘Yamunamba’. “yellow core”) and its possibly extinct ported as suckers over relatively short distances (island to dwarf form. ‘Ōre‘a’ (Tahiti) Polynesian high islands such as the Samoas. slender (primarily Maoli-type) which were grown by the Hawai. and Lorens. together with several subvarieties. Further west. pests and diseases (especially banana bunchy top). records exist for at least eleven Maoli ‘Fa‘i Mamae’ (Samoa) varieties. arrow- Early visitors to Hawai‘i in the late 1700s and 1800s were shaped. dietary tastes have changed. ian people. In Pohnpei (FSM) bananas of this intermediate type loosely and at right angles on the bunch. e. because a market economy. New Guinea to the Marquesas. gradually. Other Iholena clones include ‘Mamae Hehefanga’ (Ton- Full descriptions and photographs of Hawaiian (with some ga). haps also on Huahine. appear to have been lost from the Marquesas but two or nanas here and there. ‘Numeijo’. These distinctive bananas occur throughout Oceania. The Maoli types are long. ‘Iholena Kāpua’ (the name refers to the slender. and perhaps elsewhere including ally tended by islanders who recognize that they are part Tonga. Iholenas are characterized more common ‘Karat’ bananas. opment. but characteristics are: a) new. in the western Pacific. French Polynesia. Most are recognized by its sausage-shaped fruit with blunt ends. b) fruit pointed term Hopa means bananas of both Maoli and Pōpō‘ulu at both ends with salmon-colored flesh. Land clearing. lavender stamens. only approximately half of the varieties that are known across Polynesia exist in Hawai‘i. 14  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Luba’ Pacific) varieties are being documented (Kepler and Rust. this banana is a semi-dwarf. there are currently twelve extant cultivars. and short-tapered fruit tips. and three rare clones still survive on Tahiti and Raiatea. bananas to be found in upland forests and are eaten cooked they are particularly susceptible to pests and diseases. whereas Pōpō‘ulu types are fat able numbers. ole rim and bright waxy-purple leaf undersides. 2004). Their dissemination across the Pacific occurred Extremely rare in Hawai‘i. usu- Vanuatu. re- or raw. c) fruit arranged types. Cook This is the French Polynesian equivalent of Iholena. but still survive (barely) in Samoa. In ancient Hawai‘i. Like all Polynesian bananas.2 m [4 ft] long) and long pointed fruits with lengthly pointed tips. they have sadly become neglected. Of approximately 50 “native” Hawaiian varieties quiring replanting every few years. ‘Uzakan’. Other names: ‘Puapuanui’ amazed at the prodigious numbers of “native” bananas This is easily recognized by its extremely long. and most are rare. Pōpō‘ulu. (Papua New Guinea) unpublished). Tonga. exist also such as ‘Peleu’ and ‘Karat en Iap’ (unrelated to the ers with long. ‘Iholena Iholena’ (lit. both forms of Mai‘a [Iholena] Lele) and a Dwarf were In Hawai‘i. kets. In Tonga the striking mauve or coppery undersides.

Kahului. Kepler for the majority of Polynesian plantains—have survived a ‘Ele‘ele’ (lit. leaf stalks. right photo: A. black- Other common names: ‘A‘ea‘e’ (lit. even the male and female are less black overall. striped plumage of tropicbirds in juvenile plum. ‘Hawaiian Variegated’ (Hawai‘i) wild. will not tolerate neutral or basic soils. fried. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Elevitch. and midribs (especially in ing”). “black-black”) little better than Pōpō‘ulu and Iholena bananas. “black-black”) soil (<pH 6). This Tahitian variety appears to be virtually identical to Hawai‘i’s ‘Ele‘ele’. ‘Hawaiian Black ‘Manini’ (lit. The fruit are bark”) best cooked. An attractive Hawaiian banana. Its variants. ‘Koa‘e’ (referring to Banana’ (Florida) the bold. prefers acid ‘Ere‘ere’ (lit. Other common names: ‘Black Hawaiian’. hog grease”) and ‘Puna’ (region on the island of Hawai‘i) oles). preferring streambeds and well-watered forested areas. and Other names: ‘Iri mo‘o’ (“lizard skin”). ‘Iri pa‘o’ (“black skin/ thrives best in cloudy or lightly shaded areas. Grows to height of 6–7 m (20–23 ft). Maui Nui Botanical Garden. The achlorophyllous tissues have a tendency to sunburn. Maui. immature and ripe fruit.‘Iholena Lele’. left photo: C. ‘Hinupua‘a’ (“shiny like gation that covers the entire plant: leaves. this is extremely uncom- age) mon.org)  15 . leaf stalks (peti. but are palatable raw when fully ripe. and delicious ‘Manini’ is a Hawaiian cultivar with green and white varie. shaded locales). “hair prematurely gray- ish-burgundy trunk. K. Its fruit is long. It is immediately recognizable by its shiny. “striped surgeon fish”). ‘Poni’ (“purple”).traditionaltree. meaty. flowers.

photo: A. Elevitch ‘Fa‘i Samoa’ (lit. These can usually be seen on mon in a few areas. ‘M.) and ‘Mā‘ohi’ (Tahiti) As indicated above. ‘Hualua’ and Maoli-Pōpō’ulu types of cooking bananas. with longer fruit than Fa‘i Samoa These are the Cook Island equivalents of Hawai‘i’s Maoli and less even fruit bunches). At least five varieties still exist. Kepler Right: ‘Manini’ leaves of young plant. ‘Māo‘i 16  Banana and plantain overview  . but are locally com- ‘Feta‘u Hina’ (a whiter form). ‘M. of 2004) are: ‘Māohi Huamene’. and Pōpō‘ulu types. large bunch of fruit of plump fruits. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Pau Manifi’ (“thin-skinned” Samoan banana). “Samoan native bananas”) ‘Māhoe’ This group of plantains is the Samoan equivalent of Maoli Other common names: ‘Palua’. Selected varieties still in existence (as Tongan farms in Hawai‘i. Most are rare. Several (Hawai‘i) varieties are still grown in gardens. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Puputa’. ‘Mangaro Torotea’ has a very even. Aumarei’. ‘Hopa’ (Tonga) ‘Māo‘i’ (Marquesas Is. Cook Islands) Malie’ (“shark-handle”. only very rarely. Māo‘i are the French Polynesian equivalents of Maoli. Two varieties of clone almost revered in some areas because of its ancient these sausage-like Maolis still in existence are: ‘Feta‘u’ and cultural associations. ‘Fa‘i Samoa Au ‘Mangaro’ (Aitutaki. Akamou’. a Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu. ‘Fa‘i types.Left: ‘Manini’ variegated leaves and fruit. and ‘Fa‘i Samoa Lap Lapa’ are all rare. and ‘M. Rare (or nearly extinct) Mangaro varieties from Very rare in Hawai‘i. which are perfectly sweet and delicious when ‘Hai’/‘Haikea’ (waxy form of ‘Hai’. very pink flowers. ‘Māo‘i Koka’. photo: C. although they are not Appears to be extinct. the Tongan “Hopas” include Maoli. Taanga’. ‘Mana-lua’. K. Samoa Lautele’. meaning “pale”) still green. this clone has a reddish trunk and the Cook Islands are ‘Mangaro Manii’. common: ‘Fa‘i Samoa’ (most often seen).

sausage-shaped fruit. sausage-shaped bananas. po’ (Colombia). “native”) A very attractive plant with pink coloration especially when ‘Pōpō‘ulu’ subdivision (lit. so they are usually harvested shortly be- western Pacific (Solomon Isands?).traditionaltree.org)  17 . ‘Comino’. Samoa. with dark green. Left: ‘Ele‘ele’ bunch. Hawai‘i har- lau’ (with distinctive dark red male flowers). Doz. photos: A. K. with some ‘Huamoa’ in Hawai‘i recently found ‘Pacific Plantain’ measuring 30 cm (12 in) in circumference. structure of breadfruit”) It can be seen in botanical gardens in Hawai‘i. “like the male fruiting young. ‘Mei‘a Mao‘i Maita’ (Fatu Hiva. Right: ‘Fa‘i Samoa’. especially with coconut cream added. Beautiful and dark. Historically. Throughout Polynesia there are equivalents to this clone. of which six are extant. in long). The (with tough trunk fibers used for stringing leis). ‘Māo‘i Pukiki’. Pōpō‘ulu is a Hawaiian word. Ko‘olau Forest Reserve. ‘Pompo’ and ‘Maqueño’ (Ec- uador). however. ‘Comino’. Maui. and leafstalks). ‘Mei‘a Ma‘ohi Hai’ (Marquesas. The fruits tend This striking Maoli cultivar has an unknown origin in the to split when ripe. Like Maoli. it has large bunches of even. ‘Mānai ‘ula’ bored at least eight cultivars. it fore fully ripening on the stalk. ‘Pom- ens of varieties have become extinct. Marquesas). and ‘Puhi’ most famous because of its size is the ‘Huamoa’ (see below). this type of banana is found throughout the Pacific. (whose young fruits are complexly oriented like a bunch Pōpō‘ulu cooking bananas range in size from 5–22 cm (2–9 of young eels). Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. Apia. although Other rare. ‘Mei‘a Mao‘i Maita’ (French Polynesia). ‘Pacific Plantain’ (Australia) ‘Maoli’ (lit. Other cultivars elsewhere include ‘Mei‘a Ma‘ohi Hai’ and Tahiti).Ku‘uhua’. They are delicious sauteed resembles the dark ‘Ele‘ele’/‘Ere‘ere’ varieties (black trunk or boiled. extant Hawaiian Maoli varieties are: ‘Kaua- in ever-decreasing numbers.

and a broadly oval bunch of chubby fruit that project by. sions of it are infected with. They comprise 21% of annual Musa produc- This widely spread dessert clone is vigorous and resists tion worldwide. Its taste varies from inferior to delicious. The Samoan ‘Fa‘i Samoa Fua Moa’ is extremely similar and has a name with the same meaning. ‘Honde- rawala’ (Sri Lanka). and ‘Dwarf Waimea’ (Hawai’i) an ABB genome. ‘Grindy’ (Windward Islands). Plantain fruit are often longer and far more pointed. ‘Mangaro Akamou’ (Aitutaki. ‘Thou. extraordinarily large fruit on the bunch. ssp. or ‘Ili Lahilahi’ (lit. ‘Lahi’. purple. of which only one cluster of plants is known. “ball-shaped like a breadfruit”) Very rare. bitter gourd”) The smallest of the Hawaiian Pōpō‘ulu fruit. ‘Poovan’. sapientum (L. otherwise. ‘Embul’. “chicken” or “goose egg”) Other names: ‘Hawaiiano’ (Florida. Waipi‘o Bay. champa. either in ‘Huamoa’. ‘Misiluki’ (Samoa). ‘Pōpō‘ulu Pōpō‘ulu’ (lit. This is a notable Polynesian specialty with several greener variants than the popular Pisang Raja subgroup ‘Putalinga Kula’. Hawai‘i. or elsewhere. ‘Fillbasket’ (West Indies). ‘Pisang Keling’ (Malaysia). ‘Nget-pyaw Chin’ (Burma/Myanmar). With a predomi- nantly red trunk. K.‘Huamene’ (Tahiti) On the verge of extinction. ‘Champa’. discolor Horan.) Kuntze Other common names: ‘Pisang Raja’ (Malaysia and In- var. Synonym: M. Banana streak virus (BSV). ‘Mysore’. × paradisiaca L. ‘Kluai Kai Ferang’ Plantain subgroup (Thailand). the bunch is normal. ‘Mysore’ (Australia). “like the round. ‘Kahiki Hae’. red. ‘Ka‘io’ (lit. ‘Kalamanawudu’ (Papua New Guinea). ‘Mysore’. ‘Huamoa’ or ‘Moa’ (lit. Four subsets 18  Banana and plantain overview  . and yellow leaf stalks (peti. This diverse group of “true” plantains is not to be confused sand Grain’. Cook Islands) This Cook Islands’ Pōpō‘ulu has relatively few fruit. ‘Larip’.5 in) in diameter. out perpendicularly to the axis. M. imported from Hawai‘i) This clone occasionally forms only a few. “thin-skinned”) Hawai‘i A thin-skinned form of ‘Pōpō‘ulu Pōpō‘ulu’. assuming their greatest dietary importance Panama disease and the Sigatoka leaf spots. ‘Lal Velchi’ (India). ‘Putalinga’ (Tonga) Probably the most red of all the Maoli-Pōpō‘ulu Group. photo: A. ‘Lahilahi’. Kepler their homeland. Most acces- in West Africa and Latin America. In these regions they are a major source of dietary carbohydrates. sapientum L. this beautiful “hopa” is associated with Tongans. regia Rumphias Synonyms: M. with Pacific plantains or with other cooking bananas with ‘Pang’. ‘Pisang Raja’ Mysore subgroup Synonym: M. Māui. formerly widespread in French Polynesia. ‘Kikonde’ (Zanzibar). ‘Houdir’. this clone’s fruit is longer than most Pōpō‘ulu fruit. ‘Biu Raja’ ( Java) Other common names: ‘Liganimarama’ (Fiji). but with fruit ranging from small eggs to 20 cm (8 in) in length by 6 cm (2. var. champa Baker. donesia). more resembling the parental Maoli-type. and display symptoms caused oles).

Maui. M. local Some common cultivars: ‘Obino l’Ewai’ (Nigeria). ‘Puwalu’ bud on the end. In other words. ‘French Horn’ Some common cultivars: ‘Mbang Okon’ (Ni- geria). cornic- ulata Lour. and Australia. M. ‘Bra- very “messy” rachis and big bud below the fruit. Pukiki’ (French Polynesia). K. Egypt. Tongan-owned farm. is characterized horn plantains are the size and shape of bull horns. ‘Bakweri’ (West Afri- are found in the French Horn and False Horn subsets of ca). western Pacific islands. ‘Putalinga Kula’. ‘Kijakazi’ (Zanzibar). They are the Kon’. ‘Dominico-Hartón’ (Colom- bia). ‘Wine’. ‘Bobby Tannap’ (Cameroon). ‘Pome’ (Canary Islands). vigorous. Africa. with little or no laysia). whereas Horn plantains develop a small or nonexistent bud (putting all their energy into ‘Pome’ the huge fruit). very starchy bananas. paradisiaca L.. ‘Cuerno’ (Central America). Marquesas). ‘Kerepiha/Kerepifa’ velop. most common home-grown and island-grown commercial ‘Dominico’ (Colombia). × paradisiaca er fruit). and ‘3 Vert’ (Cameroon) ‘False Horn’ Synonyms: M. ‘Brazilian’ (Florida).. prominent in places such as Brazil. M. Marquesas). Some particularly large India. States of Micronesia). slightly small- Wild.g. of cultivars are recognized based on the size and shape of ‘Pisang Tandok’ (Malaysia) the bunch and fruit. (rachis) below the fruit.. and the Americas. ‘Rio Rouge’. viridis De India). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Sirumalai’ (India). ‘Krishna Vazhai’ (black-trunked sport. paradisiaca L.. Within the different sets are numer- ous cultivars. some over. corniculata Rumphias.. ‘Brazilian Tall’ (Hawai‘i). whereafter the rachis falls vertically. Pome subgroup Members of the plantain subgroup are characterized by The Pome subgroup.traditionaltree. and are by fruit stalks that emerge at an angle until the fruit de- named thus in different languages. curved. ‘Rio ‘Ute‘ute’. M. M. can be quite tall. protractorachis De Wild. These plants are sturdy. subacid or “apple-like” taste. ‘Black French’. Below are listed some prominent members in Finger’ (Queensland) and a newer variety ‘Improved La- each. ‘Pime pukiki’ (red-stemmed sport. purpureo-tomentosa De Wild. In Hawai‘i and French Polynesia. ‘Tarapuakanio’ (Cook Is. ‘Vannan’.). emasculata de Briey ex De Wild. ‘Tall Apple’.org)  19 . plantains are known only in India. M. French banana. Hawai‘i. ‘Rio auct. ‘Virupakshi’. ‘Barragante’ (Ecuador) ‘Batard’ ‘Horn’ Synonyms: M. whereas zilian’. Fruit are dis- or “beef ’s horn” (Marquesas) and ‘Tara puatoro’ or “bull’s tinctly “beaked” or “bottle-nosed” and have a particularly horn”. Kepler Some common cultivars: ‘Ishitim’ (Nigeria). long.. Cameroon. highly productive and ‘Pink French’. ‘Preisihl’ (Pohnpei. below). Because of this piquant flavor. Federated Many ill-defined forms of French plantain exist. ‘Pime’ (Nuku ‘French’ Hiva. photo: A. see ‘Pacha Naadan’. decrescens de Briey Some common cultivars: ‘Agbagba’ and ‘Or- ishele’ (Nigeria). ‘Pisang Kelat Jambi’ (Ma- the Horn plantains have a “clean” rachis. ‘Nendran’ (India). ‘Njock Pome-type clones are favored above all others. French plantains have a Other names or similar clones: ‘Apple’. ‘Rio’ (Tahiti. lapping with the next two clonal clusters: ‘Green French’. various cultivars have been named “apple” thereby confus- French plantains are generally differentiated from Horn ing these cultivars with ‘Silk’. ‘Brazilian Red’. dy’s Finger’ (Australia. Waihe‘e. Intermediate inflorescence characteristics (Sri Lanka). var. ‘Tiger’. ‘Lady’s cultivars. e. the more widely recognized plantains by their retention of bud bracts on the stalk “apple” banana. and ‘Giant’. non L. Synonym: M.

‘Kolikutt’ (Sri Lan- This dessert cultivar represents about 5% of Australian ka). M. ‘Hta-bat’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Prata Santa Catarina’ (Brazil) Synonyms: M. ‘Pukusa’ (Zanzibar). ‘Sonkel’. ‘Kipungusu’ (East Africa). ‘Lady plants are sturdy. ‘Miti Ruki’. ‘Silk’ tarina’ (Hawai‘i). Maui. ‘Sugar’ (Queensland. Papeete. Kīpahulu. ‘Sabari’ (India).. M. ‘Latundan’. ‘Apple’ (Florida). ‘Rasthali’. ‘Manzana’. ‘Silk Fig’. ‘Apple’ (West Indies). berteroi and production. Right: ‘Silk’. ‘Worodong’. vigorous and relatively tolerant to pests Finger’ (Hawai‘i). cubensis. ‘Kluai Nam’ (Thailand). sapientum L. Australia). ‘Amorosa’. ‘Manzano’. ‘Maça’ (Brazil). this clone ranks second in cultivated area. berteroniana von Steudel due to their sweet-acid flavor and long shelf-life. ‘Kipukusu’. ‘Turdan’.) Kuntze var. berteri Colla. tum (L. M. K. sapien- In Hawai‘i. ‘Avundumong’ (Papua New Guinea). It is drought hardy and resists strong winds. ssp. ‘Tordan’. photos: A. ‘Lady’s Finger’ (Western Pacific islands) theli’. Kepler 20  Banana and plantain overview  . yield. ‘Dwarf Brazilian’. ‘Improved Lady Finger’ Pomme’. ‘Letondal’. The Other names: ‘Amorosa’. ‘Figue Other names: ‘Pachanadan’ (India). Its delicious fruit command high prices Colla. ‘Manzana’ (Latin America). Cantong’. ‘Maramba’. ‘Katun- ‘Pacovan’ (Brazil). and diseases. M. ‘Santa Ca. ‘Pisang Rastali’ (Malaysia). ‘Chuoi Goong’ (Vietnam) . paradisiaca L. ‘Manzano’. ‘Manzano’. ‘Pacha Naadan’ gal’ (Philippines).‘Prata Aña’ Silk subgroup Other names: ‘Dwarf Apple’. ‘Morthoman’. ‘Tiki’ Left: ‘Pome’. ‘Mu- (Queensland). production. Tahiti. ‘Manzana’. ‘Tundan’.

‘Burro’. ‘Hog Banana’ (Ameri- (Pohnpei. ‘Mondolpin’ (Australia). large bulbous tips. ‘Pata Tonga’ (Tonga). ‘Pya-ye San’ (Burma/Myanmar) ‘Mkojosi’. ‘Moko’. and dry. Synonym: Musa chiliocarpa Backer. commonly named in This is an important clone in Pohnpei. ‘Buccament’. ‘Cachaco En- cal and subtropical regions. ‘Kluai Sangkivo’. Federated ‘Pisang Kelat’ (Malaysia) States of Micronesia) Other names: ‘Taiwang’ (Pohnpei) ‘Silver Bluggoe’ is an attractive plant. Other names: ‘Monthan’ (India). ‘Utin Kuam’. Federated States of Micronesia) cas). ‘Majoncho’. and is astringent when not. ‘Pisang Nipal’ (Malaysia). (Thailand). ‘Whitehouse Plan- has declined in importance there and elsewhere due to its tain’. ‘Thou- ‘Cenizo’ (tropical America). a common occurrence in tropi. usu- ally. ‘Cacambou’. ‘Nalla Bontha’ (India). this Indian variety is none- theless widespread in SE Asia. ‘Kluai Hakmuk’ (Thai- ‘Pisang Seribu’ (Malaysia) land). Klue Teparod subgroup ‘Bluggoe’ ‘Kluai Tiparod’ Other common names: ‘Largo’ (Hawai‘i). Only ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ is found more widely than this Dominican Republic. bountiful productivity. ‘Chuoi Ngop Cau’ (Vietnam) Bluggoe subgroup Not considered prime quality. resembling ‘Bluggoe’ but larger. ‘Bokoboko’. The plants are drought resistant and gen. ‘Poro‘ini hinuhinu’. large. ‘Pisang Abu Bujal’ (Malaysia).traditionaltree. primarily used for cooking. ‘Bluggoe’. silver. ‘Orinoco’ (Cuba). ‘Poteau’. ‘Inahsio Pehsehs’ (Pohnpei.). In Hawai‘i. pines). ‘Pisang Batu’ ( Java). ‘Cuatrofilos’. ‘Pata Sina’ (Samoa). ‘Burro’. ‘Matavia’ (Philippines). especially those defi- cient in calcium and boron. It lands). ‘Kivivu’ (East Africa). ‘Poro‘ini blanc’ (Marquesas Is. ano’ (Puerto Rico) tasteless. ‘Mafoubay’ (West Indies) it is found almost exclusively within Filipino communi. it their Philippine name. Trinidad and Tobago) . ‘Silver Bluggoe’ Other common names: ‘Katsila’ (Philippines). found to have fairly high levels of beta carotene.(Cook Islands). They are suscep- tible to race 2 of Panama disease and Moko disease. ‘Kluai Teparod’. ‘Punda’. ‘Chato’. angular. Other common name: ‘Chamaluco Enano’. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. ‘Poro‘ini rehu’ (Tahiti). ‘Jamani’ (Fiji). ‘Balongkaue’ (Phil- (Malaysia). apple-like taste. ‘Cachaco’.org)  21 . ‘Largo’ (French a sub-acid. ‘Tarua sand Fingers’ (Florida) Teatea (Cook Is. ‘Chamaluco’. ippines). ‘Square Cooker’. ‘Bluggoe’ is grown in many countries due to its excellent ties. ‘Thella Bontha’ (India).). ‘Horse Plantain’ ( Jamaica. ‘Poro‘ini’. who perhaps introduced it to Hawai‘i. ‘Poro‘ini pivai. ‘Kluai Nom Mi’ (Thailand). ‘Horse Banana’. ‘Kluai Plihai’ ‘Hpi Gyan’ (Burma/Myanmar). ‘Largo’. ‘Maduranga’ (Philip- erally resist the Sigatoka leaf spot diseases. They produce widely spaced. Monthan subgroup ‘Nalla Bontha Bathees’ (India) ABB genome ‘Monthan’ (India) These cultivars produce relatively starchy fruit. It produces exceptionally flavorful fruit with ‘Poro‘ini Pa‘afa‘afa‘a’. ‘Pisang Batu’. Its characteristic fruits bear These are vigorous clones. ‘Kid- Formerly. ‘Uht Tikitik ‘Apple Plantain’. ‘Tarua Matie’ (Cook Is- flesh is white when ripe. ‘Poro‘ini Pa‘amanina’. and resistance to drought. ‘Mondan’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Amorosa’. Other common names: ‘Kluai Roi Wi’ (Thailand). this cultivar was thought to have an ABBB ge- hozi’. Grown at elevations ‘Dwarf Bluggoe’ above 500 m (1640 ft) or in poor soils. or waxy). ‘Kproboi’. The ‘Sambrani Monthan’ (India) various cultivars are distinguished by stature. ‘Tiparot’. ‘Silver Moko’ (West Indies). ‘Kluai nome. ‘Silver Blug- Other AAB cultivars goe’. Som’ (Thailand). The fruit peel splits and the Polynesia). bunch size ‘Pacha Monthan Bathees’ (India) and the fruit skin (green. ‘Puataelo’ (Samoa). ‘Utin Menihle’. pronounced susceptibility to Panama disease. where it has been local languages for its silvery fruit coating. ‘Poro‘ini Hima‘a umu’. bringing with taste. ‘Muskat’. ‘Fa‘i Pata Samoa’. only four to seven hands are produced on a bunch. cultivar. ‘Pisang Abu Keling’ ‘Pisang Siam’ (Malaysia). straight fruit that have long peduncles. ‘Chuoi Ngop Lun’ (Vietnam). the fruit’s flesh becomes hard. Other common names: ‘Pisang Abu Siam’.

‘Ash Plantain’ (Sri Lanka). ‘Pisang Abu Nipah’ (Malaysia). comes from Thailand and is now being widely distributed in the Pacific islands including Samoa and the Cook Islands. 70% of all bananas that are grown in Thailand are of this clone. ‘Tarua Teatea’ (Cook Other names: ‘Ice Cream’ (Hawai‘i.). ‘Ducasse’ (Australia). It was offered as a resistant replacement for ‘Blug- goe’ in the Americas where that clone was decimated by Moko disease. ‘Pey Kunnan’. A dwarf version. Pisang Awak subgroup ‘Pisang Awak’ (Malaysia) Other common names: ‘Katali’ (Philippines). ‘Yakhine (Burma/Myanmar). photo: A. ‘Sail Kola’ (India). ‘Ney Mannan’(India). It is vigorous and tolerates adverse conditions. With ‘Saba’. due to its persistent bracts. it was classified erroneously as having a BBB genome. ‘Nyeupe’ (Kenya). ‘Kostha Bontha’. ‘Saba’ (Philippines) Other common names: ‘Pisang Kepok’ (Indonesia).). Maguire 22  Banana and plantain overview  . ‘Blue Java’. photo: I. ‘Paradaika’ (Egypt) This is the most widely disseminated ABB cultivar. ‘Praying Hands’ (Florida). Federated States of Micronesia) ‘Java Blue’. When fully ripe. Saba subgroup ‘Benedetta’ ‘Inabaniko’. Pelipita subgroup ‘Pelipia’ (Central America) Other common name: ‘Pilipia’ (Philippines) This clone tolerates Moko disease. Externally. sweet and smooth. ‘Dukuru’ (Pohnpei. Florida). ‘Karpuravalli’ (India).Ney Mannan subgroup (Australia). ‘Balaliki’. ‘Kluai Nam- wa’ (Thailand). the flesh can be eaten with a spoon. ‘Vata’. ‘Kluai Namwa Khom’. ‘Choui Tay’ (Vietnam). K. Top: ‘Bluggoe’ female flowers. Is. ‘Kayinja’ (East Africa). due to a heavy coating of wax. ‘Monohar’. ‘Uht Kapakap’ (Pohnpei). ‘Fa‘i ‘Ney Mannan’ (India) Pata Sina’. the fruit is colored a beautiful silver- green. ‘Blue Lubin’ The fruit is named for its flavor and texture. especially drought. ‘Pisang Klotok’ (Indonesia). ‘Blue Java’. ‘Kluai Hin’ (Thailand) The male bud of this clone is a popular vegetable in the Philippines. ‘Ripping’ (Philippines) ‘Cardaba’ A Philippine cooking banana. ‘Pata Lahelahe’ (Tonga). Kepler ‘Bluggoe’. ‘Pata’ (Fiji. ‘Pata papalagi’ (Samoa). ‘Pata Hina’. but is susceptible to race 1 of Panama disease. ‘Alukehel’.

In general. Honduras: dessert AAAA. ‘FHIA-17’ and ‘FHIA-23’. Daniells Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. plantain. balbisiana as it did in There are no natural AAAA and very few natural AAAB. ‘FHIA-01’ (aka ‘Goldfinger’) and cooking and dessert ‘FHIA-18’.traditionaltree. they have resulted from crosses between triploid female and dip- loid male parents. Fe‘i bananas like AAAB. Maguire Right: Saba type ‘Utin Ruk’ in Pohnpei. Most notable among classified previously as BBB. ‘FHIA-20’ and ‘FHIA-21’. Particularly associated with the Marquesas and Society Islands (French Polynesia). AAAB. do not exist. AABB and ABBB BB genome genomes Parthenocarpy did not evolve in M. Thus.AAAA. such as ‘Tani’ tant. acuminata. A few promising varieties are found in BBB genome cultivation (including some Pacific islands) in those areas Philippine ABB clones such as ‘Cardaba’ and ‘Saba’ were where banana diseases are rampant. ‘FHIA-03’. photo: I. photo: J. and cooking or The Fe‘i cultivars range naturally from the Moluccas dessert AABB. BB clones that are cultivated. are grown for their leaves and for animal feed. products of the breeding programs. Whether an uncommon clone the bred tetraploids are those from the FHIA program in in Thailand. Tetraploids that are most common in cultivation are (Thailand). ‘FHIA-02’ (aka ‘Mona Lisa’). edible diploid cultivars of the species AABB. ‘Kluai Lep Chang Kut’. Fe‘i were staple and ceremonial foods since the Marquesas were first settled from the Samoa-Tonga region (~250 BC) Left: ‘Benedetta’. dessert AAAB. is BBB is unclear. and ABBB bananas. M. none of which are impor.org)  23 . to French Polynesia.

they also can be recognized among the Fe‘i cultivars is as great as that that is found in by their bright magenta to dark purple sap. and require little care once established. lolodensis (based on DNA studies) were Synonym: M. Genetic diversity tion to their erect bunches. Kepler and Tahiti around 700–800 AD. M. peekelii.Left: ‘FHIA-03’. Samoa. these plus an additional species. Thus. Both photos: Nu‘u Agricultural Station. Unfortunately their prev. Englberger and Lorens Relationships and common names for the various clones in 2004). and near-iridescent orange or rock (2001) provided a recent summary of the history of yellow fruit flesh.. The fruit of some clones is exception. In addi. and taxonomic work on this group. ‘Daak’ (New Caledonia) phology) and M. Prominent clones on different establishment phase and some are susceptible to Panama islands are listed below as distinct although some may be disease.g. troglodytarum L. photos: A. maclayi (based on mor. bananas may be interspecific hybrids. ‘Pisang Tongkat Langit’ (eastern Indonesia) and ‘Pisang These bananas are unique and distinct from the acuminata/ Tongkat Langit Papua’ (Irian Jaya) balbisiana cultivars in the section Musa. suggested as probable parents of the extant clones. K. tolerate most diseases synonymous. fehi Bert. Although they are clearly in the section Australimusa. their precise Synonym: M. Recent genetic work indicated that they are closest genetically to 24  Banana and plantain overview  . an experimental AAAB dessert banana. an experimental AABB cooking or dessert banana. Right: ‘FHIA-01’ (aka ‘Goldfinger’). ‘Upolu. the Fe‘i alence has declined drastically in recent decades. they are generally vigorous. M. origins are poorly understood. and pests. Although they can be quite sensitive during the different areas are unclear. heavily ridged. Shar- squarish red/coppery fruit. the entire section Australimusa (see Part 1). ex Vieill. ally high in beta carotene (see e.

Papeari.traditionaltree. Top right: ‘Fe‘i ‘Auiri’. some clones brighter than others.Top left: ‘Fe‘i ‘A‘ata’. Tahiti. Papeari. Bottom left: ‘Fe‘i Tati‘a’. photos: A. Kepler Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. K. Bottom right: All Fe‘i have bright magenta sap. Papeari. Tahiti.org)  25 . Tahiti.

co. ‘Utafan’. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND Stover. 16–25. ‘Utin Iap’ and ‘Karat’ (Pohnpei. S. Internation- States of Micronesia). C. INFOMU- nei’. ‘Polapola’. ‘Me. ‘Sar’. ‘Mai‘a Ha‘i’ (Hawai‘i). Pohnpei-Bananas: A Photo Collection: Carotenoid-rich Varieties. <http://www. htm>. Bananas in Hawai‘i: ‘Fe‘i’ (Society Islands) Living Polynesian Heirlooms.html>. Guinea). Arnaud and S. 2006. Musa ingens—The world’s tallest banana. 1987. Montpellier. (ed. and A. <http://www. Carotenoid-rich bananas in Micronesia. ‘Utu’ (Cook Islands). Synonym: M. Diversity in the genus Musa (E. Extension offices for agroforestry and forestry in the Pa- cific: <http://www. <http:// www.globalnet. Lorens. D. In prep. The Evolution of the Bananas.co. pp. Karamura. Kepler. Musa The most common cultivars in home gardens today are species (bananas and plantains). 1999 onwards.).org/extension.. BIBLIOGRAPHY Constantine. Diversity in the genus Musa. 15–20. The nomenclature of the genus Musa. org/publications/musalogue.inibap. aiori Sagot Nelson. 2004.R.pdf>. 2003. Jenny.‘Soaqa’ (Fiji) Jones. AGROFORESTRY EXTENSION Longmans.uk/~drc/Nomenclature. and A.G. ‘Huetu’ Australimusa. In- foMusa 2: 8. Focus on (Tonga). France.users.W. Federated and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Report 2000. J. Musalogue: a catalogue of Musa germplasm. Muell. L. seemanii F. In: Elevitch. 26  Banana and plantain overview  .C. Some common cultivars and synonyms elsewhere in.traditionaltree.K. CABI Publishing.uk/~drc/>. Synonym: M.). 2002. A.globalnet.. ‘Fe‘i’ and ‘Soanga’ Sharrock.users. Sharrock. Constantine. Simmonds. Constantine. Häkkinen.C. Hōlualoa.. and Sharrock. France. Banana production in Egypt. Englberger. UK. International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain. Wallingford. InfoMusa 12: 2–5. 2004. Fiji Islands: Secretariat of the Pacific Community. R. and ‘Wain’ (Papua New SA 3: 16–18. pp. S. D. The Musaceae—an annotat- ed list of the species of Ensete. 2. Ploetz. and Tomekpe. D. L. Suva. 1994. and F. <www. Constantine listed accepted names for taxa and their synonyms. Diversity in the genus Musa­—Focus on Rhodochlamys. Long- mans. ver. N. ‘Rimina’.. R. D... and N. In: INIBAP. France. Per- manent Agriculture Resources (PAR). Musa and Musella.uk/~drc/>.) 2000. London. v. K. 2001. Bananas. Diseases of Banana. D.traditionaltree. London. Simmonds. Montpellier. 1962. (ed. In: INIBAP. ‘Soa‘a’ (Samoa). In- ternational Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP).org>. compil.K. Hawai‘i. ‘Fe‘i Aiuri’ and ‘Fe‘i Tatia’. Federated States of Micronesia) Montpellier. 1993.H. C.globalnet.. Daniells. clude ‘Borabora’. INIBAP. ‘Chongk’ (New Hebrides). and ‘Kulasr’ and ‘Kolontol’ (Kosrae. 2001. M.R.co. R..users. 3rd ed. Abacá and Enset. Englberger. Ploetz. <http://www.W. 2000. al Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain. Networking Banana (Marquesas). Kepler. Networking Banana and Plantain: INIBAP Annual Re- port 2001.C. Rust. S.

with credit given to the source.traditionaltree. Ploetz.org>.com 3. and Muriel and Kent Lighter. and S.daniells@dpi. State of Hawai‘i Department of Land & Natural Resources Division of Forestry & Wildlife. (ed. SPC/GTZ Pacific-German Regional Forestry Project. J. 1. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. Tropical Research and Education Center. The authors are deeply thankful for the generous support they have received from academic colleagues and farmers throughout the Pacific.gov.C.edu 2. Nelson 1. E-mail: par@agroforestry. Reproduction: Copies of this publication can be downloaded from <http://www. Utah State University.traditionaltree.traditionaltree. 18905 S. Hawaii 96708. Angela Kay Kepler. PO Box 1298. University of Hawai‘i at Manoa.W. Is.C. and Scot C.R.traditionaltree.org>. Florida 33031. R. C. Series editor: Craig R. Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars. Hōlualoa. A. Tel: 808-324-4427. USA. © 2006 Permanent Agriculture Resources.. Nelson. ver. 875 Komohana St. University of Florida. 2007. Recommended citation: Ploetz. This publication may be repro- duced for noncommercial educational purposes only. South Johnstone 4859. Jeff Daniells. Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www. E-mail: jeff.net. Horticulture & Forestry Science. an Urban Forestry Program of the DLNR Division of Forestry and Wildlife and the USDA Forest Service. Web: <http://www. Haiku. Department of Plant Pathology.org)  27 . Permanent Ag- riculture Resources (PAR). and Agricultural Experiment Station. USDA Forest Service Forest Lands Enhancement Program. Daniells. and Extension Service.agroforestry. Hawai‘i. under Cooperative Agreement 2002-47001-01327.org) Banana and plantain—an overview with emphasis on Pacific island cultivars Authors: Randy C. USA Acknowledgments: Photo contributions from Ian Maguire are gratefully acknowledged. Hawai‘i 96725. This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research. Kaulunani.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. of Maui. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR). Hawaii 96720. PO Box 428.S. Fax: 808-324- 4129.qld. This institution is an equal opportunity provider. E-mail: rcp@ifas. Kepler. All rights reserved. Elevitch Publisher: Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR).au 4. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). Depart­ment of Plant & Envi- ronmental Protection Sciences (PEPS). Home- stead. 280 Street. USA. U. Cooperative Extension Service.                 Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry (www.net>. Australia.ufl. Sponsors: Publication was made possible by generous support of the United States Department of Agriculture Western Region Sus- tainable Agriculture Research and Education (USDA-WSARE) Program. Education. USA. Pacific-wide Consulting. PO Box 20. Hilo.K. Hōlualoa. E-mail: akk@pacificwideconsulting. <http://www. Department of Agriculture. In: Elevitch..