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Volume One

A Translation of

      

popularly known as

  

Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/


Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic


Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South
Africa.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Title Arabic Tutor - Volume One

Author Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān (


  )

Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007

Published by Madrasah In’aamiyyah


P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 31 785 1519

Fax +27 31 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One


 
 !" # # $% &
 ' ()   
 *%+ ,- ./0  120  3 4/5  !6)- "0
78 9:  2) ;0

Àbdullāh Ibn Àbbās  narrates that Rasūlullāh  said,


“Love the Arabs for three things:

• because I am an Arab,
• the Qur’ān is in Arabic and
• the language of the people of Jannah is Arabic.”

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Contents of Each Volume

Volume One: Lesson 1 to Lesson 15

Volume Two: Lesson 16 to Lesson 25

Volume Three: Lesson 26 to Lesson 43

Volume Four: Lesson 44 to Lesson 75

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Contents

Transliteration........................................................................10
Introduction............................................................................13
Reviews of this Book .............................................................17
Indications ..............................................................................25
Notes........................................................................................25
Request....................................................................................26
Translator's Note ...................................................................26
Terminology ...........................................................................28
Terminology ...........................................................................28
Lesson 1.......................................................................................31
Words and the Types of Words...........................................31
The Types of Nouns ..........................................................32
The Types of Definite Nouns...........................................33
Lesson 2.......................................................................................35
The Particles of (<=) and (>?%).......................................35
Vocabulary List No. 1 .......................................................38
Exercise No. 1.....................................................................40
Test No. 1 ............................................................................42
Lesson 3.......................................................................................44
Compounds ............................................................................44
The Adjectival Phrase .......................................................45
Vocabulary List No. 2 .......................................................47
Exercise No. 2.....................................................................49

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Lesson 4.......................................................................................50
Gender.....................................................................................50
Vocabulary List No. 3 .......................................................52
Exercise No. 3.....................................................................53
Lesson 5.......................................................................................55
Singular and Plural ...............................................................55
Vocabulary List No. 4 .......................................................59
Exercise No. 4.....................................................................61
Test No. 2 ............................................................................62
Lesson 6.......................................................................................64
Sentences with a Noun -*@A *$+ ....................................64
Vocabulary List No. 5 .......................................................69
The Nominative Detached Pronouns .............................71
Exercise No. 5.....................................................................73
Lesson 7.......................................................................................77
The Genitive of Possession...................................................77
Vocabulary List No. 6 .......................................................80
Exercise No. 6.....................................................................84
Test No. 3 ............................................................................86
Lesson 8.......................................................................................88
The Scales of Words ..............................................................88
Exercise No. 7.....................................................................93
Lesson 9.......................................................................................94
The Broken Plural..................................................................94
Vocabulary List No. 7 .....................................................101
Exercise No. 8...................................................................103

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Test No. 4 ..........................................................................106


Lesson 10...................................................................................108
The Cases of Nouns.............................................................108
The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns ...............109
Vocabulary List No. 8 .....................................................118
Exercise No. 9...................................................................119
Lesson 11...................................................................................123
The Genitive of Possession.................................................123
Vocabulary List No. 9 .....................................................133
Exercise No. 10.................................................................135
Test No. 5 ..........................................................................140
Lesson 12...................................................................................142
Indicative Pronouns ............................................................142
Vocabulary List No. 10 ...................................................147
Exercise No. 11.................................................................148
Test No. 6 ..........................................................................151
Lesson 13...................................................................................152
Interrogative Pronouns.......................................................152
Vocabulary List No. 11 ...................................................156
Exercise No. 12.................................................................157
Test No. 7 ..........................................................................164
Lesson 14...................................................................................166
The Verb................................................................................166
Vocabulary List No. 12 ...................................................173
Exercise No. 13.................................................................176
Lesson 15...................................................................................181
The Imperfect .......................................................................181

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Vocabulary List No. 13 ...................................................189


Exercise No. 14.................................................................191
An Arabic Letter ..............................................................195
Test No. 8 ..........................................................................196

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters


has been used in this book:

 ā

B t

4 th

C j

D h

E kh

 d

F dh

 r

G z

( s

H sh

I s

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

J d

K t

L z

N
M á

N
O í

N
P ú

Q gh

R f

S q

T k

. m

 n

0 ū

; h

U ī, y

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows:

 (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)


May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon
him - used for Nabî 
 (Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all prophets
 (Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the
Sahâbah 
 (Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh 
 (Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(
  ) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

  
 

VW =X ;)  ./"0 V0


Y$Z

Introduction

From the multitudes of letters which this humble writer has


received from every corner of India, there still seems to be a
fervent desire in this age to learn Arabic and to understand
the final message of Allāh , namely the Qur’ān.

However, no primary syllabus that conformed to the times


was presented to the seekers of Arabic – such a syllabus
that could increase the enthusiasm of the learners.

The ancient method of teaching Arabic and its syllabus


from the very outset made one lose courage. Even the
modern books have been deficient in creating an urge in the
student.

Experience shows that only a syllabus which has easy rules


coupled with teaching the language can increase the
enthusiasm of the student. The rules must assist the learner
in mastering the language. While learning the language, the
rules are refreshed.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

In reality, choosing such lessons and providing a sequence


for them is no ordinary task. This is merely the grace of the
Almighty Allāh  who made this writer accomplish such
an enormous task.

^_=  `=
 [\ ]F

“That is the grace of Allāh. He grants it to whoever He


desires.”

All thanks are due to Allāh  that this book was found to
be extremely beneficial wherever it was read or taught.
Many seekers of Arabic have written that they had lost
hope after several attempts. If they had not obtained this
book, they would not have learnt Arabic.

This is the fourth edition of this book. Initially, this book


was written in two parts. Now it has been divided into four
parts so that it can serve as a proper syllabus for high
schools from the fourth class till matric.

This is the first part of the book. The lessons have been
decreased when compared to the previous editions.
However, the exercises have been increased to an extent
that they can serve the place of an Arabic reader.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This part contains only fifteen lessons. But you will be


surprised to note how much Arabic is taught with such a
few lessons. The method of analysing sentences and
recognition has been so well explained, that one cannot
achieve this by learning several other prevalent Arabic
Grammar books.

The key to each part has also been published. Due to this,
many learners have learnt Arabic on their own.

A student doing self-study can complete this part in about


six weeks. However, due to the presence of several other
subjects in high schools, it will be appropriate to make it a
one year course in the fourth class. In Arabic seminaries
and Dārul Úlūms, where only Arabic is taught, all four
parts of this book can be easily taught in one year.

Nevertheless, this book is such that every text book


committee and those in charge of the syllabi in the
madrasahs should include it in their syllabus in order to
remove the difficulties of the students. They will be
rewarded by Allāh and thanked by the people.

The summary of the opinions of the Ulamā of every


province of India and the reviews of magazines and
newspapers is that this has been the most successful
attempt to simplify Arabic. This book is worth being

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

introduced in government and non-govermental schools so


that the teaching of Arabic can be simplified.
This humble servant is grateful to all those who rendered
beneficial opinions. May Allāh  reward them with the
best of rewards.

The following pages contain the valuable opinions of some


scholars. This should serve as a means of encouraging the
seekers of Arabic. Others will not have to waste their time
in looking for the merits of this book.

The servant of the students


(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān (
  )
Bindi Bazaar, Bombay, India

Muharram 1361 A.H.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Reviews of this Book


by the Úlamā, professors of Arabic, authentic journals and
the lovers of Arabic

Àllāmah Shabbir Ahmad Úthmānī (


  )

This book is worth including in the syllabi of the madāris. It


is perhaps the best book written in this subject. The author
has done a tremendous favour to the seekers of Arabic.

Moulānā Manāzir Ahsan Gilānī (


  ), teacher at Jāmiah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

May Allāh reward you. This is a tremendous task. You have


favoured the Muslims greatly. You have decreased a
burden from my shoulders.

Moulānā Khājah Àbdul Hayy (


  ), professor at Jāmi’ah
Millīyah, Delhi

I taught the first part to the students as an experiment. I


have found this book to be the easiest from all the books
written on this subject.

Abul A’lā Maududi, editor of Tarjumanul Qur’ān, Lahore

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This is the most successful effort at explaining the language


of Arabic and its rules.

Moulānā Muhammad Nāzim Nadwī (


  ), teacher at
Nadwatul Ulamā, Lucknow

Many books have been written in India to learn the Arabic


language in the shortest period possible. However, I have
not seen any book till now that concisely meets the needs of
the time. Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to the
gratitude and thanks of the Indian students and teachers for
having written a very beneficial, easy and concise textbook
to fulfil this need…

From my personal experience I know that this book is very


valuable in providing benefit. It is worthy of being included
in Arabic madrasahs and English schools so that the
students can learn the language in a short period.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Moulānā Àbdul Qadīr Siddīqī (


  ), teacher at Jāmi’ah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

If this book is included in the syllabus, it will be very


suitable. It is better than other books.

Moulānā Àbdul Wāsi’ (


  ), teacher at Jāmi’ah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

I completely agree with the opinion of Moulānā Àbdul


Qadīr Sāhib.

Àllāmah Sheikh Àbdul Qādir (


  ), professor at
Elphinstone College, Bombay

This is a successful endeavour. If this book is included in


the initial Arabic syllabus, it would be more beneficial than
other books.

Moulānā Ghulām Ahmad (


  ), head teacher at Madrasah
Àrabīyah, Jāmi’ Musjid Bombay

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

We have included this textbook in the syllabus of our


madrasah. Experience shows that it is very beneficial.

Moulānā Habībur Rahmān Sherwānī (


  ), Hyderabad

I have studied the book, ‘Àrabī kā Mu’allim’. It seems to be


better than the previous books.

Moulānā Lutfur Rahmān (


  ), Hyderabad

The success you have achieved in simplifying Arabic has


not been achieved by anyone, not even by the European
Orientalists. This book is not merely ‘dry’ Grammar but is
an excellent textbook of Grammar and an interesting
collection of literature.

Janāb Ghulām Àlī, advocate of the High Court, Bombay

Such an interesting and easy book of Arabic Grammar has


not been seen before. My children study it with great
interest.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Moulānā Sayyid Muhammad Yahyāpūr (


  ), Ilāhabād

There is no doubt that the author will long be remembered


for this book and in the hereafter it will be a means of great
reward for him.

Moulānā Muhammad Sa’īd (


  ), Sultānpūr

The books of Punjab and U.P. and the book ‘Kalāme Àrabī’ of
Meerut are non-entities in front of your book.

Moulānā Muhammad Siddīq Kīrānwī (


  )

This humble servant has several books of this type e.g.


Raudatul Adab, Kalāme Àrabī etc. However, the excellent
manner in which you have presented the summary from
Mīzān till Kāfiyah cannot be found in the above-mentioned
books.

Moulānā Sa’īduddīn Khān (


  ), Indor

Indeed Arabic has been simplified. Your effort is worth


congratulating.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Zamīndār, a newspaper of Lahore

Without exaggeration, we can say that the learned author


has achieved extraordinary success. In our opinion this
book is worth including in the syllabi of all government and
non-government schools where Arabic is taught. We
specifically request the Punjab Text Book Committee to
grant the students the opportunity to benefit from it.

Al-Jam’īat, a newspaper of Delhi

“Arabī Kā Mu’allim” in reality conveys the meaning of its


name – that is, it is an Arabic tutor. My desire is that the
principals of Arabic institutes include it in their syllabi.

The Journal “Adabī Dunyā” of Delhī

Many books have been written till now in the modern trend
in order to simplify Arabic. I have seen practically all of
them. However, the manner in which Moulanā Àbdus
Sattār Khān has simplified a complex language such as
Arabic cannot be found anywhere.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

The newspaper “Zamzam” of Lahore

The manner of teaching and understanding adopted in this


book does not create any burden on the mind. Every fact is
thoroughly learnt like a known fact. In our opinion there is
no better series to promote Arabic.

The Journal “Balāgh” of Amritsar

Moulanā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to congratulations


for having converted this stone (Arabic Grammar) into
water. He has explained all the rules from Mīzān till Kāfiyah
in an easy-to-understand manner.

Ilāhī Bakhsh, Malaya

I have ordered many books of Arabic Grammar and


Morphology written in Urdu and English and have spent
much money on them. But by Allāh, these books have no
value in front of your book. I do not have sufficient
powerful words to describe the assistance I have received
from your book in learning Arabic. Even now, if a Muslim
finds Arabic to be difficult, he is unfortunate and lacks
courage.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Janāb Muhammad Hanīf, Upper Primary School,


Hazārībāgh

I had a desire to study Arabic for a long time. I used many


books but it was futile. When I studied your book, I
mastered Arabic in a very short while. The surprising thing
was that I received no assistance from any teacher. Your
book in reality is a mirror of the Arabic language.

Muhammad Sharafud-dīn, Hyderabad

I thought that Arabic was so difficult that I could not even


imagine learning it. However, as soon as I saw your book,
my courage increased and I began studying it. I completed
the first part in a few days. Now send me the second part. I
do not think there is any book easier than this one.

Dr. Muhammad Àbdul Quddūs, Madras

I read the first part of your book. It helped me


tremendously to the extent that now I am able to write a
few sentences in Arabic. Undoubtedly your book will create
a great revolution.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This amount of recommendation is sufficient for the one


who understands; otherwise so many reviews were
received that a separate book could be compiled for this
purpose.

Indications

1) The inverted comma (a) is used to indicate the plural of a


noun.
2) In order to refer to a particular lesson, the lesson number
and fact number will be mentioned in brackets thus: (5-2)
meaning lesson number 5, fact no. 2.
3) The (  ) of the verb is mentioned in brackets after it.

Notes

1) Do not start a new lesson until you have mastered the


previous one.
2) Translate each exercise with particular care.
3) Sometimes you may not understand a point. Remain
steadfast and seek the assistance of someone. Perhaps later
on you will understand the point yourself.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Request

A request is made to the teachers to study the book


thoroughly before teaching it. During your teaching stint,
you will be able to refer your students to previous lessons
easily. There is no need to memorize the rules parrot-
fashion. As you continuously repeat the examples, the rules
will become ingrained in your mind. You will also learn the
Arabic terms at the same time. It is appropriate to teach the
book twice. First teach it superfluously and then in detail
the second time.

Translator's Note

Translating is indeed a difficult task and I therefore do not


claim to have fulfilled the right of translating this book. I
ask the reader to overlook all shortcomings. Those
attempting to translate any work of this calibre, will realize
the great hurdles one has to overcome, especially where
there are many technical terms involved.

I have made an attempt to clarify the text as much as


possible and simplify the rules so that the beginner can
grasp them quickly. Where there was a need, I have added
explanatory footnotes.

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The original Urdu text of the book contains many errors,


especially in the Qur'ānic verses. I have corrected these in
the English version. In many cases, I have used tables to
enlist sentences or examples. This was done for the sake of
greater clarity although the original text does not have such
tables. Many new Arabic words used in the exercises have
not been mentioned in the vocabulary. I have enlisted these
as well. Many singular words did not have their plurals
listed. I have included these also for the benefit of the
students.

I have used the arrow sign ( ) to indicate the direction of


the text. In some cases, the text has to be read from left to
right as in English, while in other instances, it has to be read
from right to left as in Arabic.

I have provided the English equivalents of the Arabic


grammatical terminology for the sake of information. The
student need not learn the English terms. If one learns the
Arabic terms and understands them well, it is sufficient.
May Allāh  accept this humble effort from me and make it
a means for my salvation, Āmīn.

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Terminology

Terms Meanings
*b M M the diacritical points namely fathah
(cd), kasrah (Od) and dammah (ed).

Th g
M fMP a letter with a harakah

!j ?i "P the diacritical point (kd) also known


as jazm
*g
M fj\b fathah (cd)

lM
j b kasrah (Od)

*$m '
M dammah (ed)

j=!O %jM two fathahs (nd), two kasrahs (d


o ) or
two dammas (d
p )
j=!O %jM !j qP the sound of the nūn created when
reading the tanwīn
D!j fPVr M a letter having a fathah, eg. (
M )
!j
P ?r M a letter having a kasrah, eg. (B
O )
.!j $P [
j M a letter having a dammah, eg. (4
i )
O "M a letter having a sukūn, eg. (C
j)

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Ym _
M P a letter having a tashdīd (sd)

<j=O j M to make a noun definite

j?O %jM to make a noun indefinite

.P Ab the ( ) attached to a noun

<j=O j fm
R
t m M P the noun having ( )

./
u  O
YO 0M singular

*M%O5rM dual

w$j vM plural

wj$vM "j O a collective plural, e.g. (.t !j #b) - nation

jO Xr M masculine – also known as (xX)

zjqOyr M feminine – also known as (zq`)

R0j P P the letters of the alphabet

j {
h M dM
Rj0P P (), (0) and (U)

*uO r

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R
P 0j P g
P rb the letters besides the (* R0)
*i g
M jg
O|m 
l}M $j ,M One hamzah is that of the ( R0
{d). Another hamzah is an alif
that is mutaharrik (i~O~b) or an alif

having jazm like the alif of (( t -rM )


li }M $j ,M The initial hamzah of a word which
is not pronounced when joined to the
O  j !M r preceding word, e.g. (
O Mf?O r S
P M 0M )

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Lesson 1

Words and the Types of Words

1. A word having a meaning is called (* $


M Ob ). It is of three
types: (
t "j O) – noun, ( j \O) - verb and (R
t j M ) - particle.

An (") is independent of other words in indicating its

meaning. It also does not have any tense, e.g. (


 vP M ) – man,
(Y
t O M) – specific name, (
t j '
M ) – to hit, (9
t h€b ) – good, (!M ,P ) –
he, (Mq-b) – I.

A (\) is a word that indicates some action together with

one of the three tenses, e.g. (


M M '
M ) – he hit, (9
M ,M Fb ) – he went,
(9
P ,M Xr M=) – he is going or he will go.

A (R) is a word whose meaning cannot be understood

without an (") or (\), e.g. (


j O ) – from, (bM ) – on, (j \O) –
in, (b‚O) – till, (Y
O{O
j $M r b‚O i vP m  9
M ,M Fb ) – The man went to the
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musjid.

The Types of Nouns

2. Nouns are of two types:


(1) (*\) – definite and

(2) (l?q) – indefinite.

An indefinite noun is a word which refers to a general


thing. The word (
 vP M ) – a man, does not refer to any
specific person. It can refer to any person. The word (9
t h€b )
does not refer to any particular good thing. Every good
thing can be called (9
t h€b ).

A definite noun refers to a specific thing. Zaid (Y=G) is the

name of a particular person. Makkah (*?) is the name of a

specific city. (
i vP m ) – the man - refers to a specific person.

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The Types of Definite Nouns

Definite Nouns are of seven categories:

1. (bM r P "j O) – proper nouns, e.g. (Y=G), (Yt O M).
2. (j $O[ m  P "j O) - pronouns, e.g. (!M ,P ) – he, (ƒ
M qjb) – you, (Mqb) - I.
3. (lO M M:AO r P "j O) - the demonstrative pronoun, e.g. (bX,) –
this, (T M Fb ) – that.
4. (i !j  P !j $M r P "j AO b) - the relative pronoun, e.g. („ j XO ub) – who,
(j fOub) – who (feminine).
5. („M M%$ P rb ) – vocative case, e.g. (i vP M M=) – O man, (YP b0M M=)
– O boy.
6. (.O /
u  O R
P m M $P rb) - the noun having (r b), e.g. (( P M Vb r) the
horse, ( i vP m b) – the man.
7. (*o \b O j M bO R
P M[$P rb) – a noun which is related to any of
the above-mentioned definite nouns, e.g. (Y o j=GM
P MfO ) –
Zaid’s book, (bX…, P MfO ) – this person’s book, ( P MfO
O vP m ) – the book of the man.

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Note: In these examples, the word (


P MfO ) has become
definite.

Besides the above-mentioned definite nouns, all other


nouns are indefinite. They are also of several types, two of
the main categories being:

(1) (B
O uX P "j O) – a word that denotes the being of

something, living or non-living, e.g. (


 M qjO) – man, ((
t M \b) –
horse, (t {
M M ) – stone.

(2) (*O Vb |
h  P "j O) - a word that indicates the quality of

something, e.g. (
t M M ) – beautiful, (†t j)O#b) – ugly.

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Lesson 2

The Particles of () and ()

1. The tanwīn1 is generally attached to a word that is


indefinite. In this case, it is regarded as a particle that
renders a noun indefinite (>?% R).2 It is translated as ‘a’
or ‘an’ in English, e.g. (
 vP M ) – a man, (D
t uVP) – an apple, (^p M)
– water. There is no need to translate it everywhere as in the
example of (^p M) – water.

Note 1: Sometimes a proper noun also has tanwīn, e.g.


(Y
t $m g
M P ), (0t$j M ), (Yt j=GM ). In such a case, the tanwīn is not
regarded as a (>?% R).

2. The definite article of Arabic is (r b).3 It is also called ( .A


<=f). When (r b) is prefixed to any indefinite word, it

becomes definite. Now the word is termed as (./ R6) –

1 See Terminology on page 22.


2 This is similar to the letter ‘a’ in English.
3 It is similar to the word ‘the’ in English.

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a word made definite by (r b). Consequently, ((


t M \b) – a horse,
is indefinite while ((
P M Vb rb) – the horse, is definite.

3. When (r b) is prefixed to a word having tanwīn, the


tanwīn falls off. Note the above example.

4. When any word precedes a word having (r b), the first


word is joined to the lām of the second word and
pronounced (by joining). The hamzah of the (r b) is known

as hamzatul wasl.4 It is not pronounced, e.g. (ƒ


O j)Mr
P M ) – the
door of the house. To read (ƒ
O j)Mrb
P M ) here is incorrect.

Note 2: If there is a sākin letter before the (r b), the sākin


letter is normally read with a kasrah. However the word
(
j O ) is read with a fathah. Therefore, (ƒ
O j)Mrb j M ) is read as ( O M
O j)Mr) and (ƒ
ƒ O j)Mrb j O ) is read as (ƒ
O j)Mr M O ).

5. When a word having tanwīn precedes the definite article,


the nūn of the tanwīn5 is rendered a kasrah and joined to

4 See under terminology.


5 See under terminology.

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the lām. If after the word (


r YP j=GM = Yt j=GM ), the word (
P OMrb)
appears, it will be read as (
P OMr O YP j=GM ).

Note 3: The alif of (


t jO), (* %M jO) and (t "j O) is also hamzatul wasl.
It is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word.

Examples: (
t jO !M ,P ) is read as (t j !M ,P ) – He is a son;
(
t "j O bX…,) is read as (t "j  bX…,) – This is a name;
(
t jO Yt j=GM ) is read as (t j O YP j=GM ) – Zaid is a son;
(
t "j O Yt O M) is read as (t "j  O YP O M) – Hāmid is a name.

When (r b) is prefixed to (


t jO) and (t "j O), the lām of the (r b) is
rendered a kasrah and joined to the ( ) and ((). Therefore

(
P jOrb) is read as (P )jOb = P jOb) and (P "j Orb) is read as ( = P "j Ob
P
j Ob). This rule is overlooked in general conversation.

6. When (r b) is prefixed to a word having one of the letters

of (* $_ R0Z), the lām of the (r b) is assimilated into the
harf shamsī, that is, at the time of pronunciation, instead of
reading the lām, the harf shamsī is pronounced. No jazm is

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written on the lām in such a case but a tashdīd is written on


the harf shamsī, e.g. (ˆ
P $j _
m b) – the sun, (i vP m b) – the man,
etc.

The (* $_


R0Z) are:
 LKJIH(GF4B

Besides these letters, the other letters are called ( R0Z


*=$2), e.g. (P $M 2b rb) – the moon, (i $M {
M rb) – camel.
Vocabulary List No. 1

Note 4: After prefixing the definite article to these words,


pronounce them.

Word Meaning
 M qjO man

ƒ
t j M house

t $j M dates

t $M ‰b fruit

 ,O Mv ignorant

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t OM learned

t
M M good, beautiful

}t )jŠP bread

(
t j M lesson

9
t qjFb sin

 !j "P M messenger

l bGM zakāh

 j "M easy

‹ j:M thing

lb
M prayer

^p !j '
M light

9
t h€b good, clean

t ObΠoppressor

 O M just

t !j Vi b one who forgives

Žt "O b\ transgressor

†t j)O#b ugly

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t j=b noble, generous

t )Mb milk

^p M water

t MqM day

Yt b0M boy

 ,O cat

.t !j M= day

0M and

0j -b or

Exercise No. 1

Note 5: When speaking, pause on the last letter, that is, do


not read any harakah on the final letter. Read the word

P j)Mr) as (ƒ
j j)Mr) and (li b}m b) as (;j b}m b). If you are reading one
word, pause on its last letter and if you are reading several
words, pause on the last word, e.g. (
j )Mb 0M }t )jŠP ).
(A) Read these words and translate them:

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0j -b †t OM (5) t )Mb 0M }t )jŠP (4) li b}m  0M li b| m b (3) P $M 5ub (2) ƒ P j)Mr (1)
(9) P )Mu 0M P $M fm (8) }P )j’
P rM0 ^e M$rb (7) †P j)O2b r 0O b P
Mg
M rb (6) Žt "O b\
i O Mrb (12) t MfO 0M ( t j M (11) ( P M Vb r 0M i M qjOrb (10) t OM 0M  ,O Mv
(
t M \b0M  $M vM (13) P Ou“ 0O -b

(B) Translate the following words or phrases into Arabic.


Use the definite article (r b) wherever the words are definite.

(1) a horse (2) a man (3) a man and a horse (4) bread and
water (5) a man and a fruit and a house (6) the salāh and the
learned man (7) the pious one and the transgressor (8) the
man or the horse (9) the milk and the bread (10) a man and
a horse (11) the ugly one and the beautiful one (12) a cat
and a boy (13) the moon and the sun (14) the camel or the
horse.

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Test No. 1

1. What is the definition of (*$)?


2. How many types of words are there? Define each one
with examples.
3. What is the major difference between a noun and a verb?
4. How many tenses are there?
5. From the following words, state whether the words are
("), (\) or (R).

wt $j "M a b‚O a (
P M Vb r a Yt b M a 9
P ,M Xr M= a
M M '
M a j O a !M ,P
6. Define what is (*\) and (l?q) with examples.

7. How many types of (*\ ") are there?


8. Say whether the following words are definite or
indefinite.
bX…, a †t j)O#b a t
M M a (
P M Vb rb a P g
j qM a 9
P hWu b a  vP M a Yt b M a *i ?u M a Yt j=GM
9. In the above-mentioned words, what type of (*\) and

(l?q) are they?

10. What is the hamzah of (r b) called?

11. Join the word (!M , P ) to the words (YP b!M rb), (t "j O) and (t jO) and
read them.

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12. When (r b) is added to the words (


t "j O) and (t jO), how are
they read?
13. What is (=!%f !q)?
14. How is a word having tanwīn joined to a word having
(r b)?

15. What are the (* $_ R0Z) and the (*=$2 R0Z)?

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Lesson 3

Compounds

1. A combination of two or more words is called (9uM P ).

The relationship between them is called (9j


O j M).
2. Compounds are of two types: (”
t #OqM) incomplete and (. M)
complete.
(a) An incomplete compound (”#q 9) is a combination
of words from which no information, order or desire is
understood. It is an incomplete statement, e.g. (
t
M M  vP M ) –
a good man; (
o vP M
P MfO ) a man’s book.
(b) A complete compound (. 9) is a combination of
words from which some information, command or wish is
understood, e.g. (
t
M M i vP m b) - The man is good. This
statement provides us with the information that the man is
good.
(
M Mf?O r XO ŠP ) – Take the book. The order of taking the book is
understood from this sentence.
(
j %O#r GP j 
h M ) – O my Sustainer, grant me sustenance. A
request is understood from this statement.

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A complete sentence is also called (* b$


j vP ) or (.t /
b b ).

3. Incomplete compounds are of several kinds, e.g. ( 9


 VO j
O !j M), ( \O'
M ‚O 9), (U
 O YM M 9), etc. Here we will
discuss (V! 9). The other types will be discussed
later on, as will complete sentences.

The Adjectival Phrase


(V! 9)

4. A (V! 9) is a compound in which the second

word describes the first word, e.g. (†


t OM  vP M ) – a pious
man. The word (†
t OM) describes the word ( vP M ) with the
quality of piety.

5. The first part of a (V! 9) is (BX "),6 while the


second part is (*V| "). In the above example, the word
(
 vP M ) is (BX ") while the word (†t OM) is (*V| ").

6 See Lesson 1, fact no.4

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6. The first part of (V! 9) is called (R t !j 


P !j M )7 while
the second part is called the (* Vb 
O )8. In the above example,
the word ( vP M ) is a (R!!) while the word (†t OM) is a
(*V).

7. If the (R!!) is indefinite (l?q), the (*V) will also be

(l?q), otherwise it will be (*\). In the compound (  vP M


†t OM), both parts are (l?q) - indefinite. In the phrase ( i vP m 
†P Om|), both parts are (*\) - definite.

8. The same declension (


t M j ‚O)9 that applies to the (R!!)
will apply to the (*V).

9. A (V! 9) and all other incomplete compounds


form part of a sentence.

7 a word that is being described.


8 adjective.
9 This will be discussed in detail in Lesson 10.

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Vocabulary List No. 2

Word Meaning
 Mf
j P garden

t g
j M sea

•t jW– O melon

t j)Ob big, large

Žt j$O M deep

‹ j=O M bad

D
t uVP apple

 mP pomegranate

N
t O M: street

t |
j #b palace

— g
M M place

Yt {
O
j M mosque

]
t OM king

t )jvP cheese

t b#b pen

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t j 0M rose

Yt hvM good

!t r P sweet

˜
t j=O M broad

Yt j_
O M strong

<
t j“O qM clean

wt j"O 0M wide

t j“O M great

†t jOM 0- †t OM salty

t j™O 
M small

P $M j - red

The above list contains many (BX


") and (*V| "). By
combining them, you can form many compounds of ( 9

V!) – adjectival phrases.

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Exercise No. 2

(A) Translate the following phrases into English:

P j™O |
m  ƒ P j)Mrb (4) t j“O M t | j #b (3) P j=O ?b r i !j "P m  (2) P j“O M r

e b (1)
(9) †t OM ] t OM (8) !P r g P r P $j fmb (7) !t r P t $j M (6) <
t j“O qM  Mf
j P (5)
O YP $m gM P (12) 9 P hWu  i vP m b (11) 9 t h€b ‹ j:M (10) †P OM$r P g j )Mrb
(16) †t j)O#b  vP M (15) t j“O M 9 t qjFb (14) t !j Vi b  M (13) i !j "P m 
]
P O$M r 0M †P Om| i vP m  (18) !t r P t $j M 0M Yt hvM }t )jŠP (17) ‹i j=O m  P )j{ P rb
P $M j ybr P j !M rb (21) !P r g P r •P jW– )Orb (20) P $M j - Dt uVP (19) P j=O ?b r

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:

(1) the strong place (2) the small house (3) a beautiful flower
(4) the ugly man (5) the broad street (6) a pious man (7) the
sweet milk (8) the just king (9) the great palace (10) the easy
lesson (11) a beautiful horse (12) a sweet fruit (13) the small
place (14) the good horse (15) the wide house (16) the good
bread or the good milk (17) a pious boy and a transgressing
boy (18) the large musjid and the small garden.

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Lesson 4

Gender

1. Arabic words are of two types with regards to gender: (1)


(t 
u Xb P ) – masculine and
(2) (z
 qm`M P ) – feminine, e.g. (t jO) – son is masculine and (* %M jO) –
daughter is feminine.

l
2. When a tā ta’nīth10 ( ) is appended to the end of a

masculine noun, it becomes feminine, e.g. (


t jO) changes to
(* %M j O). Similarly (
t
M M ) changes to (* %M
M M ) and (]
t OM - king)
changes to (* ?
b OM - queen) etc. This rule applies more to
adjectives (*V| ") and sometimes to (BX ").

3. In some words, the alif maqsūrah (…U) or the alif

mamdūdah (^ cd) is a sign of the word being feminine, e.g.


(…%
j P ) – a beautiful lady; (^e M,j GM ) – radiant.

10 The round tā which is a sign of feminine words.

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4. Some nouns are feminine without any sign of being


feminine. They are known as (
 O $M "O z
 qm`M P ) – as heard from
the Arabs. The details are as follows:

(a) any word referring to a woman, e.g. (. -i) – mother;

((
t 0j P M ) – bride; (Yt %j,O ) – a woman’s name, or India.
(b) the names of countries, e.g. (P |
j O ) – Egypt, (.P m_b) –
Syria, (.P 0j š b) – The Roman Empire.

(c) parts of the body in pairs, e.g. (Y


t M=) – hand, ( vj O ) –
foot, (
 Fi -i) – ear, (t jM ) – eye.
(d) Besides the above-mentioned nouns, there are other
nouns which are used as feminine by the Arabs.
Some of them are:

J
t j -b earth


t j M war

t $j ŠM wine

t M house

†t j=O wind

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S
t !j "P market

ˆ
t $j :M sun

t Mq fire

ˆ
t Vr qM soul

Although some words have a (l) at the end, they are


masculine in usage because they refer to males, e.g.
(*i \bM €
b ) – name of a poet, (* Vb jOŠM ) – the leader of the
Muslims, (* M /
u M ) – a very learned scholar.11

6. Just as an adjective corresponds to its noun in being


definite or indefinite, so does it correspond in gender.

Vocabulary List No. 3

Word Meaning
l YM r M city

P j?O g
M rb wise

Yt j=YO :M severe

11 This word is used for females as well.

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S
t O M truthful

wt Ob€ rising

 j=!O €b tall, long


t O b setting

* [
M j=O \b obligatory

*i $M €O b\ name of a woman

i 1j2i rb the Qur’ān

t j|
O #b short

9
t r #b heart

 ›O$M Wr P peaceful

l YM #b`j P ignited

t j qM river

Exercise No. 3

(A) Translate these phrases into English

lYM j=YO :M †t j=O (4) P j?O g


M rb i 1j2i rb (3) * bj=!O €b * bjb (2) *i %m›O$M Wr $P r ˆ
P Vr %mb (1)

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t Mq (8) * $M j“O M t M (7) t !j Vi b  M 0M * )Mh€b l YM r M (6) i O Mr *i Vb jO’ M rb (5)
(12) *i %M Mg M r (
P 0j P M rb (11) *i #bO m| O YP %j,O (10) * g M OM * %M jO (9) l YM #b!j P
*i $M €O b\ (14) *i [ M j=O Vb r li b|
m b (13) 9 P OM™r P $M 2b r 0M *i M OuW ˆ P $j _m b
P O m_ *i \bM €b (17) * bj=!O €b t j M (16) …% jg P r *i %M jœOrb (15) ^e M ,j }m 
*i M uM r O YP j:O M (18)

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:

(1) a beautiful girl (2) the pious caliph (3) the wise man (4)
the obligatory zakāh (5) an obligatory salāh (6) a short night
(7) the big day (8) the good thing (9) the ugly bride (10) the
setting sun and the rising moon (11) the severe wind (12)
the long river (13) the long war (14) the short hand (15) the
peaceful heart (16) Muhammad, the pious (17) the very
learned Fātimah.

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Lesson 5

Singular and Plural

1. In Arabic, words are of three categories with regards to


number:
 singular (t M Vr P 0j -b Yt O 0M ), indicating one, e.g. (
 vP M ) – one
man.
 dual (* M%O5r M), indicating two, e.g. (
O/
b vP M ) – two men.
 plural (w
t $j vM ), indicating more than two, e.g. ( MvO ) – more
than two men.

2. The dual12 is formed by adding (


O cd) to (w\ *) - the
nominative case13 or (
O j= cd) to (+0 9|% *) - the
accusative or genitive cases14.
Examples:
(]
t OM ) – one king, (O b?OM ) or (O j?b OM ) – two kings

12 Although the author has referred the student to a future lesson, at this
point, it will be sufficient for him to remember that there are two forms of the
dual: one is with alif and nūn and the second with yā and nūn. Lesson 10 will
explain where to use which one.
13 w\ * – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.

14 +0 9|% * – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.

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(* ?
b OM ) – one queen, (O Mf?b OM ) or (O jfM?b OM ) – two queens.

Note 1: In the prevalent books of Arabic Grammar and


Morphology, the terms (
O c_) and (
O j= c_) are not written.

Instead, these terms are expressed in detail as ( M b)j#b M <
t O-b
lM !j
P ?r M  !j qP0M * M !j fPVr M ) and (lM !j
P ?r M  !j qP0M * M !j fPVr M M b)j#b M ^p M=). We
have chosen the former method for the sake of brevity.

Note 2: To pronounce (
O c_) and (O j= c_), one can read the
fathah with the sound of an alif and say ( O 1) and (O j=b). Such
signs will come frequently later on. Pronounce them in this
manner wherever one comes across them.

3. Plurals are of two types:


(a) (
P Om  wP $j {
M rb) – the sound plural
(b) (P
m ?b $P r wP $j {
M rb) – the broken plural

The sound plural is one in which the singular form of the


word remains intact (sound) with some addition at the end.
It is of two types:

(i) Masculine (t 


u Xb P ) – in which (b !j d
e ) in (w\ *) - the

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nominative case15 or (
M jd
O ) in the accusative and genitive
cases are appended, e.g. (
t O
j P ) – one Muslim, (b !j $P O
j P ) or
(
M j$O O
j P ) – many Muslims.

(ii) Feminine (z
 qm`M P ) – in which (B
t  cd) in the nominative
case or (B
o  cd) in the accusative and genitive cases are

appended, e.g. (* $


M O
j P ) – one (female) Muslim, (B
t M$O
j P ) or
(B
o M$O
j P ) – many (female) Muslims.

The broken plural is one in which the form of the singular


word is broken, that is, changed. It has no fixed rule for
making it. Sometimes alphabets are added or deleted and
sometimes there is merely a change in the harakāt16.
Examples:
(t j qM) (t P qj -b), (
 vP M ) ( MvO ), (t j=GO 0M ) (^e MGM 0P ), (
t MfO ) (9
t fPi ),
(9
t _
M ŠM ) (9
t _
P ŠP ). The broken plural will be discussed in
detail in Lesson 12.

Note 3: The (
P Om  wP $j {
M rb) - sound plural of some feminine

15 This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.


16 Fathah, dammah, kasrah, etc.

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words is like the masculine plurals, e.g. the plural of (* %M"
M )–
year, is (
b !j %P"O ) or (M j%O"O ) and sometimes (B
t M!%M"M ).

Note 4: The (!q) that appears at the end of the (* M%O5r M) - dual

form and the (


P Om  P u Xb $P r wP $j {
M rb) - sound masculine plural is
called (* m OM 
j ‚O  !j qP)17. See Lesson 10.

4. Some nouns are singular in form but refer to a whole


group. There is no singular for them as well because they
are not plurals in reality. Such nouns are called (w
O $j {
M r P "j O).
Examples:
(.t !j #b) – a nation, (ž
 ,j M ) – a group.
These words are generally used like plurals in sentences,
e.g. (
b !j g
P OM .t !j #b) – a pious nation.

5. You have learnt in lessons 3 and 4 that the adjective


corresponds with its noun in ( ), being definite or
indefinite and in gender. Now remember that the adjective
has to correspond with its noun in number as well.

17 Since the word ( !j qP) is feminine in Arabic, the adjective also has to be
feminine, namely (* m OM j ‚O).

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However, when the noun being described is (


o #OM O jb wP $j vM ) –
the plural of an unintelligent being18, whether masculine or
feminine, the adjective is generally singular feminine ( Y0
zq`), although it is sometimes plural. One can say ( .t m=-b

l j0YP j M ) as well as (B
t M0j YP j M .t m=-b).

Vocabulary List No. 4

Word Meaning
j OŸrb future

* M=1 sign, verse of the Qur’ān

* %Mh M clear, manifest

U
j O M{rb current (present)

j '
O M$rb past

lM M quarter, section of a city

.t O MŠ servant

Gt m)ŠM baker

18Intelligent beings are humans, angels and jinn. All other creations fall in the
category of unintelligent beings (o #OM P jb ).

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K
 mŠM tailor, seamstress

 M)j M tired, exhausted

 /
b j GM displeased

t j :M month

 /
b j b lazy

9
t O Ab playing

wt O Ab shining

K
 !j
P )jM cheerful

Yt O fM{
j P diligent

Yt %m
M P supported

 !j ™P _
j M busy, preoccupied

t O“r P dark

t –M P teacher

t j%OP bright

t m{qM carpenter

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Exercise No. 4

(A) Translate these phrases into English

b !j g
P Om| b !j $P –M $P rb (3) O Mfg M Om| O Mf$M –M $P rb (2) †P Om| P –M $P rb (1)
ˆ
P $j _ m  (7) t j%OP t $M #b (6) *i $M O“r $P r *i bjub (5) B t MYO fM{
j P B t M$–M P (4)
U
j O M{r P j _ m  (10) *i M' O M$r *i %M m  (9) O MfM O / x  O M%jM b (8) li M j%O$P r
(14) * qM/ b j b * €b mŠM (13) * Vb j“O qM B t MM (12) *i M=O M{r P P qjybrb (11)
(17) O Mq/ b j GM O / b vP M (16) O MfqMM)j M O Mf%M jO (15) O Mf)MO / u  O Mf%M jOrb
0M b !j qP/b j ?b r b 0j P m{%mb (19) li M j™O | m  B P MqM!MgM r (18) *i MOŸr b !j %P h 
Ki !j P )j$M r 19O 0P$j M (21) i / b j }m  O YP j=GM (20) b 0j YP O fM{ j $P r b !j P O M’r
l YM %m
M P 9
t _ P ŠP (23) B t M%h M Bt M=1 (22)

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic

(1) a shining eye (2) the two diligent men (3) the
preoccupied baker (4) the two tired carpenters (5) the bright
day (6) the beautiful seamstresses (7) the tired servants (8)
the lazy tailor (9) the flowing rivers (10) the large animals
(11) the current year (12) the past month (13) the past years

19 This is the name Àmr. The (0) differentiates it from (P $j P ).

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(14) the cheerful servant

Test No. 2

(1) What is a (9x)?


(2) How many types of compounds are there? Define each
one and provide examples.
(3) What is (V! 9x)? What is each part of it called?
(4) In which aspects does the adjective have to correspond
with the noun? What are the exceptions? Explain with
examples.
(5) What are the signs of feminine words?
(6) Which words are regarded as feminine without any
signs?
(7) In spite of having the signs of being feminine, which
words are masculine?
(8) What is the rule for making the dual and sound
masculine plural forms?
(9) What is ( ?¢ w$+) and what is the rule for forming it?
(10) What are the broken plurals of (t j qM), (
 vP M ) and (9
t _
M ŠM )?
(11) What is the plural of (* %M"
M )?
(12) What is the difference between (w£) and (w£ ")?

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(13) Form as many (V! 9x) as possible from the


following nouns and adjectives:

20 21 22

M M t )Mb 9
t %MO ˆ
t $j :M t $M #b
b !j %P"O  MvO O Mf%j O J
t j -b
t j M
wt \OMq †t OM !t r P .t m=-b 9
t fPi
23
* M=O Mv * M'
O M t 0m YM P t j%OP

20 honey
21 milk
22 grapes

23 round

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Lesson 6

Sentences with a Noun -


‫ا  ا‬

1. You have read that a complete statement is called a


sentence (*£). See 3.2. Remember that sentences are of two

types: (*@ *£) and (*\ *£).

A (*@ *£) is one in which the first part is a noun ("), e.g.
(
t M M Yt j=GM ) – Zaid is handsome.
A (*\ *£) is one in which the first part is a verb (\), e.g.

(Y
t j=GM M
P M ) – Zaid became handsome.

Hereunder follow some rules of (*@ *£) while the ( *£


*\) will be discussed in Lesson 14.

The first part of a (*@ *£) is generally definite (*\) while


the second part is indefinite (l?q). In the above example,

the word (Y
t j=GM ) is definite while (t
M M ) is indefinite.

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Note 1: The difference between (*@ *£) and ( 9x


V!) is that in the latter, both the parts are the same in
being definite or indefinite while in the former, the first part
is definite and the second part is indefinite. Consequently,
in the above-mentioned example, if an indefinite noun takes
the place of the word (Y
t j=GM ) and you say (t
M M  vP M ), or you
render the second word ( t
M M ) definite by adding (r b) to it,
and say (P Mg
M r O YP j=GM ), both these will become adjectival
phrases (V! 9x).

However, when the second part of a (*@ *£) is not a word


that can become an adjective of a noun24, it is permissible
for the second part also to be definite, e.g.
(<
P "P !j P= Mq-b) – I am Yūsuf.
It is also permissible to insert a separating pronoun (j $
O'M)
between the subject (Yf)) and the predicate (§Š).
Examples:

P Om| !M ,P i vP m b) – The man is pious.
(
b !j g
P O|
m  P ,P i Mvh b) – The men are pious.

24 For example, it is ( "), (>$') or (l: ").

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If the pronoun is removed from here, these sentences will


become adjectival phrases (V! 9x).

Note 2: In Arabic, there is no word for ‘is’ as in English.


This word is understood from the sentence. Therefore
(
t OM Yt j=GM ) means ‘Zaid is learned’ although the word ‘is’ is
not there.25

3. The first part of a (*@*£) is called (Yf)) - the subject26,


while the second part is called the (§Š) - the predicate27.

4. Generally the (Yf)) and the (§Š) are in (w\ *)28 - the
nominative case.

5. The predicate conforms to the subject in number and


gender, as in the case of the adjective. However when the
subject is (
o #OM O jb wP $j vM ) - the plural of a non-intelligent
being, the predicate is generally singular feminine.

25 However, the verb (i!j ?i M=) can provide the meaning of ‘is’.
26 In English, the subject of a sentence is a word or phrase that refers to the
person or thing that performs an action.
27 In English, the predicate refers to the word or words that say something

about the subject but are not part of it.


28 A detailed discussion on cases follows in Lesson 10.

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Examples:

Sentence Meaning Type of Subject


S
t O M i vP m b The man is singular,
truthful. masculine,
intelligent
O b#O M O bvP m b The two men dual, masculine,
are truthful. intelligent
b !j #iO M i Mvh b The men are plural,
truthful. masculine,
intelligent
* #bO M li -bj $M rb The woman is singular,
truthful. feminine,
intelligent
O Mf#bO M O M-bj $M rb The two women dual, feminine,
are truthful. intelligent
B
t b#O 
M ^e M %hb The women are plural, feminine,
truthful. intelligent
lYM j=YO :M †P j=h b The wind is singular,
severe. feminine, non-
intelligent
O MYM j=YO :M O Mgj=h b The two winds dual, feminine,
are severe. non-intelligent
l YM j=YO :M D
P M=h b The winds are plural, feminine,
severe. non-intelligent
Note 3: In these examples, if the definite article (r b) is added

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to the second part, or it is removed from the first part, all


these examples will become (V! 9x) - adjectival
phrases.

6. If there are two subjects and they are of different types,


that is, one is masculine and one feminine, the predicate
will be masculine, e.g. (
O M%
M M *i %M jOrM0 P jOrb) – The son and the
daughter are beautiful.

7. The subject and predicate are sometimes singular and


sometimes they are compounds (9). The examples of
singular have passed. Hereunder follow the examples of
(9):

Sentence Meaning Analysis


t '
O M 9
P hWu  i vP m b The good man is The subject is
present. (V! 9x).
9
t h€b  vP M Yt j=GM Zaid is a good The predicate is
man. (V! 9x).

8. By adding (M) or (ˆ
M jb) to a (*@ *£), it changes from

positive to negative. Most often a (


O ) is added to the

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predicate which changes the case to the genitive (+ *),


e.g. (
o OM O Yt j=GM M) – Zaid is not learned; (†o j)O#b o vP M O Yt j=GM ˆ
M jb) –
Zaid is not a bad person.

9. Very often the word (


u ‚O) is prefixed to a (*@ *£). As a
result, the subject changes to (9|% *) - the accusative
case while the predicate remains unchanged, e.g.
(l M 0m Y
M P J
M j ybr u ‚O) – Undoubtedly the earth is round.

Note 4: To create the meaning of interrogation in a sentence,


(
r ,M ) or (-b) is added to the beginning, e.g.
(
t OM Yt j=GM -b) – Is Zaid learned?;
(
t OM i vP m  O ,M ) – Is the man learned?

Vocabulary List No. 5

Word Meaning
.j -b or (in a question)

t 2b M cow

b M certainly, why not

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Yt j=YO vM new

ŸOv very

Yt O b# a ˆ
t OMv sitting

(
t O M guard, sentry

lM: sheep

 j\O elephant

t ©Ob# standing

t j=YO #b old

9
t r b dog

R
t 0j P j M a t !j P _
j M famous

t O `j P believer

j M qM yes

t ’
j'
M thick

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The Nominative Detached Pronouns

(*i b|
O Vb %j$P r *i M !j \ij $M r P ©O$M [
m b)

Third Person 9
t ©Ob
singular !M ,P he , it
Masculine

dual M$,P they

plural j ,P they

singular M ,O she, it
Feminine

dual M$,P they

plural m ,P they

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Second Person t '


O M
singular ƒ
M qjb you
Masculine

dual M$fPqjb you

plural j fPqjb you

singular ƒ
O qjb you
Feminine

dual M$fPqjb you

plural m fPqjb you

First Person (Speaker) t –?b fMP


bqb I

P g
j qM We

Note 5: These pronouns are most often the subject of a


sentence. Hence they are regarded as (N!\) – in the

nominative case. See 6.4. They are called (O|Vb %j P ) because


they are pronounced independently.

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Note 6: Also remember that (bq-b) is always pronounced (


b b)
without the alif.

Exercise No. 5

Note 7: When speaking, pause (waqf) at the end of sentences


as mentioned in Exercise No. 1. However, initially, continue
writing all the harakāt.

(A) Translate the following into English

(4) t ©Ob# !M ,P j M qM a t ©Ob# YP b!M r O ,M (3) * M OMv *i %M jOrb (2) t ©Ob# YP b!M rb (1)
Gt m)ŠM !M ,P a Gt m)ŠM .j -b t m{qM i vP m  bX…,-b (5) * M OMv M ,O Ab a * $M ©Ob# *i %M jOr O ,M
j fPqjb r ,M (7) R t 0j P j M t O M: !M ,P j M qM a t O M: *i \bM €b b- (6) o m{%M O !M ,P M
j M qM ª B t M$–M P m ,P r ,M (8) b !j $P –M P P g j qM r M M j€O sM’
M O P g
j qM M ª b !j €i mŠM
Mq-b M j ?O b <
P "P !j P= Mq-b ª *i M / u M r <
P "P !j P= ƒM qj-b-b (9) B t MgOM B t M$–M P m ,P
O ,M (11) lYM O fM{ j P * $M –M P M ,O Ab ª * qM/ b j b * $M –M P 9
P %Mj=GM r ,M (10) *o M / u M O
ª wo \bMq o M!Mg
M O P 2b )Mr ˆ
M jb-b (12) * Vb j“O qM B t MM M ,O j M qM ª * Vb j“O qM BP MMgr
u ‚O (14) 4  O M  M!MM 9 M r ?b r u ‚O (13) ŸOv wt \bMq  M!MM P 2b )Mr b M

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M OMv 29O jfMg


u ‚O (16) O Mf M Om| O jM-bj $M r u ‚O (15) * M OMv *b gM Om| lb -bj $M r
j P 30B
b 0j YP O fM{ O $M –M $P rM0 M j$O –M $P r

(B) Fill in the blanks which represent a subject or predicate


with suitable words that you have studied.

P mYb (1)
O MgOm| O MYb!M rb (2)

O ˆ M jb ƒ P j)Mrb (3)
* qM/
b j b (4)
P m{%m O ,M (5)
Mq-b (6)
!M ,P j M qM (7)
M$,P (8)
 /
b j b O ,M (9)
.j -b *i %M Oœr O ,M (10)

O 9 P r ?b r ˆ M jb-b (11)

29 See 5.2.
30 See 5.2.

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9
P r ?b r 0M li M_b (12)
(
t O M b M (13)
*i €b m’ M rM0 K
i m’ M rb (14)
t ’
j' M i jVO rb (15)
.j -b YP b!M r bX…,-b (16)
*i #bcO m| li -bj $M rb (17)
Yt O fM{
j P u ‚O (18)
O Mf%M jœOrb (19)
O MfqM/
b j b u ‚O (20)
B
t MYO fM{ j P u ‚O (21)

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(C) Translate into Arabic

(1) Is the boy standing? No, he is sitting.


(2) Is the girl sitting? No, she is standing.
(3) Are the two boys present? Yes, they are present.
(4) Are the two girls honest? Yes, they are honest.
(5) Are the women truthful? Yes, they are truthful.
(6) Is the teacher absent? No, the teacher is present.
(7) Are they carpenters? No, they are tailors.
(8) Is that Yūsuf? Yes, that is Yūsuf.
(9) Are you Mahmūd? No, I am Hāmid.
(10) Is the house old? No, the house is new.
(11) Are they (plural feminine) seamstresses? No, they
are teachers.
(12) Are you (pl. m.) learned or ignorant? We are not
ignorant.
(13) Is not the elephant a great animal? Why not, the
elephant is a great animal.
(14) Is the dog standing or sitting? The dog is not
standing but it is sitting.

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Lesson 7

The Genitive of Possession


( 
 
 
)

1. The compound in which both parts are nouns and the


first noun is related to the second noun is called ( 9
t u M P
 \OM'‚O). Examples:
(Yo j=GM P MfO ) – the book of Zaid or Zaid’s book
(*o [
m \O P MMŠ) – the ring of silver
(O j %m ^e M) – the water of the river.

2. Such a relationship between the two nouns is known as


(*i \bM'œOrb).

3. The first part of (' 9) is called (R


t M[P ) while the
second part is called (O j b‚O R
t M[P ).

4. Neither does the definite article (r -b) precede the (R


t M[P )
nor is the tanwīn appended to it. Look at the above
examples.

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5. The (O j b‚O R


t M[P ) is always (t 0j P {
j M ) - in the genitive case.

6. The (R
t M[P ) always precedes the (O jb‚O R
t M[P ).

7. The (' 9), like (V! 9)31, is not a complete


sentence but is part of a sentence, e.g. ( t Xr M O j %m ^e M) – The
water of the river is sweet. In this sentence, (O j %m ^e M) is the

subject while (
t Xr M ) is the predicate.

8. Sometimes there are several (O jb‚O R


t M[P ) in one

construction, e.g. (O j O ybr ƒ


O j M
P M ) – the door of the house of
the leader; (O j=GO !M r 
O j ƒ
O j M
P M ) - the door of the house of the
minister’s son.

The middle (O j b‚O R


t M[P ) becomes the (R
t M[P ) of the
succeeding words. Therefore (r -b) cannot precede it nor can
the tanwīn be appended to it.

9. You have learnt in the first lesson that when an indefinite

31 See 3.8.

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noun is related to a definite noun, it also becomes definite,


e.g. (Y
o j=GM .P /
b i ) – the slave of Zaid;
(
O vP m  .P /
b i ) the slave of the man. The word (.P /
b i ) – slave –
has become definite in these sentences.

10. In Arabic, because the (R


t M[P ) precedes the (O jb‚O R
t M[P )
and no word can interpose between them, the adjective of
the (R
t M[P ) has to succeed the (O jb‚O R
t M[P ), e.g.

P Om| lO -bj $M r .P /
b i ) – the pious slave of the lady. In this

example, the word (†


P Om|) is the adjective of the word
(.P /
b i ). Therefore it is (N!\),32 singular, masculine and
definite.
Hereunder are more examples. Understand the differences
properly.

†P Om| O vP m  YP b0M The pious son of the


man
Adjective of the
(R
t M[P )

32 in the nominative case. See Lesson 10.

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†Om| O vP m  YP b0M The son of the pious


man
Adjective of the
(O j b‚O R
t M[P )

*i g
M Om| O vP m  ƒ
P %j O The pious daughter of
the man
Adjective of the
(R
t M[P )

*O g
M Om| lO -bj $M r ƒ
P %j O The daughter of the
pious woman
Adjective of the
(O j b‚O R
t M[P )

Note: More rules of (*i \bM'œOrb) are discussed in Lesson 11.

Vocabulary List No. 6

Word Meaning
Yt "M -b lion

* M b€‚O obedience

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Fi !j P -b I seek refuge

Ab -b listen, beware

* $M ?r O wisdom

Yt $j M praise

9
t ,O bF going

(
t -rM head

i M$j M very beneficent

t jO M very merciful

t jvO M rejected one

C
t 0j GM husband

* vM 0j GM wife

ž

M "M 0- ž
’j "P anger

 bWr "P king, overpowering

^p M$"M sky

9
t b€b to seek

9
t j€O fragrance

— ŒO shadow

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t j=YO #b very powerful

— i every, each

‹o j:M « i everything

t g
j b meat

(*!!) M whatever

* \bM’M fear

l 1jO mirror

†t r O salt, salty

 M
j qO to forget

O MYOM0 parents

}t O M a }t j M goat

*i \b1 calamity

 M
j qO forgetfulness

 O M just

S
t j :M 0- S
t O _
j M east


t j b 0-
t O ™j M west

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Hereunder are some (l m v


MR
t 0j P P ) which appear before
nouns and convert them to (+ *) - the genitive case.

Word Meaning Example Meaning Example Meaning


O with, o vP M O with a O b2b rO with
in man the pen
j \O in ƒ
o j M j \O in a j \O in the
house garden
O Mf
j )Pr
bM on o )MvM bM on a bM on the
mountain throne
H
O j M r
j O from Yo j=GM j O from M O from
Zaid the
YO {
O j $M r musjid
b‚O to, till Yo b M b‚O to a city b‚O till
Kufah
*O \b!j ?i r
O for, to Yo j=}M O for Zaid ƒ
P r #i I said
to Zaid
Yo j=}M O
TM like, o vP M b like a YO "M ybrb similar
similar man to the
lion
j M from Yo j=GM j M from
Zaid

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Exercise No. 6

(A) Translate the following into English:

*i M b€‚O (5) ( O M Vb r i Fi -i (4) lO M_ P g j b (3) O 2b )Mr P )Mb (2) O g j )Mr ^e M (1)
(9) ƒ O j)Mr 0M S O !j
š  j \O (8) ˆ O $j _ m  ^e !j 'M ( 7)
Oƒ P j M (6) O j=YM OM!r
(13) ( O 0j P M r O (12) †O r $O r 0M ^O M$rO (11) ( O M Vb rb (10) YO { O j $M r b‚O
(16) O M)h€b lO M_ P g j b 0M O 2b )Mr P )Mb (15) †t r O O g j )Mr ^e M (14) ˆ o qM-b j M
b‚O b !j )P,O bF P g j qM (18) ( O 0j P M r O 9P jW– b (17) t !j $P g j M YO b!M r P "j O
O O j $P r li 1jO P O j $P rb (20) h "O j ?i r bM ˆ t OMv P –M $P rb (19) *O "M M Yj $M r
(23) i M j %h O r O r *i \b1 (22) O j=YM OM!r ž O’ j "P j \O h m  ž i’M "M (21)
J O j ybr O\
O  « ŒO b O Mr b bWr š  u ‚O (24)
O  *i \bM’M *O $M ?r g O r ( P -rM
9 P r ?b r ˆ M jb (26) *o $M O j P 0M o O j P – i bM * [ M j=O \b O r O r 9
P b€b (25)
O !j "P M  Yo $m g M P ƒ P %j O  *i $M €O b\ (28) Yo j=}M O i M$r ˆ M jb (27) YO "M ybrb
Fi !j P -b (29)  ¬ OM O O M% jO P j Mg P rM0 P Mg M rM0 a  ¬ OM *i vM 0j GM M ,O
O
O xO YP $j g
O rb (31) O jO m  O $M j m 
O  O j O (30) O jvO m  O bWj_ m  M O
O O
‹o j:M – i bM
c  u ‚O (33) P O ™j $M rM0 S P O _ j $M r O xO 0M (32) M j$O bMr h M
.J O j ybr O\ M 0M B O M0M$ m  O\ M O xO u ‚O Ab -b (34) t j=YO #b

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(B) Translate the following into Arabic

(1) the goat’s milk


(2) the cow’s head
(3) the obedience of the mother
(4) Zaid’s wealth
(5) the elephant’s ear
(6) the light of the moon
(7) in the house
(8) till the market
(9) for Allāh and the Messenger
(10) on the head and the eye
(11) The boy’s name is Hāmid.
(12) They are going home.
(13) We are sitting in the musjid.
(14) The goat’s milk is for the girl.
(15) The obedience of Allāh is in the obedience of the
Messenger.
(16) Āishah , the daughter of Abū Bakr  is the wife
of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allāh .
(17) He is the son of the leader.
(18) The anger of Allāh is on the oppressive king.
(19) The ignorant one is not like the learned one.
(20) The fragrance is not for the boy.
(21) She is the daughter of Hāmid’s son.

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Test No. 3

(1) What is the difference between (*@ *£) and ( *£


*\)?
(2) What is the difference between (*@ *£) and ( 9
V!)?
(3) How many parts does a (*@ *£) have? What is each
part called?
(4) What is the ( )33 of the subject and the predicate?
(5) What is the Arabic term for the attaching word?
(6) In how many factors does the predicate correspond
to the subject?
(7) If there are two subjects of different kinds in a
sentence, which one is considered for the predicate?
(8) What effect does the word (
u ‚O) have on the subject?
(9) Attach (
u ‚O) to a dual word and a sound masculine
and feminine plural word and read it.
(10) How is a negative meaning and one of interrogation
created in a (*@ *£)?
(11) What is the paradigm34 of the detached nominative

33 desinential inflection – that is, inflection of the final radical.

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pronouns?
(12) In the paradigm of the pronoun, which words are
similar?
(13) How do you pronounce the word (Mq-b)?

(14) Construct ten different kinds of (*@ *£).


(15) Define (' 9) and (*\').
(16) What cannot enter on the (R[)?

(17) What is the ( ) at the end of ( R[)?

(18) What effect do the (lv R0) have on the noun?

In grammar, a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (e.g. write,
34

writes, wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model for all other
words of the same type.

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Lesson 8

The Scales of Words

1. In Arabic, the original letters of nouns and verbs are not


less than three. The maximum number of letters in a noun is
five, and four in a verb. Together with the original letters,
extra letters can also be attached. At such a time, the noun
and the verb can have more than five letters.

Note 1: The original letter or root letter is the one that


remains in all the forms and derivations. Only in some
exceptions is it deleted or changed to another letter.
The extra letter is the one that is found in one word-form
but not in another, e.g. in the word (Y
t $j M ), all three letters
are root letters while in (Y
t O M), the alif and in (t !j $P g
j M ), the
first (.) and the (0) are extra letters.

2. Words having three root-letters are called (


 ‰O/
b ‰i), e.g.
((
t M \b) and (
M M '
M ).
If they have four root-letters, they are called (
 O M P ), e.g.
(
 VO r \O) and (C
M M j M ).

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If they have five root-letters, they are called (


 "O M$ŠP ), e.g.
(
 vM j Vb "M ).

Words made up of only root-letters are called (t m {


M P ) while
those having extra letters as well are called (O j \O Yt j=}O M ), e.g.
(t )j 
O ) is (t m {
M P  ‰O/
b ‰i) – three root-letters without any extra
letters.
(t )š?
b M) is (O j\O
Yt j=}O M  ‰O/
b ‰i) - three root-letters with extra letters
because the (B) and ( ) are extra.

Note 2 : To distinguish whether verbs ( \-), derived nouns


(* 2u fM_
j P ^p M$"j -b)35 and verbal nouns (O |
M M )36 are (t m {
M P ) or ( Yt j=}O M
O j\O), the (9© X Y0) word-form of the perfect tense
('¢) has to be examined. If that word-form is free of extra
letters, then its derivatives and verbal noun will also be
regarded as (t m {
M P ), e.g. (M |
M qM) is (t m {
M P  ‰O/
b ‰i). Hence, the

35 These are nouns that are derived from the verb, e.g. (O b\) and ( !j P Vr M ) are
derived from the verb (bM \b).
36 Plural of (tYM |
j M ), the infinitive.

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imperfect tense (N[¢) which is (P |


P %jM=), the (\ ") - t 
O Mq,
the ( !V ") - t !j |
P %jM and the verbal noun (l M |
j qP) will also
be regarded as (t m {
M P  ‰O/
b ‰i) although these forms have extra
letters.

Similarly, in a paradigm, extra letters appear in a (t m {


M P )
word which will still remain (t m {
M P ). For example, the word
(
 vP M ) is (t m {
M P ). Therefore, (O /
b vP M ) and ( MvO ) will also be
(t m {
M P ).
However, (M )m
b ) and (.M M r -b) are (O j\O Yt j=}O M  ‰O/
b ‰i). The former has
one extra ( ) while the latter has an extra alif.

3. In order to determine the scales of words and to


distinguish the root letters from the extra letters, the scale
(M}j O ) of (
N R) is used. In triliteral words (words with 3
root letters), the (R) represents the first radical (letter) of

the word, the (N) represents the second radical of the word

and the ( ) represents the third radical of the word.

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Examples:

t dbd#b <
t dfOdb Yt d[
P dM 9
t drdb
 dMdb\  dO db\  dP db\  dj db\

The letter that corresponds to the (R) of the (}) is called

the (ِ*M$O?
b r
^e b\), like the (S) of (t b#b), that which corresponds to
the (N) is called the (ِ*M$O? b r P jM ), like the ( ) of (t b#b) while the
letter corresponding to the ( ) is called the (ِ*M$O? b r .P Ab ), like
the (.) of (
t b#b).

When intending to determine the scale of (


 O M P ) -
quadriliteral (four letter) words, add two lāms instead of
one after (R) and (N). In words with five root letters, add
three lāms.
Examples:

t dbVdjdMv  dMvj dbVdM"


 dbdjdb\  dbdrdMdb\

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4. At the time of determining the scale, the alphabets (R),

(N) and ( ) will take the place of the original letters while
the other extra letters will remain as they are in their places.
Examples:

t dj)dO t djdO)db P dM)dr-b t djdO)dr?dM


 djdO\  djdOdb\ i dMdr\-b  djdOdrVdM

However, when a letter is increased by repeating the ( P jM


ِ*M$O?
b r) or the (ِ*M$O?b r
.P Ab ), the (N) or the ( ) is repeated in the
scale. For example, in the word (M dM 9 j db = M )mb ), the first
( ) is the (ِ*M$O?
b r P jM ) while the second one is extra.
According to the rule, the scale should have been ( b )Mj \b).
Instead its scale is ( b m \b). Similarly, in the word (m $M j ‚O), the
final () is extra. Its scale will be regarded as (
u M \r ‚O).

5. A great benefit of recognizing the scales of words is that


by knowing the meaning of the root letters of a word, it
becomes very easy to recognize the meanings of all its
paradigms and derivatives.

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Exercise No. 7

What are the scales of the following words:

<
t j=O :M (3) R
t M :M (2)  vP M (1)

Tt !j iP (6) ]
t OM (5) R
t M:j -b (4)

i M$j M (9) t jO M (8) t j M (7)

.t MO (12) t j=O b (11) .t M b (10)

^e M$bP (15) t OM (14) t r O (13)

t Vb %j[
M b (18)
t M 2r M (17) b !j $P OM (16)

t jOj M (21) M uM (20) * M /


u M (19)

.t Mr O (24) t )h?b fMP (23) t )š?b M (22)

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Lesson 9

The Broken Plural

1. It was mentioned previously that there is no rule to


construct the broken plural (6 ?¢ w$+). It is totally based
on hearing the plural from the people of the language.
Hereunder we list some of the scales of the broken plural
which are used most often:

(Yo b0M wP $j vM ) t Ab 0j -b :  M\r -b ()


((o M \b wP $j vM ) ( t M\r -b
(<
o j=O :M wP $j vM ) R t M:j -b
(o Wb M wP $j vM ) t bWj -b

o #r 0M wP $j vM ) B t b#0j -b

(]o OM wP $j vM ) Tt !j iP : !j P \i ( )


(Yo "M -b wP $j vM ) t !j "P -i
(Ž¬ M wP $j vM ) S t !j 2i P
(Yo ,O M: wP $j vM ) t !j P :P

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(9o r #b wP $j vM ) t !j i#i
(Yo %jvP wP $j vM ) t !j %PvP
(o vj 0M wP $j vM ) ;t!j vP 0P

(9
o r b wP $j vM ) t /b O :  M\O (C)
( o !j ‰b wP $j vM ) t M‰O
(†o j P wP $j vM ) D t MO
(o vP M wP $j vM )  MvO
(o j)Ob wP $j vM ) t M)O
(o j™O 
M wP $j vM ) t M™ O
(Yo b M wP $j vM ) t /
b O

( o MfO wP $j vM ) 9 t fPi :  P \i ()


(*o %Mj=YO M wP $j vM )  YP P
(*o %MjVO "M wP $j vM ) t Vi "P
(*o Vb jg
O M wP $j vM ) < t gP P
(*o 2b j=O €b wP $j vM ) S
t P €i

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(o !j "P M wP $j vM )  "P P

(o j :M wP $j vM ) t P :j -b :  P \r -b (;)
(o vj O wP $j vM )  vP j -b
(o j qM wP $j vM ) t P qj-b
(o g
j M wP $j vM ) t g P j-b
(ˆ o Vr qM wP $j vM ) ˆ t Vi qj-b
(o jM wP $j vM ) t Pj -b

(o j=GO 0M wP $j vM ) ^e MGM 0P : ^e /


b M \i (0)
(o jO -b wP $j vM ) ^e MM -i
(o O M: wP $j vM ) ^e MM :P
(o jVO "M wP $j vM ) ^e MVb "P
(o jO -b wP $j vM ) ^e M%M -i
(o jO 0M wP $j vM ) ^e / b b 0P
(o j"O -b wP $j vM ) ^e M"M -i

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^e /
b O \r -b (G)
This scale is generally used for the adjectives of intelligent
beings which are on the scale of (
 jO \b) as in:

(Žo j=YO 
M wP $j vM ) ^e b#YO  j -b
(¬ )OqM wP $j vM ) ^e M)Oqj-b
o j)OM wP $j vM ) 37^e m)O -b
(9
(9
o j=O #b wP $j vM ) ^e M O #r -b
(¬ %Ob wP $j vM ) ^e M%Or -b
(¬ O0M wP $j vM ) ^e MO0j -b

((
o O b\ wP $j vM )  M"j \i :  /
b j \i (D)
(Yo b M wP $j vM )  MYr P
(9
o j[
O #b wP $j vM )  M)[ j #i

(o |
P %jP wP $j vM ) P 
O M%M : i OM\b (K)

37 The original was (e^M))Oj -b). The reason why it has changed into (e^m)O -b) will be
explained later.

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(*o b}M rGM wP $j vM ) i GO Ab GM


(9
o b !j b wP $j vM ) 9 P O M!b
(o ,M !j vM wP $j vM ) P ,O M!vM

Note 1: The plural of five-letter words also comes on this


scale. However, the final letter has to be deleted, e.g. the
plural of (
 vM j Vb "M ) is (C
P O bV"M ). The ( ) has been deleted.

(o M{%j\O wP $j vM ) P jvO M%\b : i jOM\b („)


(S
o 0j YP %jP wP $j vM ) ŽP j=O M% M
(o j=YO %j#O wP $j vM ) i j=O M%#b
(o j=}O %jŠO wP $j vM ) P j=GO M%ŠM
(o Mf j P wP $j vM ) P jOM M
(o bWr "P wP $j vM ) P j€O / b "M

(Fo Mf"j -i wP $j vM ) l Xb OM"-b : * bOM\b (T)


(Xo j$O r O wP $j vM ) l Xb O /
b M
(] o bM wP $j vM ) * ?b ©O/ b M

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This scale is specific with intelligent beings.

: i O bVM ( )
This scale is specific with those words that are on the scale
of (
 M Vr M ), ( O Vr M ) or (* bM Vr M ).

(9
o b j M wP $j vM ) 9 P O MM
(Yo {
O j M wP $j vM ) YP vO M M
(*o )MfM?r M wP $j vM ) 9
P Ob?M

i jO bVM (.)

This scale is used for those words that are on the scale of
( MVr O ) or ( !j P Vr M ).
(Dt MfVr O wP $j vM ) †P jObVM
(
o !j fP?r M wP $j vM ) 9P jOb?M

Note 2: The following plural scales are (RO|


M %jP P jb )38.

38 This is a certain class of nouns that is not fully declined. European


grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes. This term is discussed in

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Tanwīn will not be read on them.

i jO bVM a i O bVM a i jOM\b a i OM\b a ^e /


b O \r -b a ^e /
b M \i

2. Remember the plural of the following words in


particular:
The sound plural of (
t jO) is (b !j %P M) in (w\ *M) - the

nominative case and ( M j%O M) in (+0 9|% *M) - the

accusative and genitive cases. Its broken plural is (^p M% j -b).

The plural of (* %M j O) is (Bt M% M).


The plural of (Et -b) is ( M!Šj ‚O) or (l !M Šj ‚O).
The plural of (ƒt Šj -i) is (B t M!ŠM -b).
The plural of (l -bM j ‚O) is (^p M qO) or (l !M
j qO).
The plural of (. -i) is (B t Mm -i).

3. Some words have plurals on several scales. Hence the


plurals of (t g
j M) are (t Mg O), (t Mg j-b), (t g
P j-b) and (t !j g
P P).

4. Some words have different scales of plurals rendering

Volume 4, Lesson 57.

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different meanings. For example, the word (ƒ


t j M) means
house or verse (of a poem). Regarding the first meaning, the
plural is (B
t !j P P) while the plural (B
t M j-b) is related to the
second meaning.
The word (Y
t )jM ) means slave or servant. The respective
plurals are (Y
t j)OM ) and (t M)O ).
The word (
t jM ) means eye or spring. The respective plurals
are (
t Pj -b) and ( !j PP ).

Vocabulary List No. 7

The plurals of some words are provided next to them.

Word Meaning
t "O M scowling, frowning

J
t M j-b a ˜
t j M some, part of

ƒ
t Ob‰ fixed, established

 MjvO a t Mv neighbour

Yt j=YO M iron

t jŠM good

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^e MVb "P a t jVO " ambassador

R
t !j P"P a <
t j"M sword

U
t M: tea

K
 0j P :P a K
 j :M condition


t M
O a9
t j 
M difficult

 M!€O a  j=!O €b long, tall

* m OM M 0-  OM M Arabian

Q
 O b\ empty

wt €O b# cutting, sharp

*i MOMr *i "M M Yj $M rb high school

j 2O fm$P rb pious

wt jWO P obedient

t m Wb P pure, clean

°
i O M!M a * “b O !j M advice

lM '
O Mq fresh

lM ŒO Mq looking

ˆ
P ©ObVqM a ˆ
t jVO qM precious

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wt \OMq beneficial

.t m=-b a .t !j M= a day

.M !j Mrb today

Xo ›OM !j M= on that day

* %Mj=GO beauty

B
t M#OM remaining, permanent

B
P MgOm| B
P M#OM)rb the good actions

D
t MO a †t j P spear, lance, javelin

P jvO M%\b a  M{%j\O cup

C
P O bV"M a  vM j Vb "M quince

Exercise No. 8

(A) In the under-mentioned examples, the adjective or


predicate of unintelligent beings is used mostly as singular
feminine. Translate the following phrases or sentences into
English.

 MvO (4) t M™


O P Ab 0j brb (3) *i O\m% .P !j iP rb (2) * bj=!O €b .t /
b #r -b (1)

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(8) * bj "M S t P €i (7) *i )Mj | m  K i 0j P _š b (6) * )Mj  M 9 P fP?i rb (5) b !j g P OM
(11) *i M j"O !M r i YP $P r M ,O (10) *i fM Ou5 S P !j 2i g
P rb (9) l M m Wb P < t g P P
(14) B t Mm -i m ,P (13) B t M$O j P ^p M qO (12) YO j=YO g M r M O i M!W–  D P M h b
(16) b !j P jWO P B O M%)MrM0 M j%O)Mr u ‚O (15) b !j P OMv B P M!ŠM ybrM0 i M!Šj œOrb
M O ^O MM _š  ˜ P j M (18) M j)O©OM™ O j ,P M (17) .M !j Mr b 0j P ' O M ^e MVb š 
M / b ?O r u ‚O (20) * M O Ab *i M jVO %m P ,O M!{
M rb (19) M j#OO m| M jg O Om|
j ,P (22) * M \OMq *i %M Mg M r °
i O M!$M rb (21) O mY O M bM * M OMv *b "M O Mgr
M O b !j $P –M P *O MOMr (
O O MY$M r O\ (23) O M$j m  P M)O P g j qM0M O M qjœOr YP j)OM
S P !j 2i P (25) U O m_ O jvO M%Vb O *i b O bVr ŽP j=O M%|
m b (24) O M)?O r ^O M$bP r
u ‚O (27) l!M r P C P O bV"M O jOM )Mr O\ (26) ^O M O #r ybr S O !j 2i gP b O Mj{O r
0M l M ŒO Mq M hM b‚O l M ' O Mq Xo ›OM !j M= ;t!j vP 0P (28) o !j PP 0M B o m%vM O\ M j2O fm$P r
B P M#OM)rM0 MqjYš  lO Mg M r *i %Mj=GO b !j %P)MrM0 i M$rb (29) l M "O M Xo ›OM !j M= ;t!j vP 0P
.] M hM YM %jO t jŠM B P MgOm|

(B) Reply to these questions in Arabic, e.g.

* M \OMq 9
t fPi U
j YO %jO j M qM ª wt \OMq
t MfO TM YM %jO r ,M (1)

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ª wt €O b# < t j"M TM YM %jO r ,M (2)


ª  j=!O €b †t j P Yo O M YM %jO r ,M (3)
ª †t OM P jO ybr O ,M (4)
ª< t j“O qM t !j ‰b TM YM %jO r ,M (5)
ªQ  O b\ SP 0j YP %j|
š  O ,M (6)
ª .M !j Mr t '
O M Xi j$O r fh O ,M (7)
ª  M{%j\O TM YM %jO r ,M (8)
ª  vM j Vb "M TM YM %jO r ,M (9)
ª  %Ob !M ,P r ,M (10)
ª * g M OM * %M jO M ,O r ,M (11)
ªˆ t jVO qM t ,M !j vM TM YM %jO -b (12)
ªS O 0j YP %j| š  D P MfVr O TM YM %jO -b (13)
ª F Mf"j -i *O "M M Yj $M r O\ r ,M (14)
ª l M j)Ob * )MfM?r M j ©OM)$j M O\ r ,M (15)

(C) Translate the following phrases into Arabic

(1) the Muslim men


(2) the large ships

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(3) the clean clothes


(4) the flowing rivers
(5) The rivers are flowing.
(6) the past months
(7) They are truthful witnesses.
(8) The two tall mountains
(9) The spears are long and the swords are sharp.
(10) Are you (pl.) unhappy?
(11) No, we are cheerful.
(12) Some kings are just.
(13) The cups of the tea are empty.
(14) Are you (pl.) friends?
(15) Yes, and we are relatives.
(16) The students and the teachers are in the madrasah.
(17) Those girls are playing.
(18) The people of īmān are the friends of Allāh.
(19) the tall houses.
(20) the Arabian verses
(21) The Qur’ān has beneficial advice (plural).

Test No. 4

(1) What is a (- R)?


(2) How many root letters are there in a noun and in a
verb?
(3) Besides the root letters found in a word, what are the

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other letters called?


(4) With regards to the root letters of words, how many
types of words are there?
(5) What are words which only have root letters called
and what are those words called which have extra
letters.
(6) Which of the following words are (±) and which

are (\ Y=}):

9
t ,O bF a 9
P ,M Xr M= a 9
M ,M Fb a M )mb a t j)O?r M a O /
b vP M a  vP M
(7) How is the scale of a word determined? In other
words, how do you use the root letters (\) to
determine which letter is a root letter and which one
is extra?
(8) What is the benefit of knowing the scales of words?
(9) What are the well-known scales of the broken plural?
(10) Which scales of the plural are (R|% >)?
(11) Make the plurals of (t g
j M), (l -bM j -O), (* %M"M ), (E
t -b), (Yt )jM ),
(
 M{%j\O) and (t j"O -b).

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Lesson 10

The Cases of Nouns

1. The change in case of a noun due to the change in


vowelling of the final consonant is called ( ) -
declension.
Declension is of two types: one is (*
b M g
M r O ) which is
shown by fathah, dammah and kasrah. The other is
(R0j P g
P r O ) which is shown by means of some

(Rj0P 
P ) – letters - as will be explained later on.

2. When a noun is:


(1) the doer of the verb (\), or the subject (Yf)) or

predicate (§Š), it is said to be (w\ *) - in the


nominative case. The examples of the subject and
predicate have passed in Lesson no. 6.
(2) an object ( !V) or it indicates the condition ( )
of the doer or the object, it is regarded to be in
(9|%
*) - the accusative case.
(3) ( R[) or it comes after a (v R), it is

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regarded to be (6 + *) - in the genitive case. The


examples will be mentioned shortly.

The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns

3. If a noun is singular or a broken plural, in (w\ *) the


dammatain (d
p )39 will be read on it, in (9|% *) the

fathatain (nd) will be read on it and in (6 + *), the

kasratain (d
o ) will be read on it.

39 If the noun is indefinite, the dammatain will be read on the word. However,
if the noun is definite, only one dammah will be read on it.

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Examples:

Example no. 1

Yo OMŠ b‚O ² !j fP?r M Yt j=GM b "M j -b


Zaid sent a letter to Khālid
0± R !V \ \
v
6 + * * *
9|% w\

This is a (*\ *$Pv). All three nouns are singular.

Example no. 2

^O M %h b‚O ² M‰O i Mvh  b "M j -b


The men sent clothing to the women.
0± R !V \ \
v
6 + * * *
9|% w\

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This is a (*\ *$Pv). All three nouns are broken plurals.

Example no. 3

Yo O M (
O M \b bM ²)O M Yt j=GM ^c Mv
Zaid came riding on Hāmid’s horse.
R[ R[ R  \ \
 v
0±
6 + * * *
9|% w\

This is a (*\
*$Pv). The word (²)O M) indicates the condition
of the doer. Therefore it is ( !|%).

Note 1: The adjective will be in the same case as the


preceding noun. If the noun is (N!\), the adjective will

also be (N!\). If it is ( !|%), the adjective will also be the

same and if it is (0±), the adjective will follow suit.

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Example:

(o O M ]
o OM b‚O /
³ j=!O €b ² !j fP?r M t OM  vP M b "M j -b)

A learned man sent a long letter to a just king.

The words, (
t OM), (/
³ j=!O €b ) and (o O M) are adjectives and the
case of each one follows its preceding noun, namely (  vP M ),
(² !j fP?
r M ) and (o O M) respectively.

4. If a noun is dual (*%5d), the suffix (


O cd) will be

appended in (w\ *) - the nominative case and (O j= cd) in


(6 +0 9|% *) - the accusative and genitive cases, e.g.

(
O jM-bj $M r b‚O O j M!j fP?r M O /
b vP m  9
M fMb )

The two men wrote two letters to the two women.

The ( ) of (
O M%‰r‚O) and (O Mf%M‰r‚O) meaning ‘two’ is the same as
the dual form.

The words (/
b O ) and (Mfr O ) meaning ‘both’ will be read (j bO )
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and (
j fMr O ) in (6 +0 9|% *) - the accusative and genitive
cases, e.g.

(M$,
P/
b O O /
b vP M ^c Mv) – Both men came.
(M$O j b
O O jbvP M ƒ
P j=-bM ) – I saw both men.
(M$O j b
O O jbvP M b‚O ƒP r "M j -b) – I sent to both men.

The words (/
b O ) and (Mfr O ) are used with a pronoun (>$').

5. If a word is (´  X¢ w$+) – the sound masculine


plural, the suffix ( b 0j ed) will be appended in (w\ *) and
(
M j= Od) in (6 +0 9|% *), e.g.
(
M j$O Ou“ b‚O M j=YO ,O M{$P r b !j $P O
j $P r b "M j -b)

The Muslims despatched the mujāhidīn to the oppressors.

The tens from (


b 0j P _
j O ) – 20 – till (b !j P
j O) – 90 - have the same
( ). The form will be (
b 0j P _
j O ) in (w\ *) and (M j=O _
j O )
in (6 +0 9|% *).

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The word (!j i0i- – people of) in (w\ *) and (j O0i-) in ( *
6 +0 9|%) is like (´  X¢ w$+) - the sound masculine
plural.

Examples:
(
O M)rybr !i0i- j ,P ) - They are people of intelligence.

(
O M)rybr O0i- YM %jO
O M)rybr O0i- ƒ
P j=-bM ) - I saw the people of
intelligence by the people of intelligence.

Note 2: The ( ) of the dual and sound masculine plural

is by means of letters (R0). Therefore the nūn of both

these forms is called (*  !q). See 5.4.

6. The sound feminine plural (´  zq`¢ w$+) will be read


with (d
p ) in (w\ *) and with (d
o )40 in (6 +0 9|% *).
See 5.2. Example:

(B
O M=O M)r b‚O B
O b2"O bVr B
P M$O
j $P r M M €b ) - The Muslim women

40 If the word has (r b), only one dammah or kasrah will be read as is apparent
from the example.

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expelled the transgressing women to the deserts.

7. You have learnt that when (r b) is prefixed to a word, the


tanwīn is deleted. See 2.3. Now remember that some words
do not accept the tanwīn from their inception.
Examples: (*i ?
u M ), (P |
j O ), (YP $M j -b), (i M$5rP ), (9
P %Mj=GM ), (*i g
M r €b ), (^e M$j M ),
(Y
P vO M M ).

Such nouns are called (R|% > "). In (w\ *), they
are pronounced with a (ed) and in (6 +0 9|% *) with a

(cd), e.g.

(*b ?
u M j \O 9
M %Mj=GM i M$5rP Ub-M ) - Úthmān saw Zaynab in Makkah.

However, when an (R|% > ") has (r b) prefixed to it, or


it is (R[), then a kasrah will be rendered to it in (6 + *).

Examples: (YO vO M $M r O\), (M j$O O


j $P r YO vO M M j \O).

Note 3: Words which accept tanwīn are called (R|%).


These nouns will be discussed in detail in Lesson 57.
8. No ( ) can be read on words like (…"!j P ) and (… j 
O ).
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They will hence be read as they are in all three cases ( *
6 +0 9|% 0 w\). Such nouns are called (j!|
P 2r M ").
Examples:
(…"!j P ^c Mv), (…"!j P ƒ
P j=-bM ), (…"!j P .P /
b i !M ,P ).

9. Words with a yā sākin (U


j ) at the end like (j '
O b2rb), (j OMrb),
(U
j O M{rb) and (j '
O M$rb) are free of external ( ) in ( w\ *
6 +0) while in (9|% *), a (9|q) will be rendered to
them.
Examples:

Sentence Meaning Case


j '
O b2rb ^c Mv The judge w\ *
came
j '
O b2r .P /
b i ^c Mv The slave of 6 + *
the judge
came.
M '
O b2r ƒ
P j=-bM I saw the 9|% *
judge.

If these words do not have (r -b), they will be read as (J


o b#),

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(o
M), etc. in (6 +0 w\ *) and (²'
O b#), (²OM) etc. in ( *
9|%).

Their sound plurals (´  w$+) are: (b !j '


P b#), (b !j iM) etc. in
(w\ *) and (
M j'
O b#), (M jOM) etc. in (6 +0 9|% *).

Their dual forms are like normal words, namely, (


O M'
O b#),
(
O MOM) etc. in (w\ *) and (
O jM'
O b#), (O jMOM) etc. in ( *
6 +0 9|%).

Nouns that can be declined by the changing of the final


vowels or letters are called ( MP$rb) and words whose final

vowels are static are called (O%)j $


M rb)41. There are few nouns
that are (O%)j $
M rb). The (l:8^@) indicative pronouns, ( ^@A
*!!¢) relative pronouns, (.Vf"A ^@) interrogative
pronouns, etc. are all (O%)j $
M rb). They will be discussed later in
Lesson 57.

41 Because it is incorrect to say (O%)jM ), the term (O%)j$M rb) has been used. If one
deletes the (r b), the word becomes (o)jM ).

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Note 4: The (*|V%¢ *!\¢ ©$[) nominative detached


pronouns were listed in Lesson 6. The remaining pronouns
will be discussed in Lessons 11 and 15 and in detail in
Lesson 41.

Vocabulary List No. 8

Word Meaning

t m! M doorkeeper

t M$‰r-b a t $M ‰b fruit

 )MvM mountain

 $M vM camel

B
O MqM!Mg
M r *i 2b j=YO M zoo (lit. garden of animals)

P j=0O M0M a  M!j=O government office

P jO bM a  uP shop

²)O M mounted

S
t M!"j -b a S
t !j "P market, shopping mall

B
t Mm"M a lM m"M car, vehicle

Yt h"M leader, master

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lYM h"M queen, noble woman, wife

* b
O b\ distance

;t O b\ agile, swift

„…5r$m i guava

 mP pomegranate

t !j "P -i a Yt "M -b lion

t m=}M P beautified

µ|
M P place of salāh, ídgāh

B
t b#Mq a S
t !j qP a * #bMq she camel

* ,M }j qP walk, stroll

 MYjM field

l M )jO admonition, lesson

Exercise No. 9

(A) Translate into English


Only those verbs which were used in the examples of the
previous lessons have been used in this exercise. Verbs will
be discussed in Lesson 14.

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O M)r YM %jO t ©Ob# P m!)Mrb (3) b 0j P ' O M li Xb O / b fmb (2) t ' O M Xi j$O r fhb (1)
M O t !j $P g j M ^c Mv (5) O { Mg M rO ²)r b YP b!M r M M ' M ( 4) ˆ t OMv 9 P r ?b rM0
*O 2b j=YO O j \O ²Y"M -b Yt O M Ub-M (6) lO /m|O YO { O j $M r b‚O 9 M ,M Fb 0M *O "M M Yj $M r
9 M ,M Fb 0M YP $M j -b ^c Mv (8) ²qmP Yt OMŠ0M „…5r$m i …g j M= b b -b (7) B O MqM!Mg M r
(10) lO M m m  O\ B o M)O M j O,j O b‚O ^e M %h 9 M ,M Fb (9) O j?b O M' Yt $m g M P
(11) YO jO r lO b| M O u| M $P r b‚O M j)O,O bF B O M$O j $P r 0M M j$O O j $P r ƒ P j=-bM
t j qM O MY™j )Mr O\ (12) *O ,M }j %Psb O | j M r YM j M O Mf j )Pr b‚O B P M%)MrM0 b !j %P)Mr 9
P ,M Xr M=
^c Mv (14) *O %m{ M r O\ ^O M %h li YM h"M *i $M €O b\ (13) *O bvj Yh O R t 0j P j M o Mv
O\ O j M OMv O jbO M O jM' O b# ƒ P j=-bM (15) ( O M Vb r bM ²)O M  O M J o b#
b !j iO M b !j ' P b# j ,P r M Ab (17) ª b !j $P ObŒ b !j ' P b# j ,P r ,M (16) O M!j=Yh 
O j=YM b!M r / b O 9 M ,M Fb (19) j MOM$O O R t 0j P j M o M  )MvM YO %jO r O\ (18)
M$O jbO ²YjO "M 0M / ³ jOŠM ƒ P j=-bM (20) *O MOMr *O "M M Yj $M r b‚O O jfM%j)Or Mfr O 0M
O M| jybr O0iyO l³ M )jO b ]
M bFb j \O u ‚O (21) O YM j$M r O\ O j)MO Ab

(B) Fill in the blanks where a verb, (\), (Yf)), (§Š),

(v R) or (0±) are missing with suitable


words that you have learnt.

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li Xb O /
b fm0 li Xb OM"ybr-b (1)
bM *
M OMv ( 2)
bM ²)O M ^c Mv (3)

O M)r ² OMv ²"O M „-bM (4)
YO %jO r O\ ²Mqj-b ( 5)
* M=O Mv YO %jO r O\ (6)
ª b‚O 9
M ,M Fb r ,M (7)
j \O / ³ j\O 0M ²Y"M -b ( 8)
bM  OM ( 9)
O j)MO M 0M (10)
O j “«  b‚O 9
P ,M Xr M= (11)
*O )Mj ?b r .M M-b *b ?u M b M$5r P (12)

(C) Translate into Arabic:

(1) a tall mountain


(2) the past two months
(3) The gardens of the cities are wide.
(4) There is a long distance between Makkah and Egypt.
(5) I saw two flowing rivers today.

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(6) Ahmad’s son’s horses are agile.


(7) Úthmān came to Makkah on an agile camel.
(8) The two doorkeepers are standing by the door of the
leader.
(9) The shops of the markets of the cities are much
beautified.
(10) A just judge is in the governmental office.

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Lesson 11

The Genitive of Possession


(      )42

1. When the (*%5d) dual and (´  X¢ w$+) sound


masculine plural forms are (R[), their (*  !q) at the
end is deleted.
Examples:

w\ * 9|% * + *


o vP M fMj M M$,P o vP M j fMj M ƒ
P j=-bM o vP M j fMj M
P M! j-b
They are the I saw the two the doors of
two houses of houses of a the two
a man. man. houses of a
man.
originally was originally was originally was
(
O Mfj M) (
O jfMj M) (
O jfMj M)

42 This lesson is related to lesson no. 7.

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w\ * 9|% * + *


YO b!M r !P$–M P j ,P O$–M P ƒ P j=-bM YO b!M r O$–M P ƒ
P j M
YO b!M r
They are the I saw the the house of
teachers of the teachers of the the teachers of
boy. boy. the boy..
originally was originally was originally was
(
b !j $P –M P ) (
M j $O –M P ) (
M j $O –M P )

2. When the words (


t -b - father)43, (E
t -b - brother)44 and (t \b -
mouth)45 are related to any other word besides the pronoun
of the singular first person (?f Y0 >$'), their forms46
will be as follows:

43 The dual of (
t -b) is (O M! M-b), (O j=!M M-b) and the plural is (^p M 1).
44 The dual of (E
t -b) is (O M!ŠM -b), (O j=!M ŠM -b) and the plural is ( M!Šj ‚O).
45 The dual of (
t \b) is (O $M \b), (O j$M \b) and the plural is (;t M!\r -b).
46 Besides these three words, there are another three words which follow the
same pattern. They are (
t M ), (t ,M ) and (0j Fi ). These six words are known as ( ^M@-
l§? *f").

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w\ * 9|% * + *


!j P-b M -b j O-b
!j ŠP -b MŠ-b j ŠO -b
!j \i b\ j \O

Note 1: The word (0j Fi ) meaning person, owner, etc. has the
same three forms. However, it is only related to a visible
noun (,Π") and not to a pronoun.
Examples:

w\ * 9|% * + *


o M 0j Fi o M Fb o M U
j FO

The feminine form of (0j Fi ) is (B


t bF).
The dual of (0j Fi ) is (
O M0Fb ), (O j=0M Fbc ) and the plural is (b 0j 0P Fb ).
The dual of (B
t bF) is (O MM0Fb ), (O jM0M Fbc ) and the plural is
(B
t M0Fb ). The ( ) of these words is like other general
nouns.
Examples:
(o M M0Fb ) – two people of wealth,

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(o M 0j 0P Fb ) – many people of wealth,


(o M$v
M B P Fb ) – one of beauty,
(o M$v
M MM0Fb ) – two women of beauty,
(o M$v
M B P 0M Fb ) – women of beauty.

Note 2: When the words (


t -b), (E
t -b) and (t \b) are related to the
singular first person pronoun (?f Y0 >$'), they will be
read as follows in all three cases: (
j O-b) – my father, (j ŠO -b) –
my brother, (
j $O \b) – my mouth.

3. If you intend to relate two or more words to one word,


the first word will be mentioned as normally before the
( R[), but the second one will be mentioned after the
( R[) and a pronoun referring to the ( R[) must

be appended to it, e.g. (P qPMf j P0M O j=GO !M r ƒ


P j M) – the minister’s
house and his garden, ( j P %PjOM M0M ^O MM yir B
P !j P P) – the ministers’
houses and their gardens.

4. When nouns are related to pronouns, these are the forms


they will assume:

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Attached Pronouns in the Genitive Case


(l0¶ *|f¢ ©$[)
Third Person (9O©b)

P PMfO singular
Masculine

M$P PMfO dual

j P PMfO plural

b PMfO singular


Feminine

M$P PMfO dual

m P PMfO plural

Second Person (O'M)

]
M PMfO singular
Masculine

M$?i PMfO dual

j ?i PMfO plural

]
O PMfO singular
Feminine

M$?i PMfO dual

m ?i PMfO plural

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First Person (–?


b fMP )
j OMfO singular

M% PMfO dual, plural

After alif, the (–?


b fMP U) must be read with a fathah and the
third person singular masculine pronoun must be read with
a dammah.
Examples: (U
M M|M ) – my staff, (;P M|M ) – his staff, (U
M MYM=) – my
two hands.
A pronoun can also be attached to the (l6v R0). Such a
pronoun is known as (R· |f¢ 0¶ >$[) – the
pronoun attached to a particle in the genitive case. The
paradigm of these pronouns will be as follows:

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Third Person (9O©b)

P b singular
Masculine

$M P b dual

j P b plural

M b singular
Feminine

$M P b dual

m P b plural

Second Person (O'M)

]
M b singular
Masculine

$M ?i b dual

j ?i b plural

]
O b singular
Feminine

$M ?i b dual

m ?i b plural

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First Person (–?


b fMP )
j O singular

%Mb dual, plural

In the same way, one can attach the particle (


O ), (j O ), (bM ),
(b‚O), etc. and form a similar paradigm.

Hereunder follow examples of the particles (


O ), (j O ), (bM )
and (b‚O) attached to the pronouns:

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O O P %jO O bM O jO‚


$M O O M$P %jO $M O jM $M O jO‚
j O O j P %jO j O jM j O jO‚
M O M %jO M jM M jO‚
$M O O M$P %jO $M O jM $M O jO‚
m O O m P %jO m O jM m O jO‚
]
M O ]
M %jO ]
M jM ]
M jO‚
$M ?i O $M ?i %jO $M ?i jM $M ?i jO‚
j ?i O j ?i %jO j ?i jM j ?i jO‚
]
O O ]
O %jO ]
O jM ]
O jO‚
$M ?i O $M ?i %jO $M ?i jM $M ?i jO‚
m ?i O m ?i %jO m ?i jbM m ?i jb‚O
j O j %hO bM b‚O
%M O m%O %MjbM %Mjb‚O

Note 1: The particle (O ) which is from the (l6v R0) is

read (b ) with a fathah when attached to the pronouns

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except for the singular first person. The word (


j O) can be
read as (
M O) as in the verse: (O j=O M O 0M j ?i %Pj=O j ?i b).

When the word (


j O ) is attached to the first person singular
pronoun, it is read as (
j %hO ), while (b‚O), (bM ) and (j \O) are
read as (
m b‚O), (m bM ) and (m \O) respectively.

If there is a word with the definite article (r b) after (


j ,P ) and
(
j i ), a dammah will be read on the (.) of both these words
and attached to the (r ), e.g. (i M$r P ?i b 0M i M$r P P b).

5. When the vocative particle (^O Y


M %h R
P j M ) is used before

(' 9), the (R[) will be read with a fathah, e.g.


((
O m% YM h"M M=), (O M$j m  YM )jM M=).

Note 2: The (^O MY%h R


P j M ) - vocative particles are several of

which (M=) is the most commonly used one. The word to

which the vocative particle is prefixed, is called („…M%$


P rb).

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If the („…M%$
P rb) is singular and not (R[), a dammah will be
read on the final letter, e.g. (Y
P j=GM M=) – O Zaid, (i vP M M=) – O
man.

If the („…M%$
P rb) is (R[), a fathah will be read on the final
letter of the (R[), e.g. ((
O m% YM h"M M=).

If the („…M%$
P rb) has ( ), the particle (Mš=-b) for masculine and
(MfPdm=-b) for feminine should be attached to it, e.g.

(
i vP m  Mš=-b M=) – O man, (*i %M jOr MfPdm=-b M=) – O girl.

Sometimes these two words enter („…M%$


P rb) without the
particle (M=), e.g. (
i vP m  Mš=-b) – O man, (li YM h
m  MfPdm=-b) – O noble
lady.

Vocabulary List No. 9

Word Meaning
o ?r M !j P-b Bakr’s father, name of a
person
.M M-b in front

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M%dmq‚O a mq‚O undoubtedly we

o :O M, !j %P M the children of Hāshim,


name of a tribe
t fMŠM son-in-law

<
t r ŠM behind

P ,O MM a t ,M j O dirham, silver coin

P jqOMqM a t M%j=O dīnār, gold coin

9
t ,M Fb gold

wt vO M returning

Yt j:O M rational

* M "M hour, time, Qiyāmah,


watch
 M%"j -b a  "O tooth

t M
j -b a t j 
O in-laws

i ©OM)#b a * bj)O#b tribe

YM %jO by

* %M
O r-b a  M O tongue, language

Mg
j M life

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l M$M death

]
t
P qP worship, sacrifice

•t "O 0M dirty

Exercise No. 10

(A) Take special note of the ( ) of each word in the


following sentences:

MfPdm=-b
O  YP )jM j $O "j O r M Ab ª O j=O ?b r YP )jM ]M $P "j O r ,M ! YP b0M M= (1)
. li YM h
m 
!j %P M P g
j qM j OYM h"M M= j M qM ª o :O M, j %O M j O ƒ M qj-b r ,M
O  YM )jM M= (2)
. o :O M,
. Fi Mf"j yir Mš=-b j OMfO bX…, j M qM ª O M$j m  YM )jM M= ]
M PMfO bX…, -b (3)
. M%fPj M r M j P fPj M bX…, ˆM jb Ab ª ] M ©Ob2\bP ƒP j M bX…, r ,M (4)
j ŠO -b P MfO !M ,P b M ª ] M jŠO -b
P MfO bX…, ˆ M jb -b (5)
. O M!ŠM -b j O U j FO Mf"j -i M= j M qM ª i jOŠM M= Et -b ]M b r ,M (6)
. li M j™O |m  j fOŠj -i M ,O j M qM ª li M j™O |m  M]fPŠj -i M ,O r ,M (7)
.O M$j m  YO )jM !j ŠP -b !M ,P Ab ª Yo $m g M P !j ŠP -b bX…, -b (8)
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. *O "M M Yj $M r O\ Žt j\OM j O Yo $m g M P !j ŠP -b j M qM ª Yo $m g M P MŠ-b ƒ M j=-bM -b (9)


. O jŠO -b
P MfO !M ,P j M qM ª Yo $m g M P j ŠO -b P MfO bX…, r ,M (10)
. o M$vM 0M o r O MM0Fb ;P Mf%j O j M qM ª Yo OMŠ j fM%j O ƒ M j=-bM r ,M (11)
. O MfVb j“O qM U M MYM= j M qM ª O MfVb j“O qM TM MYM= r ,M (12)
. * M jVO qM j P PM‰O j M qM ª * M jVO qM j ?i jO$–M P P M‰O r ,M (13)
.9 O ,M Xu  M O * M M" j h -i YM %jO 0M j M qM ª *o [ m \O *i M M" TM YM %jO r ,M (14)
.P jqOMqM O jbO j O0M P ,O MM P b bM j M qM ª P ,O MM 47P b ] M jbM r ,M (15)
b‚O O M),O bF M$,P r M Ab ª *b b$j :M b‚O P fP%j O0M ] O O$M r P j 9 M ,M Fb r ,M (16)
. M 1MYM jM
. j P P O MŠ .O !j 2b r YP h"M (17)
.  M%"j -b 0M  M O (M%$O \b j \O 0j -b) M%j\O j \O (18)
.U  YO %j,O M%qPM O 0M  OM M j ?i qPM O (19)
.
O  YP )jM P j)O?b r O O ?r M j O-b P jO (20)
0M M u"M 0M O jbM
e  u M
O  O !j "P M Mj  O M$,P P $M P 0M o r? M !j P-b (21)
. ;P M%fMŠM  OM 0M i M$5rP
. b !j g P OM ;P M% jM0 O Mg M r O -b Mf%j O (22)

47 The phrase, (Pb ]


M jbM ) means “You owe him,” while (Pb m bM ) means “I owe him.”

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. O M)?O r ^O M$bP r M O  MvO M j $O O j $P r *O "M M Yj M !j $P –M P (23)


. j ?i iM$j -b j ?i b 0M M%iM$j -b M%b (24)
ª Yo j:O M o vP M O j ?i %jO ˆ M jb-b (25)
. *O $M j m  0iF P !j Vi ™M r ]M šM 0M (26)
. M j$O bMr
h M O xO j OM$M 0M U M Mg j M M0 j ?O P qP 0M j Ob M u ‚O (27)

(B) Insert the correct ( ) in the following sentences and


indicate the reason for doing so:

. Z / º (1)


. Y=G / º (2)
. !$ , (3)
. *"Y¢ !$ , (4)
. f’"0 ,/v 0 fV“q  Z ƒ% Y= (5)
. B%) *"Y  B$ BZ| ^ % x ‚ (6)
. =G!   ./ (\ X, (7)
. ©# *# l-¢ Y0 (8)
. x¢ .- ˆv # l-¢   (9)

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. *£ *Z| v ƒ% (10)


ª Bq!Z *2=Y  >)? Y" ƒ=-- (11)
ª  J# !, , (12)
ª  '2 ƒ=-- (13)
ª *#%  )  '2 9,F , (14)
. Y  - YŠ ! - ' (15)
. *$€\ Y% 9%=G U- $5 (16)
ª %f"Y $ ƒ=- , »? Y) = (17)

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Is your name Àbdur Rahmān? Yes, my name is


Àbdur Rahmān.
(2) O Àbdur Rahmān, is this your book? No, it is
Àbdullāh’s book.
(3) Do you have a golden watch (watch of gold)? No, I
have a silver watch.
(4) Is that your big brother? Yes, he is my big brother.
(5) Is this the house of the minister’s son? No, it is the
king’s son’s house.
(6) Are the two hands of your small brother clean? Yes,
but his two feet are dirty.
(7) Have you seen Hāmid’s brother? Yes, Hāmid’s

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brother is a good boy.


(8) Have you seen Mahmūd’s two sisters? Yes, his two
sisters are sitting by my mother.
(9) Are your teachers sitting in the madrasah? Yes, our
teachers are sitting in the madrasah.

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Test No. 5

(1) What is ( )?


(2) How many cases does a noun have?
(3) How many types of ( ) are there?

(4) When will a noun be regarded to be in (w\ *),


(9|% *) and (+ *)?
(5) What is the ( ) of the dual form?

(6) What is the ( ) of the sound masculine and


feminine plurals?
(7) What is the ( ) of (R|% > ")?
(8) How will words like ('2) etc. be read in all three
cases?
(9) If the definite article is removed from words like
('2) etc. how will they be read in all three cases.

(10) Form the dual and plural of (&).

(11) What is (¼)¢"A) and describe some types of it.


(12) What changes take place in (*%5d) and ( X w£

´") when they are (R[)?

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(13) How will the words (


t -b), (E
t -b) and (t \b) be read in all
three cases when they are related, that is, they are
(R[) to a word other than the singular first person

pronoun (?f Y0 >$')? And if they are related to


the singular first person pronoun (?f Y0 >$'),
how will they be read?
(14) If you want to describe the (R[), will the

adjective be adjacent to the (R[) or will it be at a


distance from it?
(15) What is the ( ) of (0j Fi ) and the ( ) of its dual
and plural form?
(16) How do you make two nouns (R[) towards one
word?
(17) What is the ( ) of the (R[) when a vocative

particle (^Y%
R) is inserted before it?
(18) When pronouns are ( R[), what are they
called?
(19) Add a pronoun to the word (b
M ) and form its
paradigm.

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Lesson 12

Indicative Pronouns
(   !  #"  $&% ' )

1. Words which are used to point out to something are


called (lO M M:œOr ^e M$"j -b). They are of two types:

(a) words that indicate something nearby. The


following forms are the most commonly used
ones:

Gender Singular Dual Plural Case


Masc.
bX…, O bX…, ^O Ab `P …, w\
Masc.
bX…, O j=Xb …, ^O Ab `P …, 6 v 0 9|q
Fem.
;O XO …, O M…, ^O Ab `P …, w\
Fem.
;O XO …, O jM…, ^O Ab `P …, 6 v 0 9|q

(b) words that indicate something at a distance.


The more commonly used forms are the
following:

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Gender Singular Dual Plural Case


48
Masc.
]
M O…F 0b- TM bF ]
M qObF ]
M ©OAb 0i- w\
Masc.
TM bF ]
M %Oj=Fb ]
M ©OAb 0i- 6 v 0 9|q
Fem.
]
M r O 0b- TM M ]
M qOM ]
M ©OAb 0i- w\
Fem.
]
M r O ]
M %OjM ]
M ©OAb 0i- 6 v 0 9|q

Note 1: The original Indicative Pronouns are (bF), (


O bF) etc.
without the (M,) but these are seldom used.

Note 2: The words (]


M ObXb - similarly) – and (bX?b …, – in this
way) – are very often used.

Note 3: The (T
M ) appended to the end of (Y l: ") is

sometimes changed like the (0± 9€¾ >$')49 according


to the second person. It has no effect on the meaning. This
change occurs more often in (]
M O…F).
(
m ?i O…F M$?i O…F ]
O O…F j ?i O…F M$?i O…F ]
M O…F)

48 Note that the (0) is not pronounced.


49 The second person pronoun in the genitive case.

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The meaning of all these words is the same.

Example: (M$?
i šM M$?i O…F) – That is the Lord of you two.

(
j ?i šM

e  P ?i O…F) – That Allāh is your Lord.

Note 4: Besides the dual form, all the remaining ( ^e M$"j -b


lO M M:œOr) are (j %O)jd$M rb) - indeclinable.

2. The object pointed to is called the (O j b‚O t M_P ). The ( "
l:8) together with the (O jb‚O t M_P ) form part of a sentence,
namely the subject, doer or object, just as in (V! 9)

and ('‚ 9).

3. The (O j b‚O t M_P ) will always have ( ) or be (R[).

4. If the (O j b‚O t M_P ) has ( ) attached to it, the (l:8 ")
must be mentioned first, e.g. (
P Mf?O r bX…,) – this book.

If it is (R[) towards another noun, the (l:8 ") will

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succeed the ( R[), e.g. (bX…, j ?i PMfO ) – this book of yours,
(bX…, ]
O O$M r P jO) – this son of the king.

In the above-mentioned phrases, if the (l:8 ") is

brought first, and it is said, (


j ?i PMfO bX…,), the meaning will be,
‘This is your book.’ In this case, the word ( j ?i PMfO ) is no more
the (O j b‚O t M_P ) but will become the predicate. It will now be a
complete sentence.

5. If the (l:8 ") occurs as the subject of a sentence


without the (O j b‚O t M_P ), then:

(a) if the predicate has ( ), insert a pronoun (>$') between

the (l:8 ") and the (§Š). This pronoun will correspond

in word-form to the (l:8 ") as you learnt in Lesson 6.

Examples: ( P Mf?O r !M ,P bX…,) – This is the book.


(
b !j g
P OVr $P r P ,P ]
M ©OAb 0i-) – Those people are the successful ones.

In these examples, the (O j b‚O t M_P ) is implied (mY2b P ). The actual
sentences are (
P Mf?O r !M ,P ‹i j_
m  bX…,) and ( P ,P (
P m% ]
M ©OAb 0i-

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b !j g
P OVr $P r).

(b) If the predicate does not have ( ), a pronoun will not be

inserted, e.g. (
t MfO bX…,) – this is a book. The (O j b‚O t M_P ) is
implied in this example as well.

(c) If it is (R[), then too there is no need for a pronoun,

e.g. (]
O O$M r P jO bX…,) – This is the king’s son.
(
j ?i PMfO bX…,) – This is your book.
However, if you want to create emphasis in your speech,
insert a pronoun, e.g.
(
j ?i PMfO !M ,P bX…,) – This is your book.
(]
O O$M r P jO !M ,P TM bF) - That is the king’s son.

Note 5: Understand well the difference between


(bX…, ]
O O$M r P jO) and (]
O O$M r P jO bX…,).

Note 6: The words (M%P …,), - here, (M%,


P ) – here, and (TM M%,P ) –
there, are also indicative pronouns. There are no particular
rules for their usage.

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Vocabulary List No. 10

Word Meaning
t jO fig

l M $j P redness

 M!Šj -b a  MŠ maternal uncle

B
t bMŠ a * bMŠ maternal aunt

9
t j=M doubt

9
M j=M Ab no doubt

.t M$j -b a  M paternal uncle

B
t m$M a * $m M paternal aunt

j 2O fm$P rb pious


t !j iWr M aim

P ŒO M%M a t “b %jM scenery

„Y² ,P guidance

;t!j vP 0P a t vj 0M face

b b# he said

ƒ
j bb# she said

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u ybb as if, like

 M,j P proof

^e m)€O -b a 9
t j)O€b doctor

Exercise No. 11

(A) Translate the following sentences into English:

j O!j iWr M !M ,P bX…, (1)


* %M
M M l -bM j ‚O ;O XO …, (2)
O M!ŠM -b O / b vP m  O bX…, (3)
 M!Šj ‚O IP M’:j ybr ^O Ab `P …, (4)
P P vj 0M ]
M O…Xb 0M < t j“O qM YO b!M r bX…, P MfO (5)
•t "O 0M bX…, YO b!M r P MfO (6)
9
P %Mj=GM ƒ O %j)Or ;O XO …, P "j O (7)
* %M
M M P ŒO M%$M r ] M r O (8)
O MfVb j“O qM O YM Mr O MM, (9)
TM bF .j -b TM !j ŠP -b bX…, -b (10)
j $h M P j bX…, 0M j $h M TM bF (11)
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j fO$m M ;O XO …, 0M j fObMŠ li -bj $M r ] M r O 0M j OMŠ i vP m  bX…, (12)


†o j)O2b O ˆ M jb *O %M jœOr ;O XO …, P vj 0M (13)
*O $M –M $P r .M M-b O fM$M ©Ob# ] M qOM U M MfŠj -i (14)
P jfh bX…, ]M OXb b 0M ŸOv l !M r P U…5r$m ?i r ;O XO …, (15)
O jbvP m  ] M %Oj=Xb O B P !j P)Pr ]M r O (16)
l M $j P O jMM, ] M j=YM M= j \O (17)
O j\O 9 M j=M Ab P Mf?O r ] M ObF (18)
b !j gP OVr $P r P ,P ] M ©OAb 0i- 0M j O hM j O U²Y,P bM ] M ©OAb 0i- (19)
]
O :P j M bX?b …,-b b j#O (20)
!M ,P P qmybb ƒ j bb# (21)
b 0j YP O b# M%P …, mq‚O (22)
b !j M j \O b‚O ] M hM j O O MqM,j P ] M qObX\b (23)
]
M šM b b# ] M ObXb b b# (24)

(B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) This doctor is learned.


(2) This friend of mine is wealthy.
(3) Those friends are wealthy.
(4) This son of the king is generous.

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(5) These two are brothers.


(6) That she-camel is beautiful.
(7) This handsome boy is pious.
(8) O Àbdullāh, is this your son?
(9) Those boys are standing in front of their father.
(10) This is a good man and those two are transgressors.
(11) That girl is pious and so is her mother.

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Test No. 6

(1) What are the commonly used forms of the indicative


pronouns?
(2) Which of the indicative pronouns are declinable
( )?
(3) What is the object that is pointed to called?
(4) How is the (O j b‚O t M_P ) always used?

(5) Where should the (l:8 ") be placed when the

(O j b‚O t M_P ) has ( )?

(6) When the (l:8 ") is used without the (O jb‚O t M_P )
in a sentence, what are the ways in which it is used?
(7) What is the difference in meaning and analysis
between (bX…, j ?i PMfO ) and (j ?i PMfO bX…,)?
(8) Is there any difference in meaning in the following
words: (
m ?i O…F M$?i O…F ]
O O…F j ?i O…F M$?i O…F ]
M O…F)
(9) When does the (T) of (] M O…F) or (] M r O) change in the
above-mentioned manner. Explain with examples.

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Lesson 13

Interrogative Pronouns
( ()*+&, #-' )

1. Some of the interrogative pronouns are:

Word Meaning
j M who

M what

bFM what

¿
M j=-b what

U
 -b which (m)

* m=-b which (f)

j O how much, how many

<
M jb how

M j=-b where

…fM when

M$O why

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bFM$O why

…q6-b from where, how

Note 1: Besides (U
 -b) and (* m=-b), all the interrogative pronouns
are (
j %O)jd$M rb). See 10.9.

Note 2: You have read in Lesson 6 Note 4 that the particles


(
r ,M ) and (-b) create the interrogative meaning in the sentence.
They are both particles (R0) of interrogation. That is,
they cannot form the subject or doer of a sentence. On the
other hand, the interrogative pronouns can become the
subject or doer or object of a sentence.

2. The (.Vf"A ^@-) - interrogative pronouns – are used at


the beginning of sentences, e.g.
(ªTM !j P-b j M ) – Who is your father?
However, when they are ( R[), they will follow the

(R[) according to the normal rule, e.g. (


j M
P MfO ) – whose
book.
The particle (O ) can be inserted before the (.Vf"A ^@-) and

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brought at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. (


P Mf?O r O $M O) –
Whose book is it? (Literally: For whom is this book?)
(.M !j Mr ]
P r $P r O $M O) – Whose kingdom is it today?

3. The (lv R0)50 can be attached to the beginning of the


(.Vf"A ^@-).
Examples:
Word Meaning
j $M O whose

M$O why

j ?b O how much

M j=-b b‚O till where

M j=-b j O from where

…fM b‚O till when

(M j O ) m$O from what

(j M j O ) j $m O from whom

(M j M ) m$M from what,


regarding what

50 See Vocabulary List No. 6.

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M$j\O in what

4. Sometimes the word (M) is joined to the (lv R0)


without the alif. Therefore (M$O) becomes (
M O), (m$M ) becomes
(
m M ) and (M$j\O) becomes (M j\O).

5. The words (U
 -b) and (* m=-b) are (R[) to the succeeding
words, e.g. (
o vP M U
š -b) – which man, (O Mvh  U
š -b) – which of the
men, (lo -Mj  *i m=-b) - which woman, (^O M %h *i m=-b) which of the

women. If the word after (U  -b) is indefinite, it will be


singular and if it is definite, it will be plural.
6. The word succeeding (
j b ) is ( !|%) - in the accusative
case and it is singular, e.g. (T
M YM %jO ²$,M j O j b ) – How many
dirhams do you have?
(T
M P $j P *³ %M"M j b ) – What is your age? (Literally: How many
years is your age?”)

7. Sometimes the word (


j b ) is not used for interrogation but
for providing information. It is called (*m=O )MŠ
M ). Its
meaning in that case will be ‘several’ or ‘many’.

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The noun succeeding (*=§Š ) is (0±). Sometimes it is

singular and sometimes plural, e.g. (ƒ


P 2r fMj -b Yo )jM j b ) or ( j b
ƒ
P 2r fMj -b Yo j)OM ) – I have freed many slaves.

The particle (
j O ) is sometimes used after (*Vf" ) and
often after (*=§Š ).
Examples: (T
M YM %jO *o m OP j O j b ) – How many rupees do you
have?
(^O M2b Vi r bM MfP\r M 
M M jqOMqM 0j -b o M%j=O j O j b ) – I spent many gold
coins on the poor.

Vocabulary List No. 11

Word Meaning
t j -b matter, command

M j M between

t )jO ink

*
M $j ŠM five

* m OP rupee

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t $M "O a t j$O "M fat

U
 O 0j P '
M necessary

* M\OM comfort

M|M stick

O )jg
O r P b#b fountain pen

I
O Mm  P b#b pencil

lM0M ink bottle

t m#b powerful

Yt O M0 one

t j$O M= right, right-hand side

t M M= left, left-hand side

* ,M O b\ agile, lively

Exercise No. 12

(A) Translate into English:

I
O Mm  P b#b bX…, ª bX…, M (1)

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O )jg
O r P b#b TM bF ª TM bF M0M (2)
lM0M ;O XO ,M ª ;O XO ,M M (3)
t )jO lO M0Ym  O\ ª lO M0Ym  O\ bFM 0M (4)
j OMŠ 0M j $h M O bX…, ª O /
b vP m  O bX…, j M (5)
li YM j MGP li M j™O |
m  j fOŠj -i ]
M r O M$P %Mj M ƒ
P %j)Or ]
M r O j M 0M (6)
Yt O M P j)O?b r j ŠO -b TM bF ]
M Vb r ŠM ˆ
t OMv o vP M U
š -b (7)
*O "M M Yj $M r li Xb OM"-b ^O Ab `P …, ª i Mvh  ^O Ab `P …, j M (8)
*O "M M Yj M j \O B
t M$–M P m ,P ª ^e M %h ^O Ab `P …, j M (9)
B
O M%)Mr
*O "M M Yj $M r b‚O 9
M ,M Fb !M ,P ª P j™O |
m  TM !j ŠP -b M j=-b (10)
O jfMM M" b )j#b 9
M ,M Fb ª9
M ,M Fb ÀM (11)
j OMfO !M ,P bX…, ª
P Mf?O r bX…, j $M O (12)
j hM

e -b ª]
M šM j M (13)
j h)OqM

O  i !j "P M Yt $m g
M P ª]
M š)OqM j M (14)
j %Oj=O .P /
b "j œOrb ª]
M %Pj=O M (15)

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(B) Note the use of the interrogative pronouns in the


following sentences:

.U j YO h"M M=
O  YP )jM j $O "j O ª YP b0M M= ] M $P "j  M (1
Yo $m g
M P P j YP $M j -b P $P "j O ª
O  YM )jM M= M]j O-b P "j  M (2
. *b ?u M j O P gj qM ª j fPqj-b M j=-b j O (3
. YO %jO r b‚O b !j )P,O bF P g j qM ª j fPqj-b b !j )P,O bF M j=-b b‚O (4
. *O M\OMrO P g j qM
O YP $j g M rb ª j ?i iM < M jb (5
U
j YO h"M M= o Ab 0j -b *i M $j ŠM j O ª YP OMŠ M= ] M b ²Yb0M j b (6
lM '
O M ²f%j O b !j
P $j ŠM U j YO h"M M= ª *O "M M Yj $M r O\ lM ' O M ²f%j O j b (7
.*O "M M Yj $M r O\ .M !j Mrb
. Yt O M0 E t -b0M O MfŠj -i j O ª B O M!ŠM ybrM0 O M!Šj œOr M O ] M b j b (8
*³ m OP M j=O _j O O li M 2b )Mr ;O XO ,M ª *i %MjO$
m  li M 2b )Mr ;O XO ,M j ?b O (9
U
¬ O 0j P ' M o j ybO ˆ t OMv Mq-b ª M%P ,M ƒ M qj-b ˆ t OMv M O (10
.U M M|M M ,O ª M"!j P M= ] M %Oj$O M O ] M r O M (11
.
O  YO %jO j O !M ,P ƒ j bb# ª bX…, ] O b mq-b b b# (12
. O m2b r YO O M!r O uO ª .M !j Mr ] P r $P r O $M O (13
.9
t j=O #b

O  M |
j qM u ‚O Ab -b ª

O  P |
j qM …fM (14
(C) Answer these questions in Arabic using the words you

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have learnt.
ª bX…, M (1)
ª ;O XO ,M j M (2)
ª TM bF M (3)
ª] M r O M (4)
ª bX…, j M (5)
ª O bX…, j M (6)
ª ^O Ab `P …, j M (7)
ª] M $P "j O ¿ M j=-b (8)
ª YP $M j -b M= TM !j ŠP -b M j=-b (9)
ª] M jŠO -b P "j O M (10)
ª TM MŠ-b M M ' M j M (11)
ª j ŠO -b M M ' M j M (12)
ª O M!Šj œOr M O ]M b j b (13)
ª ;O XO ,M j M ƒ P %j O (14)
ª M,!j P-b M j=-b (15)
ª M,M -b ƒ M j=-bM -b (16)
ª Mj O-b ƒ M j=-bM -b (17)
M j M ƒ

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ª] M h -i YM %jO *
M OMv ^O M %h *i m=-b (18)
ª9
t j 
M .j -b  j "M ª P Mf?O r bX…, < M jb (19)
ª j ©OM)$j M b‚O TM !j P-b 9
M ,M Fb …fM (20)

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Who are you? Sir, I am Hāmid.


(2) What is your father’s name? My father’s name
is Hasan Ibn Àlī.
(3) How many sons and daughters does Àbdur
Rahmān have? He has one son and two
daughters.
(4) Who is the woman standing in front of you?
She is my brother’s wife.
(5) What is in her hand? There are clothes in her
hand.
(6) How many people are standing there? Five
people are standing there.
(7) How many boys are present today? Sir, thirty
boys are present.
(8) O Mahmūd, why are you standing here? I am
standing here for some necessary work.
(9) How much is this book? It costs five rupees
(Lit. It is for five rupees).
(10) O Khālid, how many brothers do you have?

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Sir, I have two brothers.


(11) To whom does this small dog belong? It is
my maternal uncle’s dog.
(12) Where are you going to now? Sir, we are
going to the madrasah.
(13) When did your brother go? He went one
hour ago.

(E) Note how the following sentences have been analysed.


An indication was made in Lesson 6 and 10 to (*@ *£) and
(*\ *£) respectively. Here a simple analysis of some
straightforward sentences is made. If any sentence provides
information of some type, term it (*=§Š) and if there is a

question, term it (*Vf") or (*©_q).


(1)
.
  / 0   1
§Š Yf)
*=§Š *@ *£

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(2)

2
 & 43 /
5 6
*V R!! Yf)
dM)dMŠ
*=§Š *@ *£

(3)

7& %   856 .


  / 9%
0{d 6 v R §dŠ .Vf" "
Yf)
)Md’
M r O Žf
*Vf" *@ *£

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(4)

0:  ; 8 =<>% +


 0 %? 
+  4 @
0± R !V \ \ R
6 v .Vf"
VrO Žf
*Vf" *\ *£

Test No. 7

(1) Which words constitute the (.Vf"8 ^@) and the

(.Vf"8 R0). What is the difference between the


two?
(2) Where should the (.Vf"8 ^@) be placed in a
sentence?
(3) From the (.Vf"8 ^@), which word is ( )?
(4) How many types of (j b ) are there? What is the

( ) of the noun succeeding each type?

(5) How are (U


 -b) and (* m=-b) used? Explain with examples.

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(6) What were the words (


m M ) and (M j\O) originally?

Insert the ( ) in the following sentences:

ª  9 0 *,V *#% ;X, ¢ (1)


ª ]$ !, , (2)
ª F¢0 T  Y% *$©# l- *=-0 (3)
ª %7  0 (4)
ª >)? ,Y0 !, , (5)
ª B2)  ] 0 Á = B#%  ]  (6)
ª l2 0 Y = TY% l:  (7)
ª   &  !f? !$Â "- , (8)
!v ^v  ?   & !$Â " !f?  UY" = q (9)
. ;Y% 

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Lesson 14

The Verb

1. Verbs are of two types: (1) one is ('¢) which indicates

that an action has been completed, e.g. (9


M fMb ) – he wrote. (2)
the second is (N[¢) which indicates that an action has not
been completed but is being done or will be done, e.g.
(9
P fP?r M=) – he is writing or he will write.

Some morphologists51 regard the imperative (-) as a third


category of verbs.
Generally a verb has three root letters (O‰/
b ‰i), e.g. (9
M fMb ) – he
wrote. Some verbs have four root letters (OM P ), e.g. (
M vM j M) –
he translated.

Note 1: The root letters of a word are called (l m M ). In verbs,

the (9© X Y0) third person singular word-form


contains only the root letters to the extent that recognizing

51 Scholars of (ORj |
m  P ).

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the root letters of the verbal noun (Y|) and all the

derivatives (B2f_) are based on this word-form. In order


to indicate the meaning of the verbal noun, it is appropriate
to write this word-form - (9© X Y0) - so that the
student can apprize himself of the root letters. Hence we
can say that (9
M fMb ) means to write although originally its
meaning is, ‘he wrote’. However, if you want to speak of
the meaning expressed by the verbal noun, you should use
the verbal noun, e.g. (lb ^c M2O rM0 *b MMf?O r !P$uM M) – Learn writing
and reading. The word (*b MMf? O rb) is the (Y|) -verbal noun of
(9
M fMb ) while (lb ^c M2O rb) is the verbal noun of (-bM #b).

3. The (9© X Y0) third person singular word-form of


('¢) - the past tense (or perfect tense) comes on the scales

of (
b M \b), (b O \b) and (b P \b). Examples: (
M M '
M ) – he hit, (wM $O "M ) – he
heard and (.M P 
b ) – he was noble. Details of this will be
provided in Lesson 16 while the quadriliteral verb ( )
will be discussed in Lesson 25.
All the word forms of the past tense are as follows:

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ABCD EFD D 4*

Meaning Person Gender Word-Form Verb


He wrote 3rd masc. singular 9
M fMb
person
They 2 dual )MfMb
wrote
They wrote plural j!)PfMb
She wrote fem. singular ƒ
j )MfMb
They 2 f. dual Mf)MfMb
wrote
They f. plural M )jfMb
wrote
You wrote 2nd masc. singular ƒ
M )jfMb
person
You 2 wrote dual M$fP)jfMb
You wrote plural j fP)jfMb
You f. wrote fem. singular ƒ
O )jfMb
You 2 f. dual M$fP)jfMb
wrote
You f. wrote plural m fP)jfMb
I wrote 1st m/f singular ƒ
P )jfMb
person
We wrote m/f dual/ M%)jfMb
plural

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Note 2: The total number of word forms are 18 but only 14


are mentioned because the meanings of all are included in
these 14 forms. Then there is no need to repeat one word
several times. However, among the 14 word-forms, the verb
(M$fP)j fM
b ) is repeated. There was no need for it but due to a
certain expediency, the custom of repeating it has been
formed.

Note 3: Every word-form of the verb has a pronoun of the


(\) – doer. These pronouns are called

(*|f *!\ ©$') – attached pronouns in the nominative


case.

Note 4: When joining the verb (ƒ


j )MfMb ) to the succeeding
word, delete the final sukūn (jazm) and replace it with a
kasrah, e.g. (
M !j fP?r $M r *i $M –M $P r ƒ
O )MfMb ) – The teacher wrote the
letter.
The alif and (0) of those words which have them at the end
will not be pronounced when joining them to the
succeeding word, e.g. (
M !j fP?r $M r )MfMb O /
b vP m b) – The two men
wrote the letter. (
M !j fP?r $M r !)PfMb i Mvh b) – The men wrote the
letter.

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5. The verbs on the scales of (


b O \b) and (b P \b) will also be
conjugated like the above:

M% jO :M ... M jO :M a Mf MO :M a ƒ j MO :M a j! PO :M a M O:M a M O :M
M%j P b ... a M j P b a MfM P b a ƒ
j M P b a j!P P b a MP b a .M P b

6. The scales of (
b M \b), (b O \b) and (b P \b) are of (R0¢ '¢) –
the past active tense. The ( !±) passive tense52 of all these
forms appears on the scale of ( b O \i).
Examples: from (9
M fMb ) – (9
M fOi ), ( M O :M ) – (
M O :P ), (.M P b ) – (.M O i ).

No (\) is mentioned with the ( !±) - passive verb. Only


the ( !V – object) which is now called the (©V 9©q) –

representative of the doer - is mentioned. Like the (\), it

is rendered (w\), e.g. (


P )Mu
M O :P ) – The milk was drunk. This
sentence does not indicate who drank the milk.

52When one wants to indicate the person/item on which the action is done
without mentioning the doer, the passive verb is used, e.g. The book was
taken.

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7. By inserting (M) before ('¢) - the perfect tense, it

becomes negative, e.g. (9


M fMb M) – He did not write. (
M O :M M)
– He did not drink.

8. Very often the word (Y


j #b) or (Yj 2b b) – undoubtedly – is added
to ('¢) - the perfect tense to create emphasis in the
meaning. However, there is no need to translate it always,
e.g. (²$
j M Yt j=GM
M M '
M Yj #b) – Undoubtedly Zaid hit Bakr or Zaid
hit Bakr.

9. You read in the sixth lesson that a sentence beginning


with a verb is called (*\ *$vP ). In a (*\ *$Pv), the (\)
which is in (w\ *) - the nominative case - generally
follows the verb, e.g. (Y t j=GM ˆ
M bvM ) – Zaid sat. If it is a ( V
U
j Yh M fM$P r) transitive verb53, the third part of the sentence is the
( !V) – the object - which is in (9|% *) - the accusative
case. See Lesson 10.
Example: (²})jŠ
P Yt j=GM b b -b) – Zaid ate bread.

53 A transitive verb is one that requires an object to form a complete sentence.

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Besides these, the other parts of the sentence are called the
(Bb2–M fMP ), e.g. (
Ogj u wM M ) – with the meat, (ƒ
O j)Mr O\) - in the
house, (.M !j Mrb) – today etc.

Sometimes the ( !V) – object – precedes the (\) and

sometimes it even precedes the verb. Similarly, the (Bb2–M fMP )

can also precede the (\), the ( !V) and the verb, e.g.
(
j ?i %Mj=O j ?i b ƒ
P r $M r -b .M !j Mrb)
Today I have perfected your religion for you.

The words (.M !j Mrb) and (


j ?i b) are the (Bb2–M fMP ) in this sentence.
The former preceded the verb while the latter preceded the
( !V).

10. In a (*\ *$Pv), the verb always remains singular


whether the doer of the action is dual or plural. However
for a masculine doer, the verb will be masculine and for a
feminine doer, the verb will be feminine.
Examples:
(Y
t b0M 9
M fMb ) - A boy wrote.
(
O MYb0M 9
M fMb ) - Two boys wrote.

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(t A
b 0j -b 9
M fMb ) - Many boys wrote.
(* %M j O ƒ
j )MfMb ) - A girl wrote.
(
O Mf%M jO ƒ
j )MfMb ) - Two girls wrote.
(B
t M% M ƒ
j )MfMb ) - Many girls wrote.

However, if the (\) comes first, then the verb must

correspond to the (\). The details of this rule will be


mentioned in Lesson 18.

Vocabulary List No. 12

Note: In the list below, each verb is written with both the
('¢) - perfect and (N[¢) - imperfect tenses.
Conjugate each verb according to the previously mentioned
paradigm. Then construct the ( !±) passive tense of each
verb and conjugate it. The beloved students of seminaries
should certainly take this much trouble to do this.

Word Meaning
i i yr M= b b -b to eat

z
i M )jM= z
b M M to send

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TP P fjM= TM M M to leave

C
P P ’
j M= C
M M ŠM to go out

i ŠP Yj M= b ŠM M to enter

9
P iWr M= 9
M b€b to seek

wP iWr M= wM b€b to rise


P P ™j M=
M M b to set

9
P O™j M= 9
M bb to overcome

†P fMVr M= †M fM\b to open

D
P M Vr M= D
M O \b to be happy

P M Vr M= M O \b to understand

i fP2r M= b fM#b to kill

†P {
M %jM= †M {
M qM to succeed

b !j PM #r -b relatives

M j=XO ub those, who

b Ÿr-b now

b Ÿr b‚O till now

˜
t j=O $j M to nurse

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* %mvM garden

wt j$O vM all

N
t 0j P GP a N
t j GM crop

S
t O M" thief

lM M:M evidence, testimony

.t M€b food

.P Mrb year, this year

.t /
b i boy, servant

D
t j \b happiness

* ›b\O group

 M!#r -b a  !j #b statement

M$qmybb as if

M$b like

u ybO because

…V_
j fM
j $P rb hospital

…'j M a ˜
t j=O M sick person

Au ‚O except

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R
M then, because

^p }j vP part, section

Exercise No. 13

(A) Note the use of the active and passive tenses in the
following sentences and translate them:

G>)H D EFD D


-bO #i (i 1j2i r) !M ,P b 1j2i r -bM #b (Yt j:O M ) !M ,P
i 1j2i r -bO #i b 1j2i r O YP j:O M -bM #b
M)O€i (O /
b vP M ) M$,P ² MfO c^M #b (O /
b vP M ) M$,P
j!)PO€i (i Mvh ) j ,P b 1j2i r 0e^M #b (i Mvh ) j ,P
ƒ
j )MO€i (ƒ
t %j O) M ,O ² !j fP?r M ƒ
j )MfMb (ƒ
t %j O) M ,O
Mf)MO€i (O Mf%j O) M$,P O j M!j fP?r M Mf)MfMb (O Mf%j O) M$,P
M )jO€i (B
P M%)Mrb) m ,P 9
M jOb?M M )jfMb (B
P M%)Mrb) m ,P
j!,P Ab b‚O ƒ
M 5rO P ƒ
M qj-b ²uVP ƒ
M r b -b ƒ
M qj-b
j _
O MMb b‚O M$fP5rO P M$fPqj-b ²qmP M$fPr b -b M$fPqj-b
*b ?u M b‚O j fP5rO P j fPqj-b ²’jW– O j fPr b -b j fPqj-b

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*O "M M Yj $M r b‚O ƒ


O 5rO P ƒ
O qj-b M r O r ƒ
O )jb€b ƒ
O qj-b
ƒ
O j)Mr b‚O M$fP5rO P M$fPqj-b M r O r M$fP)jb€b M$fPqj-b
…V_
j fM
j $P rb b‚O m fP5rO P m fPqj-b M r O r m fP)jb€b m fPqj-b
j O,j O b‚O ƒ
P 5rO P Mq-b ^n M ƒ
P jO :M Mq-b
mf?b r b b‚O M%5rO P P g
j qM ²%)Mb M% jO :M P g
j qM

(B) Translate the following questions and answers:

Answer Question
P %jO ^n }j vP B
P -rM #b U
j YO h"M M= j M qM ª b 1j2i r B
M -rM #b r ,M YP j:O M M=
*b M O M)r P fP)jfMb j M qM b‚O
M !j fP?r $M r ƒ
M )jfMb r ,M
ª] M j O-b
b Ÿr b‚O ˆ
P $j _
m  ƒ
O M b€b M ªˆ
P $j _
m  ƒ
O M b€b ÀM
*o M M" b )j#b P $M 2b r
M M b j M qM ª P $M 2b r
M M b r ,M
wM M }M )j’
P r ƒ
P r b -b U
j YO h"M M= ª P M=j M M= .M !j Mr ƒ
O r b -b bFM
O )Mu
M ŸMb‚O b‚O j O-b z
b O P ª TM !j P-b z
b O P M j=-b b‚O
M mY ƒ
O bŠM M j h -i M ,O ª M mY b ŠM M j M

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M O MvM ŠM Yj #b U
M M!ŠM -b M$,P ª M%jO C
M M ŠM j M 0M
O mY
j h -i M$P fj MM '
M ª]
M j=!M ŠM -b
M M '
M j M
bc Ÿr b‚O †M fO\i M Ab ª *O "M M Yj $M r
P M †M fO\i r ,M
O MgfOj œOr O\ Mg{
M qM M$P qmybO ª Yt j:O M 0M Yt $m g
M P D
M O \b M O
bX…, j \O ²Yb0M b !j P $j ŠM †M {
M qM O MgfOj œOr O\ †M {M qM ²Yb0M j b
.O Mr ªUh !O %M
m 
j ?i b!j #b M%$j O \b M ª M%b!j #b j fP$j O \b r ,M
U
 YO %j,O j ?i qMM O u bO ª j O /
b b j fP$j O \b M M O
lO M M_
m O ƒ
P )jO€i ª O M!j=Yh  O\ ƒ
M )jO€i M O
*O M Yj ’
O O) ˜
O j=O $j fmO ƒ
P 5rO P M= …V_
j fM
j $P rb b‚O ƒ
O 5rO P M O
(…'j $M r ª j fOŠj -i

(C) Note the use of the verbs in the following verses of the
Qur’ān:

.
O  O Fr œO O l³ M j5Ob *³ ›b\O ƒ
j )Mbb *o bjOb# *o ›b\O j O j b (1)
(
M m% b fM#b M$qmyb?b \b J
O j c  O\ o M \b 0j -b ˆ o Vr qM O j™M O ² Vr qM b fM#b M (2)
. ²O$vM

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. »o O b .o b2M 0M N
o 0PGP 0M o !PP 0M B o m%vM O !iM M j b (3)
m$h 9
t O|qM ^M %hO0M b !P M #r c M0 O MYOM!r TM M M m$h 9t O|Mq O Mvh – (4)
. b !P M #r c M0 O MYOM!r TM M M
. h%O ˆ M jb\b P %jO
M O :M M$\b (5)
. j P %jh /³ O#b Au ‚O P %jO r!P O _
M \b (6)
. j ?i O)j#b O M =OXu bM 9 M fOi M$b .P M| h  P ?jbM 549 M fOi (7)
.ƒ j bfO#i 9o qbF U h yb O ƒ j b›O"P 55li M 0PÄ!j $M r bF‚O0M (8)

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Did Hāmid eat the food? No, he did not eat the
food till now.
(2) Did you drink the water? Yes, I ate the food and
drank the water.
(3) What did you eat today? I ate bread and meat.
(4) Did your sister go to the madrasah? Yes, she went
one hour ago.
(5) When did the sun rise? The sun rose now.
(6) Who entered the musjid? They are the teachers of
the madrasah.
(7) Who is that who came out of the house? That is

54 Here the word (M9fOi ) means, “to make binding – to make compulsory”.
55 A girl buried alive.

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my small brother.
(8) Did you (f) understand my statement? We did not
understand your speech.
(9) Why did you (pl. f.) not understand my
statement? Because your language is Arabic.
(10) O Khālid, was any lion killed? Yes, a large lion
was killed.
(11) Who killed the lion? Sir, I killed the lion.
(12) Where was your servant sent? He was sent to the
market.

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Lesson 15

The Imperfect
(I JD 4*)

1. The verb which indicates the present and future tense is


known as (N[¢ V) – the imperfect, e.g. (
P O [
j M=) – he is
hitting or he will hit.

2. The letters (-), (B), (U) and () are the signs of ( V
N[¢) known as the (N[¢ B/). By inserting one of
these letters before (9© X Y0) - the singular

masculine third person - of ('¢) - the perfect tense,

making the first letter sākin and adding (w\) at the end, the

(N[ \) is formed, e.g. from († M fM\b) we get (†P fMVr M=), (†P fMVr M),

P fM\r -b) and (†P fMVr qM).

The paradigm of (N[¢ V) is as follows:

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ABCD EFD I JD 4*

Meaning Person Gender Word- Verb


Form
He is opening or he
will open
3rd
person
masc. singular
†P fMVr M=
They 2 are opening or
they will open
dual
O MgfMVr M=
They are opening or
they will open
plural
b !j g
P fMVr M=
She is opening or she
will open
fem. singular
†P fMVr M
They 2 f. are opening
or will open
dual
O MgfMVr M
They f. are opening or
will open
plural
M g
j fMVr M=
You are are opening
or will open
2nd
person
masc. singular
†P fMVr M
You 2 are opening or
will open
dual
O MgfMVr M
You (all) are opening
or will open
plural
b !j g
P fMVr M
You f. are opening or
will open
fem. singular
M jg
O fMVr M
You 2 f. are opening
or will open
dual
O MgfMVr M
You (all f.) are
opening or will open
plural
M g
j fMVr M
I am are opening or
will open
1st
person
m/f singular
†P fM\r -b
We are are opening or
will open
m/f dual/
plural
†P fMVr qM

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3. Like the ('¢) - perfect tense, the (N[¢ V) -


imperfect also comes on three scales: ( i M Vr M=), (i O Vr M=) and (i P Vr M=).
The (N[¢) - imperfect of († M fM\b) is (†P fMVr M=), of ( M M ' M ) is (
P O [ j M=)
and of (.M P 
b ) is (.P P ?r M=). The details will follow in Lesson 16.

Note 1: The words (†


P fMVr M) and (O MgfMVr M) appear several times in
the paradigm. Understand them well. One has to see the
context to determine the meaning.

Note 2: As in ('¢) - the perfect tense, the (N[¢ V) -


imperfect also has fourteen word-forms.

4. To construct the ( !±) - passive of (N[¢ V), render


a dammah to the (N[¢ B/), and a fathah to the

penultimate letter, e.g. ( P O [j M=) becomes ( P M [


j P=) – he is being
hit or he will be hit, (†
P fMVr M=) becomes (†P fMVr P=) – it is being opened
or it will be opened, (.P P ? r M=) becomes (.P M ?r P=) – he is being
honoured or he will be honoured.

5. In order to construct the (V%¢ N[¢) - imperfect

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negative, the word (A


b ) is most often inserted before ( N[¢
ƒ)5¢) - the imperfect positive. Sometimes (M) is inserted,
e.g. (9
P ,M Xr M= Ab ) – He is not going or he will not go. (P bj M= M) –
He does not know or he will not know.

Note 4: In order to make (N[¢ V) specific with the


future tense, the particles (( M ) or (R
M !j "M ) are prefixed to it,
e.g. (†
P fMVr M"M ) – He will soon open. (b !j $P bj M R
M !j "M ) – You will
come to know.

6. You know that (©$') - pronouns are used in place of the

( !V) - object. In Arabic, there are two types of pronouns:


(a) (O|fmP ) - those pronouns which are attached to the verb,

(b) (O|Vb %j P ) - those pronouns which are independent and


separate from other words.
Because these pronouns are in (9|% *) – the accusative
case – they are referred to as (* !|%¢ ©$[).

7. The pronouns of (*|f¢ * !|%¢ ©$[ - attached

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pronouns of the accusative case) are the same as the ( ©$[


*|f¢ l0¶) - attached pronouns of the genitive case. See
Lesson 11. The only difference is in the (?f¢ *™) - first

person word-form where ( j qO) is used in place of (U


j Od).
The paradigm is as follows:

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Third Person (9O©b)

P MM '
M singular
Masculine

M$P MM '


M dual

j P MM '
M plural

b MM '


M singular
Feminine

M$P MM '


M dual

m P MM '
M plural

Second Person (O'M)

]
M MM '
M singular
Masculine

M$?i MM '


M dual

j ?i MM '
M plural

]
O MM '
M singular
Feminine

M$?i MM '


M dual

m ?i MM '
M plural

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First Person (–?


b fMP )
j %O MM '
M singular (m/f)

M% MM '


M dual, plural (m/f)

The same pronouns can be attached to the (N[) -

imperfect tense, e.g. (P PO [


j M=), (M$P PO [
j M=), (j P PO [
j M=) … till (M% PO [
j M=).

In a similar manner, the above-mentioned pronouns can be


attached to every word-form of every verb.

However, when attaching a pronoun to the (' X w£)


- plural masculine second person verb, the (.) is rendered a

dammah and a (0j ) is inserted before the pronoun, e.g.

(
j ,P !j $P fP jM '
M ) – You (all) hit them. (M$,P !j $P fP jM '
M ) – You (all) hit the
two of them.

8. The (*|V%¢ * !|%¢ ©$[) – detached pronouns in the


accusative case are as follows:

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Third Person (9O©b)

;P m=‚O singular
Masculine

$M ,P m=‚O dual

j ,P m=‚O plural

,M m=‚O singular


Feminine

$M ,P m=‚O dual

m ,P m=‚O plural

Second Person (O'M)

TM m=‚O singular
Masculine

$M i m=‚O dual

j i m=‚O plural

TO m=‚O singular
Feminine

$M i m=‚O dual

m i m=‚O plural

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First Person (–?


b fMP )
U
M m=‚O singular (m/f)

qMm=‚O dual, plural (m/f)

These pronouns are used to create stress or limitation in the


sentence especially when they precede the verb, e.g. ( TM m=O
YP )Pj qM) – We worship You alone.

Vocabulary List No. 13

Take special note of the harakah of the (*$? Å) in the

perfect ('¢) and the imperfect (N[¢).

Word Meaning
ŽP i’
j M= ŽM bŠM to create

wP \bj M= wM \bM to raise

i ›b
j M= b ›b"M to ask

P O“r M= M bŒb to oppress

YP )Pj M= YM )MM to worship

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i $M j M= b $O M to work, act

P Wi Vr M= M Wb \b to create

i M Vr M= b M \b to do

]
P O$j M= ]
M bM to own

P “i %jM= M “b qM to look

 O‚O camel

š ,M -b more/most important

M$qm‚O only

‹ j=O M innocent

 !j Wi P a t Wb M stomach

YP ©OMvM a l YM j=O vM newspaper

wP O M{r YP {
O
j $M rb 0j -b wP O M{rb jāmi’ musjid

!j P=O M radio

ˆ
O j -b yesterday

²Yb tomorrow

²M)
M morning

^n M M evening

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 '
M harm

Yt OM worshipper

l!M j #b coffee

O  Fb MM May Allāh grant refuge

!M j=‚O a

O  0M U
j ‚O By Allāh

wt vj 0M pain

…MfM= a t jfOM= orphan

wP Vb %jM= wM Vb qM to benefit

Exercise No. 14

(A) Note the use of the (N[¢) - imperfect tense and


translate the following sentences:

./ ³ jO#b P $P M \r -b j M qM ª m OM M r b M – P M Vr M r ,M (1)


. P M=j M j fOŠj -i P )PfP?r M ª M Mf?O r bX…, 9 P fP?r M= j M (2)
Ab Mq-b U
j YO h"M M= .9
P fP?r M Ab ƒ M qj-b0M ²YhvM 9 P fP?r M M ,O !
e  ^c M: M (3)
. ²vj 0M U j YO M= j \O u ybO 9P fPr -b

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S
O !j š  b‚O 9 P ,M Fr -b Mq-b ª YP $M j -b M= 9 P ,M Xr M M j=-b b‚O (4)
. lo YM O M0 *o O M" j \O M%jO wP vO j yb"M ª S O !j š  M O wP vO j M …fM (5)
. O M ybr b jO j M -iM 2r qM MqYM h"M M= ª b 0j -iM 2r M
o MfO U m -b P Ab 0j -b M= (6)
. lb !M j 2b r Ab 0M U M m_ P M _ j qM Ab P g j qM ª U M m_ b !j PM _ j M r ,M (7)
. O j “«  YM j M ²Yb z i M )jqP r M Ab ª .M !j Mr O O Mgr b‚O j fP5rO P r ,M (8)
j ©OM)$j M b‚O Mq!j P-b M%)Mb€b ª j ©OM)$j M b‚O j ?i )Mb€b j M (9)
ŽM bŠM 0M j %O2b bŠM
e b ª j ?i j=YM OM0 0M j ?i 2b bŠM j M b !j $P bj M r ,M (10)
.U m YM OM0
. j %OP Vb %jM= ² MfO j ?i %jO 9 P i€r -b M$qm‚O ª *i _ M ©OM M= m%O M j)OiWr M bFM (11)
. TM M%,P j i %Mj=-bM M
O  0M Ab ª wO O M{r O\ ˆ O j -b Mq!j $P fPj=-bM r ,M (12)
²M) M wP $M "j -b
O  0M U j ‚O ª !j P=O m O\ O j gM r M M)Šj -b wP $M j M r M, (13)
. ^n M M 0M
. O !j P yir h ,M -b j O M ,O 0M M,-iM #r -b Ab < M jb ª YM ©OM{ M r -iM 2r M r ,M 0M (14)
MqmœO\b M,h :M j O
O  Fb MM ª *O $M j“O M r O j g
M r ;O XO ,M O\ P bj M bFM (15)
. M j ™M rM0 S M j _m  B O Xb ŠM -b j fOu li YM #b!j $P r
O  P Mq

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(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

. b !P$bj M= b Å
M 2O \OM%$P r m ?O … 0M Å
M %OO `j $P r O 0M O O!P"M O 0M li }m O r O uO 0M (1)
m$h ^p UO M r qM-b 0M i $M j -b m$O b !i›=O M j fPqb- j ?i i$M M j ?i b 0M O$M M j O (2)
. b !i$M j M
. b !P$O“r M= j P
M Vi qb- ( M m% m ?O db 0M ³›j:M ( M m% P O“r M= Ab M x u ‚O (3)
. ²Vr qM Ab 0M ¨' M O Vr %MO ] P Oj -b Au i# (4)
.²Mq j O qO!iW P O\ b !ii yr M= M$qm‚O ²$r Œi …MfMr b M!j -b b !ii yr M= M =OXu (5)
. j qOM Wb \b U j XO u YP )Pj -b Ab O M0M (6)
.ƒ j M \OP <M jb ^O M$ m  b‚O 0M ƒ j 2b OŠP < M jb O OœOr b‚O b 0P“i %M= b\b-b (7)
YP )Pj -b M b 0PY OM j fPqb- b 0M b 0PY)Pj M M YP )Pj -b b b 0P \Ob?r Mš=-b M= r #i (8)
0M j ?i %P=O j ?i b YP )Pj -b M b 0PY OM j fPqb- b 0M j šYM)M m Yt OM Mq-b b 0M
. O =O M O
. b !j i›b
j P= j ,P 0M i M Vr M= m$M i ›b j P=Ab (9)

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(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) What are you reading in the madrasah? I am reading


Tashīlul Adab.
(2) Do you recognize my brother? Yes, I recognize him.
(3) Will the door of the garden be opened today? Today
the door of the garden will not be opened.
(4) Where did the doorkeeper go? I do not know where
he went.
(5) Will you go for a stroll today? No brother, I will go to
the madrasah.
(6) Did Mahmūd eat the food? Till now he has not eaten.
Now he will eat.
(7) Who do you worship? We do not worship anyone
besides Allāh.
(8) What are you asking of us? We are only asking for a
book.
(9) Which book are you seeking from us? We are seeking
the book ‘Sīratun Nabī’ from you.
(10) Do you read the Qur’ān every day? We read one
part from it every day.

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An Arabic Letter

Read the following letter and note how a letter is written in


Arabic.

: O j\O ƒ
P )jfMb 0M O j™O |
m  j ŠO -b b‚O ² !j fP?r M .M !j Mr ƒ
P r "M j -b Mq-b

}P j=}O M r E
P ybr Mš=-b
P PbM M0M

O  *i $M j M 0M j ?jbM .P / b m b

j ©Ob2\bP 0M Mq-b B P -rM #b j qh-b b !j $P bj M m$b Y² j=YO :M ²M \b b !j P M Vr M j ?i P j$O vM j fPqj-b
j O / ³ jO#b P M Vr qM b ŸrM0 *o bjO#b lo Ym P j \O O M ybr b jO
j M O MfO j O b 0m ybr ^c }j { P r

e  ^c M: r ‚O -iYM )j%M"M 0M h OM M r O\ ² !j fP?r M .M !j Mr 9 P fPr -b bX…O0M O M M r M O
.
O Mf?O r bX…, j O j qOu5 ^c }j {
P r O jM !j M= YM j M …MM

9O fP?i r b 5rO 9


o j | M O ˆM jb ŸOv  j "M P qmœO\b ª M Mf?O r bX…, -iM 2r M Ab M O j ŠO -b M=
. / ³ j "M ;P MqYj vM !M \b ;P Mq-rM #b P g
j qM . *O $M j=YO 2b r *O m OM M r (
O O MY$M r O\ *O { M ©Om 
P )P
Mgj M= M$b 9 o j | M O ˆ M jb m OM M r u -b
M Mf?O r bX…, B M -rYM M bF‚O ƒ
M qj-b P bj fM"M 0M
. b !j )POuW

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wO j$O {
M O0M j ?i b0M j O †M Om| b $M M rM0 wM \Om% M r O rM0 *b M\OMr bMM
O  M O 9 P i€r -b
. .P / b m M0 M jO 1 . M j$O O
j $P r

TM O jŠM 9
P Ob€
M$j m  YP )jM

Test No. 8

(1) What is a verb and how many types are there?


(2) How many root letters are there generally in a verb?
(3) What is the (l6) of a word?
(4) From among the verbs, which word-form contains
only the root letters?
(5) How do you recognize the root letters of verbs,
derived nouns and verbal nouns?
(6) On what scale does the triliteral verb in the perfect
tense come? What are the scales of the imperfect
tense?
(7) How many word-forms are there in the perfect and
imperfect tenses in reality, how many are
customarily in vogue and why?

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(8) In which part of the sentence does a verb normally


come in an Arabic sentence? Where do the doer and
object come?
(9) Due to the number and gender of the doer, what
changes occur in the verb?
(10) What is the ( ) of the doer and the object?

(11) In the word (P MM '


M ), what is the pronoun (;P ) called?
(12) What word is (T
M m=‚O)?
(13) How do you construct the passive of the perfect
and imperfect tenses and the negative?
(14) What is the noun called towards which a passive
verb is related?
(15) What are the signs of the imperfect tense?
(16) What meanings can the word (9
P fP?r M) have and how
many word-forms can (
O M)fP?r M) be?
(17) How many tenses are found in the imperfect tense?
(18) What effect takes place on the imperfect by
introducing the particles ((
M ) and (R
M !j "M )?

End of Part One

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Volume 2

A Translation of

      

popularly known as

  

Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/


Arabic Tutor – Volume
Volume Two

Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic


Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South
Africa.

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<<<<<<<<

  
 
 !"# !$ !$ %&
 '(# %   
3.& 4#") *+, -#. %/0) 1, -  /0) 2 /&  2
(6778  9#:0 ;)
<<<<<<<<

Sayyidunā Ibn Úmar  narrates that Rasūlullāh  said,


“Whoever can speak Arabic correctly should not speak
Persian because it creates hypocrisy.”

(Mustadrak of Hākim)

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Arabic Tutor – Volume
Volume Two

Title Arabic Tutor - Volume Two

Author Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān (


  #)

Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007

Published by Madrasah In’āmiyyah


P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com

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Volume Two

Contents

The first fifteen lessons were completed in Volume One.


Volume Two begins with Lesson 16.

Transliteration..........................................................................9
Preface .........................................................................................12
Lesson 16.....................................................................................14
The Categories of Triliteral Verbs .......................................14
Vocabulary List No. 14 .........................................................18
Exercise 15 ..................................................................................21
Lesson 17.....................................................................................25
The Intransitive and Transitive Verbs and the Active and
Passive Verbs..........................................................................25
Vocabulary List No. 15 .........................................................29
Exercise No. 16 .......................................................................30
Lesson 18.....................................................................................35
Changes in the Verb due to the Doer .................................35
Vocabulary List No. 16 .........................................................39
Exercise No. 17 .......................................................................41
Test No. 9 ................................................................................44
Lesson 19.....................................................................................46
The Different Types of the Perfect Tense...........................46
(1) The Recent Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense ( '(;
=)>).......................................................................................46

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(2) The Far Past Tense or Pluperfect Tense (:? '(;)..46


(3) The Past Continuous Tense or Past Habitual Tense
(@#%0A'(;) ....................................................................47
(4) The Doubtful Past Tense (' B /C ED  '(;) ........................51
(5) The Perfect Desirous Tense or Conditional Perfect
Tense ('
F GE '(; 2 H%0 '(;)......................................51
Vocabulary List No. 17 .........................................................54
Exercise No. 18 .......................................................................56
Lesson 20.....................................................................................61
The Different Forms of the Imperfect.................................61
Vocabulary List No. 18 .........................................................68
Exercise No. 19 .......................................................................70
Lesson 20 B .................................................................................73
The Emphasized Imperfect Tense.......................................73
Vocabulary List No. 19 .........................................................76
Exercise No. 20 .......................................................................77
Test No. 10 ..............................................................................79
Lesson 21.....................................................................................81
The Imperative and the Prohibition ...................................81
Vocabulary List No. 20 .........................................................90
Exercise No. 21 .......................................................................92
Test No. 11 ..............................................................................96
Lesson 22.....................................................................................98
The Derived Nouns ...............................................................98

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The Active Participle Noun (


I I J.K L B I)..............................98
The Passive Participle Noun (! I "B L .K %M K L B I)........................100
The Adverb (NO ) ......................................................101

The Noun of the Instrument (-P )..............................103


Vocabulary List No. 21 .......................................................104
Exercise No. 22 .....................................................................106
Lesson 23...................................................................................110
The Adjectival Nouns .........................................................110
Vocabulary List No. 22 .......................................................119
Exercise No. 23 .....................................................................120
Lesson 24...................................................................................124
The Elative ............................................................................124
Vocabulary List No. 23 .......................................................128
Exercise No. 24 .....................................................................130
Test No. 12 ............................................................................136
Lesson 25 A...............................................................................138
The Categories Other than the Triliteral Verbs...............138
Vocabulary List No. 24 .......................................................147
Exercise No. 25 .....................................................................151
Lesson 25 (B).............................................................................156
The Particles 
Q RI, Q 2J and K 2J....................................................156
Vocabulary List No. 25 .......................................................161
Exercise No. 26 .....................................................................166
Supplement ..............................................................................174

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Some Beneficial Information..............................................174


(1) The definitions of (N8 ) and ("7& )............174
(2) Analysis (
S BI7
B 0DJ).............................................................175

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Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters


has been used in this book:

 ā

T t

4 th

U j

V h

W kh

 d

X dh

# r

Y z

Z s

[ sh

\ s

] d

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^ t

_ z

`
M á

`
I í

`
L ú

a gh

N f

3 q

9 k

!
b m

 n

 ū

c h

@ ī, y

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Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows:

 (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)


May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon
him - used for Nabî 
 (Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all prophets
 (Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the
Sahâbah 
 (Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh 
 (Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(
  #) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars

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f :%g "# c:? ' b1  e18 6; #


:%d
): b") h ?2

Preface

It is only through the grace of the Almighty Allāh  that, in


spite of my ill-health and unsuitable conditions that
prevailed, I have been able to present the second volume of
Arabic Tutor to the students of Arabic with changes and
new additions. All praises are due to Him.

The first volume forms part of the syllabus of the fourth


class in the high schools. Now, the second volume has been
prepared for the fifth class.

Although the previous edition was well accepted by the


scholars and intellectuals of the country, Bombay
University and the Department of Education Sindh and
several seminaries have included it in their syllabi, yet I had
the desire to do whatever I could to simplify Arabic. There
is no guarantee for life. Due to the lack of means, I could
not achieve what I wanted to. Nevertheless, one should be
grateful for whatever has been done. Now the benefit of

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this book has increased manifold. All praises are due to


Allāh  for that.

Very few additions of grammar rules have been made


because the aim of this book is to learn the language and to
understand the Qur’ān. However, there has been a
considerable increase in the amount of examples, especially
from the Qur’ān, dialogues and exercises, so that this can
serve as an Arabic Reader to an extent.

It is not only a claim but an accepted reality that this series


is the only one which can be called an excellent syllabus
and the most beneficial one for high schools, Arabic
seminaries and the students of Eastern languages.

Nonetheless, whatever I could do, I have done. Now it is


the duty of those elders who have the control of the syllabi
in their hands, to allow the students to benefit from this
book. They can appreciate this service by looking at what
has been said and not who said it. They can afford every
Muslim student the opportunity of benefiting from it and
thus be entitled to immense rewards. Our duty is to merely
convey.

Servant of the best language


(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān

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Lesson 16

The Categories of Triliteral Verbs


1 (i 'j1k . " 2)

1. You have read about the perfect ('(;) and imperfect

(`#l;) verbs in lessons 14 and 15 of volume one. You have


also learnt many verbs in the vocabulary lists, numbers 12
and 13. From there you may have understood that the
second root letter (-%/6)2 of the roots of certain triliteral
verbs ('j1k) of the ('(;) perfect and (`#l;) imperfect is
sometimes similar and sometimes different.

The verbs of the word (n


m 0B,J) are (nM 0M,J) and (nL 0M.K M)) where the
(-%/6) is (VB"0L.K M )3 in both cases.
In the word (bm M 
J ), the ('(;) - perfect tense is (bM L J ) while
the (`#l;) is (bL L /K M)). That is, the (-%/ 6) of both are

1 The word (i) means denuded. It refers to the first stem of the verb that
contains only the root letters and is empty of any extra radicals.
2 See Lesson 3.7.
3 that is, having a fathah.

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(bB"%
Ll
B M )4.
In the word (=
m
B M ), the ('(;) - perfect tense is (=
M
I M )
while the (`#l;) - imperfect is (=
L
I7
B M)). Therefore the ( 6
-%/) of both are (#B"
L /K M )5.

Now observe the following verbs:


• in the word (
m B (
M ), the ('(;) is (
M M (
M ) where the
(-%/
6) has a fathah, while the (`#l;) is (
L I l
B M)),
where the (-%/ 6) has a kasrah.

• in the word (m 8


B *M), the ('(;) is (M 8
M *M) where the ( 6
-%/) has a fathah, while the (`#l;) is (L 8
L &BM)), where
the (-%/ 6) has a dammah.

• in the word (o
m %B M ), the ('(;) is (oM %I M ) where the ( 6
-%/) has a kasrah, while the (`#l;) is (o
L %M
B M)),
where the (-%/ 6) has a fathah.

4 having a dammah.
5 having a kasrah.

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2. With regard to the (-%/ 6) of the ('(;) and (`#l;),


the verbs of (i 'j1k) fall into six categories. In the
terminology of Arabic Morphology, these categories are
called (
m M ), the plural being (
m M" B2J).
The six categories are as follows6:

Y" `#l; '(; " 


S I .K M) J M ,J
L I l
B M)
M M (
M !p ?
6 #" / 6 V"0.
S L .K M) J M ,J L 8
L &BM) M 8
M *M qk ?
6 b"%l 6 V"0.
S M .K M) J I ,J oL %M
B M) oM %I M rk ?
6 V"0. 6 #" /
S M .K M) J M ,J nL 0M.K M) nM 0M,J o  ?
6 V"0. 6 V"0.
S L .K M) J L ,J bL L /K M) bM L J st ?
6 b"%l 6 b"%l
S I .K M) J I ,J =
L
I7
B M) =
M
I M Z  ?
6 #" / 6 #" /

6 Since Arabic is read from right to left, this table must be read in that
direction. The arrow sign will be used as a guide to indicate the direction of
the text.

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3. Verbs more often belong to one of the first three


categories. The verbs of the fourth category are slightly less,
the fifth category even lesser and very few verbs belong to
the sixth category.

4. When any word belongs to a particular category, it means


that the harakah of the second radical will correspond to
the ('(;) and (`#l;) of that category. For example, if it is

said that the word (


u B vJ - to wash) belongs to ( (  ), it
means the ('(;) is (
J M vJ ) and the (`#l;) is (S
I wB M)).

Note: In the Vocabulary Lists No. 14 and 15, the ('(;) and

(`#l;) tenses have been written. Look at the verbs and


work out which category each verb belongs to.

5. It is essential to know which category every verb of


(i'j1k) belongs to so that the ('(;), (`#l;) and the
imperative () can be correctly pronounced. It is for this

reason that the (


m M ) of every verb is written next to a verb
in the dictionaries. If the verb is from ( (  ), a (]) is

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written next to the verb.7 If the verb is from (8*  ), a ()


is written next to the verb, if it is from (ox  ), a (Z) is

inserted, if it is from (n0,  ), a (N) is written, if it is from

(b  ), a (9) is inserted and if it is from (=   ), a (V)


is written. We will follow the same procedure in the future
vocabulary lists.

In some modern dictionaries, a line with a harakah is


inserted after the ('(;) to indicate the harakah of the

(`#l;), e.g.

(I_ J
M vJ ), (_z M 8
M *M), (_{ V
M I ,J).

Vocabulary List No. 14

Word Meaning
() J 8
M M to obtain

(]) oM |M #M to return

() 3
M YM #M to give, to sustain

7 This applies to some dictionaries only. Others have their own methods of
indicating the category of verbs.

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() :M $J#M to sleep

() M /J M to live, to reside

() M /J }M to thank

BI f May it be so.

() 3
M :M M to speak the truth

(9)
M L $J to be near

( Z) =
M I J to play

(Z) ]
M I M to be ill

(]) bM ~M M to defeat

D2J as far as, as for

`
m M)€K I radio

J B?M$S just before

:L IM|M ‚ eu :M B)I |M newspaper

D*IJGI I{ 2 -u D*IJGI I Britain

_
u "B OS L … „
ƒ M part, portion

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(# -&k) I B)#M M the two worlds

B XS owner8

eu M MM bliss, success

‡z M:M L – :m BI M fortunate

u "B &L‰S … ˆ ‰J thought

-u ME
I B 2J … ‡Š MEM supper, dinner

-u M):I vK 2 … ‡Š M:vJ lunch

#m "B ‹S ,S breakfast

bI D)JK cI €I Œ 'B ,I nowadays, in these days

'ŒM S … u 1
J B J lazy

:m BŽ
I M glorious

-u M 
M L destructive

-u ?M0M/K M library, bookshop, desk

"M 7
B *M towards

N
m M8*B2J … ‘
m 8
B *I half

S M M) Japan

8 See Lesson 11 in volume 1.

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I M" M2J parents

=
I M Q S M:BM sports field

’
m I :B L astonishing

Exercise 15

(A) In the following sentences, the harakah of the perfect


('(;) and imperfect tenses (`#l;) has not been written.
Insert the correct harakah and read the sentences.
Read Note no. 5 of Lesson 2 in Volume One once again.

Answer Question
I /I J L &BI “‡~B |L SK$2J b” "B M) Q S Q S 2SK>M I fB>S K M I B J (1)
‡I ~B Ž
L K ‘
M 8 B *I pQ RI T L 2KJ$ M bM "B MK •SBI–M M) b” "B M)
T
I M?|I M — L ?B0J M 'B *JI •JXM%I (2)
—
L
B MŽ,J I BQ 'I, -I M #M :B %M K
˜M?M = L 0K2J
'B I S 8B7M b” "B M) Q S I ™I :L %B 7 M KJ bM "B MK š
M J —
B J8M K M (3)
I Ž
B .J K -S M M%|M • I Ž
B .J K -S M M%|M
I
B L 'JM @
B :I M M) 9M L /B}2J

I  M ” BOI M „
› M B XS —
M *BJ,J (4)

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s
M BJ,J I ŽB .J K -S M M%|M D2J š M &‰J S BI–M M)
'JM /S K 'JM pQ RI ” B?IJ ” B J I
-I J.K wM K 'I, J B :L $BM) M B)€I Q

T
I M|#M M

z  oM ,M# M BI f sM BJ B /I J @


B :I JM M) — M $K :M (5)
@
B :I M š M $JYM# ‡I M:M œ  = L B8I *M pQ RI J€M
I B)#M D: eJ M MM

z
#I "B ‹S .S K :M B M =
L KX2J M*2J 'JRI =
L K€M 'M0M S BI–M M) (6)
•I-M #M :B %M K
I B O  J ?B$J ‡{ M:wM K S K*M L 7
B *M • ‡{ M:wM K J "B SKM 'M0M M (7)
‘
I 8
B *I "M 7
B *M -S M #M :B %M K T
I :M M • eu :M BI M bB 2J -u ?MB)I $J -S M #M :B %M K (8)
” BI
M) B /I J I BM M Z
I 2KD  'JM • M*:M &BI @
M DE
L BEM K M (9)
@
M E D  — L BM} M*2J @ B :I M
š
M IXJ :M B M
L B}2J pJ M ˜M?M
˜: M2J

M*#I M| 'B ,I cL M" M2J L /B M) :m JM J€M L BwI 8


D  :L J"M K J€M B M (10)

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•š
M M M
—
B J Jv M%,J L œ 2S —
B (
M I M bM "B MKJ pJ 2J . ‘
” BOI &M I "M L sM BJ (11)
L M |B M • L L |B M S BwL)
I M:B%M K 'I, b” "B M) Q S =
L K*M B M *M :M B M b” "B M) Q S J "B ?LKM K M (12)
• I 8
B M K

I I wB %M K J B?M$S oL |B#2J M*2J I M:BM B I oL |BM 'M0M (13)
•=I M Q
S K*M I I wB %M K eI 1
J M :M B M • S K.M JXM%,J (14)
'I, I JMK #M M?–B 2J oL %B *MM ‡{ MEM K
`
I M)€K %I K
˜EI :B L ˜?M–M —
L B %M @
B :I M M) • -J M #I M?K —
M B %M JXM (15)
—
I M ~M :B $J J M MK Q 2J — L B %M • 9M JXM M (16)
M)1
J M 'B ,I -J /J B)I B JKM -J D*IJGB ?IK
:I &BI K M I J ŸK —
I MJ$ :B $JM MB MM

I B 7
M K cI €I M  }M B I

z  M&OJ .M J€/J M @ B ~I B)~I M M) —


M $K :M (17)
-I M 
M %L K ˜lB)2J :I IMŽ
M K 'I, #L M?–B JK T
I ‡{ M|

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(B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic

(1) O boys, how much do you read from the Qur’ān


every day? We read one part of it daily but today we
read half a part.
(2) Did you not learn the madrasah lessons at night? No,
but we learnt them in the morning.
(3) O boys, when do you go to the madrasah?
Nowadays, we go to the madrasah after breakfast.
(4) Is the madrasah far from your homes? Yes, the
madrasah is approximately one mile from our
houses.
(5) When do you return from the madrasah? We return
from the madrasah a little before Zuhr.
(6) Do you obtain the Zuhr Salāh with congregation?
Yes, all praises are due to Allāh, these days we obtain
the Zuhr and Àsr Salāhs with congregation.
(7) How is that? Because the madrasah is only opened
nowadays in the morning.
(8) Then what do you do after Zuhr? We sleep for one
hour.
(9) O Ahmad, what do you do after Àsr? Sir, I go for a
walk to the garden.
(10) Do you read the newspaper every day? By Allāh,
every day I read the newspapers in the library.

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Lesson 17

The Intransitive and Transitive Verbs and the Active


and Passive Verbs
(!"i N; . @:0; bY1 .)

1. Verbs are of two types:


• Intransitive (bY1): one which is complete with the

doer of the action, e.g. (:


m B)YM bM L J - Zaid became
noble.) The intransitive verb does not have an
object.
• Transitive (@:0;): one which requires both the
doer and the object to complete the statement, e.g.
(˜~?B –
L :m B)YM J J 2J - Zaid ate bread.)

2. Most transitive verbs require one verb only but there are
some verbs that require two objects, e.g. when it is said,
(˜/
K M :m B)YM =
M
I M - Zaid thought that Bakr), the sentence is
incomplete. What did he think of Bakr? When it is said,
( &Iv
J ˜/K M :m B)YM =
M
I M - Zaid thought that Bakr was wealthy),
the sentence becomes complete.
(˜7IM ˜:IM– :m I M M IM ) – Hāmid knew that Khālid is pious.

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Such verbs are called (


I BJ"B L .K M 'JI @
B : M 0M%L KJ) – transitive to
two objects.

3. There are two types of transitive verbs:


• the active verb (N;): a verb that is related to
the doer of the action and the doer is known, e.g.
(˜:IM– :m I M
M M (
M - Hāmid hit Khālid.) In this

sentence, the doer of the verb (


M M (
M ) is known.
• The passive verb (!"i): a verb related to the

object and the doer is not mentioned, e.g. (


M I (
L
:m IM– - Khālid was hit.) In this example, the doer is
not mentioned at all. Therefore the verb ( M I (
L ) is a
passive verb.

4. The noun towards which the passive verb is related is


called (
I I J.K =
L IM* - the representative of the doer). It is

(`B",SB M - in the nominative case) like the doer. In the

sentence, (:
m IM–
M I (
L ), the word, (:m IM–) is the object in reality
and should have been ( "8& - in the accusative case).
However, due to the passive verb, it has taken the place of

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the doer of the action and is therefore (`B",SB M ).

Note 1: The (
I I J.K =
L IM*) is also called ( L SI J, D
M L) B J M !S "L.K M ).

5. Those verbs that have two objects will also have two
representatives of the doer. But both will not be (`B",SB M ). The

second object will be ( "8&), e.g. (˜7IM :m IM– M IL - Khālid


was thought to be pious.)

Note 2: The method of constructing the ('(;) passive and


imperfect passive tense was discussed in Lessons 14 and 15
of Volume One.

6. An intransitive verb is generally used in the active tense.


However, by adding a particle to a subsequent noun, it can
become transitive. In such a situation, the intransitive verb
can be used in the passive tense, e.g.
(:
” B)~M I
:m IM– =
M M XJ - Khālid took Zaid.)
Here the verb (= M M XJ ) has become transitive. The passive
form will be: (: ” B)~M I =
M I XS - Zaid was taken.)
Similarly, the passive form of the sentence ( ” M0/I I :m I M ‡{ M| -
Hāmid brought a book) will be ( ” M0/I I ¡J B|I - A book was
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brought).

Note 3: Although the verb (‡{ M| - to come) is intransitive, it is

used like a transitive verb: (


m "B 0L/K M 'B *I‡{ M| - A letter reached
me).
(!
u "B L #M B S ‡{ M| - A messenger came to you.)
Sometimes the particle ('JRI) is used after it, e.g. ( š
M BJRI ‡{ M|

m "B 0L/K M - A letter came to you).

The verb (
J –M M - to enter) is intransitive. An adverb succeeds
it, that is, a noun showing place or time. Generally there is
no need to attach the particle ('
B ,I) to it, e.g. ( :M Ž
I
B %M K I :L B)YM J –M M
˜M?M - Zaid entered the musjid in the morning). The words
(:MŽ
I B %M K) and (˜ M?M ) are called (, !".) which are
normally words denoting place or time and they are
( "8&). The details will follow in Volume Four.

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Vocabulary List No. 15

Word Meaning
Yˆ #L 2J rice

=
m *IM| side

-S D/I I%M K -S >J B):I 7


M KJ the royal garden

(Z) =
M I #M to mount

T
m "B L – š
m %M M fish

#m B :L L ‚ #m :B M chest, heart

-u JL JG table

!u J.GK 2J ‚ u .K GI child

-u MM M carriage, vehicle

'ˆ Ž
I MB M coachman, cabman

@
ˆ I /J
B M soldier, policeman

-u DI #I J, Persian

D%J when

#M "B ,SMw&BI Singapore

M?I¢BI Libya

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-u M#M M7L war

Z
m M* people

(N) £
M M *M to rise

-I M #M :B %M K T
L M?|I M assignment, task

Exercise No. 16

(A) Change the active verbs into passive ones and vice
versa in the following sentences.

Note 4: When you want to change the active into the


passive, delete the doer and replace it with the object which
will now be (`",).

Example: (˜?K 
J :m I M
M M (
M - Hāmid hit a dog.) will change to
(=
m K J
M I ( L - A dog was hit).
(
I B)~M ?B–L L M)B M —
B JJ 2J - Maryam ate two breads) will change to
(
I M~?B–L J I 2S - Two breads were eaten).

If you want to change the passive into the active, insert a


doer, change the (. =*) to the object and render it

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( "8&).

Example: (3
m #I M J 0I$S - A thief was killed) will change to ( J 0M$J
¤$#I M u |L #M - A man killed a thief) or (¤$#I M —
L K 0M$J – I killed a
thief) etc.

˜&?MJ S .K ‹C  M I }M (1)
9M M 2J :” I M "B –L 2J = M JGJ (2)
YD #L JKM šM %M D  bM "B MK M&K J 2J (3)
M 8
B I 'JRI cL M–2J :” I M "B L2J J M #B 2J (4)
• -J DI #I J.K š M 0L–B 2S L M .K M K M (5)
#M "B ,SMw&BI -I M#M M7L 'B ,I cL M 2J @ ˆ I /J B M J 0M$J (6)
m B?IJ :m M 2 J 0I$S (7)
I M"B):  'I, 9M "B L2J = M IGS (8)
• -I M #M :B %M K M M nM 0I,S K M (9)
-I M #M :B %M K 'I MM L D"?MK nM 0M,J B M *M (10)
M?I¢BI -I M#M M7L 'B ,I :I J"M K J€M "B L2J J 0I$S (11)
• -J /Q M 'B ,I @ œ :I &BI K S M C L M .K L) K M (12)
M M fM#:M BM 'JRI cL "B –L 2J r J I L (13)

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#L Q./S K bL ~M B LM (14)


T
M "B SM| L L M J 0M$J (15)
˜7IM 9M M–2J — L ?B I M (16)

(B) Translate the following sentences into English.

-I >J B):I 7
M K 'JRI = L M €K MM -J MM M K =
L J B M K M ‚ -I MM M KI 'œ Ž I MB M K ‡{ M| (1)
• -I D/I I%M K
:m IM– 'B >I B):I M L JM #B 2J 'B IB I B I m "B 0LK/M 'B *I‡{ M| (2)
' I B /S K 'JM ˜ IM| M BwI 8 D  9M M–2J — L B)2J#M š M MM ŽB L — L K –M M D%J (3)
'JM = ” *IMŽ I — L B JŽM ,J -I M #M :B %M K T I M?|I M = L 0L/K M) -I JL Q‹ bM M2J
eI "M B >J KI 'B I ‡{ M|M '¥ I B S
S S K M) cL M*:B |M "M ,J @
¥ #I B L (M ” B JI cI I 8 B J$ 'B ,I eI :M K ?MK I BI 2J 'JM M&K –M M (4)
M B /I J bI M‹Q  'JM M&?MJGJ M bI M:$K JK 'JM ˜%IJ$ £ M M &M,J bM M‹Q 
cL M& BI EM ,J @
I DEI M&J ¡J B|I D jS M&K J 2J
B /S
I .S *B2J B I !u "B L #M B S ‡{ M| :B >J J (5)
#I B :L 8 œ  'I, M%I ‡Š J.}I M B /S #M B I -u OJ I"B M B /S B‡{ M| :B $J Z L D& Mœ)2JM) (6)
M B&II ¦B %L K I -u %M B #M M @˜:L M

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(C) Translate into Arabic.

(1) A man killed a big lion.


(2) I called Hāmid’s brother.
(3) My sister ate the fish and the rice.
(4) Ahmad regarded Mahmūd as being pious.
(5) This girl’s brother was killed in the war of Japan.
(6) My father sent me to Hyderabad.
(7) Is the Arabic language understood in Bombay?
(8) A letter came to me from my brother.
(9) I will write its answer tomorrow.

(D) The following sentences are complete. Ponder over each


sentence, determine the active and passive verbs and then
insert the correct ( ) accordingly.

e} :2 0$ (1)


e} —0$ (2)
e"> :}# } (3)
e"> — } (4)
#:   )
 (5)
&v :}# :)Y =  (6)
&v :}# =  (7)

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9–2 —?G (8)


9"–2 =G (9)
3"  hR '1v —k (10)
3"  hR —k (11)
• -#:;  0/ € 2> —*2  (12)
• -#:;  0/ € 2>)  (13)
§ ) p § ) " (14)

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Lesson 18

Changes in the Verb due to the Doer

1. When a verb precedes the (,), it will always be

singular, whether the (,) is singular, dual or plural.

However, it will correspond to the (,) in gender.


Examples:

Plural Dual Singular


J "B %L CM %L K =
M 0MJ I M%CM %L K =
M 0MJ L CM %L K =
M 0MJ
T
L M%CM %L K —
I ?M0MJ I M0%M CM %L K —
I ?M0MJ -S %M CM %L K —
I ?M0MJ

However, if the (,) is a broken plural and a non-

intelligent being ($ ¨v), whether masculine or feminine,


the verb is generally singular feminine in both cases.
Examples:
(!
S M%Ž
I K T
I ‡{ M|) – The (male) camels came.
(3
L "B &œ —
I ?MM XJ ) – The (female) camels went.

Note 1: The word (!


u M%|I ) is the broken plural of (u %M |M ) while

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(3
m "B *L) is the broken plural of (-u $JM*).

If the (,) is a broken plural of an intelligent being,


whether masculine or feminine, the verb can either be used
masculine or feminine.
Examples:

Analysis Feminine Masculine


Verb Verb
The (,) is masculine. !S M|  —
I JJ$ !S M|  !J J$
The (,) is feminine. eu "M
B *I —
B JJ$ eu "M
B *I !J J$

Similarly, if the (,) is a collective noun (o© )9 or it is


('>> ¨v r*¦)10, both forms are permissible.

9 See Terminology in Volume One.


10 A word that does not have a living masculine opposite.

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Examples:

Analysis Feminine Masculine


Verb Verb
The (,) is (o© ) bL "B >J K T
I M l
M M bL "B >J K M l
M M
The (,) is ( ¨v r*¦ s
L %B E
D  —
I M JGJ s
L %B E
D  oM JGJ
'>>).

2. If the (,) is mentioned before the verb, the verb and the

(,) must correspond.


Examples:

Feminine Masculine Number


—
B ?M0MJ -S %M CM %L KJ =
M 0MJ L CM %L KJ Singular

M0?M0MJ I M0%M CM %L KJ{ M?0MJ I M%CM %L KJ Dual

M ?B0MJ T
L M%CM %L KJ B"?L0MJ J "B %L CM %L KJ Plural

Similarly, the sentence (B"?L


M XJ M J "B %L CM %L K M l
M M - The teachers
were present and went away), has two verbs. The first one
is singular and the second is plural. The word (
J "B %L CM %L KJ) is
the (,) of both verbs, succeeding the first verb and

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preceding the second. Therefore, the first verb is singular


and the second is plural.

Note 2: This rule could be understood in another way.


When the (,) precedes the verb in a sentence, it is not

called the (,) in Arabic Grammar but is the subject (:0?)

while the verb becomes its predicate (ª–). The (:0?) and

(ª–) form a (-x -©). It will not be a (-, -©).

The analysis of the sentence (=


M 0MJ L CM %L K) will be as follows:
The word ( L CM %L K) is the subject (:0?). The verb (= M 0MJ ) has a
hidden pronoun ("M  L ) which is the (,). The verb with its
(,) become a (-, -©) and then forms the (ª–). The

(:0?) and (ª–) constitute a (-x -©).

You learnt in Lesson 6 that the predicate must correspond


with the subject in number and gender. Accordingly, in
such sentences, the verb which is the predicate corresponds
with the visible (,) which is the subject. But when the
subject is the plural of a non-intelligent being, the verb will
be singular feminine, according to the normal rule of ( -©

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-x), e.g. (—
B 0M?M*M #L MŽ}B JKJ) – The trees grew.

Hopefully you have understood the corresponding of the


verb and the (,). Carefully read the exercise that is to
follow.

Vocabulary List No. 16

Word Meaning
() !J €J M to spend

(N) `
M #M YM to sow

(N) !J J{M to ask, to question

() M /J }M to thank

() oM JGJ to rise

(Z) bM :I $J to come

() «
D $J to narrate a story

(]) :M 8
M $J to intend, to proceed

(N) nM &MM to grant, to award

:L Ž
I M) :M |M M to find

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I M" M2J parents

N
m "B S2S ‚ ‘
m K2J thousand

-u *MMRI help

eu~M IM| prize

p¤ M immediately

u –B M income

-u M)¬B #L sight, meeting

‡Š M0}I winter

euM M}M testimony, evidence,


certificate
‘
m BM summer

=
ˆ GI medical science

-u MM?GI medical profession

‡Š MlB 2J ‚ "m l
B L limb, member

-u >J IJ, superior, first-rate

L I M",J ‚ -u M I J, fruit

bm B :L $S to come, to arrive

@˜$S ‚ -u M)B $J village

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L I M M ‚ m /J
B M house, dwelling

m "B ,SL ‚ :m ,K M delegation

Exercise No. 17

Note 3: The important words will be typed in bold. Make a


careful note of these words. The future lessons will also be
done in the same manner.

Note 4: Note in the following exercise that when the verb


precedes the (,), it will always be singular and when it

succeeds it, the verb and the (,) will correspond.

   M ‡I M0E
  'I,  
  D jS ‘
I B8
D  'I, J ?MŽ
M K !S M|     (1)
B L &MI M M
‡I J,M E
œ  M I MJB 2J   M 
    L L I M–M :L %M B 2J bM DE  
  (2)
e¤ ~M IM| 
  M I M70IB +IK 'I, L pJ B {    (3)

 # $  -J >J IJ.K eJ M ME
" D   
 ! M =
 ‹C  I K I 'B ,I I M0&B?IK 
   (4)

-I ?MJGJ B I ‡I M>J .S K 'JM e¤ M BkIJ p¤ M"B2J % & 'M ˜:B):I }M ˜M ,J M%L M" M2J
I K I K

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I B O  :M B M D jS eJ "M B >J K '# *  , 


  ˜M?M @
B :I &BI I 1
J |L #M )(  (5)
-¤ *MMRI 'B &I .  M 'B IB I ‡I J,M }L B I !” M|#I eS M E
B M I B,I :m ,K M -  
D%J,J eI :M K ?MK I BI 2J :M %M B 2J 'B >I B):I M 'JRI B I I 
 .  &  -I D?‹C  -I M #M :B %M K I
J –I M M& I 2
  3 M p¤ M 1
 M -I ,JB wL K M I M&BJRI # 0  cI I 8
B $J :M &BI /  '
I I M".J KI L L D:–L 5
 )(  D jS -I &MD)~M %L K ' I M/J K 'JM ,
   4M I 8
B >J K
 # * M @
: M DE    eI "M B >J K M @
 '# 9 I DEI )6  7 8 4 D%J,J

   =  M&I B :L $S =
  I ?MM B M L BI JK 1 ;(< D jJ eJ "M B >J K :I ,K "M K ‡z MlB 2J
@  . A -¤ M #M ~B M MJ  ?  M p¤ M -” D I#L ‘
M K2J -I M #M :B %M K I 
 >  -J 8
D >I K I BJM
˜BkIJ ˜/K }L š
M IŒX 'JM B  # C 9
   )"I &MM -” D I#L ‘
I K2J "M 7
B *M MS–B M
.'B IB I 'JRI D  E M

(B) Fill in the blanks:

M J|M M I 1 J |L #M (1)
—
I B?MK 'JRI D jS M%L M #B M u BI–M M ‡{ M $J (2)
[
I B .J K 'JM M ‡z M & T I ‡{ M| (3)
J 2KM >K M) T
L M&?MKJ (4)
˜,IM* J B ‡z M >K M) (5)

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~M ?B
L KM M 7
B Q 'B *IM"–B RI (6)
-I M #M :B %M K 'JRI :M %M B 2J T L M"–M 2J (7)
' I M/J K 'JM M -I M #M :B %M K 'I, T L M%CM %L K (8)
-I M #M :B %M K 'JRI šM 0L–B 2S 'M0M (9)
I 8
B M K :M B M 'JRI M&M M K M (10)
I ?MŽ
M K M I 'M0M M J ?MŽ M K ‡z MM SK 'M0M (11)
M&BI š M LM"–M 2J bB 2J #I D: M I š
M *LM"–B RI K M (12)
M&BI B M M #M D: B M (13)
@
 "I &M D  I M70IB +IK 'I, ˜:JM B J (14)

(C) Translate into Arabic:

(1) The boys ate breakfast and then went to the


madrasah.
(2) The two boys were successful in the examination of
medical science and they were awarded a certificate
and a prize.
(3) Did your sisters go to the madrasah?
(4) No sir, they did not go till now. Now they will eat
lunch and then go to the madrasah.
(5) Three noble women came to me from a village and
sought help from me for the girls’ madrasah. I gave

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them fifty rupees. They thanked me and went away


to their village.

Test No. 9

(1) How many categories ( " 2) of verbs are there in

(­ 'j1j)?
(2) When a verb belongs to a particular (  ), what does
it mean?
(3) What do you obtain by recognizing the (  ) of a
verb?
(4) To which categories ( " 2) do the following verbs

belong: (=#), (–), (=0), (2), (,), (£*M), (r ),

(=X), ( $), (/}) and (8)?


(5) What is a transitive verb and an intransitive verb?
(6) From the above-mentioned verbs (in no. 4), which
verbs are intransitive and which ones are transitive?
(7) Define (N ,) and (!"­ ,).
(8) In a sentence, how can an active verb be converted to
a passive one and vice versa? Provide an explanation
with examples.
(9) Why is the passive tense not formed from an

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intransitive verb?
(10) Can the passive tense ever be formed from an
intransitive verb?
(11) If the doer succeeds the verb in a sentence, what
effect does the gender and number of the doer have
on the verb?
(12) If the doer precedes the verb in a sentence, what
changes occur in the verb due to the differences in
the doer?

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Lesson 19

The Different Types of the Perfect Tense

(1) The Recent Past Tense or Past Perfect Tense


(2A#= FGH )

By adding the particle (:


B $J), the meaning of the recent past
tense is most often created, e.g.
(3
I "B
œ  'JRI :m B)YM =
M M XJ :B $J) – Zaid just went to the market or Zaid
has gone to the market.

(2) The Far Past Tense or Pluperfect Tense ( FGH


ID. )

The far past tense is formed by inserting the word (


J J)
before the ('(;), e.g.

(=
M M XJ J J) – He had gone.

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(3) The Past Continuous Tense or Past Habitual


Tense (KE #> <J FGH )

The past continuous or habitual tense is formed by inserting


the word (
J J) before the imperfect (`#l ,), e.g. ( J J
L M B #L L :L %M B 2J =
L 0L/K M)) – Ahmad was writing his lessons or he
used to write his lessons.

Note 1: The word (


J J) is a verb of the perfect tense ('(;)
from the verbal noun (
u "B J - to be). Its paradigm is like other
verbs:

D 0L&BS M%0L&BS —
I &BS B 0L&BS M%0L&BS —
M &BS D S M0*MJ —
B *MJ B"*LJ M*J J J
D&S —
L &BS

Note 2: Whichever word-form (-w ) of the far past or past


continuous you intend to construct, use the same word-
form from the above paradigm and add it to the same
word-form of the ('(;) or (`#l;) tense. You will
understand this well from the following paradigm.

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ID. FGH LD$

Meaning Person Gender Word-Form Verb


3
=
M 0MJ J J
rd masc.
He had written singular
person
They 2 had written dual
M?0MJ M*J
They had written plural
B"?L0MJ B"*LJ
She had written fem. singular
—
B ?M0MJ —
B *MJ
They 2 f. had written dual
M0?M0MJ M0*MJ
They f. had written plural
M ?B0MJ D S
You had written 2nd
person
masc. singular
—
M ?B0MJ —
M &BS
You 2 had written dual
M%0L?B0MJ M%0L&BS
You had written plural
B 0L?B0MJ B 0L&BS
You f. had written fem. singular
—
I ?B0MJ —
I &BS
You 2 f. had written dual
M%0L?B0MJ M%0L&BS
You f. had written plural
D 0L?B0MJ D 0L&BS
I had written 1st
person
m/f singular
—
L ?B0MJ —
L &BS
We had written dual/
M&?B0MJ D&S
plural

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KE #> <J FGH LD$

Meaning Person Gender Word- Verb


Form
He was writing 3rd masc. singular =
L 0L/K M) J J
person
They 2 were writing dual I M?0L/K M) M*J
They were writing plural J "B ?L0L/K M) B"*LJ
She was writing fem. singular =
L 0L/K M —
B *MJ
They 2 f. were writing dual I M?0L/K M M0*MJ
They f. were writing plural M ?B0L/K M) D S
You were writing 2
nd masc. singular =
L 0L/K M —
M &BS
person
You 2 were writing dual I M?0L/K M M%0L&BS
You were writing plural J "B ?L0L/K M B 0L&BS
You f. were writing fem. singular M B?I0L/K M —
I &BS
You 2 f. were writing dual I M?0L/K M M%0L&BS
You f. were writing plural M ?B0L/K M D 0L&BS
I was writing 1st m/f singular =
L 0LK 2J —
L &BS
person
We were writing dual/ =
L 0L/K *M D&S
plural

Note 3: The (`#l;) of (


J J) is (S "B /S M)). The paradigm will be
as follows:

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PCA : MENH LD$

Meaning Person Gender Word- Verb


Form
He was 3rd
person
masc. singular
S "B /S M)
They 2 were dual
I M*"B /S M)
They were plural
J "B *L"B /S M)
She was fem. singular
S "B /S M
They 2 f. were dual
I M*"B /S M
They f. were plural
D /S M)
You were 2nd
person
masc. singular
S "B /S M
You 2 were dual
I M*"B /S M
You were plural
J "B *L"B /S M
You f. were fem. singular
M B*I"B /S M
You 2 f. were dual
I M*"B /S M
You f. were plural
D /S M
I was 1st
person
m/f singular
S "B S 2J
We were dual/
plural
S "B /S *M

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(4) The Doubtful Past Tense (F


 QCR9 FGH )

By inserting the word (


Q M J - perhaps) before the ('(;) -
perfect tense, the doubtful perfect tense is formed, e.g.
(:
IŽI
B %M K 'JRI =
M M XJ ˜:B)YM Q M J) – Perhaps Zaid went to the musjid.

The word (
S "B /S M)) can also create the doubtful perfect
meaning, e.g. (=
M M XJ :m B)YM S "B /S M)) – Zaid may have went.

Note 4: The word (


Q M J) does not appear before a verb. It is
succeeded by a noun which is ( "8&) or by a pronoun

(¨%().

(5) The Perfect Desirous Tense or Conditional


Perfect Tense (SF#9 FGH 4 T> FGH )

The meaning of the conditional perfect tense is created by


adding the word ("B J - if, would that) to the ('(;), e.g.

(T
M :B 8
M7
M J —
M B #M YM "B J) – Had you sown, you would have

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harvested.

Note 5: The (!) in the word (T


M :B 8
M7
M J) has the meaning of
‘certainly’ or ‘surely’. This (!) is inserted in the response to

the conditional sentence beginning with ("B J). Sometimes it is


not inserted.

For the perfect conditional tense, sometimes (


J J) or any of
its other word-forms is inserted after ("B J). The ('(;) or the

(`#l;) tense can be used after it. There is a slight


difference in meaning.
Examples:
(T
M :B 8
M7
M J —
M B #M YM —
M &BS "B J) – If you had sown, you would have
certainly harvested, or ‘Had you sown, you would have
harvested’.


M 7
BŽM *M š
M M B #L L „
S .J 7
B M —
M &BS "B J) – If you had been learning
your lessons, you would have succeeded, or ‘Had you been
learning your lessons, you would have succeeded’.

By inserting the word (M%0MB J) or (—


M BJ), the desirous perfect

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tense is created, e.g.



L 7

M *M M%0MBJ) – How I wish I succeeded.
(n

M *M :˜ B)YM —M BJ) – Would that Zaid was successful.

Note 6: Like (
Q M J), the word (—
M BJ) also appears before a noun
or a pronoun and renders it (=8*).

6. Also remember that the word (


J J) or its derivatives
most often appear before a nominal sentence. The predicate
will then be in the accusative case (=8& -).
Examples:

(˜ IM| :m B}I #M J J) – Rashīd was sitting.

(
M B%I IJ$ L pJ B JK —
I *MJ) – The boys were standing.

Note 7: You have read the paradigms of (


J J) and (S "B /S M)).
Conjugate the verb (!
S "B >S M) !J J$) in a similar manner because
you will be able to form more sentences with the aid of this
paradigm.

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Vocabulary List No. 17

Word Meaning
() :M B Ž
L K !J €J M to strive, to take pains

(Z) J I |M to be ignorant

(N) nM %M M to overlook, to permit

() 3
M :M M to speak the truth

(]) #M €J M to excuse

(]) !J €J M to reproach

(]) J >J M to understand

( Z) =
M l
I vJ to be angry

*YL "B .S M) YM J, to succeed, to achieve

(Z) r
J ?IJ to stay, remain

() «
M >J *M to decrease

„
S I M) „
J M M to advise

L M YB JKJ Al-Azhar University


m ML sand

:m B |L effort

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!u "B >S L ‚ u >K M field

m MM– seal, final

m BI M fire, hell


m M7B 2J ‚ =
m I M companion

N
m "B L(
L ‚‘
m B(
M guest

-u MI M( outskirts

m BIM knower

bm 1
Q M very learned

N
m M vS ‚ -u ,JB vS room, upper storey


m "B LvS ‚ =
m BvJ unseen

J B?M$S just before

„
u B.I M
m M0I protecting book

Z
M K M pJ no harm

-u JJ>M statement

nm |I M* successful

* The paradigm of (YL "B .S M) YM J,) is the same as (J J).

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Exercise No. 18

(A) Translate the following sentences into English. The


words in bold are particularly connected to this lesson.

ANSWER QUESTION
-I MI Dl 'JRI J P U
 #    "M L •—
I B?MK 'I, 9M "B –L 2J K M (1)
I >K 7
M K 'JRI 2
  3 V WD  • 9M "B L2J M B)2JM (2)
M M E
M M oM I D0 Z
M #B :D  5
 47#    • bM "B MK 5
 47#  Z
” #B M @
D 2J (3)
˜:vJ M B)I E
B I K Z
M #B :D  SM $K 2J N
M "B M
eJ :M B)I Ž
M K 4# 7 4 
  8 @
B :I M M)   8  ! ‘
4# =7 X  L L "B L) (4)
• -J M #I M?K
—
L B)2J#M M —
L ?BM €J ,J M&J -u >J B):I M 9M M&L š
M K I 'JRI    8 M I (5)
 .  3 
MJM"B 2J • -I M)B >J K
-I ,JB wL K M I # 0   R8 B M *M • M&BJRI P  # 0  X Y  8 K M (6)
MM B #L L   8  'M I š
 0 $ !  M 0I–B 2S 'JM   Z M I :L B)YM M) (7)
 .N
• -S %M CM %L K

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b” "B M) Q S [   8 M*2J 'B –I 2J M)


 $ ! 4  b” "B M) Q S [  X —
 $  M *B2J K M (8)
—
L &BS 'B *JI 
 0 $ ! M s
I B JKI B /I J •š
M M #B M
N
I "B Ll
œ  -I M :B –I 'B ,I p¤ "B wL E
B M
M M YB 2J ‡I M%JL B I  8 ‡I pJ ¦L M • B S :M &BI ‘
L Bl
D  J J B M (9)
b” D)2J -J
M %B –M M*:M &BI P  \.7 A B L QM J B I I 
 >  ] 'B &I0MBJ M) (10)
˜"B M) B J ‚ B I I#M M)~I I 5
 # N
 
 
• B S :M &BI P  \.7 A
š
M 0IM)¬B L I "
 # $7 A 'B I2J 'B –I 2J M) Z
M K M pJ 5
 # N   9M "B L2J 
   > < "B J (11)
I >I B):I M L B —
M *BJ,J
I I wB %M K :M B M
I M70IB +IK 'I, ˜7|I M* J J "M L B M *M 9M "B –L 2J P 8 K M :L BI M M) (12)
eI M ME
D I ^ M • eI M ME
D I {^M ˜7|I M*
eI M ME
D I 5

  M 
   'B &I0MBJ M) •IM70IB +IK 'I, 
    K M (13)

@
B :I M M) 
 7  _
 
    9M :M B |L 
  7& ' "B J (14)

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

„
u I.M
m M0I M*:M &IM B L &BI ]
L #B JK «
L >S &M M M&%B IM :B $J (1)

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J€M I &MB %I M D&S M (2)


¨I I D  I M7B 2J 'I, D&S M S >I B *M B 2J oL %M B *M D&S "B J "SJ$M (3)
˜0I?kKM :D }M 2JM B L Q ˜B–M J J/J I I J "SOM "L) M K"SM ,J B L *D2J "B JM (4)
š
M I .K *M 'I, M L JB 2J pJ M 'I .K *M 'I, M L JB M L 0M%B IM :B >J ,J L 0LK $S —
L &S IR (5)

I "LwL K bL 1
Q M — M *J2 š M *DRI
˜ ML —
L &S 'I&0MBJ M) L ,IJ/K !S "S>M)M (6)
˜%I/M ˜~)I~M L ™ J JM (7)
˜%IOM š M BJM I ™ S lB ,J J JM (8)
M MM–M I Q !J "L#D I/JM B /S IM|#  :” M 2J M 2J :m %D 7 M L J J M (9)
˜%IM ‡” 'B }M C /S I L Q J JM 6 M ?I&D

(C) Hereunder follow two verses of Khalīl, the celebrated


grammarian. They are extremely enjoyable and worthy to
ponder over.

When Àllāmah Khalīl was inventing the science of verse


and he was engaged in forming the scales of poetry, his son
thought that the father was uttering nonsense. He began
making an uproar about his father’s mental derangement. It
was on this occasion that Khalīl uttered this response.

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'B &IM#B €J M !S "B $S2J M L JB M —M &BS "B J


J/0LK€J M !S "B >S M M L JB M — M &BS B 2J
'B &I0MK€J M ,J 'B 0IJJ>M —
M K I |M B /I J
J/L#B €J M ,J u I M| š M *D2J —L %B IM M

Note: The word (J/0LK€


J M ) at the end of the first verse was
originally (š
M 0LK€J M ). Similarly, the word (J/L#B €J M ) was (š
M L#B €J M ).
It is permissible to append an (), () or (@) at the end of a
verse to prolong the sound.

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) My brother just went to the garden for a walk.


Perhaps he may return a little before Maghrib.
(2) Yesterday I had gone to a village. Were you looking
at me?
(3) Yes, I was looking at you from the minaret (eu #M M&M ) of
the musjid. You were mounted on a horse.
(4) We saw your paternal uncle. He was reading the
newspaper last night.
(5) Had you not learnt your lesson yesterday?
(6) I had learnt my lesson yesterday.
(7) Mahmūd used to learn his lesson everyday but today

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he was busy in the service of the guests.


(8) Had we taken pains, we would have certainly
succeeded in the final examination.
(9) Were you drinking tea in Hyderabad?
(10) I used to drink tea in the morning in Bombay but I
left the tea in Hyderabad.

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Lesson 20

The Different Forms of the Imperfect

1. Only the imperfect (`#l; .) is declinable ( MB L )

among all the verbs.11 See 10.10. The perfect tense ( .
'(;) and the imperative () are indeclinable ('I&?B%M KJ).

Note 1: Remember that the ( ) of a declinable noun

( ; p) is (o,#), (=8*) and (F |) while the ( ) of the
(`#l;) is (o,#), (=8*) and (b~|). Jazm (b~|) does not appear

at the end of a noun while jarr (F |) does not appear at the
end of a verb. Yes, if for some temporary reason it appears,
it is another matter.

2. If the particle (
B J) is prefixed to the (`#l;), jazm will be
read at the end of the verb. Therefore the particle (
B J) is
called a (bY| N).

11However, the plural feminine word-forms of the second and third person
are not ( M B L ). No changes occur in them.

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When the particle (


B J) is prefixed to the (`#l;), it renders
(=8*) to the verb. Therefore the particle (
B J) is called a
(= * N).

The seven (-  "*) are deleted due to the (bY| N) or
(= * N). This is the change that occurs in the word

itself. As for the meaning, due to the particle (


B J), the
(`#l;) changes to the negative perfect ('.&; '(;).
Therefore (
K M .K M) B J - He did not do) is the same as (J M ,J M).

The particle (
B J) creates the meaning of negative emphasis
in the (`#l;). The (`#l;) also becomes specific with the

future tense, e.g. (


J M .K M) B J) – He will never do.

Compare the following paradigms and understand well the


differences in words and meanings.

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-
` MENH :H MENH M#H MENH
K M .K M) B J J M .K M) B J S M .K M)
He did not do He will never do He is doing or he
will do

JM .K M) B J JM .K M) B J I JM .K M)


B"SM .K M) B J B"SM .K M) B J J "B SM .K M)
K M .K M B J J M .K M B J S M .K M
JM .K M B J JM .K M B J I JM .K M
M K M .K M) B J M K M .K M) B J M K M .K M)
K M .K M B J J M .K M B J S M .K M
JM .K M B J JM .K M B J I JM .K M
B"SM .K M B J B"SM .K M B J J "B SM .K M
'B IM .K M B J 'B IM .K M B J M BIM .K M
JM .K M B J JM .K M B J I JM .K M
M K M .K M B J M K M .K M B J M K M .K M
K M ,K 2J B J J M ,K 2J B J S M ,K 2J
K M .K *M B J J M .K *M B J S M .K *M

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Note 2: When the (-? * N) are prefixed before (S "B /S M)), the
paradigm will be as normal without much change.
However, when the (-Y| N) are prefixed, the
paradigm will be as follows:

Word-form b#DH a  F$


singular masculine 3rd person
B /S M) B J
dual masculine 3rd person
*M"B /S M) B J
plural masculine 3rd person
B"*L"B /S M) B J
singular feminine 3rd person
B /S M B J
dual feminine 3rd person
*M"B /S ¢M B J
plural feminine 3rd person
D /S M) B J
singular masculine 2nd person
B /S M B J
dual masculine 2nd person
*M"B /S ¢M B J
plural masculine 2nd person
B"*L"B /S  B J
singular feminine 2nd person
'B *I"B /S ¢M B J
dual feminine 2nd person
*M"B /S ¢M B J
plural feminine 2nd person
D /S M B J

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singular first person


B S 2 B J
dual and plural first person
B /S *M B J

The paradigm of (!
S "B >S M)) with the particle (B J) is the same as
the above one, that is (B"S"B >S M) 
B J J"B >S M) B J K >S M) B J) etc.

3. Besides the particle (


B J), there are four other ( N
-Y|):
• (%
D J - not, not till now)
• (
K RI - if)
• (!
I - the particle of the imperative)
• (p
J - the particle of prohibition)

When the particle (%


D J) is prefixed before the (`#l;), it
creates a change in the word and the meaning like (
B J), e.g.
(
K M .K M) D%J - He did not do or he did not do till now).

The particle (
K RI) is used for a condition (^}). A response
(‡~|) is necessary for the condition. When the condition

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and the response are both the (`#l;) tense, both verbs will

be (b~­), e.g. (
B I (
B 2J
B I l
B M K RI) – If you hit, I will hit.

Note 3: Sometimes the letter (!) is prefixed before the

particle (
K RI) and written as (B §IJ). The meaning remains the
same. However, there is more stress created in the meaning.

The !I - the particle of the imperative and pJ - the particle of


prohibition, will be discussed in Lesson 21.

4. Besides the particle (


B J), there are other (-? * N):
• (
K 2J - that)
• ('
B J or 'B /J I - so that)
• (
K XJ RI - then)
• (!
I - so that)- it is called ('B J bL pJ )
• (1
Q §JI = pJ K JI - so that not)
• ('D0
M - so that, until)

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Examples:
(=
M M €K M) K 2J L LB M 2J) – I commanded him to go.
(M M ,K 2J 'B J SM $K 2J) – I am reading to understand.
(nMŽ M &BM K XJ RI) – then you will be successful.
(2JM >K MI ˜ M0
I L 0L7 B &MM ) – I gave him a book so that he can read.
(J M Ž B M) 1 Q §JI) – so that he does not remain ignorant.
(VM M .K M) 'D0M ) – so that he becomes happy.

Note 4: The particles (


K RI) and ('D0M ) can be prefixed before
the ('(;). However, they cause no change in the word.

Yes, the particle (


K RI) changes the meaning of the ('(;) to
the future tense, e.g.

M %B I ,J T
M 2KM $J K RI) – If you read, you will understand.

Note 5: The particles (!


I ) and ('D0M ) are also (eF#| N).
When they are prefixed before nouns, the nouns are read in
the genitive case (F ¯ -), e.g.
(:
” B)~M I) – for Zaid,
(‡I M %
M K 'D0M ) – till the evening.

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Note 6: The particle (


B J) is most often used for negation after
the interrogative hamzah (2J) and (
K RI), e.g.
(
B JB M B J 2J) – Did you not know?
(
B JB M B J K RI) – If you did not know.

Vocabulary List No. 18

Word Meaning
(Z) J XI 2J to permit

() M M 2J to command

(Z) V
M I M to leave, depart

() °
J M M to spread

() ±J J M to reach

(Z) J ~I M to be sad

() J ~M M to sadden

() M /J M to order, to decide

(N) nM MXJ to slaughter

(Z) oM ?I}M to be satiated

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() 3
M M GJ to knock on the door

(N) `
M M $J to knock on the door

(Z) J
I J to be lazy

(Z) ²M I J to lick

(Z) bM :I *M to be ashamed

(N) oM .J *M to benefit

B">S DJ, to fear

om IM| hungry

`
m M?I ‚ om ?LM predator

m ?BM patience, aloe- (m ?IM )

#m "B LGS ‚ m BGJ bird


m M&B 2J ‚ =
m &MI grape

3
m M,I separation

:m Ž
B M glory

bm MM aim

[
m "B L L ‚ ’
m B M wild animal

3
m J,I unity, corresponding

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-u JB M moment, instant

Exercise No. 19
(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

M ?B8
D  ²M M K M 'D0M :M Ž B %M K ±J S?BM B J (1)
(r):d) Z M D& I /S E B M) B J B M
{  I /S E B M) B J (2)
•š M M .J &BM) 'B J M ?MQ L M E B M pJ M I (3)
M&BJM J –L :B MI M M?K L J — L 7 B 0M.J ,J M M?K ` L M >K M) :m BI M J J (4)
J ~M 7
B M) 1 Q §JI L J —
L *BXI 2J (5)
I M70IB +IK bM "B M) nM Ž M &BM B J 9M :M B |L !K €S ?BM B J K RI (6)
M /K M K RI (7)
bB :M &BM K
-I M #M :B %M K M I oM |I #B 2J 'D0M — I B?MK M I U M L B M) pJ K 2J 'B I I M– T L B M 2J (8)
M&B ?I}M 'D0M = M &MI K M&K J J,J M BI IM| D&S (9)
M I
I  ²I K –M = M IMŽM B OS &BM T I M*M"M7 M K -I >J B):I M 'JRI = B M €K M K RI (10)
#I "B L‹  ` I M?  M [ I "B L "L K
K XJ RI L J — L K $S ‚ nM Ž M *BJI @B :I B |L bM M%M L—K€J M 'B *RI ‘ L L "B L) 'B I !J J$ (11)
š
M M MM ±J S?BM
3 m J,I B /S M) B J K RI (12)
m M.I ,J 3

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'D IM M K M M .K 0MI


M M0/I K J€M KM >K M B J2J (13)
'M B
D  9M L B2J B J K M -” JB M !I D 2J 'B ,I B'I MM ±K S B2J B J K RI 'B &I*L~L 7 B M) pJ (14)
I BJRI ±J S B2J 'D0M

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

#M D& K"S>DJ, K"SM .K M JM K"SM .K M B Q I+,J (1)


L B–M "M L M 'I L ™ M /S 7 B M) B 2J 'I 2J 'I J XJ K M) M 0DM ] M #B {  V M M B2J B J,J (2)
6
M %I I M7K
e¤ M >J M K"L7 M€K M K 2J B S L L K M) M ™ Q RI I I "B >J I M"L !J J$ (3)
6
M II MŽK M I J "S2J K 2J I ™I XS "L2J (4)

{  :M ?LB 2J K 2J T L B I 2S (5)
š
M J0L$K JJ š
M BJRI @M :I M) ° ” I M? I M*2J M 'I&J0L>K 0MI 9M :M M) 'D JRI — M ‹M M I§J (6)
B /S I"B S$J 'B ,I S M%B)+IK I –L :B M) D%JM (7)
B"%L JB M B J M M IM ,J (8)
-¤ M I M

I ] L #B 2J B /S M B J 2J (9)
m B):I $J ¡” B}M C S 'JM
{  Q 2J B JB M B J J2 (10)
B S B 8
L &BM)

{  L8
L &BM K RI (11)
(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

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(1) Did you not read the Qur’ān?


(2) I read the Qur’ān but I did not understand its
meaning.
(3) O Maryam, why don’t you drink milk so that it
can benefit you?
(4) I will never drink tea today.
(5) Who is knocking on the door?
(6) My sister was knocking on the door, therefore I
opened the door for her so that she is not
saddened.
(7) I ate the grapes until I was satiated.
(8) If you are successful, you will receive a prize.
(9) Allāh created man so that he can worship Him.
(10) We recite the Qur’ān so that we can understand it
and practise it.
(11) That girl was reading the Qur’ān until the sun set.
(12) If you help me, I will help you.
(13) Those two will not move from their place until
you permit them.
(14) Were you not present in the madrasah yesterday?
(15) Did you not listen to the news on the radio?

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Lesson 20 B

The Emphasized Imperfect Tense


(:
I BI K 0D I "B *L M :I BI K 0D bI pJ oM M `#l;)

1. Sometimes a (!) is prefixed to the (`#l;) tense and

(
™ ) which is called (-JB>I jJ "*) or (K ) which is called ( "*
-J.B.I –M ), is appended to it. This (!) and () create emphasis
in the meaning. Therefore they are called (  S "B *L M :I BI K 0D bL pJ
:I BI K 0D), e.g. from the verb (= L 0L/K M)), the word (D ?M0L/K MJ) or
(
B ?M0L/K MJ - He will certainly write) is created.

2. Changes occur in the (`#l;) due to this (!) and ()


which you can observe in the following paradigm. In
order to note the differences, the ordinary (`#l;) tense
has also been inserted.

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Changes
 MENH  MENH MENH
I8; -% I8; -% U
 3 R,
c$I$d P  cI=\ P 
The (-%/ bp) is (V"0.). B ?M0L/K MJ D ?M0L/K MJ =
L 0L/K M)
The (-  "*) is deleted. C ?M0L/K MJ I M?0L/K M)
See Lesson 10. Note 2.
The (o%¯ ) and the ( "* B ?L0L/K MJ D ?L0L/K MJ J "B ?L0L/K M)
- ) are deleted.
The (-%/ bp) is (V"0.). B ?M0L/K 0MJ D ?M0L/K 0MJ =
L 0L/K M
The (-  "*) is deleted. Q ?M0L/K 0MJ I M?0L/K M
One alif has been added. C M&?B0L/K MJ M ?B0L/K M)
The (-%/ bp) is (V"0.). B ?M0L/K 0MJ D ?M0L/K 0MJ =
L 0L/K M
The (-  "*) is deleted. C M?0L/K 0MJ I M?0L/K M
The (o%¯ ) and the ( "* B ?L0L/K 0MJ D ?L0L/K 0MJ J "B ?L0L/K M
- ) are deleted.
The (@) and the (-  "*) B ?I0L/K 0MJ D ?I0L/K 0MJ M B?I0L/K M
are deleted.
The (-  "*) is deleted. C M?0L/K 0MJ I M?0L/K M
One alif has been added. C M&?B0L/K 0MJ M ?B0L/K M
The (-%/ bp) is (V"0.). B ?M0LK JJ D ?M0LK JJ =
L 0LK 2J
The (-%/ bp) is (V"0.). B ?M0L/K &MJ D ?M0L/K &MJ =
L 0L/K *M

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Note 1: In the paradigm of (-JB >I jJ "*), there are six word-
forms where an alif appears before the nūn. These six word-
forms do not appear with (-J.B .I –
M "*). See the above
paradigm.

Note 2: Sometimes the (-J.B .I –


M "*) is changed to tanwīn, e.g.
(-I MI D&I B M .J
B &MJ = ˜.J
B &MJ) – We will certainly drag them by the
hair of the forehead.

Note 3: The (`#l;) with (:


I BI K 0DS "B *L M :I BI K 0D bL pJ ) is most
often used after an oath, e.g. (
M ?MQ D MM }B JJ

I M) – By Allāh, I
will drink the milk.

Note 4: The (`#l;) can have the (:


I BI K 0D bL pJ ) only prefixed
to it. No change occurs in the word. However, as far as the
meaning is concerned, the (`#l;) becomes specific with

the present tense, e.g. (:


m B)YM =
L 0L/K MJ) – Zaid is writing.

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Vocabulary List No. 19

Word Meaning
m I f peaceful

-u D$I:L &B L gun

m I M– loss

M& D#M our Lord

() M Ž
M M to imprison

‡z MEM) ‡{ M} to desire, want

m vI M despised, small

:m BM to hunt

bL M7
M K :L Ž
I
B %M KJ the sanctified musjid (in
Makkah)
bI MK J€M 'B ,I this year

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Exercise No. 20

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

'B 0IJM– 'JRI ˜ "B 0L/K M bM "B MK D ?M0LK JJ (1)
:I B8
D  'JRI ˜:vJ D ?MM €K &MJ (2)
:” B)YM 1
J IJ$ M%L *DJJ I 1 J 0M>K LJ I 1
J |L D  I J€M (3)
-J ?M‹K 
L K C M&B %M
B MJM :I BI K bM "B M) 'QM8%L K eS "M B & Q M lL7 B 0MJ (4)
C M?0L/K 0MJM C fM>K 0MJ,J š
M *IM cL M0–B 2S D2J = M 0L/K M) B J M 2JM >K M) B J :L J"M K J€M (5)

z  ‡{ M} K RI bI MK J€M 'B ,I @ M M"–M 2J D 7 MŽ M &BMJ (6)

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

cL L 8
L &BM) B M
z  Q M 8 L &BMJ (1)
M B&II f

z  ‡{ M} K RI bM M7M K :M Ž I B %M K D S–L :B 0MJ (2)


M I D *M"B /S &MJ M&%B M B MM M&J B .I wB M B J K RIM M& M .S *B2J M&%B J‰J M& D#M (3)
M B)I I MK
M B)I vI D8 M I (B *M"B /S MJ) ˜*"B /S MJM D &MŽ
M
B LJ cL L L f M K M .K M) BJ B §IJ (4)

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(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) My brother will certainly attend the madrasah


today.
(2) Those two will certainly seek a book from you.
(3) If you do not strive, you will certainly be
disgraced.
(4) If you command me, I will certainly go to hunt
and if any lion came towards us, by Allāh, I will
kill it with my gun.
(5) Those two girls will not come to you but we will
certainly attend.
(6) I shall, if Allāh wills, certainly succeed this year.

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Test No. 10

(1) How are the following constructed:


• =)> '(;
• :? '(;
• @#%0p '(;
• H%0 '(;
• 'GE '(;
Provide an example for each one.
(2) What is the (`#l) of (
J J)?
(3) Among the verbs, which verb is ( )?

(4) List the (-Y| N).


(5) When (
B J) or (D%J) are prefixed before the (`#l;), what
change occurs in the word and meaning?
(6) List the (-? * N).
(7) When the (-? * N) are prefixed before the (`#l;),

what changes occur in the meaning and ( )?

(8) In how many word-forms of the (`#l;) does the ( "*

- ) appear?

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(9) In which state does the ( -  "*) of the (`#l;) fall off
in pronunciation?
(10) In the paradigm of the (`#l;), how many word-forms

are there where the (-Y| N) and the (-? * N) do
not have any effect on the pronunciation?
(11) How many kinds of (: "*) are there?
(12) Which word-forms of the paradigm of (-J.B .I –
M "*) are
not used?
(13) What verb is (˜.J
B &MJ) and what word-form is it?
(14) What changes occur in the (`#l;) due to the insertion

of (:
I BI K 0D
S "B *L M :I BI K 0D bL pJ )?
(15) When does the (`#l;) become specific with the
present tense and the future tense, that is, which particle
makes it specific with the future tense and which particle
makes it specific with the present tense?

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Lesson 21

The Imperative and the Prohibition


('
L B &DM L B JKJ)

1. The verb which indicates the command of doing an act is


called (L B JKJ – the imperative) while the verb indicating a

prohibition is called ('


L B &D).

2. The imperative is of two types:


• (L (
I M7K L B JKJ) – the second person imperative and this
is the actual imperative.
• (=
L IMwK L B JKJ) – the third person imperative.

The first person imperative has only two word-forms and is


therefore included in the third person category.

3. The method of forming (N


L B L B %M K L (
I M7K L B JKJ) is that the
sign of the imperfect (`#l; -1) is firstly deleted after

which a hamzatul wasl is prefixed. If the (-%/ 6) of the


(`#l;) is (b"%l), the hamzatul wasl is also rendered a

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dammah otherwise a kasrah. The (-%/ bp) is rendered a


jazm.
Examples:
from (L 8
L &BM) (B 8
L *B2S) – you help.
from (=
L M €K M) (=
B M XK RI) – you go.
from (
L I l
B M) (
B I (
B RI ) – you hit.

Note 1: If the letter succeeding the (`#l; -1) is not


sākin, there is no need for a hamzatul wasl, e.g.
From the verb (:
L I M), the imperative is (:B I - you promise).

The paradigm of (N
L B L B %M K L (
I M7K L B JKJ)

Meaning Gender Number Verb


you (one male) hit masc. singular
B I (
B RI
you (2 males) hit masc. dual M I (
B RI
you (many males) hit masc. plural B" LI (
B RI
you (one female) hit fem. singular 'B II (
B RI
you (2 females) hit fem. dual M I (
B RI
you (many females) hit fem. plural M BI (
B RI

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Note 2: The hamzatul wasl inserted before the imperative is


not pronounced when preceded by another word, e.g.

K ?IB  V
L "B *L M)) – O Nūh, descend.
(
B /S B  bL M f M)) – O Ādam, live.
The words are originally (° K ?IB I) and (B /S B S) respectively.

Note 3: There is no hamzatul wasl before the verb (


J J). The
paradigm of its imperative is as follows:

D S M*"B S 'B *I"B S B"*L"B S M*"B S B S

The paradigm of (!
S "B >S M) !J J$) is the same:

M K $S pJ "B $S 'B I"B $S B"S"B $S pJ "B $S K $S

4. In order to construct the passive imperative, a (!


I ) is
prefixed to the (`#l;) passive and a jazm is appended to

it, e.g. from (


L M l
B L) – (
B M l
B 0LI) – you should be hit.

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The paradigm of (!
S "B L Ž
B %M K L (
I M7K L B JKJ)

Meaning Gender Number Verb


you should be hit masc. singular
B M l
B 0LI
you should be hit masc. dual M M l
B 0LI
you should be hit masc. plural B" LM l
B 0LI
you should be hit fem. singular 'B IM l
B 0LI
you should be hit fem. dual M M l
B 0LI
you should be hit fem. plural M BM l
B 0LI

5. The method of constructing (=


L IMwK L B JKJ) and (L C/J 0M%L K L B JKJ),
whether active or passive, is the same as ( L ( I M7K L B JKJ
!S "B L Ž
B %M K), that is, they are formed by prefixing the (!I ). The
third person imperative is formed from the third person
(`#l;), the first person imperative is formed from the first

person (`#l;), the active imperative is formed from the

active (`#l;) and the passive imperative is formed from

the passive (`#l;). You will understand this from the


following paradigm.

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Meaning =
L IMwK L B JKJ Meaning =
L IMwK L B JKJ
L C/J 0M%L KM L C/J 0M%L KM
!S "B L ŽB %M K N
L B L B %M K
He should be
hit

B M l
B LI He should hit

B I l
B MI
They 2 should
be hit
M M l
B LI They 2 should
hit
M I l
B MI
They should
be hit
B" LM l
B LI They should
hit
B" LI l
B MI
She should be
hit

B M l
B 0LI She should hit

B I l
B 0MI
They 2 should
be hit
M M l
B 0LI They 2 should
hit
M I l
B 0MI
They should
be hit
M BM l
B LI They should
hit
M BI l
B MI
I should be
hit

B M (
B SI I should hit

B I (
B JI
We should be
hit

B M l
B &LI We should hit

B I l
B &MI

Note 4: If () or (N) appear before the (I B JK bL p), the lām

becomes sākin, e.g. (=


B 0L/K MKM – and he should write); (U
B L 
B 0MK ,J -
Then the woman should go out).

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Note 5: The ('


B J
bL pJ )12 which renders (=8*) to the (`#l;)
does not become sākin, e.g. (= M 0L/K MIM - and so that he writes).

6. There are also two categories of prohibition:


• (L (
I M7K 'L B &DJ) – prohibition of the second person
• (=
L IMwK 'L B &DJ)– prohibition of the third person.
The method of forming them is the same, that is, prefixing
(p
J ) and rendering jazm to the last letter. The second person
prohibition is formed from the second person (`#l;)
while the third person prohibition is formed from the third
person (`#l;). Observe this in the following paradigms.

12 See 20.3.

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Meaning L (
I M7K 'L B &DJ Meaning L (
I M7K 'L B &DJ
!S "B L Ž
B %M K N
L B L B %M K
He should
B M l
B L pJ He should
B I l
B M pJ
not be hit not hit
They 2 M M l
B L pJ They 2 M I l
B M pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
They (m) B" LM l
B L pJ They (m) B" LI l
B M pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
She should 'B IM l
B L pJ She should 'B II l
B M pJ
not be hit not hit
They 2 M M l
B L pJ They 2 M I l
B M pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
They (f) M BM l
B L pJ They (f) M BI l
B M pJ
should not should not
be hit hit

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Meaning 2
 f/ 7 F e R  Meaning 2
 f/ 7 F e R 
Y QC > 7  Y QC > 7 
1  e 
 > 7 b
  # D > 7
He should
B M l
B L) pJ He should
B I l
B M) pJ
not be hit not hit
They 2 M M l
B L) pJ They 2 M I l
B M) pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
They B" LM l
B L) pJ They B" LI l
B M) pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
She should
B M l
B L pJ She should
B I l
B M pJ
not be hit not hit
They 2 M M l
B L pJ They 2 M I l
B M pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
They M BM l
B L) pJ They M BI l
B M) pJ
should not should not
be hit hit
I should
B M (
B 2S pJ I should not
B I (
B 2J pJ
not be hit hit
We should
B M l
B *L pJ We should
B I l
B *M pJ
not be hit not hit

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Note 6: The (-JB >I jJ "*) and (-J.B.I –M "*) can also be appended
to the imperative and the prohibition, e.g.
(
D MI (
B I) – You certainly hit.
(
D MI l
B M pJ ) – You certainly do not hit.
(
B LI (
B I) – You all certainly hit.

Note 7: The particle (p


J ) is of two types:
• ('
I .K &D pJ ) which does not create any change in word in
the ('(;) and (`#l;) tenses.

• ('
I B &D pJ ) which renders jazm to the end of the (`#l;)
while creating the meaning of prohibition as you
have seen in the paradigms of prohibition.

Note 8: You have learnt in Volume One that when the final
letter of any word is sākin, it is rendered a kasrah to join it
to a succeeding word.
Examples:
from (
B I (
B I) – (=
M K /J K
I I ( B I) – Hit the dog.
from (
K J ¦B L) pJ ) – (`
” "B |L I BwM I bL M ‹Q  I J ¦B L) pJ ) – Food should not
be eaten without hunger.

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Vocabulary List No. 20

Word Meaning
—
M &B
M B 2J You have excelled

z  9M #M M May Allāh bless you

!J MM come

(N) oM J #M to kneel, to go into rukū

() :M Ž
M M to prostrate

(N) š
M 7
I(
M to laugh

() —
M &M$J to worship
13
š
M B?DJ here I am, at your service

m B 2J order, matter

-u D 2S group, nation

‡Š MB 2J ‚ 'ˆ M alive, tribe

u Ž
I –M ashamed

˜%IM always

'M B $S B XS relative

13 This word will be explained in Lesson 61 in Volume Four.

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om I M# one kneeling down

±u IM pleasant

eu#M "B ?œM chalkboard

#m "B /S }M very grateful

m I M} thankful

3
m "B .S }M kind

m B}I M?GJ chalk

I BM KM Z
I 2KD  'JM very gladly, just as you
wish
’
L I M",J ‚ -u E
M I J, immoderate, shameless

°
u B $I justice

bm D"$J custodian, guardian

'M M perhaps, hopefully

N
m B L B M virtue

-u &MDM L specific

T
m M"B 2J ‚ —
m M dead

s
m Ž
M *M 2 s
m Ž
I *M dirty, impure

M yes beware, listen

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Exercise No. 21

(A) Translate the following sentences and note the usage of


the words in bold.

Answer Question
@
B :I M M) š
M B?DJ 'JM g
    :L %M B 2J M) !J MM (1)
' I B /S K
'I, —
L BI }M J ŸK I /I J I B,I Z
M K M pJ B /S M) B J K I @
M DE :
 # *  (2)
—
I B?MK U
m M M šM J
J MŽ&B,I Q 2J — L B %I M @ B :I M M) B M *M š M J J J K I eJ "M B >J K :
 # *  (3)
I lB M K I oL .J &BM) bI M‹Q  :M B M eI "M B >J K MB,I -¤ ?MvK #M
S M ,K 2J J€/J M @
B :I M M) —
M &B
M B 2J 'JM pQ RI :  X % B /I I (4)
 # 9
-” &MDM L T
” J$B 2J
2SM $K 2J M*2J M I BM KM ZI 2KD  'JM 9M L B 2J M I ¤§B}M 47# 7  :L %M B 2J M) (5)
eI M >J ?MK eI #M "B L M –I f š
M M‡{ M$I oM %M B JI I fB>S K
M) š
M $I1
J –B 2J bI M J B I "M L M%*DI :L %M B 2J M) š
M B,I
z  9M #M M M BI f (6)
@
B :I M I JXŸKI ±u IM š M L"B M
I M

I "B S>S K 'I, eu M jC¦M L š
M L‡{ M$IM

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• M*:M M M) =


L 0L/K *M ¡” B}M @
 J I 'JM .87 L pJ B 2J M)  DX (7)
eI #M "B ?œ
D 
• p¤ D 2J D&I =
L 0L/K M) B M I I .87 L B}I M?‹Q  "M L M (8)
M) =
L 0LK 2J JXM :m I M M*2J M p¤ D 2J :m I M 2
 C7 I  (9)
•@
B :I ¢M
•mnB7
I M J€M K M @
B :I M M) # 0 4 L ?MQ :  A % " 2
 # 9  87 4 (10)

I %M
D  'JM
nI ?B$S 'JM u Ž
I –M M*2J @
B :I M M) B M *M M) ” B%I Ž
M I s
M BJ š
M ‹ –M (11)
'B ‹C –M :L JM
'JM 3
M "B .S E
D  M*XJ M0B 2S M) 9M L /S EB *M ˜%IM .87 L pJ B 2J M) (12)
-I M ,ID& š
M 7
I IM8*M °C M K M
B L Q I,J ” B%I |M ° › M I
=
I IJ/K #M :B $J oL ,JB M)

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into


English.

B /S >J J–M @I€Q L /S D#M KL:?LB  Z


L D& Mœ)2J M) (1)
T
I M%M kQ M I L JB 2J 3
B YL #B M ˜&I f ˜:J M J€¢{ M K M |B   #M L IM BRI !J J$ XK RIM (2)
6
M I I D oM M 'IJ #B M @I:Ž I M I 'I0&L$K  L M)B M M) (3)
L B M š
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˜7IM ¤%M M K %M B MK ,J (4)


J€M 'B IM0/I I = B M XK I (5)
š
I #M JRI 'I|I #B  -S &D§I%M ‹K %L K s L .K &D M0LD)2J M) (6)
-” $J .J 0Mœ ” M" B2J B I K"S–L B M :” I M ” M I K"S–L :B M pJ 'D &I M M) (7)
M&M M
{  Q RI K ~M 7 B M pJ (8)
B L S"B $J š
M *B~L 7 B M) pJ (9)
J "L%IQO S %M B M) D%M 1 ¤ ,IJv M ™ D ?M M7 B M pJ M (10)
B I #M :M &I ‡Š MB 2J K M ˜M"B 2J I ™ I I?M 'I, K"S0I$S M )I€Q D ?M M7 B M pJ M (11)
J "S$YM B L)
°
I B >I KI 6 M I D"$J K"L*"S (12)
N
I LB %M KI J LL K M)M I B M K JRI J "L:B M) -u D 2S B /S & S/0MKM (13)
’
M I "M .J K "L M >K M pJ M (14)
B L &B ˜B–M "L*"S/M) J2 M M b” "B $J  bm "J$ B  M B M) pJ (15)
B I I M :M B M bM M7 M K :M Ž I B %M K K"L M >K M) 1 J ,J s m Ž M *M J "SI E B %L K M%*DRI (16)
J€¢M
M B $S JX J J "B JM K"S:I B J, B 0LK $S JXRIM (17)
I BJM I ™ L B  I J €K L) B J D%I K"SS K M pJ M (18)

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(C) Insert the correct ( ) and translate the following


paragraph.

.9# ) h š&· h O& p š# 2$ .š 0 h :– ) O*2


p š0 h =X, Z#:  —v, ; .9X02 §, . ¸ 
=0 . w; e1 : š# „. .²)‹  p o =
p 1 / ,w 2  .6,w  / p -#:; T?|
.70A b") 7Ž&)

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) Be thankful in all conditions.


(2) Do not grieve.
(3) No person should go out of the musjid until he is
permitted.
(4) O my sons, enter the house and sit there.
(5) O girl, sit on this chair and look at that garden.
(6) O people, worship Allāh and do not worship anyone
besides Him.
(7) O girls, go to the madrasah and read the Qur’ān.
(8) My paternal uncle said to me, “Do not go to your
house today.” So I did not go.

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(9) If the clothing is dirty, it should be washed.


(10) Fish should not be eaten with milk.
(11) If there is no harm, drink coffee with us.

Test No. 11

(1) Define (,) and ('M& ,).


(2) How many types of (2) are there?

(3) How is (( 2) made from the verbs of (­ 'j1j)?

(4) What kind of hamzah is prefixed before the ( 2

()?
(5) How is the (!"­ ( 2) constructed?

(6) How is the (=v 2) constructed?

(7) Make the paradigm of (N ( 2) from ( 


8*).
(8) Make the paradigm of (( 2) and (=v 2) from
(n0,  ).
(9) Make the paradigm of (( 'M*) from (ox  ).
(10) What verbs are (
M BI l
B M pJ ) and (B MI l
B M pJ ) and what

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word-forms are they?


(11) Make the paradigm of (N ( 2) from the

verb (
J J).
(12) What verb is ('
B I"B $S) and what word-form is it?
(13) Append the (->j "*) and (-..– "*) to the verb

(=
B 0LK 2S) and conjugate it.
(14) If (M ) or (N
M ) appears before (B‡z M >K MI) and (B"?L0L/K MI),
how will you read them?
(15) Read and translate the following sentences:
˜*M"MM l p •

u M"MM l) p •

¨}?‹ e#"?  ' p2 ) "?02 •

2> s%E h @O& p 0 ? h —& ) @O*2 •

o,* ¨v ˜ 0 2>) p ,* ˜ 0 9"–2

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Lesson 22

The Derived Nouns


(-S >Q 0ME
B %L K ‡z M%B JKJ)

1. There are seven types14 of derived nouns (-S >Q 0ME


B %L K ‡z M%B JKJ):
I I J.K L B I (1)
!I "B L .K %M K L B I (2)
N
I B OQ  L B I (3)
-I JŸK L B I (4)
-I .J 8  L B I (5)
I Bl I .K 0D L B I (6)
-I wM JM?%L K L B I (7)

The Active Participle Noun (


I I J.K L B I)

2. In triliteral verbs (­ 'j1j), the active participle noun

The first six types will be discussed in this volume while the seventh one
14

will be discussed in Volume Four.

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(
I I J.K L B I) is used on the scale of (u I J,).
Examples:
from the verb (
M M (
M ) – (
m #I M( - hitter),
from the verb (M 8
M *M) – (m I M* - helper),
from the verb (o
M %I M ) – (om I M - listener),
from the verb (n
M 0M,J) – (nm IJ, - opener),
from the verb (=
M I M ) – (= m I M –one who regards)

However, the active participle noun of verbs from the ( 


bM L J ), are used on the scale of (u BI ,J) which is actually ( L B I
-I .J 8
 ), e.g. from (bM L J ) – (m B)I J - generous, noble);
from (: M L M) – (:m BI M - far).

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The paradigm of the (


I I J.K L B I) is as follows:

Meaning c/I L]$ Y<


one male hitter € :
m #I (
M
two male hitters € -&k I  M#I (
M
many male hitters € o© J "B L#I M(
one female hitter r*¦ : -u M#I M(
two female hitters r*¦ -&k I M0 M#I M(
many female hitters r*¦ o© T
m M #I M(

The Passive Participle Noun (!


I "B L .K %M K L B I)

3. In triliteral verbs (­ 'j1j), the passive participle noun


(!
I "B L .K %M K L B I) is used on the scale of (!u "B L .K M ).
Examples:
from the verb (
M M (
M ) – (
m B L l
B M – one who is hit),
from the verb (M 8
M *M) – (#m "B 8
L &BM – one who is helped).
The verbs of (bM L 
J  ) are intransitive. Therefore the passive

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participle nouns are not used in this category.

Note 1: The method of usage of the active and passive


participles is mentioned in detail in Volume Four.

The paradigm of the (!


I "B L .K %M K L B I) is as follows:

Meaning c/I Y<


1D$H
one male who is helped € : #m "B 8
L &BM
two males who are helped € -&k I M#"B 8
L &BM
many males who are helped € o© J B #L "B 8
L &BM
one female who is helped r*¦ : eu #M "B 8
L &BM
two females who are helped r*¦ -&k I M#M "B 8
L &BM
many females who are helped r*¦ o© T
m M#"B 8
L &BM

The Adverb (NO )

The (N
I B OQ 
L B I) is a noun that indicates the place or time of
the action. It is used on the scale of ( u M .K M ). However, in ( 

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M M (
M ), the scale is (u I .K M ). The plural of each one is (S I J.M ) .
Examples:
from the verb (M 8
M *M) – (m 8
M &BM – place or time of help),
from the verb (
M M (
M ) – (
m I l
B M - place or time of hitting),
from the verb (o
M JGJ ) – (om J‹K M - place or time of rising).

Note 2: Sometimes the adverb is used on the scale of (


u I .K M )
although it is from (M 8
M *M  ), e.g.
(:
mŽI
B M - place of prostration),
(o
m I‹K M - place of rising),
(
m I wB M - place of setting).

The paradigm of the (NO L B I) is as follows:

h cI\X !  Gender

I M?0M/K M =
m 0M/K M #8&
=
L IJ/M
I M0?M0M/K M -u ?M0M/K M i j

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The Noun of the Instrument (c k Y< )

The (-P ) is a noun that indicates the meaning of an

instrument. It is used on the scale of (


u M .K I ), (-u JM .K I ) and
(!
u M.K I ).
Examples:
from the verb (M ‹
J M ) – (m ‹J
B I – ruler),
from the verb (n
M 0M,J) – (V
m M0.K I - key),
from the verb (s
M &MJ ) – (-u
M &M/K I - broom).

h cI\X !  Gender

I M M l
B I
m M l
B I #8&

L #I MlM
I M0 MM l
B I -u MM l
B I i j
=
L B)#I MlM I M Ml
B I
m M l
B I only masc.

Note 3: The scales of (


u M .K M ), (u I .K M ), (-u JM .K M ) and (-u JI .K M ) are also
used for the verbal noun (#:8) which is called ( #L :M 8
B %M KJ
'œ %I B%I K).

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Examples:
(m O
J &BM ) - scene,
(o
m |I B M ) - returning,
(-u M M /
K M ) - nobility,
(eu :
M I "B M ) - promise,
(-u O
J I "B M ) - advice.

Vocabulary List No. 21

Word Meaning
eS M –I ŸKJ the hereafter


I B 7
M K T
L pJ f the munitions of war

!u M:0IB RI moderation

bm MI leader

s
B S:M *BJKJ Spain

š
I I%M K -S J1
J |M His Highness, the king

:m B):I M iron

m :D M blacksmith

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m %B –M wine

!u "B –L L to enter

L BI J/M ‚ m B/C I knife

M B)I E
B I -J &MM the year 20

(9) nM SM to be proper, to be in


order
() 3
M M GJ to knock, to pound

T
m M%S‰S ‚ -u %M K ‰S darkness

eu :M B):I M several

(N) oM ‹J $J to cut

!u J.$K 2J ‚ u .K $S lock


m M"K 2J ‚
m "B S glass

u J K M to eat

-u M #M ~B M farm


m M E
B M to drink

om &M8
B M factory, mill

-u $JM ‹K I hammer

u %M B M factory

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:m M >K M seat, bench

!u M/K I instrument to measure

#m ME&BI saw

u Ž
M &BM sickle, scythe

om .J &BM place of benefit

`
m "B (
L "B M placed

eu M Ž
B I emigration

Exercise No. 22

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

M fM#:M BM 'JI ˜:vJ = m I JX *M2J (1)


'B IB I 'JI I M?I JX M%L (2)
Z
M M#:B M 'JI B"?LI JX B L (3)
#M "B M pJ 'JI T m M?I JX TL M&?MK ‡I pJ ¦L M (4)
s
I B 2J 'B IM?%B M 'JI ˜?I JX J J 'B –I 2J (5)
M B7
I |I M* D&S L 7B *M (6)

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:m Ž
I B M š M IXJ M -u ?M0M/K M š M K IM -u M #M :B M cI €I M (7)
-u M "B 0L.K M -S M #M :B %M KJ (8)
•— I B?MK J€M V L M0.K I 9M :M &BI K M (9)
L L M0.K I @ B :I &BI B M *M (10)
• M M?K nL 0M.K M pJ M I K XJ RI (11)
`
m "B &L%B M —I B?MK J€M 'B ,I !J "B –L :œ  D /I J mV"B 0L.K M L M?K (12)
M B)I E
B I -I &MM 'B ,I M7 M 0M,J @ B €I Q \I MK L B L%B M "M L M 8 B I nL IJ, (13)
eI M Ž
B I K M I
!J J.$K JKM nM BIJ.%M K L &BI oL &M8
B M)M -I $JM ‹K %I KI :M B):I 7 M K 3 L L ‹K M) L D:7 M KJ (14)
M BI J/ D M J |I M&%M KM
'D I M/J K L &BI oM &M8 B MI #I ME&B%I K M I M=E M M K oL ‹J >K M) #L DŽ&DJ (15)
:M I J>%M KM T I JL Q‹M
:B $J J M– '¥ IM J M%kKL bI JO& š I I%M K -I J1 J |M -J M "B /S L Q 2J M&B %I M (16)
oL &M8B LM L MkC Ml I B M 'B ,I ¹L M &BL e¤ :M B):I M oM *IM8M M J I MM — B 7 M 0M,J

I B 7 M K T L pJ f Ml I B M 'B ,I
pJ 'B J I M EB %M K I J K %M K 'I, !S M:0IB +IK š M B JM bL ~M K M) 'B ?IB?IM M) (17)
˜lB)I M J "B /S M

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L OJ I M"M M I ,JM J fB>S K 2JM $J D%J,J I B%


M K
M #I M} S |L D  š M IXJ J J (18)
L SM nM SM
eI M –I ŸK -S M #M ~B M M*B:œ J (19)

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into


English.

¤L #L -I /J IJ%M K I I M| ] I #B JKM T I MM% D  I GI J, I QI :L %B 7


M K (1)
˜MRI ZI D&I š M SI M| '*RI (2)
M%L M):I B)2J K"L‹J $K J, -S $J#I D M 3L #I D M (3)
-u M "L("B D m M"K 2JM ‚ -u M "S,B D #m L L MI, ‚ -u M)#I M| m BM MI, (4)
J M~I%KM !J M/K %I K "L8>S &M pJ M (5)
J L/S EB M) J,J2J L #I MEM M oL ,IM&M MI, B L JM (6)
=
” )I>J I nL ?B8œ  s M BJ2J nL ?B8 œ  L L :M I "B M Q RI (7)

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) I am going to Bombay tomorrow.


(2) He had gone to Lahore yesterday.
(3) My sister is going to Hyderabad.
(4) The door of the madrasah is open.

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(5) The door of the library was open.


(6) Tāriq was the conqueror of Spain.
(7) Bombay has many mills. Expensive clothing is woven
in some of them.
(8) The blacksmith pounded the iron with the hammer
and made a knife with it.
(9) Do you have a saw?
(10) The munitions of war are manufactured in this
factory.

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Lesson 23

The Adjectival Nouns


(-I .J 8
  ‡z M%B 2J)

1. The most frequently used scales of the (-I .J 8


  ‡z M%B 2J) are:
• (
u BI ,J) – e.g. (:m BI M - fortunate), (
u BI$J - little), (m BkIJ -
plenty).

Note 1: This scale is sometimes used for an intensive


meaning (-MwJM?L ), e.g. (
m BIM – all-knowing), (om B%I M – all-
hearing).

• (!
u "B L ,J) - This scale is also used for an intensive
meaning, e.g. (bm "B S‰
J – very oppressive), (!u "B L |M –
very ignorant), (!
u "B
L J – very lazy), (3
m B :L M – very
truthful).
• (
S1J B ,J) – e.g. (S M?B M - tired), (S M?l
B vJ - angry), (S MB ,J -
happy). This scale is most often a diptote ( ¨v
N8&). See 10.7
• (
u I J,). This scale is actually for the (.  - the

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active participle noun). However, many adjectival


nouns are used on this scale, e.g. (3
m I M - truthful),
(!
u I M - just), (u I M| - ignorant), (m IM - learned).

2. The scales of the (-I .J 8


  ‡z M%B 2J) which indicate colours,
characteristics or physical defects are as follows:

Plural Singular Meaning Singular


(M/F) Feminine Masculine

u B ,S ‡z 1
J B ,J S M ,K 2J
m %B L ‡z M%B M red L %M B 2J
m "B L ‡z M"B M black L "M B 2J
£
m B I ‡z MlB M white £
L M B2J
3
m #B YL ‡z J$#B YM blue 3
L #M YB 2J
m l
B –L ‡z Ml
B –M green L l
M –B 2J
m .K L ‡z M.K M yellow L .J B 2J
ˆ L ‡z D%M deaf œ M 2J
'm %B L ‡z M%B M blind %M B 2J
[
m B GS ‡z M}B GJ deaf [
L M GK 2J
Z
m B –L ‡z MB –M dumb Z
L M –B 2J
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m /K L ‡z M%/K M dumb L /J B2J


U
m B L ‡z M|B M crippled U
L M B 2J

m :B L ‡z M :B M hunchbacked
L :M B 2J
#m "B L ‡z M#"B M black-eyed #L "M B 2J
#m "B L ‡z M#"B M one-eyed #L "M B 2J
m BI ‡z M&BM big-eyed L MB 2J

Note 2: The plural of (#L "M 


B 2J) is (#m "B L ) and the plural of (L MB 2J) is
(
m BI ). These words are most often used to describe the
damsels of jannah, that is, they have large black eyes.

Note 3: The singular masculine and singular feminine forms


are diptotes (N8& ¨v). See 10.7.

Note 4: The hamzah in the feminine dual form changes to a


(), e.g. from (‡z M"B 
M ) – (I MM"B M - two black women).

Note 5: If there are two letters of the same type at the end of
(
S M ,K 2J), the first one is rendered sākin and assimilated into
the other. Instead of writing two letters, one letter is written

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with a tashdīd, e.g. (


œ M 2J). Originally it was (L %M B 2J).

If there is a (-
N), that is a () or (@) at the end of (S M ,K 2J),
it is pronounced as an alif. The word (M% B 2J) is actually
('
L %M B 2J).

3. Sometimes the (-I .J 8


 
‡z M%B 2J) are related (Nl) to another
word. Together with the ( Nl), they either form an

adjective (-. ) or predicate (ª–) of a preceding noun.


Examples:

I |B "M K L
M M :m JM
 Nl Nl
-. N" "
a handsome faced boy

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!I M%K L BkIJ u |L #M
 Nl Nl
-. N" "
a wealthy man

I |B "M K -S &M


M M —
m &B I
 Nl Nl
-. N" "
a pretty-faced girl

!I M%K eS M BkIJ eu 2JM B RI


 Nl Nl
-. N" "
a wealthy woman

4. It was mentioned in Lesson 7 that when an indefinite


noun is related to a definite noun, the former also becomes
definite. See 7.9. The definite article is not prefixed to the
(Nl). See 7.4.

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Remember that the (-.8 ) is an exception from both the


above rules. It neither becomes definite due to being related
nor is the prefixing of the definite article prohibited.
Accordingly, when an (-.8 ) together with its

subsequent noun ( Nl) forms the adjective of a


definite noun, the definite article should be prefixed to it.
Examples:

I |B "M K L
M7
M K :L J"M KJ
 Nl Nl
-. N" "
the handsome-faced boy

!I M%K L BkI/J KJ :m IM–


 Nl Nl
-. N" "
Khālid, the wealthy man

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I B E
D  ‡z M"B
D  =
L &MB)YM
 Nl Nl
-. N" "
Zaynab, the one with black hair

!I M%K eS M BkI/J KJ eS 2JB %M KJ


 Nl Nl
-. N" "
the wealthy woman

5. If the (!
K J) is removed from the (-.8 ) in the above

examples, they will become nominal sentences (-x -©)


because the first part (:
L J"M KJ) is definite while the second part
(I |
B "M K L
M M ) is indefinite. Therefore the sentence ( L
M M :L J"M KJ
I |B "M K) will mean, “The boy has a handsome face.” The word
(:L J"M KJ) will be the subject (:0?) while (I |B "M K L
M M ) will form
the predicate (ª–). Understand the other examples in the
same manner.

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6. Here are a few more examples:

I |B "M K L
M M :m JM ‡{ M|
The (N" ") is (`",) – in the nominative case. Therefore

the (-. ) is also (`",).

I |B "M K -J &M


M M ˜0&B I —
L B)2J#M
The (N" ") is ( "8&) – in the accusative case. Therefore

the (-. ) is also ( "8&).

I |B "M K I
M M :” JM
L M0I J€M
The (N" ") is (#­) – in the genitive case. Therefore the

(-. ) is also (#­).

7. There is another way in which the (-.8 ) is used very


often.
(L L |
B M m
M M :m JM ) – a boy whose face is handsome.
(L &LB 
M -u &M
M M :m JM ) - a boy whose eye is good.
(ML | B M m M M — m &B I) - a girl whose face is pretty.

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(M&LB 
M -u &M
M M —
m &B I) - a girl whose eye is good.

These are all examples of adjectival phrases ('. " =).


If the definite article has to be prefixed to the words (:
m JM )
and (— m &B I), these phrases will become nominal sentences
(-x -©).

8. The distinguishing difference between the previous


examples and these examples is that in the former
examples, the gender of the (-.8 ) corresponds to the
preceding noun (N" "). In the latter examples, the gender
of the (-.8 ) corresponds to the succeeding noun

because it becomes the (,) of the (-.8 ). Its analysis


will be as follows:

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B V   ml ,
 ! l 
 Nl Nl
-.8  , -.8 
-. N" "
'. " =

Note 5: The (-.8 ) will be discussed in detail in Lesson


60, Volume 4.

Vocabulary List No. 22

Word Meaning
m ?BI straw, dry grass

-u 7
M IM# fragrance, smell

m B YM flower

u B M easy, soft

#m M}B 2J ‚ m B }M hair

3
m B }M east

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²m IGJ smiling


m MEB 2J ‚ =
m E
B L green grass


m B vJ west

‘
m B‹I J kind, refined

u M"K2J ‚ u "B J colour

¦m S¦B S pearl

-u &M|B M cheek

eu D I cat

Exercise No. 23

(A) Translate the following phrases and sentences into


English.

‡z Ml
B –M eu M Ž M }M (1)
‡z MlB M -S lD .I KM L .J B 2J =L M €Q J (2)
L .J B 2J L ?B0M L l
M –B 2J = L E B L KJ (3)
-I 7
M ID = L GJ M I "B Q L %M B 2J L #B "M KJ (4)

I M M K I B vJ 'B ,I L %M B JK L 7 B ?MKJ (5)

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!u "B L J :L J"M K 9M JXM eu :M BI M — L &B?IK cI I€M (6)


S M?l
B vJ cL :L M M S M?B M :L ?BM KJ (7)
I |B "M K £ L M B2JM I B E D  L "M B 2JM I BM K 3 L #M YB 2J u BI|M (8)
I |B "M K ‡z MlB M M I B E D  ‡z M"B M M I BM K ‡z J$#B YM -S E M IM (9)

I MkC -J .J BOI *MM eI #M "B 8 œ  -J &M M M ˜0&B I — L B)2J#M (10)
M LMjI -u .J BOI *MM ML |B M u B%I |M -S %M GI J, (11)
ML |B M £ L M B2JM M&LBM ‡z M"B M eS M >J ?MK cI €I M (12)

I MkIº nL B?I$JM I |B "M K L M M :m B)YM (13)
L LMjI -u 7
M B?I$JM L L |B M m M M m%B M (14)
‡z M%B M cI €I M M Z m B –L ‡z M & š M K I (15)
m "B L M £ m B I #m "B LGS M m .K L M m %B L #m MYB J2 I 0M B ?LK 'I, (16)
I OJ &B%M K M0.J B‹I J I MM%B 7 M K — I &B?IK M0&M|B M (17)
²I K 
L K M& M M M I M7IM M%I BJI ˜:B}I #M M eJ :M B MYL Q RI (18)
²m IGJ u B M u |L #M u BI–M 'B >I B):I M (19)
J "B S>I B M) pJ B L ,J 'm %B L m /K L ˆ L B L #L Q./S KJ (20)
p¤ "B L |M ˜"B S‰J J J L *DRI (21)
I "B &L/K %M K ¦I S¦B  !I JkB JJ m BI #m "B L (22)
(B) Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

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L %M B 2J S "B J M I ?MQ S "B J (1)


I "B Q S
M M KM L ?MQJ2 (2)
I "B Q S
M M KM I "B Q L ?MQJ2 (3)
cL #L MYB 2JM I Dœ  3 L M#B 2J (4)
eu M Ž
M }M 'B 0IB M bM M2J (5)
M0L?MK J M 'B 0I–B 2S eS D I (6)
I B0M?MK J M I BMD I — L B)J#M (7)
I BM K M I |B "M K :m JM J€M (8)
-u 7M B?I$J M m M M :L J"M K J€M (9)
M&LBM M £
M M B2J ˜0&B I — L B)J#M (10)
MM&BM M I MM%B M M0&M|B M (11)
MI B }M S "B J M -J D$J#L I |B M S "B J (12)
‡z M"B M M ‡z MlB M 'M I (13)
I MJ$#B YM :L J"M K J€M (14)
eu M >J MM ‡z MlB M @
B :I &BI (15)

(C) Translate the following phrases and sentences into


Arabic.

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(1) the red flower


(2) the white silver
(3) My brother is wealthy.
(4) This flower is yellow.
(5) There are plenty of red flowers in our garden.
(6) This boy is big-eyed and small-headed.
(7) That man is stupid and ugly.
(8) Those people are deaf, dumb and blind.
(9) The dog is black and the cat is white.
(10) The exhausted slave and the angry master.
(11) the black-eyed girl.
(12) the crippled goat.
(13) There are two black cats in the house.
(14) A fortunate boy and a fortunate girl are both in the
house.

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Lesson 24

The Elative
(
I Bl
I .K 0D L B I)

1. The elative (
I Bl
I .K 0D L B I) is a noun that expresses the
excess of a quality in a thing in comparison to another
thing, e.g. (
L M B 2J - prettier), (L ?MK 2J - bigger).

2. Except for nouns denoting colours and defects, all other


nouns denote the elative on the scale of (
S M ,K 2J).
Examples:
(=
m B M - difficult) (=
L M B 2J - more difficult),
(m B ?I
J - big) (L ?M
K 2J - bigger),
(
u BI$J - little) (
 $J2J - lesser),
(:
m B):I }M - harsh) (:
œ }M 2J - harsher),
(
m I M - ruler) (
L /J B 2J - greater ruler),
(!
” M - high) (J
B 2J - higher).

The paradigm of the elative is as follows:

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h cI\X !  Gender

L IJ2J ‚ J B L ?MK 2J I M?MK 2J L ?MK 2J #8&


m ?MS ‚ T
m M)M ?BS I M)M ?BS @M?BS i j

3. It was mentioned in the previous lesson that adjectives


having the meaning of colours and defects follow the scale
of (
S M ,K 2J).

The method of constructing their elative is that the word


(:
œ }M 2J) or (L kJK 2J) is prefixed to their verbal nouns (#:8).
Examples:
from (L "M 
B 2J - black) (˜"M 
M :œ }M 2J - blacker),
from (L %
M B 2 - red) (e¤ M %
B L :œ }M 2J - redder).

4. The elative is sometimes used to express the comparative


degree in relation to some parts and sometimes in relation
to the total.

When it is used for showing a comparison to some parts,


the particle (
B I ) is suffixed to it, e.g.

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(” B %
M L B I L JB 2J :m B)YM - Zaid is more learned than Úmair).

When it is used for showing a comparison to the total,


either the definite article is prefixed to it or it is rendered
(Nl), e.g.

(
L JB JK I :L B)YM - Zaid, the most learned) or
(Z
I D& L JB 2J :m B)YM - Zaid is the most learned among the people).

5. When the elative is used with the particle (


B I ), it will
always be singular masculine, whether the noun being
described is plural or feminine.
Examples:

(” /
K M B I L JB 2J :m B)YM ) – Zaid is more learned than Bakr.
(=
M &MB)YM B I L JB 2J -S E M IM) – Àishah is more learned than Zaynab.
(!
I M|  M I ‘ L M ( B 2J ‡z M &J) – The women are weaker than the
men.

If the elative is prefixed with the definite article, it has to


correspond with the preceding noun.
Examples:

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(
SlM ,K JK S |L D J) – the most virtuous man.
(
I JlM ,K JK I J|L D J) – the two most virtuous men.
(
J "B Sl
M ,K JK !S M| J) – the most virtuous men.
('Jl B .S K eS ‡{ B %M KJ) – the most virtuous woman.
(
I MJl
B .S K I M‡{ B %M KJ) – the two most virtuous women.
(T
L MJlB .S K ‡z M &J) – the most virtuous women.

In the case of it being (Nl), both forms are permissible,


that is, conformity and non-conformity.
Examples:
(Z
I D& S l
M ,K 2J ‡z M?I*BJKJ) or (Z
I D& S (
I J,2J ‡z M?I*BJKJ) – The messengers are
the most virtuous men.
(‡I M & S l
M ,K 2J L M)B M ) or (‡I M & 'Jl
B ,S L M)B M ) – Maryam is the most
virtuous woman.

Note 1: Sometimes the words succeeding the elative are…++

…deleted, e.g. (L ?MK 2J

z J) – Allāh is the greatest. This sentence


was originally (¡ ” B}M C S L ?MK 2J

z J) or (¡” B}M C S B I L ?MK 2J

z J) -
Allāh is greater than everything.

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6. The words (m B –


M - better) and (ˆ }M - worse) are also used for
the elative.
Examples:
(L &BI m B–M M*2J) – I am better than him.
(ZI D&LB–M J€M ) – This is the best of the people.
(-I D)I ?MK œ }M B L š M §IJS) – They are the worst of the creation.

Note 2: The plural of (m B –


M - better) is (#m M–I ) or (#m M–B 2J) and the
plural of (ˆ }
M - worse) is (#m M}I ) or (#m M}B 2J), e.g. ( B S #L M–I B S #L M–I
'B IB JI B S L B–M M*2JM I IB JI) – The best among you is the one that is
the best to his family and I am best of you to my family.

The elative will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 60 of


Volume Four.

Vocabulary List No. 23

Word Meaning
²œ M 2J more entitled

'J>BJKJ more pious

`
L M B 2J faster

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JB JKJ the highest

-u M 2J slave girl

m jKRI sin

s
I B 2J yesterday

-J M #I M?KJ 2 V
M #I M?KJ yesterday

L M B 2J weakest

L M YB JK oL I MŽKJ a musjid of Egypt

-u DII M| the age of ignorance

-S %M /K I wisdom

=
m I M counter, reckoner

r
S BM wherever

3
m1
J –B 2J ‚ ²m K –L character, conduct

`
m MŽ}L brave

-u QM( missing item

m
I BM gambling

L .J B 2J Z
m M7*L brass

bm "B *M sleep

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om .K *M benefit

T
I M.S K L B *M the Euphrates River

Exercise No. 24

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

JB JK 'M #M J M7?BL (1)


bI "B &D M I m B–M eS 1J8 D J (2)
!S "B L /J K !S "B L Ž M K S |L D  Z I D& nL ?M$K 2J (3)
M0I$K "M I eS 1J8 D J !I M%B JK S l M ,K 2J (4)
(r):d) ¤>K –L B L &L M B 2J M B&II ¦B %L K S l
M ,K 2J (5)
(r):d) Z I D& oL .J &BM) B M Z I D& L B–M (6)
I M YB JK oI I MŽK 'I, ¼Œ?B/S K -S M #M :B %M KJ (7)
š
M B–I 2J 'JRI L &BI :œ }M 2J š M BJRI 'B $I"B }M (8)
-J M #I M?K M&BI :œ }M 2J bM "B MK nL B) J (9)
L &BI I >K M K  $J2J cL "B –L 2JM I >K M K S BI$J m IM (10)
'B IJ$:I B 2J L
M B 2J "M L L &BI L M B 2J :m %D 7 M L M m M M ²m B):I M L M7 M KJ (11)
(r):d) M I ²œ M 2J "M L ,J M:M |M M r S B7 M ,J I I ¦B %L K -S QM( -S %M /K 7 I KJ (12)

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(r):d) bI 1
J B +IK 'I, B S #L M–I -I DII MŽK 'I, B S#L M–I (13)

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

B S J>B2J I Q :M &I B /S M M K 2J Q RI (1)


I 0B>J K M I L ?MK 2J -S &M0B.I KM (2)
L ™ bI 2J L JB 2J B 0L*J22J K $S (3)
9” I EB œ  m B–M m I ¦B œ :m ?BM JM (4)
-” J I E B œ  m B–M -u &MI ¦B œ -u M JJM (5)
I B { I ²œ M 2J I B>J )I.J K @ œ J,J (6)
6
M ?II M7K ` L M B 2J "M L M L /K 7 L K L J pJ 2J (7)
Z
I D&I oL ,IM&M M ¨m ?IJ m jKRI M%I I, K $S I
I B%M KM I %B  M K I M š M *M"SJ B M) (8)
M%I I .K *D I L ?MK 2J ŸM%L %L jKRIM
T
I "L?/J &MK — L B?MJ T I "L?LK M M B 2J Q RIM (9)
I M·½
I I B L &BI L M $K 2J €” §IM "B M) I .K /S K I B L (10)
L 7
B *MM 6
M %I I M7K L /J B 2J "M L 'J M) 6 M %I I M7K I /J B J I L Q s M BJ2J (11)
(M B):I I DE M I š M IXJ 'JM

(C) Answer the following questions using full sentences.

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The first one has been done for you.

I  :M &BI bL M K JK "M L 'J>BJKJ •


I  :M &BI bL M K JK I M
(1)
• S l (2)
M ,K 2J ” I ¦B L @ œ 2J
• S l M ,K 2J !I M%B JK @
(3) œ 2J
•Z I D& S ( (4)
I J,2J B L B M
• I L œ  S l M ,K 2J "M L B M
(5)
• @M?B/S K -S M #M :B %M K M B)2J
(6)
• 9M "B –L 2J bB 2J L ?MK 2J —(7) M *B2J2J
•T I M.S K L B *M bB 2J L ?MK 2J I B& L B *M
(8)
• L %B  M K bI 2J oL .J *B2J L ?MQJ
(9)
•T I M*M"M7 M K oL Ž M }B 2J "M L M
(10)
• I BŽ I K 'I, T I M*M"M7 M K L ?MK 2J "M L M
(11)
• I .J
D I T I M*M"M7 M K oL .J *B2J "M L M
(12)
• I Dœ  L B YM bB 2J L #B "M KJ e¤ M %B L :œ }M 2J ¡” B}M @
(13) œ 2J
• bM "B MK nL B)  ‘
(14)M BJ
•š M K I B I !S "M GK 2J eS M Ž ME D  cI €I M K M
(15)
• I .J B JK Z L M €Q  I M (16)
I M7&œ M I e¤ M .K L :œ }M 2J =

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(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) This boy is bigger than that girl.


(2) The air is more refined than water.
(3) The Euphrates River is smaller than the Nile.
(4) The best book is the Qur’ān.
(5) The most truthful speech is Allāh’s speech.
(6) The red horses are more beautiful than all the horses.
(7) The air is purer today than it was yesterday.
(8) This road is more difficult than that road.
(9) That tree is taller than this tree.
(10) This book is very beneficial and easy.

Hereunder follows the brief paradigms of the verbs of


(­ 'j1j).

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i 'j1k " 2  ¨w8 N8

n :' # :' :#G :' TENSES

oM %I M M 8
M *M
M M (
M b#DH FGH

oL %M
B M) L 8
L &BM)
L I l
B M) b#DH MENH

oM %I L M 8
I *L
M I (
L 1e` FGH

oL %M
B L) L 8
M &BL)
L M l
B L) 1e` MENH

oB %M B RI B 8
L *B2S
B I (
B RI #%
oB %M
B M pJ B 8
L &BM pJ
B I l
B M pJ Fe
om I M m I M*
m #I M( L]$ Y<
`
m "B %L
B M #m "B 8
L &BM
m B L l
B M 1D$H Y<
om %M
B M m 8
M &BM
m I l
B M b#0
om %M
B I m 8
M &BI
m M l
B I c k
`
m M% B I M #m M8&BI M
m Ml
B I M
oL %M B 2J L 8
M *B2J
L M (
B 2J LIN$ Y<

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2,! :' -#8 :'   :' TENSES

=
M
I M bM L J nM 0M,J b#DH FGH

=
L
I7
B M) bL L /K M) nL 0M.K M) b#DH MENH

=
M
I L * nM 0I,S 1e` FGH

=
L
M7
B L) * nL 0M.K L) 1e` MENH

=
B
I B RI bB L K 2S nB 0M,K RI #%
=
B
I7
B M pJ bB L /K M pJ nB 0M.K M pJ Fe
=
m I M m B)I J nm IJ, L]$ Y<

m "B
L7
B M * V
m "B 0L.K M 1D$H Y<
=
m
I7B M bm M /K M nm 0M.K M b#0 Y<
=
m M7B I bm M /K I nm 0M.K I c k Y<

m M 7
B I M bm M/K I M V
m M0.K I M
=
L
M B 2J bL M K 2J nL 0M,K 2J LIN$ Y<

* The category (bM L 


J ) is intransitive and therefore does not
have the passive tense and the passive participle noun.

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Test No. 12

(1) List the names of all the derived nouns.


(2) On what scale does the active participle noun ( 
.) appear?
(3) What is the (. ) of (b  )?

(4) What is the scale of the (!".; )?

(5) How many word-forms are there of the (. )


and the (!".; )?
(6) What is (NO )? On what scale is it used?

(7) What does the (-P ) refer to? What are its scales?

(8) What is the ('% #:8) and what are its scales?

(9) What are the frequently used scales of the ( ‡x2

-.8)?
(10) Explain the scales of those adjectival nouns that are
used for describing defects, characteristics and
colours.
(11) Construct the dual and the plural of (‡z M"B 
M ).
(12) Explain the two ways in which the (-.8 ‡x2) are
used as mentioned in Lesson 23 using examples.

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(13) What is the clear difference between the two ways?


(14) For what meanings is the scale of (
S M ,K 2J) used?
(15) What is the (l.0
) and on what scale is it used?
(16) Conjugate the (l.0 ).

(17) In how many ways is the (l.0 ) used?


(18) In which instances is it necessary for the gender and
number of the (l.0 ) to correspond to its
preceding noun and in which instances is it not
necessary?
(19) What was the sentence (ª2
) originally?
(20) Form the brief paradigm of (
J M vJ ), (M IM ) and (nM SM ).

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Lesson 25 A

The Categories Other than the Triliteral Verbs


(­ 'j1j ¨v " 2)

1. All the verbs and derived nouns mentioned till now


were of the category (­ 'j1j). The (, :)~ 'j1j), ( ' #
­) and (, :)~ ' #) need to be explained. The category
of (, :)~ 'j1j) which are often used are ten. The are:

(to honour) bM M K 2J : J M ,K 2J  (1)


This category is mostly transitive.

#:8 !".  ,   `#l; '(;


bm MK RI bm M /K L bm I /K L bB I K 2J bL I /K L) bM M K 2J

(to teach) M QM : J D ,J  (2)


This category is mostly transitive.

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#:8 !".  ,   `#l; '(;


m BIB M m QM L m CM L B CM L CM L) M QM

(to fight) J MJ$ : J M J,  (3)


This category is mostly transitive.

#:8 !".  ,   `#l; '(;


2 -u JMJ>L u MJ>L u IJ>L K IJ$ S IJ>L) J MJ$
!u M0$I

(to accept) J ?D>J M : J D .J M  (4)


This category is mostly intransitive.

#:8 !".  ,   `#l; '(;


u ?œ>J M u ?D>J 0ML u ?>J 0ML K ?D>J M S ?D>J 0MM) J ?D>J M

(to confront, to meet) J MJ>M : J M J.M  (5)


This category is also mostly intransitive.

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#:8 !".  ,   `#l; '(;


u LJ>M u MJ>0ML u IJ>0ML K MJ>M S MJ>0MM) J MJ>M

(to break) M
M /J *BI : J M .J *BI  (6)
This category is also mostly intransitive.

#:8 !".    `#l; '(;


,
#m M /I *BI m
M /J &BL m
I /J &BL B
I /J *BI L
I /J &BM) M
M /J *BI

(to abstain) =
M &M0M|B I : J M 0M,K I  (7)

#:8 !".    `#l; '(;


,

m M&0I|B I =
m &M0MŽ
B L =
m &I0MŽ
B L =
B &I0M|B I =
L &I0MŽ
B M) =
M &M0M|B I

(to be red) D %M B I : Q M ,K I  (8)

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This category is also mostly intransitive.

#:8 !".    `#l; '(;


,
#m M%I B I ˆ %M 7
B L ˆ %M 7
B L  %M B I œ %M 7
B M) D %M B I
M
#B I %M B I

(to be black) bD MB I : !Q M,K I  (9)


This category is also mostly intransitive.

#:8 !".    `#l; '(;


,
bm M%BI B I bˆ M:B L bˆ M:B L b MB I bœ M:B M) bD MB I
M
B I MB I

(to seek help) M 8


M &B0MB I : J M .K 0MB I  (10)

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#:8    `#l; '(;


!".; .
#m M8&B0IB I m 8
M &B0M
B L m 8
I &B0M
B L B 8
I &B0MB I L 8
I &B0M
B M) M 8
M &B0MB I

Note 1: There are a few other categories of (, :)~ 'j1j)


which are used less often. These will be discussed in
Volume Three.

Note 2: The imperative (2) of (


Q M ,K I  ) and (!Q M,K I  ) has
three possibilities:

The (. ) and (!".; ) of these categories are the
same in pronunciation but their original words are
different. That is, the (. ) of (D %M B I) is (#m I %M 7
B L ) while
the (!".; ) is (#m M %M 7
B L ).
The (. ) of (bD MB I) is ( m I M:B L ) while the (!".; ) is
(
m M M:B L ).

2. There is only one category of verbs of (­ ' #), namely:


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(to roll) U
M M B M : J JB ,J  (1 )

#:8    `#l; '(;


!".; .
-u |M M B M U
m M B :M L U
m I B :M L U
B I B M U
L I B :M L) U
M M B M

3. There are three categories of verbs in (, :)~ ' #)


namely:

(to roll) U
M M B :M M : J JB .J M  (1 )

#:8    `#l; '(;


!".; .
U
m L B :M M U
m M B :M 0ML U
m I B :M 0ML U
B M B :M M U
L M B :M 0MM) U
M M B :M M

(to gather) M Ž
M *BM B I : J J&BM ,K I  (2 )

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#:8    `#l; '(;


!".; .
bm MŽ*BI B I m Ž
M *BM 7
B L m Ž
I *BM 7
B L B Ž
I *BM B I L Ž
I *BM 7
B M) M Ž
M *BM B I

(to tremble) D M E
M $K I : Q JM ,K I  (3 )

#:8    `#l; '(;


!".; .
#m MB E
I $K I ˆ M E
M >K L ˆ I E
M >K L #B I B E
M $K RI  D M E
M $K I œ I E
M >K M) D M E
M $K I

4. The method of constructing the passive tense (!"­) of all


the above-mentioned verbs is as follows:
To form the perfect passive tense (!"i '(;), render a

dammah to the first radical of the perfect active tense ( '(;


N;) and a kasrah to the penultimate letter. Between the
two, whichever letter is mutaharrik, render a dammah to it.
If there is any alif ( ) in between, change it to ().
Examples:
(bM I 
K 2S) from (bM M 
K 2J),

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(
M CL ) from (
M QM ),
(
J I"B $S) from (
J MJ$),
(
J ?>S L) from (
J ?D>J M),
(
J I"B >S L) from (
J MJ>M),
(M
I /S *B2S) from (M
M /J *BI),
(=
M &I0L|B 2S) from (=
M &M0M|B I),
(D %
L B 2S) from (D %
M B I),
(bD "B 
L B 2S) from (bD MB I),

(M 8
I &B0LB 2S) from (M 8
M &B0MB I)
(U
M I B L ) from (U
M M B M ),
(U
M I B :L L) from (U
M M B :M M),
(M Ž
I *BL B S) from (M Ž
M *BM B I),
(D I E
L $K S) from (D M E
M $K I),

In order to construct the imperfect passive tense ( `#l;


!"i), render a dammah to the (`#l; -1) and a fathah
to the penultimate letter.
Examples:
(bL M /
K L)) from (bL I /K L)),
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(
L QM L)) from (L CM L)),
(
S MJ>L)) from (S IJ>L)),
(
S ?D>J 0ML)) from (S ?D>J 0MM)),
(
S MJ>0ML)) from (S MJ>0MM)),
(L
M /J &BL)) from (L
I /J &BM)),
(=
L &M0MŽ
B L)) from (=
L &I0MŽ
B M)),
(œ %
M7
B L)) from (œ %M 7
B M)),
(bœ M:
B L)) from (bœ M:B M)),
(L 8
M &B0M
B L)) from (L 8
I &B0M
B M))
(U
L M B :M L)) from (U
L I B :M L)),
(U
L M B :M 0ML)) from (U
L M B :M 0MM)),
(L Ž
M *BM 7
B L)) from (L Ž
I *BM 7
B M)),
(œ M E
M >K L)) from (œ I E
M >K M)),

5. The (. ) of the above-mentioned categories is

made from the imperfect active tense (N; `#l;) while


the (!".; ) is made from the imperfect passive tense

(!"i `#l;). A (bL ) replaces the (`#l; -1) and tanwīn

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is inserted at the end, e.g. from (bL I /


K L)), the (. ) is

(bm I /
K L ) while the (!".; ) from (bL M /K L)) is (bm M /K L ).

6. Besides the categories of (­ 'j1j), in the remaining

categories, the (!".; ) is used to provide the meaning of


the (NO ).

Note 3: The passive tense (!"i) of an intransitive verb

(bYp) and the (!".;


) will only be used when they are
succeeded by a particle (F ¯ N). In this case, the verb

becomes transitive, e.g. ( I "B kQI D %L B 2S)- The clothing was


made red. See 6.17.

Vocabulary List No. 24


Note 4: The numbers written after the verbs of (, :)~ 'j1j)
indicate the category to which they belong.

Word Meaning
(1) bM M B2J to confirm

(8) £
D M BRI to be white

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(1) =
D M 2J to love

(7) :M M 0M|B I to strive

(1) ‘
M J–B 2J to go against

(1) 9M #M B 2J to achieve, to reach

(1) D "M B I to be black

(1) M JB 2J to obey, to embrace Islam

(10) M |M K 0MB I to hire, to employ

(10) M
M7
B 0MB I to regard as good

(10) M .J wB 0MB I to seek forgiveness

(7) J wM 0M}B I to be preoccupied

(8) D .J B I to be yellow

(1) nM JB 2J to correct

(:)~ ' # 3) Q J%M GK I to be peaceful, at ease

(1) —
M ?M*B2J to grow, plant

(2) !J ~D *M (1) !J ~M *B2J to make something


descend
(2) #M €Q M to waste

(2) ±J Q M to convey

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( 4) 4
J :D 7
M M to converse

(5) M M MM to dispute

(4) ]
M D M M to interfere

(4) M QM M to learn

( 4) =
M Ž
D M M to be surprised

(4) M /Q .J M to think

(4) bM :D >J M to advance

(2) M %D M to complete

(4) M D "M M to love

(2) ~M D |M to prepare

(3) „
J ,JM to protect

(3) °
J JM– to mix

(3) oM ,JM to defend

(3) M Q XJ to advise, to remind

(­ ' #) V
M ~M B YM to move

(2) nM ?DM to glorify, to remember


Allāh
(3) :M M M} to observe

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(N) M M ‰J to appear

(3) M }M M to live mutually

(2) ’
M 0D,J to search

(­ ' #) oM $JB ,J to burst, explode

( 3) =
M MJ to correspond

(2) M QJ to speak

(3) ‘
M GJ pJ to be gentle, to be
compassionate
m #I M cold

m :B M Bedouin

u M&|I 2 T
m D&|M ‚ -u &D|M garden


m "B ?LL ‚ =
ˆ M seed, grain

:m B8
I M harvested crop

u Ž
M –M shame

u Ž
I –M ashamed

-u $Q#I mildness, gentleness

@MK XI advice

#m B YL falsehood

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N
m "B >S L ‚ ‘
m >K M roof

-u 7
M IB 2J ‚ V
m1
J I weapon

-u MI }B 2J ‚
m M}M drink, beverage

3
m #I M 2 «
ˆ I thief

u ?M>K 0M
B L future

u
M 0MwB L bathroom

m MBI appointed time, promise

u |M M fear

'J‹B L middle

Exercise No. 25

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

B /S .J B(
M B"L I K 2J (1)
`
I J,: I B /S M 1 J I B~L  |M (2)
I B,I M /Q .J 0MM 'D0M M B JK bI I ?BL pJ (3)
eI :M M ME%L K ‘ L 8 B *I -S ?MMJ/%L KJ (4)

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B L M }M MM M :B ?MK ° J JM– S |L D  J€M (5)


L &BM ’ I B0I.K 0D 'I, J B :L I 0MŽ B L L 7 B *M (6)
L .S GI 1J L)M cL M–2J L C/J L) L BI JK J J (7)
eI #M :B >S K J ?B$J  :L M K I ]B D M 0MMpJ (8)
' IM M KI L Q/J 0MM K M (9)
1
¤ BI$J L Q/J M2J M*2J B M *M (10)

I M M K š M IXJ oM M L Q/J M2J (11)
L M M M&%B Q/J M B M *M (12)

I B 7M K cI €I M I B 2J 'I, I Jj:D 7 M 0MM) M J|M Lc"B –L 2JM L BI JKJ (13)
˜B?IJ bB :D >J 0MM) ˜BwI M B QM 0MM) B M (14)
3
L B L B %M K M M ‰J I D8C M%M MM JXRI (15)
I Ž
M M K M I D %M B M I |M "M K M I L L |B M D.J B RI (16)
9M M–2J = B ?IB 2JM 9M M 2J bB I 0MB I (17)
• M&K M ,J M J "B &L I7 B 0M B M K M (18)
'JMM
z  ‡{ M} K RI I ?M>K 0M B %L K 'I, S MJ>0M*M (19)
`
I J,: I M I M M K B~L D |M :B $J 9M MBJK Q 2J M&B %I M (20)
(r):d) D&I sM BJ,J M*M B?IJ B $C"M L) B JM M*M BwI M B M B M) B J B M (21)

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(r):d) 3 M B :L 8 D  M |I D0 = œ 7 I L)
{  Q RI (22)
(r):d) Z
I D& oM M L œ "M 0D I M%B)+IK :M B M I >K M K Z
L 2K#M (23)

co $ I ? 
pJ !J J$ oL $IB .J L) L *D+I,J ‘I >K
D  J€M = M E M –M nB IB 2J — I B?MK =I I M8I m |I K 0M B L !J J$
:M Ž
L B M,J -S $Q  L J #I :B L K 2J N
L M–2J 'B *RI !J J$ nL ?
M L) L *D+I,J ‘
B  M M

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

#I B ~œ  !J "B $J B"?L&I0M|B M (1)


J‹B "L K eI 1J8 D  T I M"J8 D  JM K"SO,IM (2)
m I#D #m "S.vJ M Q Q RI M Q L.I wB 0MB M (3)
š
M #D B I š M BJRI !J ~I *B2S M ±K C M !S "B L D  Mœ)2J M) (4)
6
M &II ¦B %L K oL .J &M ¼M K €C  Q +I,J B C XJ M (5)
6
I GI ME D  J M"–B RI K"L*J M )I#€C ?M%L K Q RI (6)
:I I87
M K =
D M M T ” D&|M I I M&0B?M*J,J ¤#M M?œ ‡“ M ‡M% D  M I M&K~D *MM (7)
6
M %I JMK  M I —
L %B JB 2J !J J$ B IB 2J L œ#M L J !J J$ XK RI (8)
B L L "L|L —B l D M B M )I€Q D2JM ... cm "L|L œ "M B MM cm"L|L £ œ M?BM bM "B M) (9)

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I ™ -I %M B #M 'I.,J
M MB%I K ‘
L I B L) pJ
{  Q RI (10)
#I "L?>S K 'I, M M kIB L JXRI L JB M) J,J2J (11)

L "S>S K œ §I%M ‹K M I ™ I K €I I pJ 2J (12)
YM J, :B >J ,J -J &DŽ
M K J –I B 2SM #I D& I M V M ~I B YL M%,J (13)

m M}M M m #I M u M 0MwB L J€M (14)

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) They honoured their guest.


(2) Strive to seek knowledge and do not be too
preoccupied in playing.
(3) Do not interfere with the strong enemy.
(4) We do not regard fighting as good.
(5) Respect your parents and love your brothers and
sisters.
(6) We seek forgiveness from Allāh for every sin.
(7) Did you prepare the weapons for defence?
(8) Learn when you are small, you will remain ahead
when you are big.
(9) We strove in searching for it.
(10) Are you learning Arabic?
(11) Yes, we are learning Arabic.

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(12) The two thieves disputed mutually, so the stolen


item was revealed.
(13) The face becomes yellow with fear and red with
shame.
(14) The day became white and the night became black.
(15) We completed the second part of the book,
‘Tashīlul Adab’ in three months.
(16) We refrain from falsehood.
(17) My brother and I sat down to talk regarding a
necessary matter until the light of dawn appeared.
(18) The Indians are preparing weapons for their
defence.

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Lesson 25 (B)

The Particles ‫ن‬


 ‫ِإ‬, ‫ن‬
 ‫ َأ‬and ْ‫َأن‬

Note 1: You have read about these particles in Volume One


and in this volume as well. They will be mentioned in
Volume Four as well but since there is a need to use them in
most sentences, a few facts about them will be mentioned
here.

1. The particle (
Q RI) is for emphasis. It appears mostly before
a nominal sentence (-x -©). Due to it, the subject is read
in the accusative case (=8& -). See 9.6.

Example: (u $IM ˜:B)YM Q RI) – Undoubtedly Zaid is intelligent.

Sometimes the particle (!


J ) is prefixed to the predicate
which creates more emphasis in the meaning, e.g.
(o
m ,IM&J M K I K Q RI) – Surely knowledge is certainly beneficial.

The pronouns are also attached to (


Q RI) as they are attached
to the (eF#| N). See 4.11.

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Third Person (=IJv)

L *DRI singular
Masculine

%M L *DRI dual

B L *DRI plural

M *DRI singular


Feminine

%M L *DRI dual

D L *DRI plural

Second Person (I(M)

š
M *DRI singular
Masculine

%M /S *DRI dual

B /S *DRI plural

š
I *DRI singular
Feminine

%M /S *DRI dual

D /S *DRI plural

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First Person (C/


J 0ML )
B *RI singular

*DRI dual, plural

The particle ('


B *RI) can be read as ('B &I*DRI) while (*DRI) can be read
as (&M*DRI).

2. The particle (
Q 2J) introduces an explanatory clause to the
sentence. It is also prefixed to a noun which changes to the
accusative case, e.g. (
m IM ˜:B)YM Q 2J —
L B %I M ) – I heard that Zaid is
learned.

The pronouns are also attached to it. The paradigm is


similar to the one mentioned above, e.g.
(
I M70IB +IK 'I, —
M 7

M *M š
M *D2J 'B &IwM J M) – I have received the news that
you succeeded in the examination.

After the verb (!


J J$) or its derivatives, the particle (Q RI) is used
and not (
Q 2J), e.g.
(bM "B MK nL 0M.K L)pJ -J M #M :B %M K Q RI XS M0B SK !J J$) – The teacher said that the

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school will not be opened today.

Note 2: The words (


D /I J - but), (—
M BJ - wish) and (Q M J -
perhaps) are also included in the group of (
Q RI) and (Q 2J), that
is, the succeeding noun changes to the accusative case.
However, the word (
B /I J) is not included among these
words. The succeeding noun is not rendered (=8*) and it
can also be prefixed to a verb, in contrast to the above-
mentioned particles.

Note 3: The (eF#| N) are most often prefixed to the

particle (
Q 2J). See Lesson 7.
Examples: (
Q JI - because), (Q JJ - as if), (L *DJI - because he),
(L *DJ
J - as if he).

3. The particle (
K 2J) renders the imperfect tense (`#l;) into
the accusative case (=8& -). See 4.20. Like (
Q 2J), it
appears in the middle of the sentence. However (
K 2J) does
not appear before a noun or pronoun. It only appears before
a verb, especially the imperfect tense (`#l;) and due to it,

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the imperfect tense (`#l;) is rendered into the accusative

case (=8& -).


Example: (˜M?M M l
L7
B M) K 2J 'B I I M– T
L B M 2J) – I commanded my
servant to be present in the morning.

Note 4: The (eF#| N) can also be prefixed to the particle


(
Q 2J), e.g. (K JI - because, so that), (K 2J 'JRI - until).

Note 5: If any noun is ( "8&) because of (


Q RI) or (Q 2J), and it
is succeeded by a noun (NB"‹
S B M ) following a conjuction
(-.G
Nd) such as (M ), (N M ), (B 2J), (D jS) etc. the succeeding
noun will also be ( "8&).

Examples: (I M7IM ˜%B M M ˜:B)YM Q RI) – Verily Zaid and Àmr are
pious.
(
I M7IM ˜%B M M ˜:B)YM Q 2J —
L B %I M ) – I heard that Zaid and Àmr are
pious.

Similarly, if due to the particle (


K 2J), a verb is ( "8&), and it
is succeeded by another verb, it will also be ( "8&), e.g.

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(¤§B }
M I I 9M I }B 2S pJ M

{  :M ?LB 2J K 2J T
L B I 2S) – I was commanded to
worship Allāh and not to ascribe anything to Him.

The (-.G Nd) and (NB"‹S B M ) will be explained in detail


in Volume Four, Lesson 50.

Vocabulary List No. 25

Note: The numbers written after the verbs or verbal nouns


refer to the category of (, :)~ 'j1j) which they belong to.

Word Meaning
(7) :M 7
M DI to unite

(7) ²M .J DI to conform

(1) ‘
M JB2J to destroy

(7) oM %M 0M|B I to gather

(7) U
m MŽ0IB I to protest

(1) M ?M–B 2J to inform

(1) 3
M M B 2J to burn

(1) :M }M #B 2J to guide

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(10) !u 1
J >K 0IB I to be independent, to
find insignificant
(10) ²D 7
M 0MB I to be entitled

(7) 9M M 0M}B I to participate

(1)
M M (
B 2J to turn away, to strike

(2) ²M QvJ (1) ²M JvK 2J to lock

(7) ‘
D 0MKI to gather, to be rolled up

(7) oM &M0MB I to refrain

(1) M /J B 2J to be possible

(1) :M E
M *B2J to recite poetry

‘
M 8
M *B2J to be just

(2) :M D)2J to help

(2) M E
D M to give glad tidings

(­ ' #) M |M B M to translate

(4) oM 0D%M M to benefit

(2) M %D M to complete

(4) M D %M M to rebel

(4) 'Q"M M to govern, to turn away

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(3) =
M *MM| to separate

(Z) V
M I |M to be injured

(]) s
M ?MM to imprison

(2)
M D –M to devastate

(2) £
M .Q –M to lower

#L B :L M) #M M to turn, to rotate

bL B :L M) bM M to remain forever

() ²M }M #M to throw

(2) 3
M :D M to deem credible

(3) !J M M to equate

(2) ‘
M QJ to entrust, to assign

(]) „
J .J J to speak

T
L "B %L M) T
M M to die

L I M7M ‚ -u %M /J 7
B M government building

(3) eu M M JOL to protest

(N) nM 8
M *M to advise

() M Ž
M M to rush, to attack

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(2) J&DM to congratulate

(2) ²M ,QM to give s.o. success

:L IM) :M JM to give birth

L –M f other

” K I "B –L 2J knowledgeable

œ M 2J elder

s
B ‹S
B vS 2J August

bm M*2J creation, the world

D L QJ O Allāh

~m BIŽ
I *BI English

u B 2J capable, family

N
m MwI K I telegraph

-u M |I side

-u J%B |L totality, in general, on the


whole
@
ˆ YI MŽI resident of Hijāz

=
M
B M according

-u D) L freedom

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-I M #M :B %M K s
L BI#M rector

'M#M 2 'D#M mill

\
m M #M lead, bullet

‡z M%M YL ‚ m BI YM leader

-u GJ B }L police

š
m K I wire, thread

u M&B 2J ‚ ˆ I tooth, age

-u M B&IM deed, action

T
m "B M sound, voice, slogan,
opinion
@˜$S ‚ -u M)B $J village, hamlet

:m IJ$ leader

!u D%L ‚ u I M worker, employee

#m B L vS deceit

bm 1
J vS youth

bm ¦B S reproach

m B§IJ despised

š
M IXJ M:M M besides that

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u .I 7
B M gathering

‡Š B M man

#m B :L >K M decreed (against)

u B L >K M adjacent, near

u "B &LM death

U
m M&BI way, method

€S &BL since

s
L IJ.*M ‚ -u
M B.I *M excellent

‡Š J,M fulfil

bm "B %L L ‚ ˆ M anxiety, concern

Exercise No. 26

Translate the following sentences concerning a strike.

'D IM M K L QM M2J M*2J 'B % M M) •-M#M :B %M K 'I, L QM0MM JXM :L B}I #M M) (1)
¿M B)#I K 0DM -J D,IMwB Ž
L K M M 7 I KM @
D ~I BI/I *B+IKM
.= I M Q 'I, S wI 0ME B M M I K I K I B8I7 B M 'B ,I :L I 0MŽ
B M pJ š M *D2J —
L B %I M (2)

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• M ?I
B %L K L 0L$K :D M ‘ M BJ M ‚ @ B :I M M) B S M ?M–B 2J B M
'JI — M ?BM XJ M I BM "B M) €S &BL 9M L OS *B2J 'B &/I J L $S: M 2S pJ M*2J 'B ?IB?IM M) (3)
M 1 Q ‹  Q JI s B ‹S B vS 2J oI I M €S &BL = L M XJ 2J pJ 'B *RI B M M* . -I M #M :B %M K
-I M #M :B %M K s I BI#M eI M Ž B L 'JM B"%L Ž M M K M I M 0D I M B" LM ( B 2J
. -J M #M :B %M K ²M JvK J,J eI M Ž
B7L K I M?B 2J £ M B M B" LD –M M
@
B :I *BJv B 0M B I 'JM — B l M ?M$J -J M "B /S 7 L K Q JI • L 1 Q ‹  M M ( B 2J M IM (4)
-I DI %B Ž
M K ‡M%M YL B I ” BkIJ M bI 1 J /J K 'I 2J M*pJ "B M M (Mr. Gandhi)
˜|MŽ0IB I L 1 Q ‹  M M ( B J,J B L 0B M ?MM M (sB)I wM *BJ/KJ) -I D&IGJ "M K
. -I M "B /S 7
L K -I M B&IM 'JM
oI *IM8%M K !J D%L Q 2J :I IMŽ M K 'I, T L 2KM $JM @ B ~I B)~I M M) — M $K :M M (5)
eI M M JO%L K I B"L %M 0M|B M I %M M K I M B"L M ( B 2J ˜lB)2J I I M%M KM
-S GJ B Eœ  L L >J }M #M M B"L &I0M%B M) B J B /I J -S GJ B E œ  L L 0BM &M%M ,J U I MŽ0IB +IKM
. B"L I |M B L l L B MM !I M7K 'JM B"LM B Ll L B ?M,J T I M M D M
M M*I:L L 'B ,I M( I B M M :I &BI K !I "B GS 'B ,I T L M$IM"K — I M $JM J€/J M M
M I p¤ M|#I J B L I JO%L K J 0M$J oI ( I M"%M K £ I B M 'B ,I M M)Œ$S 'B ,I
B /I J -J D,IIwK 0 9M 1 J B JK B".S JB2JM M I M7%M K B"$SM B JM -I GJ B E œ 
.1¤ BI$J pQ RI TI MM JO%L K cI €I M 'B ,I B"S I 0ME B M) B J M B%I I
B %L K Q 2J M&B %I M

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B L *DJI • s I B)I wM *BJ/K ‡I M%M YL 'JM -S M "B /S 7 L K I—l M ?M$J M I L JB M K M (6)
'B ,I :M &BI K B"S L 0BM) K 2J ~I BIŽ
I *B+IK I B"SJ$M !J 1 J >K 0IB I+KM -J D) 7
L K J "B ?LS‹K M)
. M B):I &BI K @
B :I B)2J
:M IJ$ Q JI • T I MM JO%L K cI €I M 'B ,I J "B %L I B %L K 9I I 0MEB M) B J JXM%I,J (7)
. 9I M0I}B +IK I M B L M &MM V M M&|I  IM ˜:%D 7 M L M B%I I B %L K -I DI %B |M
-J D) 7
L K B L :L IJ$ M J "B %L I B %L K = œ 7 I L) pJ J • B L M &MM JXM%IM (8)
Q 2J oM M • pJ ‘ M BJ M !J 1 J >K 0IB +IK J "B ?œ7
I L) B L 'J M • !J 1 J >K 0IB +IKM
'JI M "B &LL K D /I JM B I BJM -u l M B)I ,J !I 1 J >K 0IB +IKM -I D) 7
L K I M M0I|B +IK
M B%I I B %L K T I M?JJ‹L 'B ,I š M BI B I B L oM M B">S .I 0DM) B J J ŸK
.B I $I"B >S L M
‚¡” B}M ~œ M 2J M%L I GJ "M K !J 1 J >K 0IB M -J D) 7L K Q 2J 'B ,I š D }M pJ @ B ~I B)~I M M) (9)
B I S 8 L7 B M)pJ :I &BI K !J 1 J >K 0IB  D /I J s L IJ.*MpJ M mZ"B .S *L M%L SI MLpJ
J€/J M I GJ "M K ‡I M& B2J M B M L M7+IK I GI B }M !S D 2J K M T I MM JO%L K cI €I M
L /S J S 8 L7 B M) M B):I 7 I 0DL B"*L"B S " M B):I &BI K I ˜lB)2J ~L BIŽ I *B+IK !S "B >S M)
pJ M :M 7 I 0D*M pJ K 2 M&J M%,J nm B7 I M J€M
I M @ B RI . "!S 1 J >K 0IB +IKJ
C S 'JM = L |I M"KJ, !I 1 J >K 0IB +IK I B8 I7 B 0MI ²” B)I GJ S M B 2J L *D+I,J . ²M .I 0D*M
:I B Ž L K Q S :M I 0MŽ B M) K 2J M B%I I B %L K M I "B &LL K M I -I D) 7 L K =  7 I L

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˜:I M ˜"B M bI M"$K JK oI B%I |M T L "B M J "B /S M) 'D0M I M7+IK I
"!J 1 J >K 0IB +IKJ !J 1
J >K 0IB +IKJ"
oM M B">S .I 0DM) B J ~M BIŽ I *B+IKM M "B &LL K D /I J @ B :I JM M) — M &B M B 2J (10)
‡I "B L M I M%B)+IK ‘ I B ( L M 3 I J>E I B L L"D $S — B .J L( M M B)€I Q M B%I I B %L K
JXRI D2J ‡I J.M l œ  oM M M M7+IK I :L M 2J = œ 7 I L) pJ B M *M . !I %M B JK
\m "B L B M u M&B L B L *DJJ B:L 7 M DM !J M%B JKM 3 M1 J –B JK B"&L M B 2J
. B L M M M M7AI  I :I I M  S = œ 7 I L,J
'JI p¤ D 2J B"L #I M L) K 2J B I IM%JL M M B%I I B %L K @I:IJ$ 'JM bL ~M K M,J (11)
Z I M2J 'JM B L &MB M I M7+IK M I BOI &B0DM M B%I I B %L K 3 I1 J –B 2J I B I7 B M
I M B +IKM !I :B M KM @M">K 0DM  ? 'JM I L M0DM I M%B)+IKM bI 1 J B +IK
Q RI pJ 2J
I I ~B I B I B"*L"B /S MI I M8 B I KM ²I B .I K I M I M&0M|B +IKM
M MB%I K ‘L I B L) pJ
z  M
z3M :M M . J "B 7 L I.K %L K L L
I M ~B I
"B JM ) #I "B S €K %M K Z
I MJK 'JM :I &BI K "L%I B L :M 7 M D JXRI . 'B % M M)
@B €I Q JX B %M ,J -¤ %M BOI M e¤ "D $S B"*LJ (` I B L .S K 'I, M B.I I0M B L B"*LJ
Q 2J "B |L #B 2J 'B *+I,J M B $II D8 M B&II ¦B %L K M I ” "B LK I -I §JI eJ "D $S ‘ L IML)
M&*IM"–B RI oI B%I |M oM M I M7+IK bL "B M) S "B /S M) J "B %L I B %L K I B,I :L 7 I 0DM) ˜"B M)
. I GJ "M K ‡I M& B2J B I

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"M L I M7+IK bM "B M) Q 2J 'B ,I š


D }M 1 J ,J :M BI D  bM "B MK šM IXJ — L B)J#M 'B &I0MBJM) (12)
‚
I  -I %M B #M B I B"‹S &M>K MpJ . I M?B 0IB +IK I M eI MŽ&DM -I D) 7 L K bL "B M)
. ˜?B)I $J bL "B MK š
M IXJ J "B /S M) K 2J 'M M
bI "B SL K I M 1
¤ ,IJv B /S M pJ B /I J š M IM ?B–I M š M %I B .J I  :|I #m B L B M M*2J (13)
M) 9M L /S }B 2J . I GJ "M K M I B):  -I M :B I I 1 ¤ B 2J J "B /S M 'D0M I "B &L.S KM
B J M 'B &I0M%B D ,JM L JB 2J B S 2J B J M B'&I0M%B QM :B $J bM M 0M7 B %L K @ B :I M
. :L %B 7
M K I ™I,J L M ,K 2J B S 2J

(B) Translate the following narrative into English.

co AC!
M B§I&M %L K L "B ,SL I BJM J –M M -J ,J1J I K 'Q"M M D%J ~I B)~I M K :I ?BM M BM%M L Q 2J 'M /I L
L &œI ±K S?BM B J m BwI M bm 1 J vS bI 1 J /J K I MB)YI MŽ7 I K :I ,K M B I bM :D >J 0M,J . -” M |I C S B I
:M D)2J bL 1 J wL K !J J>,J œ M 2J "M L B M bB :D >J 0MMKM oB |I #B  L %M L !J J>,J . -¤ &MM eJ M E B M @M:B RI
¤O,IpJ ˜*M I :M ?BM K
z  nM &MM JX+I,J I *IM IM I ?IK $J I B)M wM B J M ‡z B %M KJ M B&II ¦B %L K M BI 2J

z
M B&II ¦B %L K M BI 2J M) 
 I S l B .J K J J "B JM bM 1 J /J K ²D 7 M 0MB  :I >J ,J ¤O,IM ˜?K $J M
I I 1J J B I L %M L = M ŽD M 0M,J . J€M š M I IŽ
B %M M ²œ M 2J "M L B M -I D SK 'I, J J/J
: :M E M *B2JM

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u I M| "M L B %M J ” K I "B –L 2J s M BJM ˜%IM :L J"B L) ‡z B %M K s M BJ,J B QM M


S ,IM7%M K I BJM —
B .Q 0MK JXRI m BwI M cL :M &BI M K I pJ bI "B >J K M B?IJ Q RIM

(C) Translate the following poem into English.

#m M}B 2J
MD %F M M B§IQ —
M B M K 2J —
M *B2J K RIM L 0M/K JM M B)I /J K —M B M K 2J —
M *B2J JXRI
N
I 1 J –B +IK @I€ I u B L >K M bL ¦B M -u l
M B)I ,J I B)I /J K 'JM ‡{ J,"M K Q RI
N
I M8*B+IK = L *IMŽL M B§IQ @MMM ¤.8I &BL L }I ML) B %M I M B)I /J K @MMM

#L B :L M bI M*JK 'JM I "B &L%M K 'M#M M #m B L vS eS M7


M KJ, š
M M "B %L L £ B .C –M
#L B :L >K M pJ M MB,I #m I J$ pJ ‘
m Q/J L ‡I &M.J K #I M 'B ,I ‡z B %M KM

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(D) Translate the following letter into English.

I B I2J 'JRI :I J"M K M I


m "B 0L/K M

bI M 0M7
B %L K :I |I M%K :I IM"K eI M l B M 'JRI
L LJM MM
I  -S %M B #M M B /S BJM bL 1 J D J
— L %B %D M 'B *2J T L B ?M–B 2JM ~I B)~I M K 'I–2J 'JRI ” L }B 2J -I jJ1 J jJ J ?B$J — L ?B0MJ — L &BS 'B *IR
‡{ ~B Ž L K —L %B QM M 'B *J I B S L E  M2S bM "B MKM I M JK J BI B M I M0I B I !J D JK ‡{ ~B Ž L K
. L /K E L  L JM :L %B 7 M K I ™I,J ˜lB)2J 'B *IQk
J ?B$J L %L M ,K 2J —L &BS M B I M kJK 2J 'D IM MK J M C L M ,K 2J *M2J J ŸK2J bL D /J %L K 'B I2J M)
-I DjI1J k !I M,K JK M I I M" BJK oM B%I |M 'B *IQk ‡I ~B Ž L K ',I — L %B QM M 'B *JI . J€M
. eI :M B)~I %M KM eI M D Ž
M %L K -I DI M œ 
:I I M"$J B I -¤ J%B |L — L %B QM MM -I D IM M K _ I J.KJK MI ˜BkIJ — L OK .I M š M IXJ M:M MM
. -I DIB .I KM -I D%I B +IK I %M Ž
L K = I BI MM B I M "I 7 B &DM N I B 8 D 
@ :I &BI K 'JRI ' IM M K M I T I 1 J %M ŽL K M I ˜BkIJ M |I B M2S K 2J #L :I $K 2J 'B *RI
I  :I %B 7 M IM
. ' IM M K 'JRI @  :I &BI K M I M
-S ?MJGJ L QM 0MM) pJ M ” L }B 2J -I 0DI 'B ,I — L %B QM M 'JMM
I  I l B .J I 'B *2J -S M 1 J L KM
š M K I ˜ "B 8 L –L . I B0M&MM 'B ,I I B):I >J K U I M&B%I K 'JM -I Ž M ID -I D IM M K Z I #I M:%M K

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B 2J B"%L C/J L) B 2J ' IM M K 'JRI @  :I &BI K M I B"%L |I B 0ML) K 2J ¤>J‹K L J B #L :I >K M) pJ -S ?MJ‹Q 
. ˜BwI M ˜ "B 0L/K M B"?L0L/K M)
eu #M :B $S 'B I S 8
L7 B M) -I %M ID  I BwM K !I M,K JK bM 
M $K 2J L QM M2J M r
J IQk ‡{ ~B Ž L K 2SM $K 2J D%JM
'JRI ˜ "B 0L/K M ` ” "B ?LB 2S C S 'B ,I J I #B 2S K XJ RIM -I %M |M B 0DM I /J 0D 'JM eu :M B)~I M
. 'JMM
z  ‡{ M} K RI B /S IM l B M
.M B%I IM B 0LB L M M BI D /J %L K 'B *IM"–B RIM 'B IM"–M 2JM -I M M 0M7
B %L K 'B  2S 'JM bL 1 J D M
bL I MK L S :L JM
I M%B D  :L ?BM

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Supplement

Some Beneficial Information

(1) The definitions of (b# Y]) and ( Y])

The rules that have been developed for learning to speak


correctly are of two types: (1) N8 , (2) "7& .

Arabic Morphology (N8 ) is that subject in which the


rules of recognizing words and their changes are
mentioned.

Arabic Grammar ("7& ) is the subject in which the rules


of the mutual relationship of words and the condition of
their declension are indicated.

Note 1: You have learnt some of the rules of Arabic


Morphology and Grammar in this book. The remaining
rules will be explained, if Allāh wills, in the remaining
volumes.

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(2) Analysis (L
 I  
 R  )

Analysis (À) is to evaluate each word separately in

speech. This is of two types: (1) '


œ ,IB 8
D  S BI7
B 0DJ and (2) S BI7
B 0DJ
@
œ "I 7
B &D.

Morphologic analyis is evaluation in accordance to the rules


of Arabic Morphology while grammatical analysis is
evaluation in accordance to the rules of Arabic Grammar.

Grammatical analysis is also called (=


m BI B M – to join) because
the words are generally joined after an individual analysis.

As far as Morphologic analyis is concerned, you can now


evaluate the following matters:
• Firstly, recognize the types of words used in the
sentence and which one is a noun, which one a verb
and which one a particle. Then with regards to a
noun, observe the following factors:
(1) Is the noun definite or indefinite? If it is indefinite, is
it a noun or an adjective? If it is definite, to which
category does it belong, that is, is it a proper noun,
pronoun, etc?
(2) Is it derived or non-derived? If it is derived, what

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type of derived noun is it? Is it (


I I J.K L B I), ( L B I
!I "B L .K %M K), (N I B OQ  L B I), (-I JŸK L B I), (-I .J 8
  L B I), (I BlI .K 0D L B I)
or (-I wM JM?% L K L B I)?
(3) Determine the amount of root letters. Is it triliteral,
quadrilteral or having five radicals? Is it (­) or ( :)~
,)?
(4) Is it singular, dual or plural? If it is plural, is it a
sound plural or a broken plural? If it is a broken
plural, on what scale is it?
(5) Is it a masculine word or a feminine word? What is
the sign of its being feminine?
(6) Is it fully declinable ( ) or indeclinable (H?¢)?

If it is a verb, consider the following factors:


(1) What is the tense? Is it the ('(;) or (`#l;) tense?
(2) What word-form is it? Is is the third person, second
person or first person? Is it masculine or feminine? Is
it singular, dual or plural?
(3) Look at the number of root letters. Is it triliteral or
quadriliteral? Is it (­) or (, :)~)?
(4) Is it active or passive? Is it transitive or intransitive?
(5) Is it fully declinable ( ) or indeclinable (H?¢)?

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If the word is a particle, see what kind of particle it is. Is it


from among the (eF#| N), (b.0A N), ('.& N),
(:0 N), (‡:& N), (`#l% -? & N) or

(-Y¯ N)?

In a grammatical analysis, you can evaluate the following:


(1) Is it a complete compound or incomplete?
(2) If it is an incomplete compound, what type is it? Is it
('. " =) or ((R =)?
(3) If it is ('. " =), which word is the (N" ") and

which word the (-. )?

(4) If it is ((R =), which word is the (Nl) and

which word the (R Nl)?


(5) If it is a complete compound, what type is it? Is it
(-x -©) or (-, -©)?
(6) If it is (-x -©), which word is the (:0?) and which

word the (ª–)?

(7) If it is (-, -©), which word is the (,). Which word

is the (,) or (. =*)? Which word is the

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(!".)?

(8) Look at the ( R) of each word. That is, if it is a

verb, is it in (o, -), (=8& -) or (b~¯ -)? If it


is a noun, is it in (o, -), (=8& -) or (F ¯ -)?

(9) If a noun is (`",), why is it so? Is it because of being

the (,) or (. =*) or is it because it is the


subject or predicate?
(10) If a noun is ( "8&), why is it so? Is it a (!".) or a

noun succeeding the particle (


Q RI) or a predicate of the
verb (
J J)? Or does it indicate the condition of the
(,) or (!".)?

(11) If a noun is (#­), why is it so? Does it appear after

a (F | N) or is it (R Nl)?


(12) Observe the ( R) of each word and see what type

it is. Does it have (-d R) or (Nd R)?

The analysis of several sentences has been mentioned


before this. Hereunder a few more sentences are analyzed
so that you can in future, analyze simple sentences yourself.

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Volume Two

Analysis No.1
The sentence is : (‡I M & 'JM J "B L D"$J !S M| J)
The morphologic analyis will be as follows:

 ‚ € ‚  /; o%¯ ‚ b1 NF  !S M| J


 ‚ ­ 'j1j ‚ :|
‚ -w?  ‚ ²0E ‚ ¸  €; o%¯ ‚  J "B L D"$J
 ‚ ­ 'j1j
H? ‚ F | N 'JM
‚ e2 c: ‚  / o© ‚ b1 NF  ‡I M &
 ‚ ­ 'j1j ‚ :| ‚ r*¦

The grammatical analyis will be as follows:

The (2:0?) and the ,# ‚ `", ‚ 2:0? !S M| J


(ª–) together form ‚ -%l
a (-x -©). ,# ‚ `", ‚ ª– J "B L D"$J
‚ (J B z_)

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Volume Two

ªt ²0 F | N 'JM


e / cF| ‚ #­ ‡I M &
Analysis No.2
The sentence is : (I B –
I 2J 'JRI 1
¤ B)"I GJ ˜ M0I m "B %L 7
B M =
M 0MJ )
The morphologic analyis will be as follows:

'j1j ‚ =v € : 0w ‚ '(; . =


M 0MJ
H?; ‚ @:0; ‚ ­
B I !".  ‚ ²0E ‚ € ‚ : ‚   m "B %L 7
B M
 ‚ ­ 'j1j ‚ :M %I M
‚ ­ 'j1j ‚ ²0E ‚ € ‚ : ‚ e/*  ˜ M0I

‚ -.8  ‚ ²0E ‚ € ‚ : ‚ e/*  1
¤ B)"I GJ
 ‚ ­ 'j1j
H? ‚F| N 'JRI
'j1j ‚ :| ‚ € ‚ : ‚ e/*  =W
m 2J I B–I 2J
 ‚ "m –B 2J  2
80; #i ¨%l=cI

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Volume Two

The grammatical analyis will be as follows:

H?; '(; . =


M 0MJ
n0. '
,# ‚ `", ‚ , m "B %L 7
B M
The (,), the (,), the
-%l
(!".) and the ( ²0
‚ "8& ‚ !". ˜ M0I
.) together form a
‚ -70. ?8*
(-, -©).
N" "
‚ "8& ‚ -. 1
¤ B)"I GJ
-70. ?8*
F | N 'JRI
‚ #­ I B–I 2J
. ²0 ‚ ‡ cF|
Nl
Nl =c


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Volume Two

The End of Volume Two

:%d ,
 o%  —*2 š*R & ?> & #

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Volume Two

Page 184
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Volume 3

A Translation of

      

popularly known as

  

Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/


Arabic Tutor – Volume Three

Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic


Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South
Africa.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume Three

<<<<<<<<

   !" #$ % &'( )*+ ,- &. !/  0 
(;<( = >) 1 2  345 6 78" % )  9

Àlī Ibnul Ja’d (Rahimahullāh) narrates that he heard


Shu’bah saying,
“The example of a scholar of hadīth who does not know
Arabic is like a donkey that has a nosebag but there is no
fodder in it.”
(Tafsīr Qurtubī)

<<<<<<<<

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Arabic Tutor – Volume Three

Title Arabic Tutor - Volume Three

Author Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān (


 6 7)

Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007

Published by Madrasah In’aamiyyah


P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 031 785 1519

Fax +27 031 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com

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Contents

The first twenty five lessons were completed in Volume


One and Volume Two. Volume Three begins with Lesson
26.

Transliteration........................................................................12
Preface .........................................................................................15
Guidelines for Teachers........................................................18
Indications ..............................................................................19
Lesson 26.....................................................................................20
The Types of Verbs................................................................20
Exercise No. 27 .......................................................................28
Lesson 27.....................................................................................29
The Types of Changes and Some Rules .............................29
The Rules of (2@>A B
@ C) .............................................................30
The Rules of (DEF@ GA).................................................................32

The Rules of (@A@ C) .................................................................33


Exceptions...............................................................................37
Lesson 28.....................................................................................40
Hamzated Verbs ....................................................................40
Vocabulary List No. 26 .........................................................51
Exercise No. 28 .......................................................................55
Test No. 13 ..............................................................................62
Lesson 29.....................................................................................64

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The Doubled Verb .................................................................64


Vocabulary List No. 27 .........................................................72
Exercise No. 29 .......................................................................77
Test No. 14 ..............................................................................84
Lesson 30.....................................................................................86
The Semi-Vowelled Verbs....................................................86
Vocabulary List No. 28 .........................................................93
Exercise No. 30 .......................................................................96
Lesson 31...................................................................................104
The Hollow Verb .................................................................104
Vocabulary List No. 29 .......................................................118
Exercise No. 31 .....................................................................121
Lesson 32...................................................................................129
The Defective Verb ..............................................................129
The Changes in the Perfect (0HI)....................................132

The Changes in the Imperfect (J7KI).............................137


Vocabulary List No. 30 .......................................................139
Exercise No. 32 .....................................................................142
Lesson 33...................................................................................148
The Jussive Mood of the Imperfect...................................148
Vocabulary List No. 31 .......................................................156
Exercise No. 33 .....................................................................159
Lesson 34...................................................................................163
The Doubly Weak Verb and the Verb (E7C ).....................163
Vocabulary List No. 32 .......................................................170

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Exercise No. 34 .....................................................................172


Lesson 35...................................................................................178
The Remaining Triliteral Categories.................................178
Vocabulary List No. 33 .......................................................179
Exercise No. 35 .....................................................................180
Test No. 15 ............................................................................183
Lesson 36...................................................................................185
The Special Meanings of Each Verb Category ................185
The Special Meanings of (&1G  ) ..................................187
The Special Meanings of (>  ) ..................................188

The Special Meanings of ()>  ).................................189

The Special Meanings of (L >  ) .................................190


The Special Meanings of (M>  ) ...................................191

The Special Meanings of (&>N  ) .................................192

The Special Meanings of (&O1  ) .................................193

The Special Meanings of (&41  ) and (&41  )....193

The Special Meanings of (&>OP  ) ..............................193

The Special Meanings of (&1  )................................194

The Special Meanings of (&Q'1  ).................................194


The Categories of (61 ! RS T 0 7) ..............................195

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The Special Meanings of (


U V@ >E C
 )..................................196
The Special Meanings of (&W1  ) .................................196

The Special Meanings of (&4X1  )................................197


Vocabulary List No. 34 .......................................................197
Exercise No. 36 .....................................................................199
Lesson 37...................................................................................201
Vocabulary List No. 35 .......................................................209
Exercise No. 37 .....................................................................210
Exercise No. 38 .....................................................................212
Exercise No. 39 .....................................................................214
Exercise No. 40 .....................................................................215
Lesson 38...................................................................................216
The ()Y.N &1Z).........................................................................216
Exercise No. 41 .....................................................................224
Vocabulary List No. 36 .......................................................227
Exercise No. 42 .....................................................................229
Exercise No. 43 .....................................................................232
Exercise No. 44 .....................................................................233
Lesson 39...................................................................................234
The ()A C7C E(8
L [ &V C1[ E)..................................................................234
Exercise No. 45 .....................................................................236
Vocabulary List No. 37 .......................................................237
Exercise No. 46 .....................................................................239
Exercise No. 47 .....................................................................241

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Lesson 40...................................................................................243
The Verbs of Praise and Dispraise ....................................243
Words Indicating Surprise .................................................246
Exercise No. 48 .....................................................................248
Vocabulary List No. 38 .......................................................249
Exercise No. 49 .....................................................................252
Exercise No. 50 .....................................................................254
Exercise No. 51 .....................................................................254
Test No. 16 ............................................................................258
Lesson 41...................................................................................261
Pronouns...............................................................................261
The Visible and Concealed Pronoun ................................264
The ()A CE.'A [ V '@ NL) ......................................................................266
The Pronoun of State...........................................................267
The Distinguishing Pronoun .............................................268
Exercise No. 52 .....................................................................270
Exercise No. 53 .....................................................................271
Vocabulary List No. 39 .......................................................273
Exercise No. 54 .....................................................................274
Lesson 42...................................................................................276
Relative Pronouns ...............................................................276
Exercise No. 55 .....................................................................282
Vocabulary List No. 40 .......................................................286
Exercise No. 56 .....................................................................288
Exercise No. 57 .....................................................................290
Exercise No. 58 .....................................................................291

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Exercise No. 59 .....................................................................294


Test No. 17 ............................................................................295
Lesson 43...................................................................................298
The Declension of Nouns ...................................................298
The Object .............................................................................299
(\]I &'>I)..........................................................................299
(6A A^
@ _EA &'>I SZ 6L E &'>I) .......................................................300
(9L @ à S 6A @1A &'>I)...............................................................301
(6L C C &'>I) .............................................................................301

(` bA A cCX%[OC @ 8L [E)...........................................................................303


(&V Cd[E) .....................................................................................304
(RL @ A8
@ OeE).....................................................................................306
(fCCX8 L [E) ..................................................................................308
(gA X@h A [ 0A >[ XCA 4 E A
L '@ YL X@8C [E) .......................................................310
Vocabulary List No. 41 .......................................................311
Exercise No. 60 .....................................................................313
The examples of (6 &'>) ..................................................314
The examples of (61 &'>).................................................314

The examples of (6 &'>)................................................315

The examples of (&) .........................................................316

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The examples of (
` bA A cCX%[OC
@ IV ) ..............................................317
The examples of (Ri)..........................................................318

The examples of (fX).......................................................319

The examples of (g
A X@h
A [ 0A >[ XCA E ) ..........................................321
Exercise No. 61 .....................................................................322
Exercise No. 62 .....................................................................327
Exercise No. 63 .....................................................................327
Exercise No. 64 .....................................................................330

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Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters


has been used in this book:

 ā

j t

k th

l j

m h

n kh

 d

o dh

7 r

p z

q s

r sh

s s

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t d

u t

v z

J
C á

J
A í

J
L ú

w gh

9 f

x q

y k

& l

D m

 n

S ū

z h

 ī, y

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Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows:

 (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)


May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon
him - used for Nabî 
 (Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all prophets
 (Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the
Sahâbah 
 (Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh 
 (Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(
 6 7) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars

Note: Please note that the exercise numbers from 55


onwards do not correspond to the original in the Urdu text
as the original has an error in the numbering. Exercise 54
has been numbered as 54 in Lessons 41 and 42 as well. This
has been corrected in the English translation. (Translator)

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6|S !8} 6'P7S z!* 0 D4 S 34YS {I 7


!8"
 ! D' ~ 6*ZS

Preface

All praises are due to Allāh  that the third volume of the
book, “       ” has been published.

Two volumes of the above-mentioned book were published


with amendments two years ago. Due to my lengthy illness
and other obstacles, there was an unexpected delay in the
publication of the third volume.

It is only through the grace of Allāh  that the first two


volumes were astoundingly accepted by the readers. Every
person who saw the book, read it or taught it, became fond
of it. I have received and continue receiving countless
letters of praise for the first two volumes from all parts of
India and letters requesting the third and fourth volumes.
May Allāh  reward the people who desire this book and
appreciate its value and grant blessings in their knowledge
and practice because it was due to their forceful,
reproaching, advising and sincere requests that created

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Arabic Tutor – Volume Three

strength in my sick heart to be able to do some work. I


cannot say that a very good task has been achieved, yet
whatever has been achieved is worth valuing. I could not
even achieve a fraction of what is required in this era for
any book to be accepted and made part of a syllabus. In
spite of this deficiency, the inclination of scholarly
reviewers and students of Arabic is extraordinary.

The department of education of the province of Sindh has


included this book in the syllabus of the high schools. It is
also being used in some of the seminaries of Bombay,
Hyderabad, U.P., Delhi, Punjab and North West Frontier
Province.

The scholars know that the changes that occur in nouns and
verbs in Arabic Morphology is a difficult subject. According
to the old method of teaching, each rule is memorized like
verses of the Qur’ān. This task is so unpleasant, difficult
and a waste of time that every student cannot endure it.
Accordingly, in the modern method of teaching, a large
portion of it is disregarded. However, the student of Arabic
is deprived of essential information due to which he
perceives an apprehension of losing out at every step. An
attempt has been made in this third volume to make this
difficult stage pleasant and easy with moderation. Due to
details, the subject has been lengthened but the rules can be
learnt without memorizing, by merely reading them.

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The size of this volume has increased, not due to the rules,
but due to the literary extracts. If you look at the rules, they
do not form even a quarter of the book. More than three
quarters of the book is full of the teaching of the language.

The student will obtain enough ability with this third


volume to be able to read and understand a major part of
the Qur’ān. He will be able to read the ahādīth and Arabic
literature easily. He will be able to write simple Arabic
letters and be able to converse extensively in Arabic.
However, this ability will only develop if the teacher
himself has a good ability or he has the capability of
creating the desire in the student.

The explanation of numbers, the delicate aspects of


particles, the essential rules of Morphology and Grammar
of a higher degree and the basics of Eloquence will form
part of the fourth volume.

Allāh  is the One that grants ability and assistance.


The servant of the best language
Àbdus Sattār Khān

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Guidelines for Teachers

1. Before beginning the lesson, write down all or some


of the examples or paradigms that appear at the
beginning of a lesson on the chalkboard. Then
explain these examples that are on the board by
means of the rules appearing in the lesson. In this
manner, hopefully most of the lesson will be
memorized before the lesson is complete. For this, it
is highly essential that the teacher must come fully
prepared for the lesson.

This method can be easily adopted in the third


volume. In Volume One and Two, the examples have
been mentioned at the beginning and end of the
lesson. The intelligent teacher can select the easy
examples, write them on the board and begin to teach
the lesson.

2. When teaching the lesson, make an attempt to


question the students about the previous lesson.
Their answers should form a support for the current
lesson.

3. This can only occur if there is a class of students. One


class should only be taught one lesson even though

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some students may have been absent for some of the


lessons.

4. Those people who are engaged in self-study, should


thoroughly understand and learn each lesson and
then proceed to the next lesson. There are very few
examples where the i’rāb has been explained in a later
lesson.

Indications

1) The comma () is used to indicate the plural of a noun.

2) The alphabets (), (t), (q), (9), (y) and (m) indicate the
category of the triliteral verbs. The categories of the verbs of
(61 ! R) are indicated by numbers. The numbers are

mentioned in Lesson 25. A verb that is (SS O) is

indicated by a (S) and a verb that is (0€ O) is indicated


by a ().
3) When any particle is mentioned after a verb, it refers to
the meaning of the verb when used with that particular
particle.

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Lesson 26

The Types of Verbs


(> D .Z)

1. Dear students, you have read all the paradigms of ( 04


T), (61 ! R 04) and (0 7) in Volume One and Two of
this book. Those verbs were such that they corresponded
exactly with their scales. For example, you learnt that the
scales of the perfect tense triliteral verbs are (
E C 1E), (E A 1E) and
(
E L 1E). The scale of the imperfect is (V C >[ C), (V A >[ C) and (V L >[ C).
The scale of the imperative is (
[ C 1[ A), ([ A 1[ A) and ([ L 1[ V).
Accordingly, the verbs (
C C H
C ), (
L A K
@ C), (
@ A H
@ A), (‚C 8A PC ),

L 8C
@ C), (‚@ 8C P@ A), (DC L E ), (DL L ƒ[ C), (D@ L [ V) correspond fully with their
scales.

Had all the verbs and derivatives of Arabic been in full


conformity with their scales, Arabic Morphology would
have been very brief and easy. However, this is not the case.
Many verbs and derivatives are different from their fixed
scales in speaking and writing. Some of these words were
mentioned in Volume Two for a specific need, e.g. the

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paradigms of (
E E), (V '@ ƒV C) and (@ V ). None of these verbs
correspond to their scales. We have to therefore accept the
fact that (
E E) originally was (E 'C E ) on the scale of (E C 1E),
(
V '@ ƒV C ) originally was (V 'L ƒ[ C) on the scale of (V L >[ C) and (@ V )
originally was (
[ 'L [ ZV) on the scale of ([ L 1[ V). These verbs are
not spoken or written in their original forms.

From this preamble, you may have understood that there is


a stage for you to cross where you will learn the changes
that occur in Arabic verbs and derived nouns.

2. Now read the following sentences and ponder over the


verbs.

,
L @*C[ C
L C C *C` V >[ ]„ 
C A +C 6L CCOA 0… AC †C OC1E (1)
‡ COA !ˆ A C Š‰ C .E C „C 8L [ V @8A [ O‹ &E _EPC 3Œ C 8@ C !L E'C [ E E ZE (2)
#
C [ ƒE [ !L E'C [ !e +C V '@ h
L
@ 8C [ e 1E 6L 8C XCFE 0@ A e !e C (3)
3E C ƒV [ !L 8C @ ZE 0C7C (C &V '@ PL e  &E E. ‡8E.E !ˆ A C !C ^C SC (4)
)Œ PC eV !ˆ @pC C'<E 6L C '@ .E !ˆ 8e d
C L 0E.SC 6L PC 7@ C !ˆ @+A 7C 0CSC (5)

Note 1: It would be better if you could read Lesson 8.3 in


the first volume before you proceed with the following

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section.

3. Observe the above examples carefully. With the first


glance you can notice that all the verbs are triliteral (with
three radicals), they are (T04). The word-form of each
verb is the singular masculine third person (#€F  !S)

of the perfect tense (0HI).

Now ponder over the verbs of the first line and you will
notice that all the alphabets of each verb are (†d$). There

is no () 9), that is (), (S) or (). The root letters also do
not contain any hamzah or two letters of the same kind.
Such verbs are called (†d$) or (ŽP).

They are called (†d$) because all three alphabets are

(†d$). They are (ŽP - intact) because these verbs and their
derivativess are free of any changes.

Note 2: Besides the verbs of the first line, the verbs of the
other examples are not (ŽP - intact).
If you look at the verbs of the second line, you will notice a
hamzah somewhere in the verb. Such verbs which contain a

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hamzah as one of the root letters are called (p'8).

Note 3: You may remember that when an alif is mutaharrik


(ZV  GA  ZE) or it has a jazm (_[ 1E), such an alif is also called
hamzah.1

The verbs of the third line are such that the second and
third radicals are of the same kind because the verb (!
e C )
was originally (C !
C C ). The two () have been merged. Such a
verb in which the ()8ƒ {) and ()8ƒ D) are the same
are called (2K).

The verbs of the fourth line contain a ()


9), either in
the beginning, middle or the end. Verbs containing a ( 9

)) are called (W OC@ L ).

There are three types of (


W OC@ L ). If the () 9) comes in
place of the ()8ƒ Š1), it is called (Š> 
 O) or (&E%A ), e.g.
(!
C ^C SC )

1 See the terminology in Volume One.

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If the () 9) comes in place of the ()8ƒ {), it is called


({ 
 O) or (9C'^@ ZE), e.g. (&E E.)
If the () 9) comes in place of the ()8ƒ D), it is called

(D4 
 O) or (A.CN), e.g. (0C7C ).

Note 4: Remember that the alif is not an original radical in


any Arabic verb or noun. It is either changed from a (S) or

().

Example: The word (&


E E.) was originally (&E 'C .E) because the
imperfect is (&
V '@ (V C) and the verbal noun is (&U '@ .E).
The word (0C7C ) was originally (0
C C 7C ) because the imperfect is
(0
@ A @ C) and the verbal noun is (0ˆ @ 7C ).
The word (
ˆ C ) was originally (
ˆ '@ C) because the plural is
(
ˆ C' @ZE).

The verbs of the fifth line contain two () 9). Such

verbs are called (2


ˆ @>A E). The first and second verb are called
(xS> 2>) because a (†d$ 9) has created a

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separation between the two () 9). The third verb is


called (S( 2>) because both the () 9) are adjacent
to one another.

Note 5: You may have understood that besides the root


letters, if there is a hamzah or a () 9), the verb will not
be called (p'8) or (
W OC@ L ). The verb (DC C 
[ ZE) on the scale of
(
E C 1[ ZE) will not be called (p'8) because the hamzah does not
take the place of the (9), (J) or (&).

The verbs ( +) and (' +) have an alif and a (S) added on
as signs of the dual and plural respectively. Due to these
letters, these verbs will not be called (
W OC@ L ).

The verb (e ) on the scale of (


` 1) has one hamzah and an
extra (7). Due to this addition, it will not be called (p'8)

and (2K). All these verbs fall in the category of (ŽP).

The summary of the above discussion is:


The verb, with regard to the make-up of its original letters,
is of two types: (1) (ŽP) and (2) (ŽP =F).
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A (ŽP) verb is one in which there is no () 9), hamzah


or two letters of the same type among its root letters.

A (ŽP =F) verb is of six types:


1. (p'8): a verb having a hamzah as one of its root

letters, e.g. (C EZ).

2. (2K): a verb whose second and third radicals are

the same, e.g. (! e C ).


3. (&E%A ): a verb whose first radical is a () 9), e.g.

(!
C C SC ).
4. (9C'^ @ ZE): one whose second radical is a () 9), e.g.
(&
E E.).
5. (A.CN): one whose third radical is a () 9), e.g.

(0C7C ).

6. (2
ˆ @>A E): a verb having two () 9). If the first and
third radical have a () 9), it will be (xS> 2>),

e.g. (0E.SC ). If the second and third radical have a ( 9

)), it will be (S( 2>), e.g (C'<E ).

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There are thus seven categories in total:


2@>A E  A.CN  9C'^@ ZE  &E%A  2K  p'8  †d$
They are referred to as (DC .[ ZE ,[>‘ C ) in Persian.

Note 6: It is possible that some verbs have two types


contained in them, e.g. (e SC - he desired), is (
W OC@ L ) and
(2K).

The verb (0CZE - he came), is (p'8) and (


W OC@ L ).

Note 7: Like a verb, the noun, especially the derived noun,


is also of seven types.

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Exercise No. 27

What categories do the following verbs and nouns belong


to?

Re C (7) # C ‘C SC (6) @'*L‘C oE (5) '@ L !@ C (4) V V _C (3) # L ‘C [ C (2) C C ZE (1)


 M (V C (13) 0`'C C (12) , @ E’APL (11) &E 'e (E C (10) _EH e 'C C (9) E *e(E C (8)
e L 8C
@ CE (19) V '@ ƒV C (18) CNC (17) E CE. (16) &E E. (15) _EEC (14)
(25) 7ˆ '@ LFE (24) Š“ '@ V8@ C (23) Rˆ @RA C (22) q ˆ Z[7C (21) ˆ C ZE (20)
ˆ @
A C (30) 0… ASC (29) 7ˆ '@ Y L X@C (28) '… L !@ C (27) ˆ '@ L '@ C (26) 0@ H A (E [E

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Lesson 27

The Types of Changes and Some Rules

1. Wherever the Arabs found some difficulty in


pronouncing (ŽP =F) words, they made some changes in
the word to reduce the difficulty.

2. There are three types of changes:


• ( 
 ): to change a hamzah into a () 9) or to
delete it, e.g. the word (
C C Š” ZE) was changed to (C C |), the
word (
[ •L Š” ZV) was changed to ([ •L ). Such changes occur
in (p'8).

• (
 ): to merge two letters of the same type or of the

same origin of pronunciation (lCB


@ C ), e.g. the word
(C !
C C ) was changed to (!e C ). The change of (DEF@ GA) occurs
most often in (2K).

• (  ): to change one () 9) into another or to

delete it, e.g. the word (&


E 'C .E) was changed to (&E E.), the
word (!
L A '@ C) was changed to (!L A C). Such changes occur

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in all three categories of (&E%A ), (9C'^


@ ZE) and (A.CN).

3. Some of the rules of (2@>A B


@ C), (DEF@ GA) and (@A@ C) will now be
listed so that the future lessons can be easily understood.
Peruse them superficially now as they will be repeated at
certain points in future.

The Rules of ( 


 )

Rule No.1: If two hamzahs come together in a word


whereby the first one is mutaharrik and the second one
sākin, the sākin hamzah is changed into a harful illāh that
corresponds to the preceding harakah, that is, if the
preceding harakah is a fathah, it will be changed to an alif,
if the preceding harakah is a dammah, it will be changed to
a wāw and if the preceding harakah is a kasrah, it will be
changed to a yā.
Examples:
(
C C Š” E) changes to (C C |) because the fathah corresponds to an
alif.
(
C A Š” V) changes to (C A S@ V) because the dammah corresponds to
a wāw.

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(‡NCŠ” A) changes to (‡N8


C @A) because the kasrah corresponds to a
yā.

Rule 2: If there is a hamzah sākin preceded by any


mutaharrik letter besides hamzah, it is permissible to
change the hamzah sākin to a harful illāh that corresponds
with the preceding harakah.
Examples:
(L L _[ C) can be read as (L L C), (
L A –@ L) can be read as (L A '@ L) and
()U NC
E ’[A ) can be read as ()U NCE @A ).

Note 1: These two rules are related to (p'8). The first rule
is compulsory while the second one is permissible.

Note 2: If a dammah is succeeded by a hamzah, a (3!€p SS)


is written below it and if it (hamzah) is preceded by a
kasrah, a () is written. Examples: (
L A –@ L), ()U NCE ’[A ).
This (S) and () are not pronounced at all.

If a fathah is succeeded by a hamzah sākin, it is written


above an alif or the alif can be rendered a jazm, e.g. (L L _[ C) or

(L L [ C).

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If you want to write an alif after ()'O> 3R—), a long fathah


 
is written above the alif, e.g. ( ). Sometimes (‰Š) or ( Š) is also
written.

Note 3: Two more rules of (2@>A B


@ C) will be mentioned in
Lesson 28.

The Rules of (
 )

Rule No. 1: If there are two letters of the same type, the first
is sākin and the second is mutaharrik, both the letters will
be merged and written as one, e.g. (ˆ !
@ C ) on the scale of (U @ 1E)
changes to (!
… C ).

Rule No. 2: If two letters of the same type are mutaharrik,


the first letter will be made sākin and merged into the
second letter, e.g. from (C !
C ˜C), we get (!e C ).

Note 4: There are some exceptions to this rule, e.g. (#


ˆ *CPC -
cause) otherwise it will resemble the word (#
… PC ) which
means to swear. There is also no idghām in the word (ˆ !
C C –
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to help) otherwise it will resemble the word (!


… C ) meaning to
pull.

Rule No. 3: If there are two letters of the same type and the
preceding letter is sākin, the harakah of the first letter will
be transferred to the preceding letter and then (DFG) will be

applied, e.g. (L !


L 8@ C) changes to (L !@ 8L C) and then to (!M 8L C).

Note 5: The quadriliteral verbs (0 7) are excepted from

this rule, e.g. (#


L *A[ h
CL #
C *C[ ^C ).

Note 6: The above rules apply to (2K).

Note 7: A few more rules of (DFG) will be mentioned in


Lesson 29.

The Rules of (  )

Rule No. 1: If a ()dO1) is followed by a (S) or () (ydO), the

(S) or () is changed into an (2). That is (SC E), (SA E), (SL E), (
C E),

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(
A E), (
L E) change to ().
Examples:

original word changes to new form


&E 'C .E changes to &E E.
‚C C C changes to J
C C
'C C C changes to CC
&E 'L <E changes to &E E<
9
C 'A •C changes to 9
C C•
E ANC changes to &E CN
0C C 7C changes to 0C7C
0L ™
CB
@C changes to 0C™B
@C

Note 8: This rule mostly applies to the perfect active tense


of (9C'^
@ ZE) and (A.CN). The form (
L E) is specific with ( J7K
.N).

Rule No. 2: The forms (SA ZV) and (


A ZV) change to (
@ A). Similarly,
(
L A) also changes to (
@ A).

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Examples:
(&
E 'A .V) changes to (E @.A).

C A L) changes to (‚C @ A).
(0
L A @ C) changes to (0@ A @ C).

Note 9: This rule is used in the passive perfect tense ( 0HI


&'š) of (9C'^@ ZE). The form of (
L ) is specific with ( J7K
.N).

Rule No. 3: If a (m'O>SS) appears after a kasrah, the (S) is


changed into a (), that is, (SC A) is changed to (
C A), e.g. ('C H
A 7C )
changes to (cA 7C ) and ('C A L ) changes to (0
CH C A L ), the passive
tense (&'š) of (CC ).

Rule No. 4: A (P SS) is changed to a () after a kasrah,


that is, (S@ A) changes to (
@ A), e.g. ([ ^C S@ A) changes to ([ h
C @A) and
(
U Cp'@ A ) changes to (U CR@A ).

Rule No. 5: A (P ) is changed to a (S) after a dammah,

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that is, (
@ V) changes to (S@ V), e.g. (ˆ
A @L ) changes to (ˆ PA '@ L ) and

V (A @L) changes to (›
V .A'@ L).

Note 1: Rules four and five are used in (SS &%) and ( &%
0€ ).

Rule No. 6: (S@ SL E) and ('@ LE) change to (S@ E), e.g. (@S'L 
C C ) changes
C C ), (@'LC 7C ) changes to (@'C 7C ) and (E '@ LH
to (@' C @ C) changes to
(
E '@ H
C @ C).

Rule No. 7: (S@ SL V) and ('@ LA) change to (S@ V), e.g. (@SSL L P
C ) changes
to (@SL P
C ), (@'LH L 7C ), (E S@ 'L L !@ C) changes to
A 7C ) changes to (@'H
(
E '@ L !@ C) and (E '@ LA @ C) changes to (E '@ L @ C).

Rule No. 8: If a (D'8K SS) is preceded by a jazm, its

dammah is transferred to the preceding letter, e.g. (&


V 'L ([ C)
changes to (&
V '@ (V C), the imperfect of (&E E.).

Rule No. 9: If a (7' ƒ ) is preceded by a jazm, its kasrah

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is transferred to the preceding letter, e.g. (‚


L A*@C) changes to

L @*AC), the imperfect of (J
C C ).

Rule No. 10: If a (m'O> S) or (m'O> ) is preceded by a


jazm, the fathah is transferred to the preceding letter and
the (S) or () is changed into an alif, e.g. (9
L 'C B
@ C) changes to
(9
L CBC), the imperfect of (9
C C•) and (V CX@C) changes to (&V CXC),
the imperfect of (&
E CN).

Exceptions

(1) Some verbs that are (SS 9'^Z) from (E A 1E  ) are
excepted from the rules of (), number 1 and 10,

e.g. (7L 'C @ C 7C 'A 


C - to be one-eyed).

(2) In (SS 9'^Z), if there is a () in place of the third


radical, it will be an exception from the above-
mentioned rules, e.g. (C'
@C 
C 'A PC - to be equal).

(3) The (S) and () are always maintained in (


` C 1[ A  ),

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e.g. (M 'C


@C e 'C P@ A), (œ
M C*@C œ
e C @A).

(4) In (&>OP  ), the (S) remains unchanged in some


verbs, e.g. (
L 'A Y
@ OC
@ C
C 'C Y
@ OCP@ A - to seek an opinion).

(5) The () P) and (K>O


P) are also exceptions
from any changes, e.g. (&
U 'C ([ A ), (‚ˆ C*@A ) and (&V 'C .[ ZE).

Rule No. 11: If (S) or () occur in the second radical of

(
U A E1), they are changed to a hamzah, e.g. (&U SA E.) changes to
(
U €AE.) and (‚ˆ AC ) changes to (‚ˆ €AC ).

Rule No. 12: If a (S) occurs in place of the (9) of (


E C OC1[ A), it is
changed to (j) and merged with the the (j), e.g. (
EY
C CS@ A)
changes to (
EYC OC@A) and then to (E Y
C eA).

Rule No. 13: If an alif is succeeded by a (S) or () at the end


of a verbal noun or any other noun, it is changed to a
hamzah, e.g. (Sˆ CH7@ A) changes to (Š“ EH@7A), (
ˆ E([A) changes to

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(Š“ E([A), (Sˆ C8P


C ) changes to (Š“ C8PC ) and (
ˆ CX A) changes to (Š“ CX A).

Note 11: Two more rules of () will be mentioned in


Lesson 30 and two in Lesson 31.

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Lesson 28

Hamzated Verbs
(p'8I)

The Brief Paradigm of (


 ) of (   )

Note 1: The words in which changes have occurred


compulsorily are denoted with a (&) meaning (‡p -
compulsory) and where the change is optional, it is denoted
with a (l) meaning (‡p'^ - permissible).

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   & 


 ! "#$ %$

P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
&U '@ L _[ C [ L S@ ZV V L _[ C E C ZE
(to hope) U C ZE U A |
(l) (&) (l) ()
ˆ EZE 7ˆ '@ V_[ C @ %A@A L A_[ C C EZE
ˆ A|
(to transmit) (l) (&) (l) (t)
)U >E [ZV 9
ˆ '@ V_[ C 2
@ E@A 2
L E_[ C 2
C AZE
2
ˆ A|
(to be
(l) (&) (l) (t)
familiar)

ˆ C ZE
@ L S@ ZV
L L _[ C
C L ZE
X #
ˆ @A ZE
(to be
(&) (l) (y)
cultured)

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'()!   & 


 ! "#$ %$

P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
(to 9
ˆ 4
E @GA 2
ˆ E–@ L 2
ˆ A–@ L 2
@ A| 2
L A–@ L 2
C E|ž1
harmonize) (l) (l) (&) (l) (&)
(to 2
ˆ @A_[ C 2
ˆ `–C L 2
ˆ „–C L 2
@ „ZE 2
L „–C L 2
C `ZEž2
accustom)
)U >E EC–L
(to love one 2
ˆ EC–L 2
ˆ AC–L 2
@ A| 2
L AC–L 2
C E|ž3
another)

(to 2
ˆ _EC ž4
2
ˆ `_EOCL 2
ˆ „_EOCL 2
@ `_EC 2
L `_EOCC
consist of) 2
C `_EC
2
ˆ VŸC ž5
2
ˆ EŸCOL 2
ˆ AŸCOL 2
@ EŸC 2
L EŸCOC
(to be in
2
C EŸC
tune)
ž7
(&) 9
ˆ 4
E OA@A 2
ˆ EC–@ L 2
ˆ AC–@ L 2
@ AOC@A 2
L AC_[ C
2
C EOC@A
(to be
(l) (l) (l) (l)
united) (&)

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ž10
(l) 9
ˆ 4
E ’[OAP@ A 2
ˆ E_[ OC
@ L 2
ˆ A_[ OC
@ L 2
@ A_[ OCP@ A 2
L A_[ OC
@C
2
C E_[ OCP@ A
(to seek
(l) (l) (l) (l)
intimacy) (l)

1. Ponder over the words of all the above-mentioned


paradigms. Firstly, it should be noted why these paradigms
are classified as (Š> p'8). The reason is that where a
hamzah occurs in the first radical of these verbs and nouns,
they are referred to as (Š> p'8), where it occurs as the
second radical, they are referred to as ({ p'8) as in

(&
E _EPC ) and where it occurs as the third radical, they are
referred to as (D4 p'8) as in (Š‰ C .E).

2. Now observe which words have changed from the


original and which have not. All the words of the above
paradigms are (Š> p'8). Therefore there should be a
hamzah in the first radical of each word. Wherever a
hamzah is not visible as the first radical and a () 9),
that is (), (S) or () occur, it means a change has occurred.

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In the paradigms of (š 04%), there is a change only in


the (H Z), e.g. in the words, ( [ L S@ ZV), (@ %A@A), (2
@ E@A) and
(
@ L S@ ZV), a (S) or () occurs in place of the hamzah. This

means that these words were originally (


[ L Š” ZV), (@ AŠ” A), (2
@ EŠ” A)
and (
@ L Š” ZV). Two hamzahs were adjacent to one another
where the first one was mutaharrik and the second sākin.
You can therefore immediately say that the first rule of
(2> ) was applied and the hamzah was changed to a (S) or

().

Note 1: If any word precedes these words, the ($' 3R—) of


the imperative falls away in pronunciation. See Lesson 21
Note 2. The original hamzah remains in place, e.g. (
[ L _[ 1E),
(@ AZ[SC ), (2
@ EZ[SC ) and (
@ L Z[ e V).

3. Now observe the paradigms of (61 ! R 04). In the very


first line, changes can be found in (2 C E|), (2
@ A|) and (9
ˆ 4
E @GA) in
the paradigm of ( E C 1[ ZE). This verb also falls in the category of
(Š> p'8). The word (2
C E|) was originally (2
C EŠ” E) on the

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scale of (
E C 1[ ZE), (2
@ A|) was originally (2
@ AŠ” E) on the scale of
(
[ A 1[ ZE) and (9
ˆ 4
E @GA) was originally (9
ˆ E‰ Š” GA) on the scale of (&U C1[ A).
By looking at the original words, you can say that here also
the first rule of (2> ) was applied whereby it is obligatory

to change the hamzah to () and ().

4. There is no change in the second, third, fourth and fifth


categories. The word (2
C E|) in the third category may create
some doubt because it was mentioned previously that a
change occurred in it. So is there no change here? This
doubt merely arises due to the written form of the word. If
it is written as (2
C E‰Š), you will realize that it corresponds
exactly to its scale of (
E C E1). There is no change in it. Here
the alif is extra while the alif in the first category was
changed from an original hamzah.

There is no sixth category. This means that (>N  ) is not


used for (Š> p'8).

In the seventh category, a () is visible in place of the

hamzah in (2
C EOC@A), (2
@ AOC@A) and (9
ˆ 4
E OA@A). These words were

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originally (2
C ECŠ” A), (2
@ ACŠ” A) and (9
ˆ 4
E AŠ” A). Due to the fact that
two hamzas were adjacent to one another, the hamzah was
changed to a () according to the first rule of (2> ).

Note 2: The hamzah at the beginning of the (0HI), ()

and (7!YI) of five categories of (61 ! R 04) is a ( 3R—


$'), e.g. (#
C XCOC^@  e V #
C XCOC^@ A). From this you can understand
that there will only be a change in (2 @ ACŠ” A) if it is not
preceded by a word. However, if a word precedes it, the
($' 3R—) will fall away, thus leaving behind only one
hamzah which will be joined to the preceding word and
pronounced, e.g. (2
C EOC€[CS). It can also be written as (2
C ECZ[SC ).

5. You will see many words in the paradigms where the


second rule of (2> ) can be applied although they have
not been written with the changes in the paradigm. You
may pronounce them with the changes as follows: (
V L _[ C) as
(
V L C), (2
L A–@ L) as (2
L A'@ L) and(9
ˆ 4
E ’[OAP@ A) as (9
ˆ 4
E @OAP@ A).

A (l) has been written next to such words, indicating that

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changes are (R€^ – permissible) just as a (&) indicates (Dp -


an obligatory change). This indication is made here only. In
future, there will not be a need for this.

6. These two rules of (2> ), namely rule no.1 and rule no.2
are commonly in vogue. Besides them, there are two more
rules dealing with specific words. If you read the following
sentences carefully, you will understand these two rules as
well.

!L @pC C [ L S@ ZV 6L C ChNC !ˆ A C V L _[ C !ˆ @+A 7C E C ZE (1)


¡
C C ChNC 6L C ChNC
¡
C CCOA !L @pC C [ •L 6L CCOA !ˆ @+A 7C V •L _[ C !ˆ @+A 7C E •C ZE (2)
6L CCOA
)Œ E^C @ >E PC !L @pC C [ V )Œ NCe7L !ˆ A C V V _[ C 3Œ C 8@ C !ˆ @+A 7C E E ZE (3)
\‹ d
C [A !L @pC C @ L \‹ dC [A !ˆ A C L L _[ C \‹ d C [A !ˆ @+A 7C C C ZE (4)
‚C C !L @pC C 2 @ AOC@A E '@ 8L A
@ 8L [ 2
L AC_[ C E '@ 8L A @ 8L [ 2 C EOC@A (5)
C @8A A
@ 8L [
!L A C C [ B A eA ‡!A C !ˆ @pC V BA OeC U @A•C E B
C eA (6)
‡ @NAZE ¡C CCOA Œ(@!A $
C Œ(@!A $
C ‡!8e d C L

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By pondering over the first four lines, you will notice that
the (0HI) and (J7KI) are on their original state. There is

only a change in the (Z).

In the first line, the hamzah was changed to a (S) in the verb

(
[ L S@ ZV) which originally was ([ L Š” ZV). However, in the second
line, the (Z) of (
E •C ZE) is ([ •L ) and not ([ •L S@ ZV). The word ([ •L ) is
in actual fact formed from (
[ •L Š” ZV), but since this word is so
frequently used in conversation, there was a need for
making it easier in pronunciation. Therefore, instead of
changing its hamzah to a (S), it was deleted from the
beginning. When the original hamzah was deleted, the next
letter was mutaharrik, thus dispensing with the need for a
($' 3R—). Therefore the latter was also deleted. See

Lesson 21 Note 1. The same applies to (


[ V ) and (@ L ).

The paradigm of (
[ •L ) will be as follows:
E [ •L E•L 
@ A •L @SV •L E•L [ •L
Conjugate (
[ V ) and (@ L ) in the same way.

Note 3: When joined to a preceding word, only the hamzah

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of (@ L ) reverts to its original position according to the

general rule, e.g. (@ L Z[SC ) and (@ L _[ 1E). The hamzah of (
[ V ) and
(
[ •L ) never revert.

Now ponder over the fifth and sixth lines. From the
previous paradigms, you know that (2
C EOC@A) is from the
category (
E C OC1[ A). Originally it was (2
C ECŠ” A). According to rule
no. 1, the hamzah is changed to a (). But you may be

wondering from which category (


EB
C eA) is? It also seems to
be from (
E C OC1[ A). Undoubtedly, (E B
C eA) is also from the category
(
E C OC1[ A) just like (2
C EOC@A) and it is (Š>p'8). The verb (2 C EOC@A) is
constructed from (2
C AE) while (
EB
C eA) is constructed from
(
E •C ZE). It was originally (E B
C CŠ” A). The normal rule has not been
applied here. The hamzah has been changed to a (j) and

merged into the (j) of (&O1  ). Therefore it changes to


(
EB
C eA) and not (E B
C OC@A). The paradigm will be as follows:

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P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
oU CB‹A U B
C OeL U B
A OeL [ B
A eA V B
A OeC E B
C eA

From the above-mentioned explanation, two new rules


have emerged.

Rule No. 3 of (2> ): The imperative of (


E •C ZE), (E E ZE) and (C C ZE)
is (
[ •L ), ([ V ) and (@ L ) respectively.

Rule No. 4 of (2> ): When the verb (


E •C ZE) is conjugated on
the paradigm of (&O1  ), the hamzah is converted to a
(j) and merged into the (j) of (&O1  ). The result is

(
VB
A OeC E B
C eA) etc.

Note 4: This rule is specific with the root letters of (


E •C ZE). The
general rule of (2
C EOC@A) applies to other verbs.

Note 5: There is no change in ({ p'8) and (D4 p'8).


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Only in the imperfect (J7K) of (&


E _EPC ), the hamzah is
sometimes deleted, while in the imperative (Z), when it is
at the beginning of a sentence, it is most often deleted, e.g.
from (
V ’E
@ C) – (V
C C) and from ([ ’EP@ A) – ([ PC ).

Note 6: The verbs of (Š> p'8) in (T 04) only appear in


four categories, namely (YN), ( H), (‚-) and (D). In

(61 ! R 04), besides the categories of ( E C >E N@A), (` C 1[ A), and
(&
` C1[ A), they appear in the remaining seven categories.

Vocabulary List No. 26

Note 7: The alphabets (), (t), (q), (9), (y) and (m)

indicate the category of the triliteral verbs (T 04). The


categories of the verbs of (61 ! R) are indicated by
numerals. For example, the word (C EZE) is listed as follows:

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Word Meaning
C EZE (t) to transmit
C E| (1) to give preference

C `ZE (2) to have an effect

C `_EC (4) to accept the effect

This means that when the verb (C EZE) is used from the

category of ( H), it means to transmit. When it is

transferred to the categories of (61 ! R 04), in the first

category (C E|), it means to give preference, in the second

category (C `ZE), it means to have an effect and in the fourth

category (C `_EC), it means to accept the effect.

Word Meaning
C EZE (t) to transmit
(1) to give preference
(2) to have an effect
(4) to accept the effect
C ^C ZE () to reward

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(10) to hire, to employ

E •C ZE () to take, to catch; with (‚C C )- to take


away
(3) to censure, to blame
E oA ZE (q) to permit
(10) to seek permission
0@ A_[ C 0CZE (t) to come
ZERC @ OCP@ A to mock

t
C C @ ZE to turn away

ˆ @^A ZE employee

ˆ VL maturity

)U $
C CY•C poverty, bankruptcy

9
C C P@ ZE to be extravagant, to exceed the limits

g
C 8C OC[A to search, to request

E C ZE () to hope
(4) to ponder

E %EOC@ A (7) to obey, to submit

_E*eNCSC _E*CN@ZE to inform

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(q) ¢E
A •C to be driven away, to be chased away

Š£ C™C Š‰ C+ (9 SZ q) to desire, to want


'@ >V @ C E>C () to forgive
_EXC‘C (9) to be pleasant
(2) to congratulate
_E™
C N@ZE to create

j
ˆ E€7A  )U €E7A lung

‡!FE 7C pleasant, comfortable

 3U 7C Ch@PA
cigarette
j
ˆ C7Ch@PA
&U 4
E P@ ZE  )U `PC basket

U C*@$
A  0… *A$
C child

2
L <A C'C  )U >E <A C affection, sympathy

9
ˆ @ L prevalent custom

'ˆ >[ C forgiveness

‡'>[ C SZ 'C >[ C [E forgive me

ˆ 8C C–@ L conference

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3U Š‰ R@ ‘L object or person of ridicule, laughing


stock
‡SRL ‘L mockery, derision

Œ’@A C Œ’@XA‘C enjoyably, may it do you much good

9
C so, because

Exercise No. 28

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.


Note: The important words are in bold. Pay special
attention to them.
The examples of (p'8) are actually intended in this
exercise.

‹  
¥ 3E 7C Ch@ *  ,+  [ ‘C ! L @
C L (1)
. ¦ @ +C V X@L COL[ C C @ ƒA E
-  . ,
L X@V
‹  
. 3E 7C Ch@   ,+  0 @ ƒA E 3E 'C @ (E [ 
  +/ 
C e™ 
  ( ! ,
C X@
C @ ZE (2)
."L @C [CS )V €E‹  C A * 1, 2 3U e K
A L 3V 7C Ch@
‹ E" 7L '@ OL[ !M  0@ A &E E. @ C NC
.4
 
5 -,+  0EC 7A '@ OL[ !M  &E '@ .E * 3 * ¡
C NebA1E U .AC U ^L 7C ¡
C NeGA

A CS (3)
. 3¦ 7C S@ L H
C 4 C e™ 
E A ‡K@ZE 3E 'C @ (E [CS    ,+ 6 E [ ZE 
@ !A X@A L
C @ _E[E 0@ •A ZE C

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¥ 0@ A‘@ A @ A yC '@ LZE  ,+ ( 0COC (4)


£  Š‰ C+ [ A ‡!FE 6L L S@ !L .V -  3 (*
. 0ECC

E P@ bA[   3 * + 0A1 DA 4


¥@0A‘@ A 0@ 1A 0‹ A 4 E ƒE [ 0A ZE‰ CNE '@ C )E *C][ •L @ OL@ 8A PC [ ‘C (5)
L [ ‚L @8A ^C CX@A  1,  !@ .E ©!^A 87  93 * ,
. 7A eKd @ NCE CNeGA  C‘CX@ 8A PC @ C NC
¥ 7C e! zA‘C <
  : ,+ 2;  [ ‘C (6)
¥
?@
:,+ 2;  0A1 = >3 2* CNZE E
M 'A (E [ <
¥ L @A _E[    : ,+ 2;  A C C @•C ` bA1E C @A _E[ C @^A _E[ E‘C * : ,+ 2A
 B (7)
. ¦ @A ZE 
ª 'A .E ¦ @^A ZE 0EGA )¦ ^C C 0@ 1A L d L A C* * : ,+ 2; B @ C NC
@ XC1E 7¦ S@ L
e !C C C @ C F  G+ (/
. C COƒA [ D E* ,+ ( [ ZE yC !C ESC  * ! 0M AC C (8)
. oA COP@ _V[ DC CZE B+ H+ / ¡
C CCOA 0e XC L C [ •L
/* * C `PC SC 6A @EC

£  0`$
C 0M *AXe &E E. !@ (E 1E 3A 4
EY A CCX C I
e  A ¡   * 0@ OA•@ ZVC (9)
. ‡*@PC @'«L E C EoGA 3A 4
EYe A @ V C E S@ ZE
. C `PC SC 6A @EC
C 0‹ *AXe   ,  Œ E%OA@ A 3A 4
£  0`$ EYe A J&?* * * K; 0@ •A ZEC @ C NC
¥ ‡!h
A C @*C[ E‘C L *D+ 
@ C ,  J [ ‘C (10)
. )Œ PC 7C !@ C SC ‡!h@ C C* D- 
A  J2M; @ C NC
¥ A €AC 8C [ œ
C @ C ¡ @ NC [ ZE CXE N- O ,+  [ ‘C ¬C @™
C E’E e  E‘C + ; (11)
. ‡*A ESC ‡SRL ‘L
A C| /D- 
A j  J2 E SC L 2*P+ Q C L E S@ ZE C  6 - ;

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.A [ A [ 0A1 CX@EC R   .

‰  ` _EA R
MP+ : #
@ K
C «@ C E ¬L @+C C

‰  L >A «@ OC
@ NC (12)
. @ V 7A '@ L ZV ‚A @8A ^C 0@ 1A
S
 E |@(V [ /-D
 J/ @ OL8@ AC C8 A @'V8C @ CS - P ;
5
@ XC1E  T- ,+ M ¢U @+C yC !C X@A [ ‘C CNC ZEC (13)
¥ 3¦ !C @A C )¦ 1EC C @ A CX’[^A L d
‰  SLƒV +@ CS L 2*P+ Q C 6A A C'>E [ C A - T- / )E `
C 0EC
C [ A L E S@ ZE C /D- E*
e  ¡
. @ ƒV .EpC 7C
E SC Rˆ *@•L C@1A g
C @E ¬L @+C C @ ƒA E ¡
C >A A<C'C 0EC yC L ƒV ™
@ NCSC

‰  !L 8C d
@ NC (14)
. ˆ d@ E
¥ @ ƒV XC@ C 87 F ) ?*  6 * *D+ 
 J A ‘C C @A €ACh A @ OLN@ZE C 7L C+@ ZE C P-A
 E 
C <E M CS C @O‹ - T- ,+ 6 L d
.# @ NC C‘ CX8e C C
6D+U E 3* E 'C >[ C [E (15)
.
7P( 
7P M? CX@A E '@ *Md
A L C @'VƒV 1E
zA A ‘C CXC C D E* ,+ 6 [ ZE ¬L @+C C XCE †L 8C
@ C [ C 1E ¡
C @1A
£  R , JM? (16)
£  yC 7C C SC

¥ \A @A ]`  0E1  T- ,+ M )E `


e 
 T+ , +  L 2*P+ : C8NeGA  V
A + A C - P A
 2 L 2*P+ : C L @<A C+C @ OLN@ZE

A CS
.  ) 2; W+/
¡
C AC K
@ C 0A1 CX[ C 1E C8A 'C >[ C [ ¡
C X@A #
L V][ NC ! L àC8L [ ¬L @™
e  CMZE (17)
@ FE DC '@ C[ 4
.E C*K  (6 NebA1E
A C‘„ A DC '@ C[ 4
 6*O ,+ 2A
 6/ DA COA@ bA[CS
A C _E[ 9
C 4
E •A
 V
A + A @ 1E 0@ 1A )U ^C C @ ƒV E ,
@ NCE [ GA L 2*P+ Q c­OC @'L ^A 7@ A @ ƒV E

£  C >E FE

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. DL 4
E e CS

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

. 3A EY
e A ¡ C E‘@ ZE @ L Z[SC (1)
. 3¦ 'e (V A
C COƒA [ A •L cCd @ C C (2)
.{C A‘A Ch[ A C t @ A @ ZESC 9 A @ L [A @ L Z[SC 'C >[ C [ A •L (3)
. '@ 1VA @ L E SC '@ LC +@ CS '@ VV (4)
. C8OL’[+A  V @C Œ!EF7C CX@A 4 E V SC (5)
. cY C L C A‘C @GA DA E(e A [SVB A eCS (6)
. Š‰ CAS@ ZE @ V Se !L C SC 
@ S‹ !L C SVB A OeC E 'LXC | C A ` CMZE C (7)
. E 'L8E@ C E @ OLXV AG A [ „  E ‘@ ZE ['V_EP@ E1 (8)
. A AXe A C ¦ ’AC '@ C e V_E @ OLE e V (9)
. )U $C CY•C @ A A E E '@ ESC @ A A >V NEZ cEC E SLA–@ LSC (10)
.{L A _E[  M 'A (E [ j C @ ^C _[ OCP@  A C C @•C ` GA (11)
. E SL–™ A XL8[ L d @ NC D@ ZE CCC h C +C @ L_[ ™C NEZ @ OLNEZZE (12)
A C A ` E oE _[ OCP@  C8E 'LNoA _[ OC @ C[ 1E C Vd
L [ L ƒV XA &V E><[ _E[ ®E E C EoGASC (13)
. @ A A*@.E

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. =L *AB
C [ L AC [ 0C NA_E*eNC &E E. E‘C yC _E*CNEZ @ C ,
@ EE. (14)
(C) Note the analysis of the following sentence:


7G(' X
 S'( '*  Y B D- 
 J2(

The morphological analysis will be as follows:

Analysis Word
!S 6O«$  {'> ~G !OI 9SI J7KI >
p'8  &O1   61 ! RI 04%   #€F 
V B
A C_[ C 6$Z  Š>
V B
A OeC
According to rule no. 4 of (2> ), the hamzah is

changed to a (j) and merged into the (j) of

(&O1).

K> P  \O™  9YX =F   !S   P


!L 8C @ ZE
T 04  !C 8A C 
T 04  !^  9YX   !S   P ‡!@pC
 )>Y P  \O™  9YX   !S  3ƒN P
Œ(@!A $
C
T 04  x
C !L $
C

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The grammatical analysis will be as follows:

Analysis Word
I !OI J7KI >
V B
A OeC
)8L^ J'1I
)1 J'1 1 !L 8C @ ZE
) ¯• 'YX &QSZ &'> ‡!@pC
'YX ¦  &'> Œ(@!A $
C

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.

(1) Hāmid! Are you in a I was in a habit but I left it


habit of having cigarettes? since the doctor prevented
me.
(2) You have excelled! Yes sir, therefore I do not
Cigarettes are harmful for smoke cigarettes any more.
the lungs and the eyes.
(3) Did you hire this Yes, I hired this house.
house?
(4) Did you employ this No, we did not employ him.
person?

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(5) O my sister, command Fātimah, take the book and


your daughter to read her read it in front of your
book in front of me. maternal uncle.
(6) O boys, take your Yes sir, we will take our
books and read them. books now.
(7) O noble woman, Yes brother, I will certainly
command your sons and command them to perform
daughters to perform salāh.
salāh.
(8) Ask this boy, “What is My brothers, my name is
your name and where do Salīm and I live in Lahore.
you live?”
(9) O girl, take the basket O my (paternal) uncle, I
of fruit and eat whatever thank you.
you like from it.
(10) Did these people Yes, they made this house
make this house into a into a musjid.
musjid?
(11) You make your house Good, we will make our
into a madrasah. house into a madrasah.

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Test No. 13

(1) How many types of verbs and nouns are there with
regard to their root letters?
(2) What is a (ŽP =F 1)?
(3) What are the seven types of verbs in relation to
their letters?
(4) What is (p'8) and how many types are there?

(5) What is the change that occurs in (p'8) in order to


remove the difficulty in pronunciation called?
(6) What are the changes of (2K) and (
W O) called?
(7) When does an obligatory change occur in (p'8)
and when is it optional?
(8) What is the (H Z) of (E •C ZE), (C C Z) and (E E ZE)?
(9) How will the (Z) of these three verbs be read when
joined to a preceding word?
(10) What are the word-forms and original forms of the
following words? With which rule have changes
occurred in them? Where are the changes
obligatory and where are they optional?
 E B
C eA  C A S@ ZV  (E C 1[ ZE  ) 2
@ A|  U C8@A •

 (E C E1  ) 2


@ A|  [ PC  C 8C OC@A  @ L
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)U NCE @A  q
ˆ Z[7C
(11) Select all the verbs and nouns from Exercise No.
28 which are (p'8) and write down their word-
forms.

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Lesson 29

The Doubled Verb


(2
L C CK8L [ V @ >A [E)

Z
[ \ /) ]@
^! %/! ]@
^! %/! Z
!
@ !L 8@ C @ E SZ !e£A 8L C @ E !M 8L C !e C
!e 8L C @ E A e!8L C e!C
S@ !M 8L C @ E E S@ !M 8L C @S!M C
@ !L 8@ C @ E SZ !eA£ 8L C @ E !M 8L C j
@ !e C
e!8L C @ E A e!8L C C!e C
E @ !L 8@ C @ E E @ !L 8@ C E @ !C C
!e L @ !L 8@ C @ E SZ !eA£ 8L C @ E !M 8L C j
C @ !C C
e!L !e 8L C @ E A e!8L C C8L@ !C C
S@ !M L S@ !M 8L C @ E E S@ !M 8L C @ L@ !C C

@ !‹ L 
@ !‹ 8L C @ E C @!‹ 8L C j
A @ !C C
e!L e!8L C @ E A e!8L C C8L@ !C C
E @ !L @ ZV E @ !L 8@ C @ E E @ !L 8@ C e L@ !C C
@ !L @ ZE @ E SZ !eA£ L ZE @ E !M L ZE j
L @ !C C
@ !L 8@ NC @ E SZ !eA£ 8L NC @ E !M 8L NC CN@ !C C

1. By observing the paradigms of the perfect and imperfect


tense of (2K), you will notice that rule no. 2 and no. 3 of

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(DF) apply where the third radical ()8ƒ D) is (yQdO).

And where the ()8ƒ D) is sākin, those words are

pronounced normally without any changes. Merging (DF)


is prohibited in such cases.

2. Merging (DF) and non-merging (DF ¡


M 1E) is permissible
in those words where, due to a (Dp/ 9), the ()8ƒ D)

of the imperfect (J7K) becomes sākin or the imperative

() becomes sākin. When applying (DF), there is a need to


render a harakah to the final sākin letter because if there is
no harakah at the end, the word cannot be pronounced.
Most often it is rendered a kasrah. Sometimes a fathah is
also rendered and if the preceding letter is (D'8K), a
dammah can also be rendered, e.g.

@ !L 8@ C @ E !M 8L C @ E !e 8L C @ E !‹ 8L C @ E
example of example of example of example of
(DF ¡
M 1E) dammah fathah kasrah

Note 1: In the word (@ !


L @ ZV), after applying (DF), there
remains no need for the hamzatul wasl because the first

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letter becomes (yQdO).

3. You have learnt three rules of (DF) in Lesson 27. From


the above-mentioned explanation, you can derive another
rule which is as follows:

Rule No. 4 of (DF): Those words of (J7K 1) which

become sākin (DSRT) due to a (Dp/9) and the words of


(Z) which become sākin can be read with (DF) and ( ¡
M 1E
DF).

4. The above-mentioned rules of (DF) apply where there


are two letters of the same type. A few rules will be
mentioned at this point concerning other verbs. This (DF)

applies to those words that have letters of the same (lCB


@ C )
or whose (lCB
@ C ) is near to one another. The term (lCB
@ C )
will be explained later.

Rule No. 5 of (DF): If the first radical ()8ƒ Š1) of ( 


&O1) is a (), (o) or (p), the (j) of (&O1  ) is changed to
these letters and merged into them.

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Examples:
from (
EBC C@ A) – (E •C C @ A), and then (E •C e A),
from (
VB
A C!@ C) – (V •A C !@ C), and then (V •A !e C),
from (C ƒ
E Co[ A) – (C E oE o[ A), and then (C E òA),
from (L ƒ
A C[ C) – (L A oE [ C), and then (L A ` C),
from (
E Cp@ A) – (E Cpp@ A), and then (E epA),
from (
V CR@ C) – (V CpR@ C), and then (V Re C).

Note 2: The word (C 


E òA) can be read as (C E e A) as well. It is
used in the Qur’ān as follows: (¦ 
A !e M @ A [ C 1E).

Rule No. 6 of (DF): If the first radical ()8ƒ Š1) of ( 


Q>) and (>  ) is any of the ten letters (  p  o    k
v  u  t  s  r  q), it is permissible to change the
(j) of these ( ' Z) into these letters and merge them. It is
not necessary to do so. There is a need to insert a hamzatul
wasl in the perfect (0HI) and imperative () tenses.
Examples:
from (C 
` E C) – (C ` òA) (L ` ` C) (@ ` òA),

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from (
E .EE%C) – (E .E`A) (V .E%̀C) ([ .E`A)

Rule No. 7 of (DF): It is obligatory to merge the definite

article (&
[ E) into the () 8™ 9S"). See 5.2.

Note 3: The (lCB


@ C ) is the place in the mouth where the
letter originates. The letters are categorized as follows with
regards to their (lCB
@ C ):
 ()e'A @ ` 9S") whose (lCB
@ C ) is the rear part of the
tongue. They are (y  x).
 ()eA h

e  9S") whose (lCB
@ C ) is the centre of the
tongue. They are (  r).
 ()eA ]
[ X‹ 9S") whose (lCB
@ C ) is the centre of the
tongue when it touches the upper incisors. They are
(  j  u).
 ()eAP
C _E[ 9S") whose (lCB
@ C ) is the tip of the tongue
when it touches the edge of the lower and upper
incisors. They are (q  p  s).
 ()e'A >E ™
e  9S") whose (lCB
@ C ) is the lips. They are (

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9  D  S ).
There are 16 or 17 (l7A B
C C ) which are mentioned in the
detailed books.

The verbs of (2K T 04) are used most often in ( 


C Y
C NC), (
C C H
C  ) and (‚C 8A PC  ). They are seldom used in
(DC L 
E  ). The verbs of (61 ! R 04) are used in all the
categories ( ' Z) except the eighth and ninth ones. Observe
the brief paradigms below.

š 04%
P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
S@ ZE !eA£ L
!… C ˆ S@ !L 8@ C … C !M 8L C () !e C
@ !L @ ZV
e 1E
7ˆ C1A S@ ZE … 1E 7ˆ S@ L >[ C 7… E1 7@ A 1[ A S@ ZE eA 1A M >A C
(t)
S@ ZE g
eA C g
e C
g
… C q
ˆ '@
L 8@ C q
… C g
M 8C C
g
@ C @ A (q)

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S@ ZE #
eA£ V #
e E
)U CC*E #
ˆ @*AE #
M VC
#
@ *L[V (y)

61 ! RI 04%

P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
S@ ZE !eA A ZE
ˆ C!@ A !… 8C L !… 8A L !M 8A L !e C ZE ž1
@ !A @ ZE
!ˆ @!A 8@ C ˆ !e 8C L ˆ !‹ 8C L @ !‹ C L !‹ 8C L C !e C ž2
S@ ZE ‹ C
3U e C8L … C8L … C8L M C8L e Cž3
@ A C
ž4
ˆ !M 8C C ˆ !e 8C OCL ˆ !‹ 8C OCL @ !e 8C C L !e 8C OCC
C !e 8C C
SZ eA C8C
… C8C … C8OCL … C8OCL M C8OCC e C8Cž5
@ C C8C
SZ \eA ™C N@A ž6
x
ˆ E(™
A N@A \… ™
C X@L \… ™
C X@L \M ™
C X@C
\@ (A ™
C N@A \e ™
C N@A

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SZ !eA OC@ A
ˆ C!OA@ A !… OC8@ L !… OC8@ L !M OC8@ C !e OC@ Až7
@ !A OC@ A
!eA 8A OCP@ A
ž10
ˆ C!8@ OAP@ A !… 8C OC
@ L !… 8A OC
@ L SZ !M 8A OC
@C
!e 8C OCP@ A
@ !A 8@ OCP@ A

Note 4: The verb (!


e C ) is not used on the scale of (E C >E N@A).
Therefore another example was used in the above table.
Verbs of (2K) do not appear on the category of (
` C 1[ A)
and (&
` C1[ A).

Note 5: No change has occurred in category no. 2 and 4.


These verbs are conjugated like the verbs of (†d$).

Note 6: The (> P) and (&'>I P) of categories 3, 5, 6


and 7 appear alike because of (DF). The origin of each

word however is different. The penultimate letter is (7' ƒ)

in the (> P) while in the (&'>I P) it is (m'O>).


Accordingly, if (… C8L ) is the (> P), the original word

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would be (ˆ A C8L ) and if it is the (&'>I P), the original

word would be (ˆ C C8L ).

Vocabulary List No. 27

Word Meaning
0@ H
A @ L 0CH7@ ZE to please, to make happy

‚C *CeA to follow

2
e B
C OCP@ A to regard as light or to disgrace

9
C C OC@ A to admit

e OCF[ A to be deceived, to be arrogant

C XCOCF[ A to appreciate

( ) g
e C ZE to feel

C E@ ZE to reveal, to announce

†C OC>E N@A to be opened

C •e _EC to delay, to move back

yC e d
C C to move

6C *eXCC to awake

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(t) !e ^C to strive

(9) C C ^C to expose, to raise the voice

l
e C to argue, to debate

(t) \e C to be proven, to be true


(1) to prove
(2) to determine
(10) to be entitled
to ring (q/ -the bell), to knock
() x
e C ( * -on the door), to crush (ŠS! -
the medicine)
~ SZ 0 () &` C to show, to point

(t) &` oE to be disgraced


(1) to disgrace
() e 7C to return
(4) to doubt, to be hesitant
C B
e PC to make subservient

() e PC to please, to conceal

(&'T) e PL to be happy, to be pleased

E .E`A to be heavy

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() °
E (E PC to fall
(1) & (3) to make s.o. fall
c­
@ C c­PC to strive, to run

() \e +C to tear, to be burdensome


(6) to burst
() !e $
C to prevent

(q) ‚C 8A <E to covet, to desire

() e ±E to think, to ponder

() !e C to count
(1) to prepare
(10) to be ready
(t) Re C to be respected, to be powerful
(1) to grant honour
() œ
e FE to lower

() 
e .E to narrate a story

(t) ` .E to be less
(10) to regard as less, to be
independent
(q) ‚C XA.E to be satisfied

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(q) g
C *AE to wear, to don

() e C to pass

(q) g
e C to touch

() e C to do a favour, to remind of the


favour
(t) C >E NC to flee, to go out for war

() Re ‘C to shake

L •C | another

` GA except, but

… C one who does a favour

ˆ @ C cold

)U ’E@]A C slow

ˆ @8A E expensive

)U C7A C^ maid, slave girl

q
ˆ C ^C bell

J
ˆ R@ ^A trunk of a tree

0… XA^C freshly plucked fruit

j
ˆ C8e L  0e8L fever

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U C@ ZE  ˆ @A time

e‡X@A any time

&U '@ L•L  U @•C horse

\ˆ @.AC crushed item, flour

E S@ L besides

C²@ 7L dream

u
U C 7A to tie

7ˆ C+@ ZE  ˆ @A +C evil

9
ˆ '@ $
L wool

3A C
@ L [ )V C CP time of difficulty

)U 8C €AE. leg (of animal or table)

2
ˆ +A E revealer

Š“ E(A meeting

E '@ E had it not

q
C _[ CE no problem

¢U @h
A C to come

7ˆ C8
@ A nail

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0@ .A4
E L one who meets

Exercise No. 29

Note: The fact that this lesson deals with doubled verbs, has
been taken into consideration in this exercise, although
other words could have been more appropriate for the
occasion to embellish the text.

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

. )A PC 7C !@ 8C [ ,
L .[ SC C L .E !@ (E 1E !L A CC q C C h C [ x ‹ L (1)
.
@ oA COP@ ZVC @ ƒV ’A@hA C E *@.E q L C h C [ x e L !@ .E
¥q C C h C [ x e C @ C (2)
. @ !A ‹PC C CNZE 6L OL([ .EC
¥, A .[ 'C [ E *@.E ,C ([ .EC 2 C @E
. @ !A ‹PC C ()U ’E@]A C S@ ZE) 3U C •‹ _EOCL )V C e E
. C@1A ‡7C8 @ A x e !L C [ ZE 7A ehXeA [ .V . yL e d C OCC 0‹ PA @ ƒV [ )V 8C €AE.
. 7A C8 @ 8A [A \M ™C X@C CNeZE M aV C 'C ‘L
¥
C C*[ x
M !L C @ C (5)

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. C C*[ x M !L C )E C7A Ch[ ` C E


. ‡!‹^C Š‰ CS!e  0„.L )V C7A C^ C (6)
. \A @.A!e E ‡!‹^C x ˆ '@ .V!@ C Š£ CS!e E  @ !A ‹PC C @ aV N@ZV
¥ L E S@ ZE C E S@ M >A C C @ZE 0EGA (7)
. )A PC 7C !@ 8C [ 0EGA M >A NC L d@ NC
@SL •e _EOCC E SC @SM >A 1E (8)
. CX L'@ V][ C 'C ‘L E‘C
¥ 0C ‘A @ E . A COƒA [ E‘C x C C7S@ ZE !‹ L V @A•C C (9)
. )Œ .E7C SC E '@ L 8@ •C 0C A 1E CL@ !C C !@ .E
¥#
A C ` A C!@C 0EGA D@ ZE )A PC 7C !@ 8C [ 0EGA L C‘„  yC M L C [ ‘C ! V @A•C C (10)
.# A C ` , C .[ SC # C C [ZESC qA 7@ !e  , C .[ SC C `C CZE [ ZE @0NAM
L C
A CS
¥# L C ` DA ZE qL 7@ !e  yC C•ZE M L C [ ‘C (11)
.q L 7@ !e  zL M L C C @ A L %E[ ZE # L C ` zL M L C @ !A ‹PC C
. 0@ H A C8[ A CdOA@ A[ 0A1 †ˆ ^A CN ¡ C NeZE M ±V ZE (12)
. V *@.E @ A m A ChXeA j L @ !C @ ZE ,
L X@V !@ .ESC , L d @h C NC !@ .E 6A WA !L 8@ d
C [E
."!C ^C SC !e ^C @ C " &E E. @ C x C !C $C (13)
."0CPC C ` GA A C N@bA[ A g C @E" 0ECC &E E. SC

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¥ 3A C •A Ÿ[ A CdOA@ GA A *C[ _E[ A CdOA@ bA[ A jC @ !C @ ZE [ ‘C ¡ C V’EP@ ZE 0@ X‹ƒA E (14)


‡K@ZE A CdOA@ bA[ ¡C AoE 0A1 m C ChXeCS m C4 E >E [ 0@ ‹7C @ A '@ ^L 7@ ZESC 6L E !M A ZV 6A WA !L 8@ dC [E
.
. V @A•C C ¡ C L 4E E 0@ NAe PC !@ (E E 6A WCS (15)
.@ !A ‹PC C ¡ C €AE(A A jL 7@ A PL CNZESC
¥ 3A C •A Ÿ[CS @N!M  0A1 yC RM A L ¦ 8C C 0EC C¡L ZE [ ‘C L @APC C (16)
. 6A AA E>E A @B
C [ 0EC & e!E1 ‡7'@ ^L _[ C E '@ ƒV OCA ¡ C AK @ 1E @ A 6A @EC 0@ XA`L
@ ƒV C
A  \A [ •C 0EGA ‡‹ 'C OCL SC ¡ C @!C AC' A © CSC 6A A'@ PL 7C SC
A ‡@]A L @ V (17)
.q A eX !C X@A SC
A  !C X@A ‡R@RA C
. ŠA CRh
C [ C @•C
£  yC CRh C 1E . 6A „V A @B C [ ‚A A C^ ¦ 8C C 0EC 0@ XAOC[ EC 0@ 8‹ C C
A CS
¥ ŠA CO™ ‹ CS A @ *C[ DA eZE DA e_E[ zA A ‘C 0@ 1A 0E@EC A @ *C[A C @ ‹d A L E ZE (18)
¥ A @ *C[A g@ A @ ZV @ E 0@ N‹ZE  @ !A ‹PC C , C X@XC±E 2 C @E
.2 A @Y e  q A C*A 0@ 1A )Œ PC '@ *L[ C yA C7ZE 0@ N‹GA (19)
.9 A '@ Y M  q L C*A  @ !A ‹PC C 0e EC \M ™ L CE
0e8d L [ ¡A e 8C C 4 E @E ŠA CO™ ‹  0A1 9 A '@ Y M  q C C*A 0@ A *C[A 6A A q C _[ CE (20)
. DL `RM CS
.¡ C >A <A C'C # A ‹]E A )U NC'@ XL8@ C SC 3U 7C S@ L
@ C CNZE  @ !A ‹PC C , C X@ C @ ZE

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.C‘7C C‘p@ ZE C @8‹ ™L CSC C‘7C Ch+@ ZE C @A aV X@CSC )¦ (E @!A C 0EC CX‡@A C @‹ 8L C [ ‘C (21)
j L p@ RC C 1E Š‰ CX @ C 3Œ C h C +C , L @ZEC 1E )A C 8L hL [ DC '@ C A CO @ *L[A j L 7@ C C , L X@V @ C NC
.C‘7C C‘p@ ZE , L 8@ 8A +C SC CNCCYF[ ZE
.¡ A A L ‚C 8C ]`  ` bA1E 7A C8[_E[ 0A1 0@ A 8C ][ C E SC E CYF[ _E[  @ R‹ L CE (22)
."‚C 8A <E @ C &` oE SC ‚C XA.E @ C Re C " 0@ ‹ ZV &V '@ (V C , @ NCE  @ oA COP@ ZV C , C .[ !C $C
C A1E ¦ CpC V X@L @'(E OCP@  !A .E C Y @ A E @‘ZE ` ZE 0@ NAC'•@ GA C @'8L E@ C @ EZE (23)
¥ !A X@A [ V ‘@ ZE  (A OC
@ CE
DC '@ C[E1 4
Œ @A.E @'L *eXCC DC '@ C[ A ƒA E @ L
C >V N@ZE E '@ (A OC
@ CSC E '@ > BA OC @ C @'NLE !A X@A [ V ‘@ ZE
.gA @ _E[A V C –@ L E E E C @ L X@A V C –@ L
, A (` d C OCP@  !A .E !C X@A [ ` ZE COC[ h C N@GA ŠA C8C pL @ A ˆ @%AE E Ÿ[ 9 C C OC@  !A .E (24)
. †A O@>E [ &A '@ YL L 0@ 1A )E XC@8A %̀ C‘A C!@ bAA &E 4 E ([ OAP@ bA[
0@ 1A †A O@>E [ L C COC[ h C N@bAA ‡! CZE †C OCE>N@ C8E C LC*P@ ZESC !A X@A [ &V C^7A E '@ E @ C NC
. e 7L S@ ZV 0@ 1A E SC !A X@A [ x A @ +C 0@ 1ASC )E CAE]@GASC )A e(A @A 1[ ZE
A C!@ GA 0EGA C‘!C C j @ !e L DA 4 E P@ bA[ ¡ A AC8C @ A )¦ ƒE E8@ C  V EƒE ‘C SC (25)
. †A O@>E [ &A '@ Y
L L 0@ 1A )A CNAE<A *A[
3A C
@ L [ )A C CP 0@ 1A C‘S@ !M C ZE C @A ` 0C H A @ L [ ZE )A CNAE<A *A[ 0EC # L AhC1E ! , C .[ !C $C
. ŠA C!@ _E[ 0EC †A O@>E [A e OC«@ CE ŠA E.!A $ @ _E[ C '@ V.V AC @ bA[A @ B ‹ C L @ E @ 8C 1E

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0@ 1A E S@ L e C OCCE SC †A O@>E [ EC A E S@ M OC«@ CE @ L NeZE )A CNAE<A *A[ ŠA 4


E (E L @ A '@ ^L @ NC (26)
. C(` C !A X@A [ ŠA E]@ GA
[ C #L ‘C '@ LE )E e‹ d L [ ` bA1E @ ‘A !A @ 'C A M OC«@ NC E ¡ C AoE ‚C C  @ !A ‹PC C M ±V ZE EƒE ‘C
. A C!@ OAP@ A[CS 3A 'e (V A V •C –@ L

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān.

.A Y C (E [ C C @ ZE ¡ C @EC M (V NC L d @ NC (1)


.¡ C A'C •@ GA cEC yC C²@ 7L  @ Y L ([ C E 0e XC L C (2)
. ¦ A !e M A [ C 1E A [ „ A E |@(V [ CN@ e C !@ (E ESC (3)
. 3Œ C SL!@ e ŒeZE ` GA 7L eX CX e 8C C E ['VE.SC (4)
¦ @B
C A ¡
C
@
C 8@ C AGSC 'C ‘L ` GA 6L E 2
C +A E 4 E 1E ª K
L A 6L W ¡C @ C 8@ C AGSC (5)
. ˆ !L .E Š¦ 0@ +C „ V cEC 'C L 1E
. @ ‘A 7A CY @ZE @ A 'MK«L C { C XAA –@ 8L [ „ V. (6)
. e ‘A 7A CY @ZE @ A C K @ K L «@ C j A CXA –@ 8L [ „ V.SC (7)
. 6L W L ƒV *@*Ad@ L 0AN'L*AeE1 6C W E 'M*d A L @ OLXV AG [ .V (8)
. 7A SL!Y
M  j A E A ˆ AC 6L NeGA 6A A SLC ^@  SA ZE @ ƒV E'@ .E SMPA ZESC (9)
. 6A W 0A1 0‹N'M^CdLZE &E E. 6L L '@ .E 6L ^e ŸCSC (10)

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A AC cEGA E SMC L e V @ ƒV A.EL 6L NebA1E 6L X@A E SM>A C A` j C '@ 8C [ ` GA [ .V (11)
. E 'V8C @ C @ OLXV C8 A Vƒ’V*‹XCL1E 3A C C™e CS # A @«C [
. ©XA^C ‡*<E 7L ¡ A @EC ° [ .AC L )A EB@ Xe JA [ h A A ¡
A @EGA ‹R‘L SC (12)
. Š£ C™C @ C & A LSC Š£ C™C @ C RM A LSC (13)
M 8L C 6L ` A C VƒC EP@ GA 0e EC 'MX8L C ` V. 'L8EP@ ZE [ ZE ¡ C @EC E 'MX8L C (14)
. A C³bA[ A @ V C!‘C [ ZE @ ƒV @EC
Se !L C 6A A E 'L*‘A @ L A @B C [ u A C 7‹ ASC 3¦ 'e .V ‹ LO@ ]E OCP@  e LE [SM!A ZESC (15)
.@ L 8L E@ C 6L W L L NC'L8E@ C E @ A NASL A C A •C |CS @ V Se !L C SC 6A W
@ OL[ .E` 6A W A A*PC 0A1 [SL>A N L ƒV E E A. EoGA @ ƒV E C ['LXC | C A ` CMZE C (16)
. 3A C •A  C A CN@!M  3A CdC [A LOAH7C ZE t A 7@ ‰  cEGA

(C) Translate the following conversation into Arabic.

(1) When was the bell of the madrasah rung?


It was rung half an hour ago.
(2) Who rang it?
Perhaps Hāmid rang it.
(3) Knock a nail into the leg of the table.
Sir, I think it will break with the nail.
(4) Look, who is knocking on the door?
Perhaps Hāmid is knocking on the door.

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(5) O boy, grind this properly.


Yes sir, I will grind it now.
(6) O girls, where are you fleeing to?
Sir, we are running towards the madrasah.
(7) The bell of the madrasah has not rung as yet?
Sir, the bell has rung.
(8) Then run, do not delay.
That is our aim.
(9) Did your father’s letter not please you?
By Allāh, I was very pleased with my father’s letter.
(10) Will you please inform me of a book which can
simplify the understanding of Arabic for me?
Yes, I will certainly inform you of a book that will help you
in understanding Arabic.
(11) Rashīd, are you not feeling cold?
Sir, I am feeling cold.
(12) Àbdul Hamīd, how did you tear your shirt?
Sir, I did not tear it, but this evil boy tore it.
(13) Does your teacher narrate historical incidents to you?
Yes, he narrates an historical incident to us every day.

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Test No. 14

(1) Define (2K 1).


(2) What is (DF)?

(3) In which cases are (DF) and (DF ¡


Q 1)
permissible?
(4) Is the cause of (DF) found in the word (#
ˆ *CPC )? If
the cause is found, why has it not been applied?
(5) How many forms are permissible in the singular
masculine imperative of (2K)?
(6) In which word-forms of the perfect, imperfect
and imperative is (DF) prohibited?
(7) Recognize the following word-forms and
determine what the origin of each one was. By which
rule has a change occurred in them?
 &´ C  & !L C @ E  A `!L C  @'L  & L  &„ L  &` L  &` C
E •C e A  ˆ ‹ ]` L  C E e A  … C8L  & L ZE
(8) In which categories of (T 04) and ( 04

! R) is (2K) not used?


(9) Conjugate the (J7K) of (! e C ) with ( !_O D

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6N'NS).
(10) Select the words of (2K) from Exercise No.
29.
(11) Do the morphological and grammatical
analysis ('dXS Y dO) of the following
sentence:
)Π*C@h
A C ‡YY
C .E 0@ ‹ ZV 0e EC 
M (V C
(12) Insert the ( ) in the following passage and
translate it:
S!O^S ,.'  S•_OS  SQ>1 )P7!I q^ x
Q  !. SZ 
!Q ^  R" O- Z ' ƒ S mhX SQ!OPS m4> Yµ 
."   &E oS

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Lesson 30

The Semi-Vowelled Verbs


(
 OC@ 8L [E)

1. The definition of (
 OC@ 8L [E) and its three categories were
mentioned in Lesson 26. Here the changes that occur in the
first category, namely (Š>  O) or (&E%A ) will be mentioned.

2. If the ()8ƒ Š1) is a (S), it is called ( … SA CS &U E%A ) and if it is a


(), it is called (0
… €AC &U E%A ).
3. Note the changes that occur in ( … SA CS &U E%A ) in the following
sentences:
 J7KI 0HI
¡
C 8C CC• [ pA 6L 8C CC• V RA C 'C ‘L 6L 8C CC• !ˆ @pC E pC SC (1)
C A V >[ ]„  E ^A SC (2)
#
A €[„  C A [ h
C @GA 3A e A [ C A V ^C '@ C 'C ‘L
3A e A [
¡
C CCOA ‚@ H
C 6L CCOA ‚L K
C C 'C ‘L 6L CCOA !ˆ @pC ‚C H
C SC (3)
)V (E @!A d
C [ E Y
C eA (4)
¡
C NAC'•@ bA A [ Y
A eA !A h
A
@ 8C [A ,
L @*C[ V Y
A OeC
,
A @*C[A

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First examine each verb and determine what kind of verb it


is. By looking at the column of the perfect tense (0HI), you

will see that each verb is (


… SA CS &U E%A ). If the perfect is ( &U E%A

… SA CS), then the imperfect and imperative should also be
(
… SA CS &U E%A ) even though the (S) is not visible in some cases.

Look at the fourth line. You have already come across the
word (
EY
C eA). In Lesson 27 rule no. 11 you learnt that the
word (
EY
C CS@ A) on the scale of (E C OC1[ A) changes to (E Y
C eA).
Therefore this verb is also (
… SA CS &U E%A ).

Now observe what changes have occurred in the verbs.


There seems to be no change in the perfect tense. Yes, in the
first line, the (S) is missing from the imperfect (
V RA C) and the
imperative (
[ pA ). These words should have been (V pA '@ C) and
(
[ pA S@ A).
In the second line, (S) is present in the imperfect. What is
the difference between the two? The difference is that the
()8ƒ {) is (7' ƒ) in (V pA '@ C) and (m'O>) in (V ^C '@ C). From
this you can arrive at the conclusion that in the imperfect of

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(
… SA CS
&U E%A ), if the ()8ƒ {) is (7' ƒ), the (S) is deleted.
Therefore ( V pA '@ C) becomes (V RA C). Since the imperative is
constructed from the imperfect, the () can only be ( [ pA ).
See Lesson 21 Note 1.

In the second line, in the imperative (


[hC @GA), the (S) was
changed to a () according to rule no. 2 of ().

You may be surprised to see the (S) missing from the

imperfect in line 3 because (‚


LKC C) should have been (‚L H
C '@ C).
Since the (S) was not deleted from (
V ^C '@ C), why was it
deleted from (‚
LH
C '@ C). The reason is that (V ^C '@ C) does not have
any (0( 9)2 while in (‚L HC '@ C), there is a (0( 9),
namely the (J). It has been said that if the letter preceding

(P SS) is (m'O>), the sound of the (0( 9) is not

correct. Therefore the (S) is deleted. However, if the letter

preceding (S) is (D'8K), it is not deleted. The (S) is not

2 The letters of the throat, namely (n w z J m Š).

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deleted from (‚
LH
C '@ L) which is the passive form of (‚L K
C C).

In the fourth line, (


EYC eA) was originally (E Y
C CS@ A). Just like
(
[hC @GA), it should have also changed to (E Y
C OC@A) where the (S)
should have been converted into a (). However, it is a

speciality of (&O1) that the (S) is changed to a (j) and

assimilated into the (j) of (&O1). See rule no. 11 of ().

4. From the above explanations, two new rules of ()

emerge. (Thirteen rules of  were mentioned in Lesson


27.)

Rule No. 14 of (): If in (


… SA CS &U E%A ), the imperfect is

({ 7' ƒ), the (S) is deleted from the (J7K) and (Z),
e.g. from (
V pA '@ C) - (V RA C) and ([ pA ).

Rule No. 15 of (): If, in (


… SA CS
&U E%A ), the (J7K) is ( m'O>
{) and there is a (0( 9), its (S) is also deleted, e.g.
from (‚
LH
C '@ C) - (‚L K
C C) and (‚@ H
C ).

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Note 1: In (7@ oE 7L E C 7C oE SC ), the (S) is deleted against the rule

because it neither has a (J7K) that is ({ 7' ƒ) nor does
it have a (0( 9).

Note 2: A deleted (S) returns in the (&'T J7K). The

passive of (
V RA C) is (V pC '@ L) and of (‚L K
C C) is (‚L H
C '@ L).

Note 3: It is permissible to delete the (S) from the (7!Y) of

those verbs of (J7K) in which the (S) was deleted.

However, a (3) has to be suffixed to the verbal noun, e.g.

from (
U p@ SC ) – ()U NCpA ); from (#
ˆ ‘@ SC ) – ()U *C‘A ).

5. Hereunder follows the brief paradigm of (


… SA CS &U E%A ). You
can do the detailed paradigm on your own.

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   & I/ _


! ($
P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
E pC SC
)U NCpA SZ U p@ SC U S@ pˆ '@ C U pA CS [ pA V RA C
(t)
‚C H
C SC
‚ˆ H
@ SC J
ˆ '@ H
L '@ C ‚ˆ H
A CS ‚@ H
C ‚L K
CC
(9)
E ^A SC
Œ“ ^@ SC &U '@ ^L '@ C U ^A CS [ h
C @GA V ^C '@ C
(q)
C PL SC
)U C CPSC ˆ @PA SC @ PL S@ ZV L PC '@ C
(y)
k
E 7A SC
k
U 7@ SA k
U S@ 7L '@ C k
U 7A CS k
[ 7A k
V A C
(m)

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`5 '()!   & I/ _


! ($

P P
7!YI  J7KI 0HI
&'>I >
&U CY@GA U $
C '@ L U $
A '@ L [ $
A S@ ZE V $
A '@ L E $
C S@ ZEž1
U @$
A '@ C U $
e 'C L U $
‹ 'C L [ $
‹ SC V $
‹ 'C L E $
e SC ž2
)U E$
C C'L U $
C C'L U $
A C'L [ $
A CS V $
A C'L E $
C CSž3
U $
M 'C C U $
e 'C OCL U $
‹ 'C OCL [ $
e 'C C V $
e 'C OCC E $
e 'C Cž4
U $
L C'C U $
C C'OCL U $
A C'OCL [ $
C C'C V $
C C'OCC E $
C C'Cž5
&U CY‹A U Y
C OeL U Y
A OeL [ Y
A eA V Y
A OeC E Y
C eAž7
ž8
&U CY@OAP@ A U $
C '@ OC
@ L U $
A '@ OC
@ L [ $
A '@ OCP@ A V $
A '@ OC
@C
E $
C '@ OCP@ A

Note 4: In categories no.1 and 8 of (61 ! R 04), the (S) is


changed to a () in the (7!Y) according to rule no. 3 of

(). In all the derivatives of (O1), the (S) was changed to

a (j). No changes have occurred anywhere else.

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Note 5: When ()( 'NS !_O D) are added to (V RA C), it will
become ( 
e NLRA CE „ CNRA CE e NCRA CE) etc. When the ()( 'NS !_O D)
are added to ( [ pA ), it becomes („ CXN@pA „ CNpA e NApA e NLpA „ CNpA e NCpA ).

Vocabulary List No. 28

Word Meaning
C e 1ES C C 1[ ZE to explain

E ` 'C C to entrust, to place trust in

(q) C
A •C to incur a loss
(1) to reduce
 K
A C ` H
C to be misguided
(1) to misguide
E SC C to help mutually

C %̀E to increase

E <E C to delay

\L %AC \C ASC to trust, to rely

!L h
A C !C ^C SC to find

J
L !C C J
C C SC to leave

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7L RA C 7C pC SC to carry a burden

2
L Y
A C2
C $
C SC to describe

V Y
A C E $
C SC (~) to reach
(6 ) to meet
2
L (A C 2
C .ESC to halt, to understand

!L AC !C ESC to beget, to give birth

L A C C ‘C SC to be weak

g
L ’E@C g
C ’AC to lose hope

›
E (E @OCP@ S ›
E (` CCS ›
E (A C to wake up

›
E (E @ZE to wake s.o. up

C
eC (2) to simplify

(4) to be easy

L •C ZV  C•@ V another

EoZE harm, distress

E '@ E@ ZE  0E@ ZE highest

e 7L S@ ZV Europe

4
Π@ PC SC 4
Œ ‘@ ZE welcome

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7ˆ eC dweller

m
ˆ S@ 7C mercy, help

3U7C 'A P@ ZE  7ˆ C'PA bangle, bracelet

!ˆ 8C $
C independent

7ˆ eh1V  ˆ ^A E1 transgressor

q
ˆ E]
@ .A scale

7ˆ `>E extremely ungrateful, great


disbeliever
!L €AC'C  3U !C €AC table

‡7CA  3Œ e C once

V @.AE%C  &U E(%[A weight, approx 4.68g

ˆ @(A OC
@ L straight

7ˆ CpS@ ZE  7ˆ p@ SA burden, sin

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Exercise No. 30

(A) Translate the following sentences into English.

¥ !L 8C @ ZEC ¡ C 8C CC• , C N@pC SC [ ‘C (1)


DC '@ C[ 6L NLpA ZE [ C 
@ !A ‹PC C E
. A CR@8A [ ¡ C AE A E Ÿ[ 6L N@pA (2)
., A @*C[ 0A1 6L NLpA ZE 0@ XA@ C V pC '@ L 2 C @E L E@ ZEE
. C•@ ZV )¦ >` E 0@ 1A E p@ 'C [CS )¦ >` E 0@ 1A C CCB[ ‚A H C ( 3)
. EƒE ‘C V C 1[ _E1E # ˆ ‹<E
¥ A CCB[ V p@ SC 'C ‘L C (4)
. A E E(%[A 6L NLp@ SC C8NeGA
. A CR@8A [ 0A1 @SL
AB@ L 4 E 1E !¦ C _EA Œ’@+C @ OLN@pC SC EoGA !L 8C @ ZE C ‚@ 8C P@ A (5)
. A @(A OC
@ 8L [ q
A E] @ (A [A @'NLpA A |@(V [ 0A1 j L Z[C .E !@ .E  @ !A ‹PC C @ OLX@ C @ ZE
¥ ‡1ACN ‡ COA zL !L ^A ZE 0@ N‹bA1E 0@ 8‹ C C E‘C ¡ C CCOA 0@ A # L C C [ ‘C (6)
. 6L *CAE]C ¡
C 8C ‹ 1E_VA ‡@ +C CN!C X@A 2 @ (A C [ GA E‘C 0@ ACOA ¡ C E #L ‘C _EPC
. 0@ 8‹ C C @ V !C X@A 2 L .A_EPC @ C NC (7)
Z[C .[ CS
C COƒA [ E‘C  @ !A ESC C @SV B
L 1E

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¥
A COƒA [ E‘C L @ 1E 0@ A L
e COCC [ ‘C (8)
. 6A @EC [ ` 'C CSC

A A \@ ASC !@ A OC^@ A

@ ESC ‡7CA yC !C X@A ,L ™ @ Oe1E ¥ 0@ (A @!A $ C C ¦ C pC V X@L ¡ C OL@ZE7C C 0C AC (9)
¥Cy!@ ^A ZE
. e 7L S@ ZVSC C Y
@ A A 4
E A 0EGA j L @ 1ECP , L X@V V@A•C C
¥ CXL ‘C , C ’[^A 0COC 0@ (A @!A $ C C 4 Œ @ PC SC 4 Œ ‘@ ZE (10)
.° [ (E 1E gA @ _E[A 0@ €AC*8@ C 0EGA , L [ $C SC
¥# A €AChC [ C A ,C @ZE7C C 0@ A 2 L Y A C [ ‘C (11)
¥ A `!M  0EGA # ˆ ‘A Eo , C N@ZESC ¡ C E 2 L $ A ZE 2C @E
¥Cy!C X@A C K
L @ _E1E
A A «@ 8C [ !C @ C A >E
e  &E C'@ ZE 0@ A 2C Y A C [ ZE 0@ NA!L A C [ ‘C (12)
. &U '@ «L ™
@ C DC '@ C[ 0@ N‹_EA DC '@ C[ yC !L A ZE E
¥ 0@ XAV<A C8L ¡ C NeZE M ±V ZE 4 E 1EZE (13)
.
£  Š‰ C+ [ A ‡!FE )E *C@h A C [ &E C'@ _E[ ¡
C [ A ¡C E e >E $ A _EE 0@ •A ZE C q @ _E@C E
¥ [ !C X@E @ A SC C Y @ A @ A ˆ '@ OLƒ[ C ¡ C @EA [ AYC @ EZE (14)
. [ !C X@E @ A E SC C Y @ A @ A E ¡ C X@A ˆ COA e0EGA E $ C SC C
¥ !L AC• C D¦ '@ C ` V ‡C*$ C › V (E @C [ ‘C (15)

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.m A C*Y e  0A1 › E (` CCZE [ ZE 0@ A L


e COCCE
¥ DC '@ C[ ¡ C aE (E @ZE @ 8C 1E (16)
., L a[ (E @OCP@ 1E 0@ ‹ ZV 0@ XAO@aE (E @ZE DC '@ C[E
. 3A 4
EYe  , C .[ SC ¡ C aV .AS@ ZV CNZE 0@ XA@ C (17)
. ‡N'@ XL8@ C e NC'@ V _EESC ‡7'@ ƒV ™ @ C e NC'@ ƒV OCE 0@ XAOCa[ (E @ZE @ ’AE ¡C AK @ 1E @ A E‘C
. A @B
C [ 0EC zL C•ZE E SA CL [ ZE ¦ A @ L „ V 0EC # L h A C [ C ¡ C @EC M L ZEE (18)
.x ˆ A C$ ˆ A @ L ¡ C NeZE DC '@ C[ ¡C OL1[ C C
A CS yC C @•C
£  C %̀E
. C @.AA eY C @8A A @ 8L [ C A yC eGASC 0@ XAEC ^C SC ¡ C Xe±E
£ x C !e $ C (19)
. C @8A EC[ e 7C C C @A | C @A |

(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān into


English.

. !@ E'L @ ESC !@ AC @ E . !L 8C Y


e  6L ` (1)
. fC•@ ZV 7C p@ SA 3U7C pA CS 7L RA C E SC (2)
. 6A ` cEC [ ` 'C CSC @ ‘L EoZE J @ C SC (3)
.
C 'V(@ C &A | @ A k V A CSC 0AXVA C . ©ASC ¡C NL!` A 0A # @ C 1E (4)
. ‡7eC C A 1AEƒ[ C A t
A 7@ _E[ cEC 7@ E C E
‹ 7e m ˆ 'LN &E E.SC (5)
. 6L XC<A C SC A [¶A  C ‘A E± [SL7oE SC (6)

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DL '@ (E [ ` GA 6A W m


A S@ 7e @ A q L _E@C E 6L NeGA 6A W m A S@ 7e @ A '@ PL _E@C E SC (7)
. E S@ L 1AEƒ[
.{ C XAA –@ M LOXV AG E '@ E@ ‰  L OLNEZSC 'LNRC d
@ C E SC 'LXA C E SC (8)
(C) Note the analysis of the following sentence.

L  G 2A
 * + c