Control Systems Engineering Exam Reference Manual:
A Practical Study Guide
Second Edition
For the NCEES Professional Engineering (PE) Licensing Examination
_{B}_{r}_{y}_{o}_{n} _{L}_{e}_{w}_{i}_{s}_{,} _{C}_{S}_{E}_{,} _{P}_{E}
NOTICE:
The information presented in this publication is for the general education of the reader. Because neither the author nor editor nor the publisher has any control over the use of the information by the reader, both the author and the publisher disclaim any and all liability of any kind arising out of such use. The reader is expected to exercise sound professional judgment in using any of the information presented in a particular application.
Additionally, neither the author nor editor nor the publisher have investigated or considered the effect of any patents on the ability of the reader to use any of the information in a particular application. The reader is responsible for reviewing any possible patents that may affect any particular use of the information presented.
Any references to commercial products in the work are cited as examples only. Neither the author nor the publisher endorses any referenced commercial product. Any trademarks or trade names referenced belong to the respective owner of the mark or name. Neither the author nor editor nor the publisher makes any representation regarding the availability of any referenced commercial product at any time. The manufacturer's instructions on use of any commercial product must be followed at all times, even if in conflict with the information in this publication.
Copyright ©2014 by ISA 67 Alexander Drive P.O. Box 12277 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
All Rights Reserved
ISBN: 9781934394229
No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
i
NOTE:
This is the second release of the second edition. It is free of any errors known as of July 21, 2014.
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Tips on How to Use This Study Guide
To make the most of this study guide, it may be of interest to use the features built into Adobe Reader. The image below shows where to click, for the display of Page Thumbnails and Bookmarks in this guide. The Bookmarks are a dynamic Table of Contents. See the following images below for illustrations of how thumbnails and bookmarks work. (There is a formula sheet for the exam in the attachments)
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Using Page Thumbnails to Navigate
The Page Thumbnail shows a preview of the pages in this guide. Just click on any thumbnail image to instantly jump to the page in the preview.
The default viewing mode in Adobe Reader is one column. If you want to view two columns at the same time as shown below, move your mouse over the divider between the thumbnails and the viewing page and drag the column splitter till you show as many columns as you would like to view at once. I recommend viewing only two columns.
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Using Bookmarks to Navigate
The Bookmarks in this guide are the same as the Table of Contents collapsed. Quickly navigate to the subject of interest and click on the “+” to expand the contents of the subject matter under the subject heading. Click on the ““ to collapse the addition subject topics.
The default viewing mode in Adobe Reader shows wrap around text in the bookmark column. If you would like to read your bookmarks as shown below, move your mouse over the divider between the bookmarks and the viewing page and drag the column splitter till you show as much text width as you desire to view.
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents 
vii 

Preface About The Author People who have Contributed to this Manual 
1 

1 

2 

General Information 
3 

State Licensing Requirements Eligibility 
3 

3 

Exam Schedule 
3 

Exam Format 
4 

Exam Content 
4 

Reference Materials for the Exam 
7 

Recommended Books and Materials for Testing Books and Courses for Additional Study 
7 

8 

Review of Process Control Subjects 
9 

Overview of Process Measurement, Control and Calibration Process Signal and Calibration Terminology Definition of the Range of an Instrument Definition of the Span of an Instrument Definition of the use of Zero in Instrumentation LiveZero ElevatedZero SuppressedZero 9 10 10 11 12 12 12 12 

Illustrations 
of 
range and 
span terminology 
13 

Illustrations of measured variable, measured signal, range and span 14 

Temperature Measurement and Calibration 
15 

Temperature Measurement Devices and Calibration 15 

Thermocouple Worked Examples (how to read the thermocouple tables) RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) 17 18 

RTD Worked Examples 
18 

Pressure Measurement and Calibration 
21 

Pressure Measurement and Head Pressure Applying Pressure Measurement and Signals Worked Examples Differential Pressure and Meter Calibration Pressure Change in a Pipe for a given Flow Rate 21 22 22 23 

Pressure Change across the Flow Element for a given Flow Rate 23 

Pressure Calibration of Transmitter 
24 

Level Measurement and Calibration 
25 

Applying Level Measurement and Calibration Worked Examples Level Displacer (Buoyancy) Bubbler Level Measurement Density Measurement Calculating the Volume in Tanks 25 27 29 30 30 

vii
Flow Measurement and Calibration 
31 

Applying Flow Measurement Devices Turndown Ratio in a Flow Meter ISA Standard Flow Meter Symbols Flow Meter Applications Chart Orifice Tap Dimensions and Impulse Line Connections Applying the Bernoulli Principal for Flow Control Orifice Type Meters Orifice Sizing Factors (The Spink Factor) 
31 

31 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

38 

Sizing Orifice Type Devices for Flow Measurement Worked Examples Mass Flow Measurement and Control Applying Mass Flow Measurement with an Orifice Worked Example 39 41 44 

Turbine Flow Meter 
Worked Example 
46 

Weight Measurement and Calibration 
49 

Weight Measurement Devices and Calibration 
49 

Sizing Process Control Valves 
51 

Process Control Valves Turndown Ratio in Valves ISA Standard Valve Symbols ISA Standard Pressure Regulating Valve Symbols Valve Actuators ISA Standard Actuator Symbols ISA Standard Symbol for Limit Switches on Valve Actuator Calculating the size of the actuator Example Actuator Sizing Split Ranging Control Valves Valve Positioner Applications ISA Standard Valve Positioner Symbol Summary of Positioners When should a positioner be used? Control Valve Application Comparison Chart Sizing Control Valves Sizing Valves for Liquid Sizing Valves for Gas The basic equation for gas flow through a control valve is: 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 63 65 65 

Sizing Valves for Vapor and Steam Sizing Valves for Two Phase Flow 
68 

71 

Sizing Pressure Relief Valves and Rupture Disks 
75 

ASME VIII Code for Sizing Relief Valves and Rupture Disks Pressure Limits in Sizing ISA Pressure Relief Valve and Rupture Disc Symbols 75 75 76 

Sizing 
Pressure Relief Valves and Rupture Disks 
77 

Sizing Rupture Disks Worked Examples 
80 

Sizing 
Pressure Relief Valves Worked Examples 
83 

Table 5  ASME Standard Nozzle Orifice Data Table 6  Typical Properties of Gases 
88 

89 
viii
Process Control Theory and Calculations 
91 

Degrees Of Freedom in Process Control Systems Controllers and control strategies (modelsmodes) Process Characteristics from the transfer function Controller Tuning Closed Loop Controller Tuning Open Loop 
91 

93 

95 

98 

100 

A Typical Process Reaction curve for tuning a controller 
101 

Block Diagram Algebra 
103 

Block Diagram Algebra Reduction (Example) Nyquist Stability Criterion Routh Stability Criterion Check for Stability using Routh (Example) 
104 

105 

107 

110 

A First Analysis of Feedback Control 
113 

Compare Open Loop Control to Closed Loop Control Open Loop Example – A Mathematical Analysis Closed Loop Example – A Mathematical Analysis The Transfer Function for the Automobile 
113 

113 

115 

117 

A First Analysis of Frequency Response 
119 

Electrical Application – A First Order System Bode Plot of First Order System Calculate data for the Bode Plot Creating a Bode Plot – First Order System using Frequency Hydraulic Application – A First Order System 
119 

120 

121 

124 

125 

Overview of Discrete Control Subjects 
127 

Overview of Digital Logic 
127 

Digital Logic Gate Symbols 
127 

Digital Logic Gate Truth Tables ISA Binary Logic Relay Ladder Logic Sealing Circuits PLC Programming PLC Programming (RLL) relay ladder logic PLC Programming (ST) structured text 
128 

129 

130 

131 

132 

132 

132 

PLC Programming 
(FBD) functional 
block diagram 
133 

PLC Programming (SFC) sequential function chart 
133 

Analog Control Signals 
135 

Overview of Analog Signals Typical Analog Loop Wiring Diagram Signal Filtering in Process Control Appling Signal Filters Filter Time Constant and Sample Time Example of Filter Time Selection 
135 

135 

136 

136 

137 

138 
ix
ISA Standards for Documentation 
141 

ISA Identification Letters 
141 

ISA Letter Combinations ISA Instrument or Function Symbol ISA Line Type Symbols ISA Standard P&ID ISA Standard PFD ISA Standard Loop Diagram ISA Standard (HMI) Graphical Display Symbols & Designations NFPA 79 Colors for Graphical Displays (Industrial Machinery) 142 145 146 147 150 151 153 154 

Overview of Safety Instrumented Systems 
155 

Overview of Process Safety and Shutdown SIS (Safety Instrumented Systems) SIF (Safety Instrumented Function) SIL (Safety Integrity Level) SIS Calculations 
155 

155 

156 

157 

160 

Overview of Industrial Control Networks 
163 

Overview of Networks and Communications Layers That Make Up the OSI Layers Intelligent and Smart Devices 
163 

165 

165 

Overview of NEC and NFPA Codes 
167 

List of NFPA Codes NFPA 70 – NEC (National Electrical Code) Voltage Drop Calculations Substitute Specific Resistance (k) for Resistance (R) of wire Wire and Cable Sizing formulas for Voltage Drop Example: Voltage Drop Calculation 1 Example: Voltage Drop Calculation 2 Explosion Proof Installations NEC Article 500 (Hazardous Locations) Class I Hazardous Location NEC Article 501 Class I Location Definition Class I Division Definitions Class I Group Definitions Class I Temperature Definition Class II Hazardous Location NEC Article 502 167 167 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 170 170 171 171 172 

Class 
II 
Location Definition 
172 

Class II Division Definitions Class II Group Definitions Class II Temperature Class Class III Hazardous Location NEC Article 503 Class III Location Definition Class III Division Definitions Class III Group Definitions Use of Zone Classifications Classification Comparison (Zone/Division) for a Class I Location Group Comparison (Zone/ Division) for a Class I Location Protection Methods Comparison Class I 172 173 173 174 174 174 174 175 175 175 176 

x
Example: Designation of NEC/CEC Classification Example: Hazardous Location Classification Purged and Pressurized Systems Intrinsically Safe Systems Zener diode barrier (configurations) Conventional Passive IS Zener Barriers Active (Powered) IS Isolation Barriers Electrical Enclosures Types and Uses Nonhazardous location NEMA enclosure types Table 10 – Indoor Nonhazardous Locations Table 11  Outdoor Nonhazardous Locations Table 12  Hazardous Locations Determining Temperature Rise 177 178 179 179 179 179 179 180 180 181 182 183 183 

NFPA 77 Static Electricity 
184 

1.2 
Purpose 
184 

8.1 
General Overview 
184 

8.3.1 Charge Generation 
185 

G.1 Grounding Diagrams 
186 

NFPA 780 Lightning Protection (formerly NFPA 78) Air Terminal Height Conductor Bends Conductor Size and Material 187 187 187 188 

NFPA 79 Industrial Machinery Conductor sizing Conductor colors Pushbutton functions for color Colors for Machine Indicator Lights and Icons Table 10.3.2 190 190 190 190 190 

NFPA 496 Purged and Pressurized Systems Overview of the NFPA 496 articles Factors to consider (NFPA 496, Sec. 53) Location of the control room (NFPA 496, Secs. 53.1(c) and 53.2) Positive pressure air systems (NFPA 496, Sec. 54.1) Type X equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 54.4) Type Y equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 54.5) Type Z equipment (NFPA 496, Sec. 54.5) Basic Design of Purged Enclosures Basic Design of Purged Buildings 191 191 191 192 192 192 192 192 193 194 

The Fisher Control Valve Handbook 
195 

Guide to Using the Control Valve Handbook 195 

Examination Sample Questions 
197 

Sample Questions Answers to Examination Sample Questions Explanations and Proofs of Examination Sample Questions 197 204 205 

xi
Useful Equations for Pumping and Piping 
217 

Find pipe diameter with velocity of flow known Find flow velocity with pipe diameter known Find pipe diameter with temperature and pressure correction Find flow velocity with temperature and pressure correction Find the Reynolds Number for the flow Find the pressure loss in piping system Find the pump motor size (break horsepower) 
217 

217 

217 

217 

218 

218 

218 

Calculating the Volume of Tanks 
219 

Cylindrical Tanks Upright 
219 

Cylindrical 
Tanks on Side 
219 

Spherical Tanks 
220 

Bullet Tanks 
220 

Appendix

221 

Table A1 – Thermocouple Table (Type J) Table A2  Thermocouple Table (Type K) Table A3  Thermocouple Table (Type E) Table A4  Thermocouple Table (Type T) Table A5  Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in ohms Table A6  Properties of Water Specific Gravity and LBs/HR to GPM Table A7  Properties of Water Specific Volume and Density Table A8 – Properties of Water Kinematic Viscosity centistokes Table A9  Properties of Saturated Steam Table A9  Properties of Saturated Steam (continued) Table A9  Properties of Saturated Steam (continued) Table A9  Properties of Saturated Steam (continued) 221 223 226 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 

Table A9  Properties of Saturated Steam (continued) Table A10  Specific Gravity and Gas Constants for Some Common Gases Table A11 – Properties and Sizing Coefficients for Globe Valves Table A12 – Properties and Sizing Coefficients for Rotary Valves Table A13  Numerical Constants for Control Valve Sizing Formulas Table A14 – Service Temperature Limits for NonMetallic Materials – Table Table A16 – NEC Wire Ampacity Table 310.16 Table A17 – NEC Table 8 Conductor Properties Table A18 – NEC Full Load Motor Currents Table A19 – Valve Seating Shutoff Pressure and Stem Friction Values A15 Standard Pipe Dimensions and Data 237 238 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 

Applications of Basic Fluid Mechanics in Piping Systems 
249 

Relationship of Pressure and Flow 
249 

Applications of the formulas 
251 

In Summary of Fluid Mechanics for Process Control 
254 

References 
256 
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Preface
Most state licensing boards in the United States recognize the Control System Engineering (CSE) and offer the NCEES exam in this branch of engineering. There are, however, three states that do not offer the CSE exam—Alaska, Hawaii, and Rhode Island. If you live in one of these states, you may choose to pursue licensing in another discipline (such as electrical, mechanical, or chemical engineering). Or you can try to arrange to take the CSE exam in a neighboring state.
The Control Systems Engineering (CSE) exam covers a broad range of subjects, from the electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering disciplines. This exam is not on systems theory, but on process control and basic control systems. Experience in engineering or designing process control systems is almost a necessity to pass this exam.
Study of this reference manual should adequately prepare the experienced engineer or designer to take the CSE exam. However, passing the exam depends on an individual applicant’s demonstrated ability and cannot be guaranteed.
I have included a list of recommended books and material. The recommended books contain information, invaluable to passing the exam. Even if you could take as many books as you want into the exam site, it is better not to overwhelm yourself—too much information can become distracting. Remember you will be under pressure to beat the clock. Study your reference books and tab the tables and information you need. This will ensure you do not waste time.
Study of the Fisher Control Valve Handbook or another manufactory’s book is strongly recommended, to obtain the full benefits of this study review guide. The pages in the handbook are referenced later in this guide. The Fisher Control Valve Handbook can be obtained free or for minimal cost from your local Fisher Valve representative. The book is also available from Brown’s Technical Book Shop, 1517 San Jacinto, Houston, Texas, 77002. The book can be downloaded in PDF format from the Emerson Fisher web site as well.
About The Author
Bryon Lewis is a Professional Engineer (PE), licensed in Control Systems Engineering (CSE). He is also a Senior Member of ISA, a SME Certified Manufacturing Engineer (CMfgE), a Certified Journeyman Electronics Technician in Industrial electronics (CET), an ISA Level III Certified Control System Technician (CCST) and a licensed Master Electrician. Mr. Lewis has over 30 years of experience in electrical, mechanical, instrumentation, and control systems.
He holds letters of recommendation from Belcan Engineering, S & B Engineers and Constructors, Enron Corporation and Lee College. His design experience is in electrical and lighting systems design; pharmaceutical and petrochemical plant design and installation, instrumentation and electrical systems design for compressor stations and food manufacturing plants and maintenance.
If there are any questions please contact me at my email address bryon.lewis@integrated.cc.
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People who have Contributed to this Manual
Chad Findlay
Chad graciously reviewed this manual for errors and made numerous suggestions to improve its content.
Chad Findlay is a Lead Controls Engineer for General Electric Company where he has worked for 7 years. He develops gas turbine control systems applied to simple and combined cycle power plants. Chad holds a Masters degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California, Davis.
Daniel Masso
Daniel also contributed to the review of this manual for errors and made suggestions to improve its content.
Daniel Masso has worked as a DCS engineer for Westinghouse and Emerson Electric for 20 years in sales, project and field/startup engineering capacities in system, control logic and graphic design and programming capacities. He earned a B.Ch.E from Cleveland State University and continued on a M.S. Ch.E at Case Western Reserve University and is employed by Emerson Process Management Power and Water Solutions.
Neil Frihart
I would like to thank Neil for his encouragement in writing this manual and his friendship and help over the years.
Neil Frihart is Vice President of Engineering for Power & Control Engineering Solutions. He was employed a as a Senior Engineer for Callidus Technologies and was Manager of Systems Engineering at Power Flame, Inc. He earned a BSEE from Kansas State University and MBA from Pittsburg State University
Susan Colwell
I would like to thank Susan for her patience and help in the publication of this manual. She was extremely helpful in the publication of the first edition.
Susan Colwell is the Publishing Manager for ISA (International Society of Automation).
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General Information
State Licensing Requirements
Licensing of engineers is intended to protect the public health, safety, and welfare. State licensing boards have established requirements to be met by applicants for licenses which will, in their judgment, achieve this objective.
Licensing requirements vary somewhat from state to state but have some common features. In all states, candidates with a 4year engineering degree from an ABET/EACaccredited program and four years of acceptable experience can be licensed if they pass the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam and the Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) exam in a specific discipline. References must be supplied to document the duration and nature of the applicant’s work experience.
Eligibility
Some state licensing boards will accept candidates with engineering technology degrees, relatedscience (such as physics or chemistry) degrees, or no degree, with indication of an increasing amount of work experience. Some states will allow waivers of one or both of the exams for applicants with many years (6– 20) of experience. Additional procedures are available for special cases, such as applicants with degrees or licenses from other countries.
Note: Recipients of waivers may encounter difficulty in becoming licensed by “reciprocity” or “comity” in another state where waivers are not available. Therefore, applicants are advised to complete an ABET accredited degree and to take and pass the FE/EIT exam. Some states require a minimum of four year experiences after passing the FE/EIT exam, before allowing one to sit for the PE (principals and practices) exam. Some states will not allow experience incurred before the passing of the FE/EIT exam.
It is necessary to contact your licensing board for the uptodate requirements of your state. Phone numbers and addresses can be obtained by calling the information operator in your state capital, or by checking the Internet at www.ncees.org or nspe.org.
Exam Schedule
The CSE exam is offered once per year, on the last weekend in October, (typically on Friday). Application deadlines vary from state to state, but typically are about three or four months ahead of the exam date.
Requirements and fees vary among state jurisdictions. Sufficient time must be allotted to complete the application process and assemble required data. PE references may take a month or more to be returned. The state board needs time to verify professional work history, references, and academic transcripts or other verifications of the applicant's engineering education.
After accepting an applicant to take one of the exams, the state licensing board will notify him or her where and when to appear for the exam. They will also describe any unique state requirements such as allowed calculator models or limits on the number of reference books taken into the exam site.
3
Description of Examination
Exam Format
The NCEES PrinciplesandPractice of Engineering examination (commonly called the PE examination) in Control Systems Engineering (CSE) is an eighthour examination. The examination is administered in a four hour morning session and a four hour afternoon session.
Each session contains forty (40) questions in a multiplechoice format.
Each question has a correct or “best” answer. Questions are independent, so an answer to one question has no bearing on the following questions.
All of the questions are compulsory; applicants should try to answer all of the questions. Each correct answer receives one point. If a question is omitted or the answer is incorrect, a score of zero will be given for that question. There is no penalty for guessing.
Exam Content
The subject areas of the CSE exam are described by the exam specification and are given in six areas. ISA supports Control Systems Engineer (CSE) licensing and the examination for Professional Engineering. ISA is responsible for the content and questions in the NCEES examination. Refer to the ISA web site (http://www.isa.org) for the latest information concerning the CSE examination.
The following details what to expect on the examination and breaks down the examination into the six parts. The percentage and number of questions are given for each part of the examination at the time this guide was written.
I.
MEASUREMENT 24% of Examination
19 Questions
1. Sensor technologies applicable to the desired type of measurement (e.g., flow, pressure, level, temperature, analytical, counters, motion, vision, etc.)
2. Sensor characteristics (e.g., rangeability, accuracy and precision, temperature effects, response times, reliability, repeatability, etc.)
3. Material compatibility
4. Calculations involved in: pressure drop
5. Calculations involved in: flow element sizing
6. Calculations involved in: level, differential pressure
7. Calculations involved in: unit conversions
8. Calculations involved in: velocity
9. Calculations involved in: linearization
10. Installation details (e.g., process, pneumatic, electrical, etc.)
4
II.
SIGNAL AND TRANSMISSION 12.5% of Examination 10 Questions
A. Signals  11.5%, 9 questions
1. Pneumatic, electronic, optical, hydraulic, digital, analog
2. Transducers (e.g., analog/digital [A/D], digital/analog [D/A], current/pneumatic [I/P] conversion, etc.)
3. Intrinsically Safe (IS) barriers
4. Grounding, shielding, segregation, AC coupling
5. Basic signal circuit design (e.g., twowire, fourwire, isolated outputs, loop powering, etc.)
6. Calculations: circuit (voltage, current, impedance)
7. Calculations: unit conversions
B. Transmission  1.25%, 1 question
1. Different communications systems architecture and protocols (e.g., fiber optics, coaxial cable, wireless, paired conductors, fieldbus, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol [TCP/IP], OLE Process Control [OPC])
2. Distance considerations versus transmission medium
III. FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS 20% of Examination 16 Questions
A. Valves  12.5%, 10 questions
1. Types (e.g., globe, ball, butterfly, etc.)
2. Characteristics (e.g., linear, low noise, equal percentage, shutoff class, etc.)
3. Calculation (e.g., sizing, split range, noise, actuator, speed, pressure drop, air/gas
consumption, etc.)
4. Applications of fluid dynamics (e.g., cavitation, flashing, choked flow, JouleThompson effects, twophase, etc.)
5. Material selection based on process characteristics (e.g., erosion, corrosion, plugged, extreme pressure, temperature, etc.
6. Accessories (e.g., limit switches, solenoid valves, positioners, transducers, air regulators, etc.)
7. Environmental constraints (e.g., fugitive emissions, packing, special sealing, etc.)
8. Installation practices (e.g., vertical, horizontal, bypasses, troubleshooting, etc.)
B. Pressure Relieving Devices  5%, 4 questions
1. Pressure Relieving Valves: Types (e.g., conventional spring, balanced bellows, pilot operated, etc.)
2. Pressure Relieving Valves: Characteristics (e.g., modulating, pop action, etc.)
3. Pressure Relieving Valves: Calculations (e.g., sizing considering inlet pressure drop, back pressure, multiple valves, etc.)
4. Pressure Relieving Devices: Material selection based on process characteristics
5. Pressure Relieving Valves: Installation practices (e.g., linking valves, sparing the valves, accessibility for testing, car sealing inlet valves, piping installation, etc.)
6. Rupture discs (types, characteristics, application, calculations, etc.)
C. Other Final Control Elements  2.5%, 2 questions
1. Motor controls
2. Solenoid valves
3. Onoff devices/relays
4. Selfregulating devices
5
IV.
CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
16% of Examination
13 Questions
A. Documentation  7.5%, 6 questions
1. Drawings (e.g., PFD, P&ID, Loop Diagrams, Ladder Diagrams, Logic Drawings, Cause and
Effects Drawings, SAFE Charts, etc.)
B. Theory  6%, 5 questions
1. Basic processes (e.g., compression, combustion, distillation, hydraulics, etc.)
2. Process dynamics (e.g., loop response, PVT relationships, simulations, etc.)
3. Basic control (e.g., regulatory control, feedback, feed forward, cascade, ratio, PID, split range, etc.)
4. Discrete control (e.g., relay logic, Boolean algebra)
5. Sequential control (e.g., batch)
C. Safety  2.5%, 2 questions
1. Safety system design (e.g., Safety Instrumented System [SIS], Safety Requirements Specification [SRS], application of OSHA 1910, etc.)
V. CONTROL SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION 16% of Examination 13 Questions
1. HMI (e.g., graphics, alarm management, trending, historical data)
2. Ergonomics (e.g., human factors engineering, physical control room arrangement, panel layout)
3. Configuration and programming (e.g., PLC, DCS, Hybrid systems, SQL, Ladder logic, sequential function chart, structured text, function block programming, data base management, specialized controllers, etc.)
4. System comparisons and compatibilities (e.g., advantages and disadvantages of system architecture)
5. Installation requirements (e.g., shielding, constructability, input/output termination, environmental, heat load calculations, power load requirements, purging, lighting, etc.)
6. Commissioning (e.g., performance tuning, loop checkout, etc.)
7. Safety Instrumented System [SIS] model validation calculations (e.g., Safety Integrity Level [SIL], reliability, availability, etc.)
8. Troubleshooting (e.g., root cause failure analysis and correction)
VI. CODES, STANDARDS, REGULATIONS 7.5% of Examination 6 Questions
1. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
2. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
3. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: ISA
4. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: National Electrical Code (NEC)
5. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
6. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
7. Working knowledge of applicable Codes, Standards, and Regulations: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
6
Exam Scoring
NCEES exams are scored independently. There are no prespecified percentages of candidates that must pass or fail.
Assisted by a testing consultant, a panel of licensed CSEs uses recognized psychometric procedures to determine a passing score corresponding to the knowledge level needed for minimallycompetent practice in the discipline.
The passing score is expressed as the number of questions out of 80 that must be answered correctly. The method used for passpoint determination assures that the passing score is adjusted for variations in the level of exam difficulty and that the standard is consistent from year to year.
Starting in October 2005, candidates have received results expressed either as “Pass” or “Fail”; failing candidates no longer receive a numerical score. Published passing rates are based on firsttime takers only, omitting the results for repeat takers.
Reference Materials for the Exam
Recommended Books and Materials for Testing
The list of recommended books and materials for testing will be necessary to help you pass the CSE examination. Use a book you are comfortable with. A substitution with the same material and information may be used.
The list of recommended books and materials for additional study can be helpful in the review of subjects and preparation for the examination.
Remember to keep the review simple. The test is not on control systems theory studies, but rather on simple general functional design. Again keep your studies simple and practical; control systems theory will only encompass about 3% of the examination. Books and Materials for Testing
NCEES APPROVED CALCULATOR (Have a spare with new batteries installed). I recommend the TI36X Solar (any light). Practice with the calculator you will be using. (See http://www.ncees.org for a current list of approved calculators.)
ISA5.11984 (R1992)  INSTRUMENTATION SYMBOLS AND IDENTIFICATION
ISA5.21976 (R1992)  BINARY LOGIC DIAGRAMS FOR PROCESS OPERATIONS
ISA5.31983  GRAPHIC SYMBOLS FOR DISTRIBUTED CONTROL/ SHARED DISPLAY INSTRUMENTATION, LOGIC, AND COMPUTER SYSTEMS
7
ISA5.41991  STANDARD INSTRUMENT LOOP DIAGRAMS
Books and Courses for Additional Study
ISA offers a 31/2 day instructor led Control Systems Engineer (CSE) PE exam review course at different locations across the nation. The cost of the course is approximately
$1,299.
ISA offers an Automation and Control Curriculum  44 Courses. The cost for all 44 courses is approximately $750.
Norman A. Anderson, INSTRUMENTATION FOR PROCESS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL (3rd Ed.), CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 1997. [Measurement; instrument calibration; orifice sizing; valve sizing; process characteristics; charts; thermocouple tables; RTD tables; general flow and pipe data tables; nomographs; formulas; typical installation details; typical calculations.]
The CSE Study Guide from ISA
The Fisher Control Valve Handbook
The Fisher Control Valve Catalog
8
Review of Process Control Subjects
Overview of Process Measurement, Control and Calibration
The process control industry covers a wide variety of applications: petrochemical; pharmaceutical; pulp and paper; food processing; material handling; even commercial applications.
Process control in a plant can include discrete logic, such as relay logic or a PLC; analog control, such as single loop control or a DCS (distributed control system) as well as pneumatic; hydraulic and electrical systems. The Control Systems Engineer must be versatile and have a broad range of understanding of the engineering sciences.
The Control Systems Engineer (CSE) examination encompasses a broad range of subjects to ensure minimum competency. This book will review the foundations of process control and demonstrate the breadth and width of the CSE examination.
We will review many aspects of process control systems, first the theory, then application and then calibration and installation of process control equipment. First we will start with basic terminology and definitions of process measurement and control signals. We will then review the basic process control elements, their theory of operation and then apply the elements to real world application. We will then review the calculations for sizing of the elements, as well as applicable laws, standards and codes governing the installation of a process control system.
9
Process Signal and Calibration Terminology
The most important terms in process measurement and calibration are range, span, zero, accuracy and repeatability. Let us start by first defining Span; Range; Lower Range Value (LRV); Upper Range Value (URV); Zero; Elevated Zero; Suppressed Zero.
Definition of the Range of an Instrument
Range: The region in which a quantity can be measured, received, or transmitted, by an element, controller or final control device. The range can usually be adjusted and is expressed by stating the lower and upper range values.
NOTE 1: For example:
Full Range 
Adjusted Range 
LRV 
URV 
a) 0 to 150°F 
None 
0°F 
150°F 
b) –20 to +200°F 
–10 to +180°F 
–10°F 
+180°F 
c) 20 to 150°C 
50 to 100°C 
50°C 
100°C 
NOTE 2: Unless otherwise modified, input range is implied.
NOTE 3: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications in the units: measured variable range, measured signal range, indicating scale range, chart scale range, etc. See Tables 1 and 2.
NOTE 4: For multirange devices, this definition applies to the particular range that the device is set to measure.
Rangelimit, lower: LRV (Lower Range Value) The lowest value of the measured variable that a device is adjusted to measure.
Rangelimit, upper: URV (Upper Range Value) The highest value of the measured variable that a device is adjusted to measure.
NOTE: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications to the units: measured variable lower rangelimit, measured signal lower rangelimit, etc. See Tables 1 and 2. Rangelimit, upper: URV (Upper Range Value) The highest value of the measured variable that a device is adjusted to measure.
NOTE: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications to the units: measured variable upper rangelimit, measured signal upper rangelimit, etc. See Tables 1 and 2, Span: The algebraic difference between the upper and lower rangevalues.
NOTE 1: For example:
Range: 
0 to 150°F, Span 150°F 
Range: 
–10 to 180°F, Span 190°F 
Range: 
50 to 100°C, Span 50°C 
10
NOTE 2: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications to the units: measured variable range, measured signal range, etc.
NOTE 3: For multirange devices, this definition applies to the particular range that the device is set to measure. See Tables 1 and 2.
Rangelimit, lower: LRV (Lower Range Value) The lowest value of the measured variable that a device is adjusted to measure.
Rangelimit, upper: URV (Upper Range Value) The highest value of the measured variable that a device is adjusted to measure.
NOTE: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications to the units: measured variable lower rangelimit, measured signal lower rangelimit, etc. See Tables 1 and 2. Rangelimit, upper: URV (Upper Range Value) The highest value of the measured variable that a device is adjusted to measure.
NOTE: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications to the units: measured variable upper rangelimit, measured signal upper rangelimit, etc. See Tables 1 and 2.
Definition of the Span of an Instrument
Span: The algebraic difference between the upper and lower rangevalues.
NOTE 1: For example:
Range: 
0 to 150°F, Span 150°F 
Range: 
–10 to 180°F, Span 190°F 
Range: 
50 to 100°C, Span 50°C 
NOTE 2: The following compound terms are used with suitable modifications to the units: measured variable range, measured signal range, etc.
NOTE 3: For multirange devices, this definition applies to the particular range that the device is set to measure. See Tables 1 and 2.
11
Definition of the use of Zero in Instrumentation
LiveZero The lower range value (LRV) is said to be set to zero, as a reference point, whether it is at zero or not. This LRV can be 0%; 40°F; 4mA; 1V or 3 PSI. All LRVs are an example of the ZERO (Live Zero), in process control signals or elements.
ElevatedZero The lower rangevalue of the range is below the value of zero. The LRV of the range must be raised to Live Zero, for the instrument to function properly. The output signal of the measured value will always be 0 to 100%. If the LRV of the range is too low, the instrument may not be able to reach 100% output.
NOTE: For example:
input signal = (100 in H _{2} O to 25 in H _{2} O) output signal = (4mA to 20mA)
The output signal may only reach 12mA for 25 in H _{2} O (100%) input, due to limitation in the electronics or pneumatics. Therefore the Elevate jumper must be set in the transmitter or an elevation kit must be installed in a pneumatic transmitter. See Table 1.
SuppressedZero
The lower rangevalue of the span is above the value of zero. The LRV of the range must be lowered to Live Zero, for the instrument to function properly. The output signal of the measured value will always be 0 to 100%. If the LRV of the range is too high, the instrument may not be able to reach 0% output.
NOTE : For example:
input signal = (50 in H _{2} O to 200 in H _{2} O) output signal = (4mA to 20mA)
The output signal may only reach 6mA for 50 in H2O (0%) input, due to limitation in the electronics or pneumatics. Therefore the Suppress jumper must be set in the transmitter or a suppression kit must be installed in a pneumatic transmitter. See Tab1e 1.
12
Illustrations of range and span terminology
Table 1 – Examples of range and span terminology
TYPICAL 
NAME 
RANGE 
LOWER 
UPPER 
SPAN 
SUPPLEMENTARY 

RANGES 
RANGE 
RANGE 
DATA 

VALUE 
VALUE 

0 
+100 
— 
0 to 100 
0 
+100 
100 
— 
SUPPRESSED 
SUPPRESSION RATIO = 0.25 

20 
+100 
ZERO RANGE 
20 to +100 
20 
+100 
80 

ELEVATED 

25 
+100 
ZERO RANGE 
–25 to +100 
–25 
+100 
125 
— 
ELEVATED 

–100 
0 
ZERO RANGE 
–100 to 0 
100 
0 
100 
— 
ELEVATED 

–100 
–20 
ZERO RANGE 
–100 to –20 
100 
20 
80 
— 
13
Illustrations of measured variable, measured signal, range and span
Table 2 – Examples of measured variable, measured signal, range and span
TYPICAL RANGES 
TYPE OF RANGE 
RANGE 
LOWER 
UPPER 
SPAN 

RANGE 
RANGE 

VALUE 
VALUE 

THERMOCOUPLE 
MEASURED 
0 
to 2000°F 
0°F 
2000°F 
2000°F 

0 
2000°F 
VARIABLE 

TYPE K T/C 

– 0.68 + 44.91 
MEASURED 
–0.68 to +44.91 
–0.68 mV 
+44.91 mV 
45.59 mV 

mV 
SIGNAL 
mV 

FLOWMETER 
MEASURED 
0 
to 10 000 lb/h 
0 
lb/h 
10,000 lb/h 
10,000 lb/h 

0 
10,000 
VARIABLE 

lb/h 

0 
100 
MEASURED 
0 
to 100 in H2O 
0 in H2O 
100 in H2O 
100 in H2O 

in H2O 
SIGNAL 

0 
10 
SCALE AND/OR 
0 
to 10,000 lb/h 
0 
lb/h 
10,000 lb/h 
10,000 lb/h 

x1000=lb/h 
CHART 

4 mA 20 
MEASURED SIGNAL 
4 
to 20 mA 
4 
mA 
20 mA 
16 mA 

1 5 
MEASURED 
1 to 5V 
1V 
5V 
4V 

Volts 
SIGNAL 
14
Temperature Measurement and Calibration
Temperature Measurement Devices and Calibration
In the process industry, temperature measurements are typically made with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector) and industrial thermometers. Industrial thermometers are typically of the liquid (class I), vapor (class II), and gas (class III) type.
The five major types of thermocouple configurations are shown to the left.
The first two thermocouples are welded or grounded, as shown, to the outside metal protective sheathing.
The bottom three thermocouples are ungrounded and should never touch the metal protective sheathing; otherwise they are shorted to ground.
Thermocouples should be extended with thermocouple extension wire and thermocouple termination blocks, but can be extended with standard copper wire and standard terminal blocks. This is due to the fact that the voltages generated at the extension junctions almost cancel each other out with very little error. One side is positive and the other side is negative.
The four major thermocouples used in the process industry are Type J, Type E, Type K, Type T. The red wire is always the negative wire with thermocouples.
Thermocouple terminal junction blocks should be made of the same material as the thermocouple wire that is being connected to terminal. This will prevent additional thermocouple (TC) junction points from being introduced in the temperature signal. Some companies use standard terminal strips, this can cause an error in the signal.
15
Thermocouple millivolt tables for the examination can be found in the Table A1 – Thermocouple Table (Type J) through Table A4 – Thermocouple Table (Type T) in the Appendix section of this guide.
Thermocouple Linearity Chart
Thermocouple Makeup Material and Color Code
TC 
THEMOCOUPLE 
RANGE 
USEFUL 
TC COLORS 

Type 
MATERIAL 
FOR CALIB. 
RANGE 

DEG F 
DEF F 

E 
Chromel (+) 
300 to 1830 
200 
to 1650 
Purple Wire Jacket Purple (+) Red () 

Constantan () 

J 
Iron (+) 
320 to 1400 
200 
to 1400 
Black Wire Jacket Black (+) Red () 

Constantan () 
(300 to 800) 

K 
Chromel (+) 
310 to 250 
200 
to 2300 
Yellow Wire Jacket Yellow (+) Red () 

Alumel () 

R 
Platinum 13% Rodium (+) Platinum () 
0 
to 3100 
1600 
to 2640 
Green Wire Jacket Black (+) Red () 
S 
Platinum 10% Rodium (+) Platinum () 
0 
to 3200 
1800 
to 2640 
Green Wire Jacket Black(+) Red () 
T 
Copper (+) 
300 to 750 
310 to 660 
Blue Wire Jacket Blue (+) Red () 

Constantan () 
16
Thermocouple Worked Examples (how to read the thermocouple tables)
Sample problem: What is the Millivolt (mV) output of a Type “J” thermocouple at 218°F and referenced to a 32°F electronic ice bath?
Find the nearest temperature in Table A1  Thermocouple Table (Type J) in the appendix of this guide.
The nearest temperature in the first column is 210. Look at the column headers at the bottom of the chart. Find the column header labeled 8. Follow the column up to the row with the 210 value. Where they meet is a total of 210°F + 8ºF = (218°F).
Read the value of mV. The answer is: 5.45 mV
Sample problem: What is the Millivolt (mV) output of a Type “K” thermocouple at 672°F from the data given? Assume the thermocouple is linear. 

Given: 

670°F = 14.479mV 

672°F = 
mV 

680°F = 14.713mV 

We will have to interpolate the mV value for the desired temperature as follows: 

interpolation: 


deg desired 
 
deg lower value 



mV 

mV upper value 
mV lower value 



mV lower value 

 

deg upper value 
 deg lower value 


Therefore the new mV for 672°F: 

14.526 
672 680   
670 
14.713  14.479 

14.479 

670 

The mV at 672°F is 14.526 mV This can be verified in Table A2 Thermocouple Table (Type K) in the appendix. 
17
RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)
The process control industry also uses RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) for many applications, for example, when precise temperature measurement is needed, such as mass flow measurements or critical temperature measurements of motor bearings.
RTDs typically come in 10 ohm copper and 100 ohm platinum elements. Their resistance is typically very linear over the scale.
Resistance values for the examination can be found in the Table A5  Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in ohms, in the Appendix section of this guide.
2wire RTD
Good for close applications, at the transmitter.
RTD Worked Examples
3wire RTD
Good for further distance applications. Remote from the transmitter.
4wire RTD
Best application and usually uses 20 mA driving current and voltage measurement.
Sample problem: A RTD is platinum and has a resistance of 100 omhs at a temperature of 32°F and an alpha 0.2178 ohms per °F. What is the resistance of the RTD at a temperature of 240°F?
Find the difference in the temperature first. 240°F – 32°F = 208°F
Now find the resistance for the differential temperature:
208°F * 0.2178 ohms/deg F = 45.3 ohms
Now we add the change in resistance to the resistance at 32°F:
100 ohms + 45.3 = 145.3 ohms
Referring to TableA5. Platinum 100 Ohm RTD Table in ohms, in the appendix. The resistance value for the RTD can be interpolated and found for a given temperature.
18
Sample problem:
In the bridge circuit above, if R1 and R2 are 200 ohms and the RTD is at 60°F. What
resistance should R3 measure, to balance the circuit and give the meter a reading of 0 volts? The RTD is platinum and measures 100 ohms at 32°F with an alpha of 0.2178 ohms per °F.
Find the difference in the temperature first. 60°F – 32°F = 28°F
Now find the resistance for the differential temperature:
28°F * 0.2178 ohms/°F = 6.0984 ohms
Now we add the change in resistance to the resistance at 32°F:
100 ohms + 6.0984 = 106.0984 ohms The resistor R3 needs to be 106 ohms to balance the bridge and give 0 volts at the meter.
Sample problem: In the bridge circuit above, R1 and R2 are 200 ohms. R3 is 150 ohms. The excite voltage to the bridge is 10 volts. If the meter is reading 0.4 volts (the positive is on the right side and the negative on the left side) what is the temperature at the RTD? 

Find the voltage on the left side of the bridge. This is the voltage we will add to the meter voltage on the right side. We will use the voltage divider theorem to find the voltage across R1. 

V 

R 1 (10 
V 
) 

200 
(10 
V ) 

5 
V 

R 1 R 1 R 2 200 200 This means the voltage across the RTD is 5.0V + 0.4V = 5.4 volts. We will now use the voltage divider theorem to find the resistance of RTD. R RTD R RTD 

V RTD 

(10 
V ) _{;} 5.4 
V 
(10 
V 
) 

R RTD Solving for R _{R}_{T}_{D} : 
R R 3 
R RTD 
150 
19
5.4
10
5.4
R RTD
10
R RTD
0.54
RTD
150
R
RTD
150
81
0.46
R RTD
deg F
20
Pressure Measurement and Calibration
Pressure Measurement and Head Pressure
Pressure is measured in typically two different forms. Pounds per square inch (psi) or head pressure. Head pressure is measured in inches or feet of water column (H _{2} O).
Head pressure is independent of the tank’s height or area. The transmitter measures head pressure. Head pressure is the measure of the potential energy in the system. The transmitter measurement is from how high is the fluid falling. The distance the fluid falls indicates the force generated (F=ma). This is why the density of the fluid must be known to calibrate a pressure transmitter for a process, to obtain the fluid mass. The calibration process uses specific gravity (S.G.), the ratio of a known density of a fluid divided by the density of water (H _{2} O).
To illustrate these facts we will start with one gallon of water. The gallon of water equals 231 cubic inches and weighs approximately 8.324 pounds at 60°F. Pressure is measured in PSI (pounds per square inch). Only one (1) square inch of area is needed to calculate the height of the water and the force it is excerpting. Remember force divided by area = pressure.
Stack 231 cubic inches of water on top of each other, to form a tall column of water, with a base of one (1) square inch. The column of water will be 231 inches tall. Divide the height of the column of water, 231 inches, by the weight of one (1) gallon of water, 8.324 pounds. The result will be 27.691 or 27.7 inches of water per pound of water, over a one square inch of area. Therefore 27.7 inches H _{2} O, of head pressure, equals one (1) PSI.
By knowing the specific gravity of the fluid to be measured, multiplied by the height of the tank in inches, an equivalent value in inches of water can be found. The transmitter can now be calibrated in inches of water, regardless of the fluid. If the tank’s fluid has a S.G. equal to 0.8 and a height of 100 inches tall, then the height in inches of H _{2} O will be (100” of fluid x 0.8 s.g.= 80” of H _{2} O).
Pressure transmitters are purchased in different sizes of measurement. They are in ranges of inches H _{2} O, psig (the “g” stands for gauge pressure) or psia (the “a” stands for absolute pressure). When the symbol psid (the “d” stands for differential pressure) is called for, a standard psig transmitter is used. Most industrial pressure transmitters are differential pressure transmitters. They act on differential forces applied to each side of the transmitter. The force is produced by the pressure in the system multiplied by the area of the diaphragm.
21
Applying Pressure Measurement and Signals Worked Examples
Differential Pressure and Meter Calibration
Differential pressure or differential head pressure is used to calibrate transmitters for pressure, level, flow and density measurements. The transmitter has a high side, marked with an H, and a low side, marked with a L. The low side will typically go to atmospheric pressure or to a fixed height wet leg measurement. The high side will typically go to the tank, where the varying height of fluid is to be measured. When calibrating an instrument remember: The low side is the negative scale, below zero, and the high side is the positive scale, above zero. The transmitter’s sensor element is static in position or elevation and therefore the transmitter itself is always equal to zero elevation. This will be discussed in detail in the section on Level Measurement.
Transmitters can be purchased in ranges of 25in H _{2} O, 250in H _{2} O, 1000in H _{2} O, 300 psi and 2000 psi.
The formula for calibration is:
(high side inches x S.G.) – (low side inches x S.G.) = lower or upper range value. Note: Gives LRV when empty or minimum and URV when full or maximum
Sample problem: A pressure gauge is reading 25 pisg. It is attached to a tank filled with a fluid. The bottom of tank is 65 feet above the ground. The pressure gauge is 5 feet above the ground. The fluid has a specific gravity of (0.7 s.g.). What is the level of the fluid in the tank? 

First convert the psi gauge measurement to feet of head measurement. 

25 
psi * 2.31 feet per psi = 57.75 feet of H _{2} O. 
Next find the elevation of the bottom of tank in relation to the elevation of the pressure gauge. Tank bottom in feet – pressure gauge elevation in feet, equals the height in feet to the bottom of tank. 

65 
feet– 5 feet = 60 feet of head to bottom of the tank. 
Note: Head is always measured in the standard of inches or feet of water Column. 

Multiply the head between the bottom of the tank and the pressure gauge times the s.g. to get the head equal to H _{2} O. 

60 
feet of fluid * 0.7 s.g. = 42 feet H _{2} O to bottom of tank from the pressure gauge. 
Next subtract (the height from the pressure gauge to the bottom of the tank in feet of H _{2} O), from (the total height of fluid in feet of in H _{2} O above the pressure gauge) , to find (the height of the fluid in the tank in H _{2} O). 

(57.75 feet of H _{2} O total head) – (42 feet of H _{2} O below the tank) = (feet of fluid in H _{2} O in the tank). 

(57.75 feet total) – (42 feet to bottom tank from the pressure gauge) = 15.75 feet in H _{2} O in the tank 

Next convert height in feet of H _{2} O to height of fluid with a specific gravity (s.g.) of 0.7: 

15.75 feet of H _{2} O / 0.7 s.g. = 22.5 feet of total height of the fluid column in the tank 
22
On the CSE examination you will be asked to correlate signals and measurements using Flow, Pressure and the Output in (4mA to 20mA) signals. A change in flow in a pipe will cause a change in the head pressure across the pipe and measurement element. If the flow decreases in the pipe the pressure in the pipe will increase at any point along the pipe.
Pressure Change in a Pipe for a given Flow Rate
If the flow rate increases, the pressure in the piping system decreases. If the flow rate decreases, the pressure in the piping system increases. This is because the total head of the system remains constant due to the head pressure developed by of the pump. The total energy head being endowed into the pump and piping system, remains constant.
h 1 F 1 
2 

2 h F 2 2 
h 1 
F 1 F 2 2 
h 2 

Sample problem: There is a flow rate of 300 gpm in a piping system. There is a pressure gauge reading 100 psi somewhere in the piping system. If the flow rate is decreased to 240 gpm. What is the new pressure gauge reading in psi in the piping system? 

a) Find the new pressure at the point of the gauge in the piping system for a flow rate of 240 gpm. 


F 1 F 2 
2 

300 2 

h 2 
h 1 

100 

240 156.25 
psi 
Pressure Change across the Flow Element for a given Flow Rate
If the flow in the pipe increases, the head pressure on the outlet of the measurement element will decrease. This correlation can be demonstrated by the following equations for differential head pressure (DP) across the element or section of pipe. See the appendix for applications of basic fluid mechanics in piping systems.
h F
2
1 h F
2
2
1
2
h
1
F
F 1
2
2
h
2
Sample problem: a. A flow of 250 gpm has a head pressure measurement of 309 inches of H _{2} O. If the flow is decreased to 150 gpm, what is the new head pressure in H _{2} O for the measurement element?
b. What would be the new output to the PLC or DCS, in a mA signal, if the transmitter was calibrated in
0 to 400 inches of H _{2} O? The signal is calibrated for 4mA to 20mA.
a. Find the new head pressure for 150 gpm.
23
2



150 250 

2 

; 
309 

111.24 
in H O 2 
F
2
F
1
b. Find the mA output:
The output signal is the square root of the ratio of change in head pressure (new measurement) to the full scale calibrated range of the transmitter. First find the % of head pressure in the scale of 0 to 400 inches H _{2} O.
111.24
400
The output is a 4mA to 20mA current signal. The span is 16mA (20mA – bias of 4mA) Since the flow rate is a squared function, we must first extract the square root of the % measurement to find the % of output signal.
output mA
0.2781 *16mA 4mA bias 12.44mA
h 2
h 1
%
head
0.2781
Pressure Calibration of Transmitter
Sample problem The pressure in a pipe is to be measured. The maximum pressure is in 462 feet of head of natural gas. It is to be displayed in units of psig. What is the calibration of the transmitter to display this pressure in 0 to 100% psig on the display? The minimum pressure measurement will be zero feet of head.
Find the psig for the given maximum head pressure:
psig = feet head / 2.31 psig per foot of head
Maximum measurement in psig:
200 psig = 462 / 2.31
Next find the calibration range to order the transmitter:
The formula for calibration is:
(high side psi) – (low side psi) = lower or upper range value. Note: Gives lower range value when minimum and upper range value when maximum
LRV = 200 – 0 = 200 psi
URV = 0 – 0 = 0 psi
The transmitter will be calibrated as:
0 to 200 psig
24
Level Measurement and Calibration
Applying Level Measurement and Calibration Worked Examples
TUNEDSYSTEM
BALANCED SYSTEM
WET LEG
WET/DRY LEG
The calibration procedure below is as follows.
The level in a vessel or tank can be measured by a number of methods: differential pressure; displacement of volume; bubbler tube; capacitance; sonar; radar; weight, to name a few. This book will focus on differential pressure, displacement of volume, and bubbler tube for the examination.
REMEMBER:
(high side inches x S.G.)
– (low side
inches x
S.G.) =
lower or upper range value.
See Example 1. The low side is open to atmosphere. The atmosphere adds zero inches of water to the low side. The high side is connected to the tank, it also has atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressures on each side cancel. The first line of math will be the LRV. The second line of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches of fluid with a S.G. of 1.0. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be 0” to 100” of water or H _{2} O. The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 1.0 = 100”)
See Example 2. The low side is open to atmosphere. The atmosphere adds zero inches of water to the low side. The high side is connected to the tank. The atmospheric pressures on each side cancel. The first line of math will be the LRV. The second line of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches + the tube adds 20” of fluid with a S.G. of 1.0. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be 20” to 120” of water or H _{2} O. Remember the minimum measurement cannot be lower than the fixed tube height of 20”. Suppress the zero with the hard wire jumper or set the variable in the transmitter and make 20” a live zero for the instrument. In pneumatics instrument a suppression kit must be installed. The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 1.0 = 100”)
25
Example 1: Open Tank ZeroBased Level Application
+100"
HIGH
0"
L
H
Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches S.G. = 1.0
(switch jumper to normal zero)
LRV =
URV =(100” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) = 100” = 20 mA Calibrate range from 0” to 100” H _{2} O
(0” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0)
=
0” = 4 mA
Example 2: Open Tank Suppress the Zero
+120"
HIGH
+20"
0"
20 mA
100"
L
H
4 mA
0"
20"
Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches S.G. = 1.0
(switch jumper to suppress zero)
(20” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) =
20” = 4 mA
(120” x 1.0) – (0” x 1.0) = 120” = 20 mA Calibrate range from 20” to 120” H _{2} O
See Example 3. The low side is connected to the top of the closed tank. The high side is connected to the bottom of the closed tank. The tank’s pressure does not matter, because the pressures in low and high side lines cancel each other out. Since the tank is pressurized, a “WET LEG” or “reference leg” must be used. This is the piping going from the low side of the transmitter to the top of the tank. It will be typically filled with some other type of product such as glycol or silicon. This prevents moisture from accumulating in the line. If moisture accumulates in the line, it will give an error in the transmitter reading. The wet leg has 100 inches of fluid with a S.G. of 1.1. The first line of math will be the LRV. The second line of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches of fluid with a S.G. of 1.0. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be 110” to 10” of water or H _{2} O. Elevate the zero with the hard wire jumper or set the variable in the transmitter and make 110” a live zero for the instrument. In pneumatic instruments a suppression kit must be installed. The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 1.0 = 100”)
See Example 4. The low side is connected to the top of the closed tank. The high side is connected to the bottom of the closed tank. The tank’s pressure does not matter, because the pressures in the low and high lines cancel each other out. The wet leg has 120 inches of fluid with a S.G. of 1.1. The first line of math will be the LRV. The second line of math will be the URV. The tank has 100 inches + the tube adds 20” of fluid with a S.G. of 0.8. The calibrated Range of the instrument will be 116” to 36” of water or H _{2} O. Remember the minimum measurement cannot be lower than 20” on the high side, due to the fixed height tube. Elevate the zero and make 116” a live zero. The Span of the transmitter is: (100” x 0.8 = 80”).
REMEMBER: (high side inches x S.G.) – (low side inches x S.G.) = lower or upper range value. Note: Gives lower range value (LRV) when empty and upper range value (URV) when full.
26
Example 3: Closed Tank Elevate the Zero
TANK
S.G. = 1.0
S.G. = 1.1
L H
20 mA
100"
+100"
HIGH
0"
LOW
110"
4 mA
0"
Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches S.G. = 1.0, Wet Leg: S.G. = 1.1 Height = 100” (switch jumper to elevate zero) LRV = (0” x 1.0) – (100” x 1.1) = 110” = 4 mA URV =(100” x 1.0) – (100” x 1.1) =10” = 20 mA Calibrate range from 110” to 10” H _{2} O
Example 4: Closed Tank Elevate the Zero (transmitter below tank)
+96"
HIGH
+16"
0"
LOW
132"
Tank Level = 0 to 100 inches S.G. = 0.8, Wet Leg: S.G. = 1.1 Height = 120” (switch jumper to elevate zero) (20” x 0.8) – (120” x 1.1) = 116” = 4 mA
(120” x 0.8) – (120” x 1.1) =
Calibrate range from 116” to 36” H _{2} O
36” = 20 mA
Level Displacer (Buoyancy)
The displacer tube for liquid level measurement is based on Archimedes principle that, the buoyancy force exerted on a sealed body immersed in a liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.
There are two types of displacer transmitters in common use today:
torque tube and spring operated.
f
V df
231
(8.33)
G
f
where,
f = buoyancy force in lbf
V _{d}_{f} = total volume of displaced process fluid in cubic inches
Ls
231 = cubic inches in one gallon of water 8.33 = weight of one gallon of water in pounds
G _{f}
= the submerged length of the displacer in process fluid
= specific gravity of displaced process fluid
27
Sample problem: a. What is the force upward on the 30” displacer, if the displacer is 4” in diameter and submerged 10” in a fluid, with a specific gravity of 0.72? 

b. What is the mA output and percent output of the process signal? 

a. Find displaced volume: 

V 
D 2 
L 

16 
10 
125.66 in 3 






df 4 s 4 Find displacement force upward 

f 
V df (8.33) G 
125.66 (8.33)(0.72) 3.26 
lbf 

231 f 231 b) Find displacement force upward for the total 30 inches submerged : 

V df 
4 D 2 L s 
4 
16 

30 

376.99 in 3 

f 
V df (8.33) G 
376.99 (8.33)(0.72) 9.79 
lbf 

231 f 231 Find the % output and mA: 

3.26 

% 

0.333 100 

33.3% output 

9.79 

_{}_{0}_{.}_{3}_{3}_{3}_{}_{1}_{6}_{m}_{A}_{}_{} 4mA 9.328mA output 
28
Bubbler Level Measurement
The bubble tube measures the level of the process fluid by measuring the back pressure on the bottom of the tube. This back
pressure is the force excepted from the weight of the fluid in the tank against the tube opening. This simple level measurement has
a dip tube installed with the open end close to the bottom of the process vessel.
A flow of gas, usually air or nitrogen, passes through the tube and
the resultant backpressure on the air flowing out of the tube corresponds to the hydraulic head of the liquid in the vessel. The pressure in the bubble tube equals the head pressure of the fluid in
the vessel and will vary proportionally with the change in level.
h
L
TS
G
f
where,
h = head pressure in inches of water L _{T}_{S} = length of tube submerged in process fluid G _{f} = specific gravity of process fluid
Sample problem: a. What is the head pressure measurement of a bubbler tube submerged 24” in a fluid with a specific gravity (S.G.) of 0.85? 

b. 
What is the percent output and mA output, if the transmitter is calibrated for a tube 100” long and 

the transmitter is calibrated 0 to 85 inches H _{2} O (100 inches * 0.85 S.G.= 85 inches H _{2} O)? 

a. 
Find the head pressure of the process fluid 

h 
L 
G 
240.85 20.4 inches H O 
(the water only excerpts a force of 20.4 inches H _{2} O 

TS f 2 against the bottom of the tube) 

b. 
Find percent and mA output 

The transmitter is calibrated for 0 to 85 inches H _{2} 0 which equals = 0% to 100% 

20.4 

% 
85 

0.24 

100% 
24% output 

The output is a 4mA to 20mA current signal. The span is 16mA (20mA – bias of 4mA) 

(0.24*16mA) + 4mA (bias) = 7.84mA output, which equals 24% of scale in control room. 

The control room computer (DCS or PLC) is scaling the input signal to value of 0 inches to 100 inches for the tank level. As you can see 24% signal reads 24 inches in the tank. 
29
Density Measurement
Head pressure and volume displacement can be used to measure density. By using a differential head pressure transmitter, calibrated in inches of water, with the high and low lines connected to a tank at a fixed distance of separation, such as 12”, and both taps completely submerged below the lowest fluid level, the height measured in inches of water divided by 12” is the S.G. of the unknown fluid. If the fluid height measurement was divided into the fixed 12” of displacement, density would be measured.
Figure 1
Calculating the Volume in Tanks
Note the upper level measurement can be any height and the fluid to be measured of any density.
With the specific gravity (S.G.) known from the lower density transmitter, and a second upper level transmitter
calibrated in inches of water, the tank level can be found. The level measurement can be divided by the S.G. measurement from the lower density transmitter, to show
the true height of the fluid in the tank.
With a head pressure measurement, the height of the liquid in a tank can be measured. This is simple with standard cylindrical tanks, but much more difficult with irregular shaped tanks.
Calculating the volume in tanks will probably not be on the CSE exam, but the formulas to calculate the volume in these tanks is derived from calculus and included in the appendix of this guide. It will show how to calculate the volume of spherical tanks and bullet tanks, so the volume can be calculated in the PLC or DCS. See the section “Calculating the volume in tanks“ for the formulas.
30
Flow Measurement and Calibration
Applying Flow Measurement Devices
Like level measurement, flow measurement is also head pressure and zero elevation based. Head pressure is the measure of the endowed potential energy in the system. The transmitter measurement is from how high the fluid falls, it is velocity squared. The velocity is squared due to the fact that the fluid is constantly being accelerated through the pipe, as potential energy is endowed into the fluid by the pump‘s head pressure.
Head pressure is lost across the orifice element due to the fact that, energy loss is the product of energy flow multiplied by the resistance thought which it flows (see Figure 2).
Sizing of the orifice will be discussed in detail in the section on Orifice Type Meters. You should familiarize yourself with the different types of flow meters, their applications, and their ISA symbols. The ISA P&ID symbols are shown below.
Turndown Ratio in a Flow Meter
The turndown ratio of a flow meter is its ability to measure with acceptable accuracy the ratio of maximum flow rate measurement to minimum flow rate measurement. This is also known as the rangeability of the flow meter. Turndown ratio is important when choosing a flow meter technology for a specific application. If a gas flow to be measured will have a maximum measured flow rate of 1,000,000 scfm (standard cubic feet per minute) and a minimum measured flow rate of 100,000 scfm, the meter needs to have a minimum turndown ratio of 10:1 (1,000,000 / 100,000). For example, if the meter had an advertised turndown ratio of 20:1 and maximum flow rate measurement of 2,000,000 scfm, then the minimum measureable flow rate would be 100,000 scfm.
The turndown ratio of each type of meter is limited by constraints of the manufacturing process and materials used, as well as practical application considerations. For example, orifice meters create a pressure drop in the measured fluid proportional to the square of the velocity.
ISA Standard Flow Meter Symbols
Flow Nozzle
Sonic or Doppler
Magnetic Meter
Turbine Meter
Orifice Meter
Venturi Tube Meter
Pitot Meter
Vortex Meter
31
Flow Meter Applications Chart
Sensor 
Rangeability 
Accuracy 
Advantages 
Disadvantages 
low cost 

orifice 
3.5:1 
24% of full span 
extensive industrial 
high pressure loss plugging with slurries 
practice 

lower pressure loss than orifice slurries do not plug 

high cost line under 15 cm 

venturi 
3.5:1 
1% of full span 

flow nozzle 
3.5:1 
2% full span 
good for slurry service intermediate pressure loss 
higher cost than orifice plate limited pipe sizes 
elbow meter 
3:1 
510% of full span 
low pressure loss 
very poor accuracy 
annubar 
3:1 
0.51.5% of full span 
low pressure loss large pipe diameters 
poor performance with dirty or sticky fluids 
high cost strainer needed, especially for slurries 

0.25% of 
wide rangeability 

turbine 
20:1 

measurement 
good accuracy 

vortex shedding 
10:1 
1% of measurement 
wide rangeability insensitive to variations in density, temperature, pressure, and viscosity 
expensive 
high pressure drop damaged by flow surge or solids 

positive 
10:1 or 
high rangeability 

0.5% of measurement 

displacement 
greater 
good accuracy 

Coriolis 
0.050.15% of 

mass flow 
100:1 
measurement 
good accuracy 
expensive 
32
Orifice Tap Dimensions and Impulse Line Connections
Flow Meter Impulse Lines Connections
Gas or Air Installation (taps on the top side of the pipe)
Steam or Liquid Installation (taps on the side of the pipe)
Flow Meter and Pressure Meter Line Connections
ΔP=The Square of Process Fluid’s Velocity
Low Side Connected Down Stream of Orifice
ΔP=The Process
Fluid’s Pressure
Low Side is Open to the Atmosphere
33
Applying the Bernoulli Principal for Flow Control
The process control industry covers a wide variety of applications of elements and final correction devices.
The Control Systems Engineer (CSE) examination encompasses a broad range of valve applications and sizing for different services, possibly an orifice meter; a turbine meter; pressure relief valve or safety rupture disk. This book will cover essential basics for the CSE examination.
Z
1
V
1
2
2
g
p
1
AV A V
1
1
2
2
Z
2
2
V
2
2
g
p
2
For change in pressure across the piping system:
p F
1
1
2
2
p F
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