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Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004

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This print-out should have 24 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page – ﬁnd all choices before making your selection. The due time is Central time. Chapters 6 and 7 problems.

001 (part 1 of 1) 0 points

A cheerleader lifts his 70.9 kg partner straight

up oﬀ the ground a distance of 0.594 m before releasing her. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s 2 . If he does this 27 times, how much work has he done? Correct answer: 11143.5 J. Explanation:

The work done in lifting the cheerleader once is

 W 1 = m g h = (70.9 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.594 m) = 412.723 J .

The work required to lift her n = 27 times is

W = n W 1 = (27)(412.723 J) = 11143.5 J.

002 (part 1 of 5) 0 points

In the parallel spring system, the springs

are positioned so that the 44 N weight stretches each spring equally. The spring con- stant for the left-hand spring is 3.5 N/cm and the spring constant for the righ-hand spring

is 5.5 N/cm . 44 N
3.5
N/cm
5.5
N/cm

How far down will the 44 N weight stretch the springs? Correct answer: 4.88889 cm. Explanation:

Let :

k 1 = 3.5 N/cm ,

k 2 = 5.5 N/cm , W = 44 N ,

and

The springs stretch the same amount x be- cause of the way they were positioned. Then F 1 = k 1 x and F 2 = k 2 x, so the force equation for the suspended mass is

F up = F down

k 1 x + k 2 x = W

x =

W

k 1 + k 2

44 N

=

3.5 N/cm + 5.5 N/cm = 4.88889 cm .

Dimensional analysis for x:

N

N/cm = N · cm

N

= cm

003 (part 2 of 5) 0 points In this same parallel spring system, what is the eﬀective combined spring constant k parallel of the two springs? Correct answer: 9 N/cm. Explanation:

If the springs were one spring, that spring would react with a force F = k x where F = W due the law of action and reaction, we have

k parallel = W

x

W

=

44 N 4.88889 cm = 9 N/cm ,

=

x

which happens to be the sum of the individual constants

k parallel = k 1 + k 2

= 3.5 N/cm + 5.5 N/cm

= 9 N/cm .

Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004

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004 (part 3 of 5) 0 points

Now consider the same two springs in series. 44 N
3.5 N/cm5.5
N/cm

What distance will the spring of constant 3.5 N/cm stretch? Correct answer: 12.5714 cm. Explanation:

In the series system, the springs stretch a diﬀerent amount, but each carries the full weight W = 44 N. W = k 1 x 1 and

x 1 = W

k

1

44 N

=

3.5 N/cm = 12.5714 cm .

005 (part 4 of 5) 0 points

In this same series spring system, what dis- tance will the spring of constant 5.5 N/cm stretch? Correct answer: 8 cm. Explanation:

W = k 2 x 2 and

x 2 = W

k

2

44 N

=

5.5 N/cm = 8 cm .

006 (part 5 of 5) 0 points

In this same series spring system, what is the eﬀective combined spring constant k series of

the two springs? Correct answer: 2.13889 N/cm.

Explanation:

x total = x 1 +x 2 , so W = k series x total , which is equivalent to

k series =

=

=

k series =

=

=

=

W

x 1 + x 2 44 N

12.5714 cm + 8 cm

 2.13889 N/cm , or 1 x 1 + x 2 W 1 x 1 x 2 W + W 1 1 1 k 1 + k 2 1 1 1

3.5 N/cm + 5.5 N/cm

= 2.13889 N/cm .

007 (part 1 of 2) 5 points The pulley system is in equilibrium, the spring constant k 1 = 7 N/cm and the suspended mass m = 16 kg. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s 2 . k 1
m

How much will the spring stretch? Correct answer: 7.46667 cm. Explanation:

The existence of a spring in a string deﬁnes the tension in the string because the force exerted by a spring is F = kx.

Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004

3 T 1
T
1
T
1
T
2
k
1
m

T 2 = 2 T 1 . Thus at the suspended mass,

T 2 + T 1 = mg

3 T 1 = mg

3 k 1 x 1 = mg

mg

x 1 =

3 k 1

(16 kg) 9.8 m/s 2

=

= 7.46667 cm

3(7 N/cm)

008 (part 2 of 2) 5 points The pulley system is in equilibrium, the spring constant k 2 = 18 N/cm, the suspended weight W 1 = 39 N, and the suspended weight W 2 = 11 N. k 2
W 1
W 2

How much will the spring stretch? Correct answer: 1.55556 cm. Explanation: k 2
T 3
T 3
T 3
T 3
T 4
W 1
W 2
T 5

For the pulley suspended from the spring, k 2 x 2 = 2 T 3 so that

T 3 = k 2 x 2

2

Working up from the suspended weight W 2 , T 3 = W 2 + T 5 so that

T 5 = T 3 W 2 = k 2 x 2 W 2

2

For the lowest pulley,

T 4 = 2 T 3 = k 2 x 2

Thus at the weight W 1 ,

T 3 + T 4 = W 1 + T 5

k 2 x 2

2

W 1 + k 2 x 2 W 2

+ k 2 x 2 =

2

k 2 x 2 = W 1 W 2

x 2 =

=

=

W 1 W 2

k 2

39 N 11 N

18 N/cm

1.55556 cm

009 (part 1 of 2) 5 points A crate is pulled by a force (parallel to the incline) up a rough incline. The crate has an initial speed shown in the ﬁgure below. The crate is pulled a distance of 6.3 m on the incline by a 150 N force. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s 2 .

Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004

4 29 ◦
1.56 m/s
150 N
kg
13 0.328
µ =

a) What is the change in kinetic energy of the crate? Correct answer: 325.63 J. Explanation: Let :
F = 150 N ,
d = 6.3 m ,
θ =
29 ◦ ,
m = 13 kg ,
g
= 9.8 m/s 2 ,
µ
=
0.328 ,
and
v
= 1.56 m/s .
N
F
µ N
θ
m g
v

The work-energy theorem with nonconser- vative forces reads

W f ric + W appl + W gravity = ∆K

To ﬁnd the work done by friction we need the normal force on the block from Newton’s law

F y = N − m g cos θ = 0

⇒ N = m g cos θ .

Thus

W f ric = µ m g d cos θ

= (0.328) (13 kg) (9.8 m/s 2 ) × (6.3 m) cos 29

= 230.252 J .

The work due to the applied force is

W appl = F d

= (150 N) (6.3 m)

= 945 J ,

and the work due to gravity is

W grav = m g d sin θ

= (13 kg) (9.8 m/s 2 ) × (6.3 m) sin 29

= 389.118 J ,

so that

K = W f ric + W appl + W grav

 = (−230.252 J) + (945 J) + (−389.118 J) = 325.63 J . 010 (part 2 of 2) 5 points

b) What is the speed of the crate after it is

pulled the 6.3 m? Correct answer: 7.2478 m/s. Explanation:

Since

1

2 m (v f v

2

2

i

2

v f v

) = ∆K

2

i =

2 ∆K

m

v f =

2 ∆K

m

+ v

2

i

=

2(325.63 J) 13 kg

+ (1.56 m/s) 2

= 7.2478 m/s .

011 (part 1 of 4) 0 points

You drag a suitcase of mass 8.1 kg with a force of F at an angle 31.6 with respect to

Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004

5

the horizontal along a surface with kinetic coeﬃcient of friction 0.36. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s 2 . If the suitcase is moving with constant ve- locity 2.99 m/s, what is F ? Correct answer: 27.4681 N. Explanation: F
N
mg

If the suitcase is moving at a constant ve- locity,

F cos θ = µ N = µ (m g F sin θ)

F =

µ m g

cos θ + µ sin θ

0.36 (8.1 kg) (9.8 m/s 2 )

=

cos 31.6 + 0.36 sin 31.6 = 27.4681 N .

012 (part 2 of 4) 0 points

What is the normal force on the suitcase? Correct answer: 64.9871 N. Explanation:

You are helping support the weight, so the normal force is

N

= m g F sin θ

= (8.1 kg) (9.8 m/s 2 ) (27.4681 N) sin 31.6

= 64.9871 N .

013 (part 3 of 4) 0 points

If you pull the suitcase 98.9 m, what work

have you done? Correct answer: 2313.8 J. Explanation:

w = F d cos θ

= (27.4681 N) (98.9 m) cos 31.6

= 2313.8 J .

014 (part 4 of 4) 0 points

If you are accelerating the suitcase with accel-

eration 0.947 m/s 2 what is F ? Correct answer: 34.8412 N. Explanation:

If the suitcase is accelerating with an accel-

eration a, the force F is

F cos θ µ (m g F sin θ) = m a

F =

m a + µ m g

cos θ + µ sin θ

(8.1 kg) (0.947 m/s 2 )

=

cos 31.6 + 0.36 sin 31.6 0.36 (8.1 kg) (9.8 m/s 2 )

+

cos 31.6 + 0.36 sin 31.6 = 34.8412 N .

015 (part 1 of 4) 3 points

A 52.7 kg box initially at rest is pushed 2.36 m

along a rough, horizontal ﬂoor with a constant

applied horizontal force of 261.303 N. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s 2 . If the coeﬃcient of friction between box and ﬂoor is 0.468, ﬁnd the work done by the applied force. Correct answer: 616.676 J. Explanation:

The work done by the applied force is given

by

W F = F ·s = (261.303 N)(2.36 m) = 616.676 J 016 (part 2 of 4) 3 points

Find the work done by the friction. Correct answer: 570.42 J. Explanation:

The work done by the friction is given by

W f = f · s = µ m g s

W f = 0.468(52.7 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(2.36 m) = 570.42

017 (part 3 of 4) 2 points

Find the change in kinetic energy of the box. Correct answer: 46.256 J.

Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004 6

Explanation:

The net work done is given by

Then, using Kepler’s third law, these four quantities are related by

W net = W F +W f = 616.676 J+(570.42 J) = 46.256 J 2

T

c

2

T

e

= a 3 ,

c

a 3

e

018 (part 4 of 4) 2 points

Find the the ﬁnal speed of the box. Correct answer: 1.32493 m/s. Explanation:

The change in kinetic energy is equal to the net work done, so

K = W net =

m v

2

f

2

2

i

m v

2

since the factor of proportionality cancels out. Hence, solving for a c , one gets

a c =

a e

2

T

c

2

T

e

1/3

(1 AU ) 75.6 years 1 years

=

= 17.8792 AU .

2/3

The initial velocity is zero, so

v f = 2 W net

m

=

=

2 (46.256 J) 52.7 kg 1.32493 m/s

019 (part 1 of 3) 4 points

The distance of closest approach of Halley’s comet to the sun is 8.55 × 10 7 km ( 0.57 AU). The period of the comet is 75.6 years. The radius of the earth’s orbit around the sun is 1.5 × 10 8 km (1 AU) (assume the earth’s orbit is circular). Find the length of the semi-major axis of the comet’s orbit. Correct answer: 17.8792 AU. Explanation:

Basic Concepts: Kepler’s Third Law.

Solution:

pler’s third law,

to the semi-major axis, a, by Ke-

T 2 =

2

4 π M sun a 3 .

G

Let

and

T e = Period of Earth’s orbit, a e = Semi-major axis of Earth’s orbit, T c = Period of comet’s orbit, a c = Semi-major axis of comet’s orbit.

020 (part 2 of 3) 3 points

Denote the length of the semi-major axis of the orbit by a, and the distance of the closest approach to the sun by d. The maximum distance between the Halley’s comet and the sun is given by

1. 2 a d correct 2. 1 2 (a − d)
3. a − d
4. 1 2 (a + d)
5. a + d
6. 2 a + d
Explanation:
s
d
x
2a

(Refer to the above ﬁgure.)

021 (part 3 of 3) 3 points

What is the maximum distance between the

Answer, Key – Homework 7 – David McIntyre – 45123 – Mar 25, 2004 7

Halley’s comet and the sun? Correct answer: 35.1884 AU. Explanation:

x

= 2(17.8792 AU ) 0.57 AU = 35.1884 AU .

022 (part 1 of 2) 0 points

Given: G = 6.672 × 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 . The planet Mars requires 2.4 years to orbit the sun, which has a mass of 2 × 10 30 kg, in an almost circular trajectory. Calculate the radius of the orbit of Mars as it circles the sun. Correct answer: 2.68527 × 10 11 m. Explanation:

and

Thus,

r

F r = G M m

r

2

= m a r = m ω 2 r ,

ω = 2 π

T

2 π

=

(7.56864 × 10 7 s) = 8.3016 × 10 8 rad/s .

= G M

ω

2

1

3

=

2 × 10 30 kg

(8.3016 × 10 8 rad/s) 2

1

3

× (6.672 × 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 ) = 2.68527 × 10 11 m .

1

3

023 (part 2 of 2) 0 points

Calculate the orbital speed of Mars as it cir- cles the sun. Correct answer: 22292 m/s. Explanation:

v = ω r

= (8.3016 × 10 8 rad/s) (2.68527 × 10 11 m)

= 22292 m/s .

024 (part 1 of 1) 0 points

A “synchronous” satellite, which always re- mains above the same point on a planet’s equator, is put in orbit about Jupiter to study the Great Red Spot. Jupiter rotates once every 9.9 h, has a mass of 1.9 × 10 27 kg and a radius of 6.99 × 10 7 m. Given that G = 6.67 × 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 , calculate how far above Jupiter’s surface the satellite must be. Correct answer: 8.98589 × 10 7 m. Explanation:

Basic Concepts: Solution:

According to Kepler’s third law:

T 2 =

4 π

2

M r 3

G

where r is the radius of the satellite’s orbit. Thus, solving for r:

r

= G M T 2

4 π 2

1

3

= 6.67 × 10 11 N m 2 /kg 2 × M × (35640 s) 2

4 × (3.1415926536 ) 2

= 1.59759 × 10 8 m .

1

3

Now, the altitude h of the satellite (measured from the surface of Jupiter) is

h = r R = 8.98589 × 10 7 m