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TECHNICAL REPORT & SEMINAR

ON
IC ENGINES
In partial fulfillment of the BACHLORS DEGREE
in R.T.M. NAGPUR UNIVERSITY, NAGPUR (M.S.)
Submitted by:
Akshay charde
{ME13004}
Under the Guidance of
Dr. BHASKAR PATEL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


KAVIKULGURU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE
RAMTEK 441 106
(2014-2015)

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CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this mast. Akshay charde is the bonafide student of third
semester mechanical engineering department have successfully completed the
technical report & seminar work entitled.

IC ENGINES

During the academic year 2014-15

Dr. Bhaskar Patel Shri. Kolhe Sir

(Project guide) (Project Co-ordinator)

Shri. P.S. PACHPOR

H.O.D.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

KAVIKULGURU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE

RAMTEK 441 106

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to all those who gave
me the possibility to complete this report. A special thanks to our third year project
guide, DR. Bhaskar Patel , whose helped me through his stimulating suggestions
and encouragement, helped me to coordinate my project especially in writing this
report.

I express our deep sense of gratitude for our project coordinator Shri. Kolhe
sir .

I thank our head of mechanical engineering department Shri. P.S . Pachpor


who gave us inspiration to pursue this report and providing all facilities needed.

A special thanks for our beloved principal sir, Dr. Bhaskar Patel , for his
encouragement and supporting our ideas in our technical report.

I would like to thank our parents, our friends for their help and support.

Finally we are also thankful to one and all that directly or indirectly helped
us in the successful completion of this report.

AKSHAY CHARDE
(ME3004)

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INDEX

CH.NO. CONTENTS PAGE NO.


1. INTRODUCTION 5
2. HISTORY OF IC ENGINES 6
3. TYPES OF IC ENGINES 9
4. OPERATION OF IC ENGINES 11
5. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF 14
IC ENGINES
6. APPLICATIONS OF IC ENGINES 15
7. CONCLUSION 16
8. REFERENCE 17

NO. OF FIGURES
NO.FIG FIGURES Pg.no.
1 IC engine 5
2 2 stroke IC engine 9
3 4 stroke IC engine 10
4 6 stroke IC engine 10
5 Intake stroke 12
6 Compression stroke 12
7 Power stroke 13
8 Exhaust stroke 13

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
What are IC engines?
IC Engine is the one in which combustion of the fuel takes place in a confined space,
producing expanding gases that are used directly to provide mechanical power. Such engines are
classified as reciprocating or rotary, spark ignition or compression ignition, and two-stroke or
four-stroke; the most familiar combination, used from automobiles to lawn mowers, is the
reciprocating, spark-ignited, four-stroke gasoline engine.

Other types of internal-combustion engines include the reaction engine (see jet
propulsion, rocket), and the gas turbine. Engines are rated by their maximum horsepower, which
is usually reached a little below the speed at which undue mechanical stresses are developed.

Fig.(1) IC engine

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CHAPTER-2
HISTORY
The Abbes Hautefeuille described in 1678, an engine for raising water, in which the motive
power was obtained by burning gunpowder in a cylinder and cooling the remaining gases with
water. The idea was similar to that expressed in the early forms of the steam engine, but
Hautefeuille does not appear to have preformed any actual experiments. The same idea was
suggested by Huygens in 1680, but experiments made by him and later by Denis Papinwere not
attended by success and were abandoned, though they are interesting as representing the first
actual attempts at the building of internal-combustion engines.

A long period of inaction followed. The discovery of the distillation of gas from coal
and the demonstration, by Murdock in 1792, of the application of coal gas for lighting purposes
roused new interest in the subject. The introduction of the steam engine for commercial purposes
about this time was also a powerful incentive, though for many decades the steam engine was too
firmly entrenched and fitted the existing conditions too well to afford much opportunity for
competition. About 1791 John Barber explained in a patent how a wheel with vanes could be
driven by the released pressure of an orifice close to the vanes. In the century and a quarter that
have elapsed since that day, no economical gas turbine has been constructed.

Browns Gas Vacuum Engine-

The first internal-combustion engine, according to our modern ideas, was that of
Robert Street, patented in England in 1794. In this the bottom of a cylinder was heated by fire
and a small quantity of tar or turpentine was projected into the hot part of the cylinder, forming a
vapor. The rising of the piston sucked in a quantity of air to form the explosion mixture and also
flame for ignition.

Wrights Internal Combustion Engine-

The next engine to attain any considerable prominence was that of Samuel
Brown, who secured several patents in England about 1825. Browns engine consisted of a
number of large chambers, in which the hot gases produced by flame were cooled by the
injection of water, thus forming a partial vacuum. The working pistons, in cylinders adjacent to

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the large chambers, were operated by atmospheric pressure, all pistons being connected to the
same crankshaft.

Barnetts 2-Cycle Engine-

In 1838 William Barnett patented in England an engine which was an advance upon
preceding types in that country. It compressed the gas and air separately, igniting the mixture
when the piston was at the end of its stroke. The third engine described by this inventor is
interesting because it embodies several features of the modern two-cycle engine. The piston
moves upward, compressing a mixture of gas and air. Ignition occurs when the piston has
reached its highest position, and the piston driven down, expansion occurring until the piston
passes the exhaust port at the middle of the cylinder. During the latter half of the stroke the
pumps are forcing gas and air into space below the piston, The compression being completed by
the working piston and an explosion occurring when the piston reaches its lowest position.

Barsanti and Matteucci Engine-

The engine of Barsanti-Matteucci Engine, patented in 1857, illustrates a type of


machine that was the first to achieve a real commercial success. Gas and air were exploded under
the piston, which was driven upward, finally coming to a rest when all of the work of the
explosion had been done. The piston, descending under the pressure of atmosphere, did the work.
And thus it worked.

Brayton Oil Engine-

To the American the most interesting part of the development of internal-combustion


engines is that played by Brayton about 1872 to 1874. The Brayton engine was to some extent
the precursor of the present Diesel engine. The mixture of gas and air burned at constant pressure
and gave a card resembling somewhat that of the steam engine. This engine was manufactured
for a while, but was not able to compete with the Otto-Langen free-piston engine in economy. It
was adapted for both gas and petroleum.

Early Otto Engine-

The well-known Otto engine was invented by Dr. Nicholas Otto, of Germany, and was
patented in this country in 1877. It follows the cycle that has been described by Beau de Rochas ,

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now known as the four-cycle, or sometimes as the Otto cycle. The engine was first known as the
Otto-Silent, to distinguish it from the free-piston engine, which was rather noisy. It immediately
established the internal-combustion engine on a firm footing, and the engines of the four-cycle
type sold today show merely minor improvements. The sliding valve on 1876 has been replaced
by poppet valves, and the flame ignition has been replaced by the electric spark. Otherwise, the
Otto cycle of 1876 has persisted and at this time thousands of them are being manufactured.

The development of the Diesel engine for oil began about 1894. As has been stated, this
engine is similar to the Brayton. Air is compressed to about 500 pounds pressure and oil is
sprayed into this highly compressed air. It burns spontaneously at nearly constant pressure,
which is followed by a long expansion. The extremely high temperature of the air previous to the
injection of the fuel, and the high temperature maintained during this injection, together with the
long expansion, give the engine the highest efficiency of any thermal motor. The development of
the Diesel engine has been so recent that it is not necessary to elaborate upon it. At this time, it is
being manufactured in all of the European countries and in America, and there is a tendency on
the part of many of the American manufacturers who are bringing out new engines to adopt the
features of the Diesel. The gas turbine is as yet in the experimental stage. A number have been
built and are of course, extremely interesting. The success of the steam turbine has encouraged
many to believe that the gas turbine will achieve similar success. Nothing of recent development
can be said to encourage this view. The difficulties in the way of successful gas turbines are very
great, and while some turbines have been designed and run, none of them has shown an
efficiency at all comparable to that of ordinary four-cycle engines.

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CHAPTER-3

TYPES OF IC ENGINES

Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration.

1) Two-stroke engine
A two-stroke, or two-cycle ,engine is a type of internal combustion engine which
movements. This is accomplished by the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the
compression stroke happening simultaneously and performing the intake and exhaust functions
at the same time. Two-stroke engines often provide high power-to-weight ratio, usually in a
narrow range of rotational speeds called the power band. They have a greatly reduced number
of moving parts, are more compact and significantly lighter.

Fig.(2) Two stroke engine cycle.

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2) Four-stroke engine
A four-stroke engine (also known as four-cycle) is an internal combustion engine in
which the piston completes four separate strokes which comprise a single thermodynamic cycle.
A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction.

Fig.(3) four stroke


engine cycle

3) Six-stroke engine
The pistons in six-stroke engine go up and down three times for each injection of fuel. There are
two power strokes: one with fuel, the other with steam or air. The second approach , called the
opposed piston design , uses a second opposed piston in each cylinder that moves at half the
cyclical rate of the main piston, thus giving six piston movements per cycle. Functionally, the
second piston replaces the valve mechanism of a conventional engine but also increases the
compression ratio.

Fig.(4) six cycle


engine cycle

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CHAPTER-4

OPERATION AND WORKING OF IC ENGINES

Principle of working of an IC Engine:

Air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber (inside the cylinder) is ignited, either by
a spark plug (in case of Spark Ignition Engines) or by compression (in case of Compression
Ignition engines). This ignition produces tremendous amount of heat and pressure inside the
cylinder. This induces reciprocating motion in the piston.

Power of the piston is transmitted to a crankshaft which undergoes rotary motion. The
rotary motion is ultimately transmitted to the wheels of the vehicle, via a transmission system, to
produce propulsion in the vehicle.

As the combustion takes place internally inside the cylinder (a part of working fluid
circuit), the engine is called internal combustion engine.

Four-stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two
revolutions of the engine:

(1) Intake/suction stroke

(2) Compression stroke

(3) Power/expansion stroke

(4) Exhaust stroke

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1. Intake stroke: The first stroke of the internal combustion engine

is also known as the suction stroke because the piston

moves to the maximum volume position (downward direction in the

Cylinder) creating a drop in pressure. The inlet valve opens as

a result of the cam lobe pressing down on the valve stem, and the
vaporized fuel mixture is

sucked into the combustion chamber. The inlet valve closes at the end
of this stroke.
Fig.(5) Intake stroke

2. Compression stroke:

In this stroke, both valves are closed and the piston starts
its movement to the minimum volume position (upward direction in
the cylinder) and compresses the fuel mixture. During the compression
process, pressure, temperature and the density of the fuel mixture
increases.

Fig.(6) compression stroke

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3.Powerstroke:

When the piston reaches a point just before top dead center,
the spark plug ignites the fuel mixture. The point at which
the fuel ignites varies by engine; typically it is about 10
degrees before top dead center. This expansion of gases
caused by ignition of the fuel produces the power that is
transmitted to the crank shaft mechanism.

Fig.(7) power stroke

4.Exhauststroke:

In the end of the power stroke, the exhaust valve opens.


During this stroke, the piston starts its movement in the maximum
volume position. The open exhaust valve allows the exhaust gases to
escape the cylinder. At the end of this stroke, the exhaust valve closes,
the inlet valve opens, and the sequence repeats in the next cycle.

Fig.(8) Exhaust stroke.

Four-stroke engines require two revolutions. Many engines overlap these steps in time;
turbine engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines.

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CHAPTER-5

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IC ENGINES

The main advantages of an internal combustion engine are given below:

Multi fuel capacity


Flexibility and reliability
Easy starting and control
Waste heat recovery
Less noise and vibrations

The disadvantages of an internal combustion engine are given below:

Poor fuel economy


Stability
Part load efficiency
High combustion rates
Reduction gearing is required

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CHAPTER-6
APPLICATIONS OF IC ENGINES
Internal combustion engine, a type of heat engine mostly refers to reciprocating engine.
Fuel mixture and air is burnt in very small and confined space by combustion. Exothermic
reaction results in increase of pressure and temperature. Internal combustion engine is capable of
converting chemical fuel energy in to mechanical energy. Depending on the application type,
internal combustion engine are designed. Internal combustion engine finds its own major
application in mobile propulsion system. The use of engine in mobile state of affairs ensures
more power to weight ratio in addition to excess fuel energy density.

Internal combustion engine is now widely used in number of automobiles, aircraft


vehicles, motorbikes, boats and other similar locomotives. Automobiles such as helicopters, big
barges and ships and jet crafts utilize excess power which is supplied in the form of gas turbines.
Gas turbines are especially used in major power plants and similar naval applications. It is also
used for minor power applications.

Competitive technology of electric motor invention is used in power automobiles such as


low power automobiles and non automobiles. Battery operated electric vehicles have hybrid
internal combustion engine technology. Batteries are made of Lithium ion and Lithium poly
chemistry and are of safe, cost efficient and has increased life expectance. Compression ratio can
be varied depending on the operation principle like temperature, fuel type and equivalence ratio
of internal combustion engine. If one of the parameter is altered as desired, then compression
ratio of interest is obtained. The mechanical friction between crankshaft and connecting rod is
negligible. Use of piston dynamics improves the quality of engine oil and emissions such as
NOx.

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CHAPTER-7

CONCLUSION

The internal combustion engines plays vital role in the working of an automobile. The
history behind the invention of ic engine is well considered. Classification of ic engines
depending upon number of strokes is also studied. The 4-stroke working of an engine is fully
explained. Benefits as well as the limitations of this technology are observed. The applications of
this technology in modern vehicles are also taken into consideration. Thus the technical study on
the topic has been successful.

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REFERENCES
BOOKS-

-Introduction to IC Engines

By Richard stone Tata McGraw-hill Education 9th edition pg.no. 365

-Internal Combustion Engine fundamentals

By- john Heywood Laxmi publication 11th edition pg.no. 193

-I.C. Engines

By- Ganesan Published by SAE international 9th edition pg.no. 383

WEBLINKS-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine&sa

http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/

http://www.brighthube//engineering.com/machine-design/

http://archive.org/stream/internalcombusti00carprich/

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