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PWM Amplifiers * Under development
40
PRODUCT
SELECTOR SA03
SA13

Output Current (Amps)


30
MATRICES
PWM AMPLIFIERS, SA04
POWER AMPLIFIERS SA01 SA14
20
Product See Page
SA01 50
SA60* SA06
SA09* SA02 SA16
SA02 58 10
SA03 68
SA04 76 SA07 SA50
0 SA51
SA06 80
0 100 200 300 400 500
SA07 88
Total Supply Voltage (Volts)
SA13 98
SA13, SA14, SA16 = Half bridge
SA14 106
SA16 110
SA50 118
SA51 124 High Voltage Amplifiers * Under development
PA01/73 130 250
PA45/PA46 1.5 Amps
PA02 136 5 Amps PB50 PB58
2 Amps PA85/PA15*
PA03 144 200 PA90*
Output Current (mA)

PA04 148
PA05 158 PA08 PA08V
150
PA07 162
PA08 168 PA41/PA42/PA44 PA88 PA89
PA09 174 100
PA83
PA10 180
PA12 185 50
PA81 PA84
PA19 191 PA82
PA21/25/26 195
0
PA41/42 209 0 100 200 300 400 500 1200
PA44 219 Total Supply Voltage (Volts)
PA45 225
PA46 231
PA51 237
High Current Amplifiers * Under development
35
PA61 243
PA05 PA03
PA81/82J 249 30
Output Current (Amps)

PA83 253
PA84 259
25
PA85 265 PA04
20 PA13*
PA88 271
PA12A
PA89 277 15
PB50 281 PA51 PA61/PA12
10 PA93 (400V)*
PB58 287 PA10
PA02 PA01 PA73 PA07 PA45/PA46
5 PA92 (400V)*
For the complete PWM Amplifier, PA21/25 PA26 PA19 PB50
0 PA09 PB58 (300V)
High Current Amplifier, High Voltage 0 50 100 150 200
Amplifier and High Speed selector Total Supply Voltage (Volts)
guides, please refer to pages 43 - 45.
APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
3
Discrete Off-The-Shelf
Design Power Amplifier
HIGH Research Components for Prototype
Purchase Components A
Build Prototype
Project Costs

Debug Prototype
Test Prototype in Circuit
Place Production Buy Request Apex Data Book
Elapsed Time: As long as 1 year Talk with Apex Applications Engineers
Select Apex Part
Sample Apex Part
Test Apex Part in Circuit
Place Production Buy
LOW

Elapsed Time: As little as 2 weeks

LOW HIGH
Productivity

DISCRETE OR OFF-THE-SHELF? FREE APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING


Designing a power amplifier or dc/dc converter into a circuit ENHANCES PRODUCT RELIABILITY
can be approached one of two ways: discretely or off-the-shelf. The Apex reputation for high quality, high reliability products
The former requires using a myriad of components, combined is due in large part to the positive results Apex Applications
with multiple hours of design time, procurement and production. Engineers generate for Apex customers. By working closely
The latter involves an Apex manufactured hybrid or monolithic with customers from the very start of their circuit design, Apex
component that the user selects based on their circuit require- Applications Engineers can guarantee a reliable outcome when
ments. the project reaches production.
Apex Microtechnology is in the business of designing and Starting with product selection assistance, Apex Applications
manufacturing power amplifiers and dc/dc converters to help Engineers work closely with customers through circuit design,
engineers work smarter and faster. Apex offers more than 75 schematic review and prototype evaluation. Apex Applications
models of power amplifiers and hybrid dc/dc converters for use Engineers also visit customers on site to assist with critical
in thousands of commercial, industrial and military applications issues such as circuit debugging.
worldwide.
The benefits of using an off-the-shelf power amplifier or dc/dc LIFETIME WARRANTY ON HERMETIC PRODUCTS
converter solution from Apex can be summarized as follows:
All hermetically packaged products manufactured by APEX
* Higher Reliability MICROTECHNOLOGY are warranted to be free of manufactur-
able defects when operated within the
* Reduced Size and Weight
published specified operating condi-
Requirements
tions for the life of the equipment in
* Reduced Design Time which the APEX component is origi-
* Reduced Procurement nally installed and purchased from
Time and Costs APEX or an authorized distributor. The
warranty applies only to the original
customer, or the first system buyer of
the original equipment from an APEX
customer. For non-hermetic packages,
the warranty period is for one year
from the date of invoice/shipment.

Leading edge design


tools foster Apexs
product development

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
4
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Power amplifiers are typically used in applications involving
drivers, positioning or deflection. Apex products can be found in
robotics, optical disk drives, heating and cooling controls, ATE,
piezo drives and scanning tunneling microscopes. The creative
possibilities for new applications are infinite.
The circuit schematics below are for several typical power
amplifier applications.

R 20R 20R

20R
V IN
3 7 +175 +175
EA +VS 2.2K 2.2K
+VIN IN OUT
1 10pF
A A1 10pF A2
7.5V 6
5 EA OUT PA41 R CL R CL PA41 Rn
REF PWM Tach
180 180
100 Cn
2
+IN B 100
9 PIEZO
SHDN/ OUT 330pF 330pF
SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
10 8 4 175 175
MOTOR
RFILTER
RLIMIT
CFILTER

+15V
+150V
OBJECT RCL
TOOL VIN OP
AMP
POSITION PB58
CC
FEEDBACK
+VS
RBAL 15V 150V
+ RG
RD IO = 2A
+5V +S
SHUT DOWN S PA03 CF
0/10V CF'
DAC VS
R1 MOTOR YOKE
DESIRED
POSITION C1
RF
R2
VOUT RS
100V/s

+VS
(12V or RF
10K 28V)
2K 10K +VS
10K
+VS
(12V or 1/2 PA26 10K
28V) R IN
1
5V A B PIEZO DRIVE
Reference R CL
1/2 PA26 1 PA87 V OUT
1
VIN .1F .1F
COMPUTER
10K 2K 10K FOCUS
COMMAND
VOLTAGE
Rd SOLENOID PIEZO
V S
Cf

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
5
APEX CAN WORK IN YOUR APPLICATION
Time to use some creativity of your own. The chart that able to provide you with free product selection assistance,
follows will help guide your thought patterns regarding the circuit design and schematic review. Call toll free 1-800-546-
possibilities of using an Apex power amplifier in your applica- APEX (1-800-546-2739).
tion. Remember, Apex Applications Engineers are also avail-

Typical Power Amplifier Applications A


Industry End Product Circuit Type Power Amplifier
Selection
Industrial Controls Engraving Machine Spindle Elevation Control High Power/PWM
and Machinery (linear motor)
Process Control System Proportional Valve Driver High Power/PWM
Emergency Alarms Audio High Power
Robotics Position Control(motor drive) High Power/PWM
Wire Pull Tester Precision Torque(motor drive) High Power/PWM
Ink Jet Printers Electrostatic Deflection High Voltage

Computers and Optical Scanning System Galvanometer Drive High Power/PWM


Office Equipment Infrared Scanning System Speed Control Motor High Power/PWM
Disk Drive Head Positioning (linear motor) High Power

Communications Telecom Test Equipment Ring Generator High Voltage


Equipment Phone Line Driver High Voltage
Line Fault Detection High Voltage
Broadcast Radio Transmitter Tuning Control(motor drive) High Power

Aerospace Guidance Systems Gyro Motor Control High Power/PWM


Ring Laser Gyro High Voltage
Heads-Up Displays Magnetic Deflection High Power
Engine Controls Proportional Valve High Power/PWM
Noise Vibration Cancellation Actuator Drive High Power
High Voltage
Fin Actuator and Control Surfaces Motor Drive High Power/PWM

Weapon Systems Transmitters, Seekers Motor Drive High Power/PWM


Fin Actuator and Control Surfaces Motor Drive High Power/PWM
Gun Mount Control Motor Drive High Power/PWM

Test and Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) Pin Driver High Power
Measurement Programmable Power Supplies High Voltage
Equipment Waveform Generator Output Amplifier High Power/
High Voltage/
High Speed
Materials Testing Torque Motor High Power/PWM
Shake Table High Power/PWM
Actuator High Power/PWM

Optical Interferometer Piezo Drive High Voltage


Moving, Segmented Mirrors Piezo Drive High Voltage
Scanning Tunneling Microscope Piezo Drive High Voltage
Surface Analysis Piezo Drive High Voltage
Atomic Force Microscope Piezo Drive High Voltage
Laser, Beam Deflection Galvanometer Drive High Power

Medical Surgical, Medical Instruments Pumps High Power/PWM


Electro Surgery High Voltage Driver High Voltage
Hearing Test Equipment Audio Amplifier High Power

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
6
LIFE SUPPORT POLICY
As a general policy, Apex Microtechnology Corp. does not recommend the end use of any of its standard, commercial or military
products in life support applications where the failure or malfunction of the Apex product can be reasonably expected to cause failure
of the life support device or significantly affect the devices safety or effectiveness. Apex will only sell its products for use in such
applications under written agreement.

Examples of life support devices are neonatal oxygen analyzers, nerve stimulators (for any use), autotransfusion devices, blood
pumps, defibrillators, arrhythmia detectors and alarms, pacemakers, hemodialysis systems, peritoneal dialysis systems, ventila-
tors of all types, and infusion pumps, as well as other devices designated as critical by the FDA. The above are representative
examples only and are not intended to be conclusive or exclusive of any other life-supporting devices.

Apex has made every effort to insure the accuracy of this handbook to factory specifications as of March 1, 1998; however, no
responsibility is assumed for possible omission or inaccuracies.

Apex Microtechnology Corp. reserves the right to make changes without further notice to any specifications or products herein to
improve reliability, function or design. Changes and additions made after the publication of this handbook will be reflected in updated
product data sheets or other literature as soon as possible. If more detailed information on any product is desired, contact Apex
directly or any Apex authorized representative.

Apex does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein; neither does it
convey any license under its patent rights, nor the rights of others.

The following is a trademark of APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORP.

TM

M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y

Certain Apex products are manufactured under the following U.S. patents:
4833423, 07108745, 4871965, 5519357, 5142243.

Copyright 1998 by Apex Microtechnology Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
7
A

To Our Valued Customer,

In 1991, we began a change in our


culture. Today, our team members
are more involved in their jobs and
are actively making improvements
that result in better quality prod-
ucts and outstanding customer
service. We share our financial
progress with our team members
and through the use of Open Book
Management, our team members
are helping us to be more success-
ful. As a team, we have created a
vision for Apex, To provide world
leadership in innovation, product
quality, and customer service.

To help us achieve our vision, we


solicit your input. Your feedback has been and will continue to be
appreciated. Please call me on my direct line or send me an e-mail.
I look forward to hearing from you.

Lisa Putt
President
(520) 690-8619
e-mail: lputt@apexmicrotech.com

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
8
NOTES:

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
9
Tab Index

A A
General
General Info,
Info, Tab
Tab Index,
Index, Table
Table of
of Contents,
Contents, Quality/Screening
Quality/Screening

B B
DC/DC
DC/DC Converters
Converters

C C
PWM
PWM Amplifiers,
Amplifiers Power Operational Amplifiers

D D
Application
Application Notes
Notes

E E
Packages,
Packages, Accessories,
Accessories, Product
Product Marking
Marking

F F
Customer
Customer Service,
Service, Corporate
Corporate Directory,
Directory, Sales
Sales Representatives,
Representatives,
Subject
Subject Index,
Index, Customer
Customer Support
Support Request
Request Card
Card

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
10
Contents

A SECTION A General Info, Tab Index, Table of Contents, Quality

Simplify Your Circuit Design .......................................................................................................................... 3


Life Support, Liability, Trademarks, Patents ................................................................................................. 7
A Message To Our Customers ...................................................................................................................... 8
Tab Index ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................ 11
A Quality Message To Our Customers ....................................................................................................... 15
Grade Comparison: Industrial and Military Product .................................................................................... 16
SMD Grade Availability ............................................................................................................................... 17
M and /883 Screening Program ................................................................................................................ 18
Parameter Definitions and Test Methods .................................................................................................... 22
Reactance Chart ......................................................................................................................................... 24

B SECTION B DC/DC Converters

DC/DC Features ....................................................................................................................................... 27


DC/DC Converter Competitive Comparisons ........................................................................................... 28
DB2800S Series ....................................................................................................................................... 30
DHC2800S Series .................................................................................................................................. 36

C SECTION C General Operating Considerations, PWM Amplifiers,


Power Operational Amplifiers, Power Boosters
Product Selector Guides .......................................................................................................................... 43
Second Sources ....................................................................................................................................... 46
Frequency/Saturation Tables ................................................................................................................... 48

PWM AMPLIFIERS
SA01 ......................................................................................................................................................... 50
EK01, Evaluation Kit for SA01 Pin-out ................................................................................................... 54
SA02 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 58
EK02, Evaluation Kit for SA02 Pin-out ................................................ NEW ......................................... 64
SA03 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 68
EK03, Evaluation Kit for SA03/SA04 Pin-out ...................................... NEW ......................................... 72
SA04 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 76
SA06 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 80
EK05, Evaluation Kit for SA06 Pin-out ................................................ NEW ......................................... 84
SA07 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 88
EK07, Evaluation Kit for SA06 Pin-out ................................................ NEW ......................................... 94
SA13 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 98
EK10, Evaluation Kit for SA13/SA14 Pin-out ...................................... NEW ......................................... 102
SA14 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 106
SA16 .................................................................................................... NEW ......................................... 110
EK08, Evaluation Kit for SA16 Pin-out ................................................ NEW ......................................... 114
SA50 ....................................................................................................................................................... 118
EK-SA50, Evaluation Kit for SA50 Pin-out ............................................................................................. 122
SA50M .................................................................................................................................................... 123
SA51 ....................................................................................................................................................... 124
SA51M .................................................................................................................................................... 128
EK-SA51, Evaluation Kit for SA51 Pin-out ............................................................................................. 129

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
11
POWER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
PA01, PA73 ............................................................................................................................................ 130 A
PA73M .................................................................................................................................................... 134
PA02, PA02A ......................................................................................................................................... 136
PA02M .................................................................................................................................................... 140
PA02 Design Ideas .............................................................................................................................. 141
PA03, PA03A ....................................................................................................................................... 144
PA04, PA04A ....................................................................................................................................... 148
EK04, Evaluation Kit for PA04 and PA05 Pin-out ................................................................................ 152
PA05, PA05A ....................................................................................................................................... 158
PA07, PA07A ....................................................................................................................................... 162
PA07M .................................................................................................................................................. 166
PA08, PA08A ....................................................................................................................................... 168
PA08M .................................................................................................................................................. 172
PA08V .................................................................................................................................................. 173
PA09, PA09A ....................................................................................................................................... 174
PA09M .................................................................................................................................................. 178
PA10, PA10A ....................................................................................................................................... 180
PA10M .................................................................................................................................................. 184
PA12, PA12A ....................................................................................................................................... 185
PA12M .................................................................................................................................................. 189
PA12H .................................................................................................................................................. 190
PA19, PA19A ....................................................................................................................................... 191
PA21/PA25/PA26 ................................................................................................................................. 195
PA21M .................................................................................................................................................. 200
PA21/PA25/PA26 Design Ideas ........................................................................................................... 201
EK26, Evaluation Kit for PA26 Pin-out ................................................................................................. 202
EK21, Evaluation Kit for PA21 Pin-out ................................................................................................. 204
PA25DIE ............................................................................................................................................... 207
PA41/PA41A/PA42/PA42A .................................................................................................................. 209
PA41M .................................................................................................................................................. 213
PA41DIE ............................................................................................................................................... 214
PA41/42 Design Ideas ......................................................................................................................... 215
EK42, Evaluation Kit for SIP10 (PA42, PA87) Pin-out ......................................................................... 217
PA44 .................................................................................................... NEW ....................................... 219
EK13, Evaluation Kit for PA44 Pin-out ................................................ NEW ....................................... 223
PA45 ..................................................................................................................................................... 225
PA45DIE ............................................................................................................................................... 229
PA46 .................................................................................................... NEW ....................................... 231
EK12, Evaluation Kit for PA46 Pin-out ................................................ NEW ....................................... 235
PA51, PA51A ....................................................................................................................................... 237
PA51M .................................................................................................................................................. 241
PA61, PA61A ....................................................................................................................................... 243
PA61M .................................................................................................................................................. 247
PA81J/82J ............................................................................................................................................ 249
PA83, PA83A ....................................................................................................................................... 253
PA83M .................................................................................................................................................. 257
PA84, PA84A, PA84S .......................................................................................................................... 259
PA84M .................................................................................................................................................. 263
PA85, PA85A ....................................................................................................................................... 265
PA85M .................................................................................................................................................. 269
PA88, PA88A ....................................................................................................................................... 271
PA88M .................................................................................................................................................. 275
PA89, PA89A ....................................................................................................................................... 277

POWER BOOSTERS
PB50 ..................................................................................................................................................... 281
EK50, Power Booster Evaluation Kit .................................................................................................... 285
PB58, PB58A ....................................................................................................................................... 287

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
12
Contents
NOTE: For a complete listing of all /883 products and Standardized Military Drawing numbers (SMD), see page 18.

D SECTION D Application Notes

Applications Engineer Message .................................................................................................................... 292


Application Notes Cross-Reference .............................................................................................................. 293
Application Note 1, General Operating Considerations ................................................................................ 294
Application Note 2, Optoelectronic Position Control ................................................................................... 303
Application Note 3, Bridge Circuit Drives .................................................................................................... 305
Application Note 5, Precision Magnetic Deflection ..................................................................................... 308
Application Note 6, Applying the Super Power PA03 ................................................................................. 312
Application Note 7, Programmable Power Supplies ................................................................................... 317
Application Note 8, Optimizing Output Power ............................................................................................. 319
Application Note 9, Foldover Current Limiting ............................................................................................. 323
Application Note 10, Power Amp Output Impedance .................................................................................. 326
Application Note 11, Thermal Techniques .................................................................................................. 327
Application Note 13, Voltage to Current Conversion .................................................................................. 329
Application Note 14, Power Booster Applications ....................................................................................... 332
Application Note 16, SOA Advantages of MOSFETs ................................................................................. 334
Application Note 17, Wideband, Low Distortion Techniques ...................................................................... 336
Application Note 19, Stability for Power Amplifiers ..................................................................................... 339
Application Note 20, Bridge Mode Operation of Power Amplifiers .............................................................. 359
Application Note 21, Single Supply Operation of Power Amplifiers ............................................................ 363
Application Note 22, SOA and Load Lines .................................................................................................. 368
Application Note 24, Brush Type DC Motor Drive ....................................................................................... 372
Application Note 25, Driving Capacitive Loads ........................................................................................... 374
Application Note 26, Parallel Connection .................................................................................................. 393
Application Note 28, Proper Analog Wiring of Power Amplifiers ............................................................... 396
Application Note 30, PWM Basics ............................................................................................................. 398
Application Note 31, Basic Op Amp Theory and Practice ......................................................................... 403
Application Note 32, Low Pass Filtering .................................................. NEW ....................................... 405

E SECTION E Packages and Accessories, Product Marking

Packages Outline Dimensions ...................................................................................................................... 411


Accessories ................................................................................................................................................. 419
Product Marking .......................................................................................................................................... 435

Subject Index, Customer Support Request Card


F SECTION F Customer Service, Corporate Directory, Sales Representatives

Ordering Information, Product Warranty, Terms & Conditions ....................................................................... 442


Corporate Telephone Directory, Hours of Operation ..................................................................................... 444
Sales Representatives ................................................................................................................................... 445
Street Map Guide to Apex .............................................................................................................................. 446
Subject Index ................................................................................................................................................. 447

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
13
A

QUALITY

A Quality Message To Our Customers ................................................................ 15


Grade Comparison: Industrial and Military Product ............................................. 16
SMD Grade Availability ........................................................................................ 17
M and /883 Screening Program ......................................................................... 18
Parameter Definitions and Test Methods ............................................................. 22
Reactance Chart .................................................................................................. 24

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
14
SIGMA PLUS
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Seven Years of Sigma Plus; Quality Through
Knowledge and Understanding...

Dear Valued Customer:

Seven years of Sigma Plus have lead to consistent increases in quality and
performance for Apex and our customers. Sigma Plus, our Total Quality
Management program, continues to produce measurable quality improve-
ments, a culture based on teamwork, and increased value for our customers.

In alignment with Sigma Plus, we have instituted training and development in


the fundamentals of our business, further supporting Apex teams with the
tools they need to perform at high productivity and quality levels. With a firm
foundation of Sigma Plus quality tools that solve the how of continuous
improvement, team members are now learning the why with Open Book
Management. As a result, Apex teams are gaining greater understanding of
their personal impact on organizational systems and how they can directly improve organizational perfor-
mance. By giving team members a stake in the outcome, they gain personal satisfaction and ownership of the
products and services they provide to you, our customers.

We will continue to improve our systems and processes to exceed our customers expectations. Feedback
systems that identify internal and external customers needs and expectations keep us focused on customer
value. Teams have increased their job skills and have become functionally cross-trained to quickly adapt to
changes that anticipate customer needs. Our quality goal is to be #1 with our customers.

Automation and quality integration are two methods we are using to streamline manufacturing processes while
building quality directly into our products. Implementing automated processing in manufacturing will lead to
increased capacity to meet customer demand to ensure timely product delivery. Integrating quality processes
into manufacturing systems has enabled team members to make just-in-time improvements. Our automation
and quality initiatives are designed to provide greater product quality and value to our customers.

Our entire Apex Team is committed to Sigma Plus. This commitment provides the momentum necessary to
continually improve the quality of products and services we provide for our customers. If you have any
questions on our Quality Systems, please feel free to call or e-mail me.

John Jarvise
Quality Team Leader
jjarvise@apexmicrotech.com

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
15
INDUSTRIAL AND MILITARY PRODUCT

GRADE COMPARISON
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

A
Apex offers two different levels of quality screening: INDUSTRIAL AND MILITARY GRADE. Both
grades are produced on the same production line and assembled in the same Class 100,000 clean
room. This approach ensures a high quality level for our INDUSTRIAL products, as well as our
MILITARY products.

Our INDUSTRIAL products are 100% static and dynamic tested, performed at +25C. Our
MILITARY products are 100% tested over their respective full temperature range for both static and
dynamic parameters.

INDUSTRIAL MILITARY
OPERATION GRADE GRADE/883 and
NON-COMPLIANT

Clean room processing ............................................ YES .......................................... YES


Clean room testing ................................................... YES .......................................... YES
Solder Integrity tested .............................................. YES .......................................... YES
Wire bond integrity tested ........................................ YES .......................................... YES
All processing under
document control YES YES
High power die inspection ......................................... NO ........................................... YES
Processed on military line ........................................ YES .......................................... YES
Certified operators ..................................................... NO ........................................... YES
Maximum Number Of
Rework Cycles Specified:
Solder .................................................................. YES .......................................... YES
Epoxy ................................................................... NO ........................................... YES
Wirebond .............................................................. NO ........................................... YES
Pre-cap visual ...................................................... SAMPLE ..................................... 100%
Pre-seal vacuum bake ............................................. 1 hr. .......................................... 2 hrs.
Welded in controlled ATM. ....................................... YES .......................................... YES
Each unit checked for hermeticity ............................. NO ........................................... YES
Temp. cycle:
65C to +150C @ 10 cycles NO YES
Constant acceleration 10000G Y1 ............................ NO ........................................... YES
Burn-in: 160 hrs. @ TC = 125C ................................ NO ........................................... YES
Dynamic testing ...................................................... +25C .......................... 55C, +25C, +125C
External visual ........................................................... NO ........................................... YES
Pin finish ............................................................. Ni or solder .................................... Solder

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
16
MARCH 1, 1998

SMD GRADE AVAILABILITY


M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

M STOCKED
BASE MODEL INDUSTRIAL NON-COMPLIANT MILITARY /883 SMD # 2

DHC2803 .......................... S .......................................... S .................................. N1 ................................................ N


DHC2805 .......................... S .......................................... S .................................. N1 ................................................ N
DB2803 ............................. S .......................................... S .................................. N1 ................................................ N
DB2805 ............................. S .......................................... S .................................. N1 ........................... N
DB2812 ............................. S .......................................... S .................................. N1 ........................... N
DB2815 ............................. S .......................................... S .................................. N1 ........................... N
PA01 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA02 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9067901HXA
PA03 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA04 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA05 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA07 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9063801HXA
PA08 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9072301HXA
PA09 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9170001HXA
PA10 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9082801HXA
PA12 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9065901HXA
PA19 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA21 ................................. S .......................................... S ................................... C .............. 5962-9215201HXA
PA25 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA41 ................................. S .......................................... S ................................... N ............................ N
PA51 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C ............... 5962-8762002YA
PA61 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. S ............................ N
PA73 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. S ............................ N
PA81 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA82 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PA83 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9162101HXA
PA84 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. C .............. 5962-9073601HXA
PA85 ................................. S .......................................... S ................................... N ............................ N
PA88 ................................. S .......................................... S ................................... N ............................ N
PA89 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PB50 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N
PB58 ................................. S .......................................... N .................................. N ............................ N

S = stocked
C = custom order basis, SMD part # is recommended
N = not available
1
Under development
2
The suffix on the Stocked SMD numbers listed below ends in an A indicating solder dipped pin.

NOTE: For a complete, up-to-date listing of all /883 products and Standardized Military Drawing (SMD) num-
bers, refer to the current Apex Pricing & Ordering data sheet.

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17
M and /883 SCREENING PROGRAM
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

DESCRIPTION 1.4 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS A


These Apex Microtechnology power hybrids have been screened The performance specifications for a particular M or /883
to MIL-PRF-38534, Class H and manufactured in a DESC Certified hybrid circuit are contained in the following documents:
Facility using the baseline documents listed herein. They provide a 1. Industrial Grade Data Sheet (i.e. PA02/PA02A).
high reliability product option and satisfy the requirements for This contains Typical Characteristics and Performance Graphs.
components used in airborne and ground-based military applica- 2. M Data Sheet (i.e. PA02M).
tions. Compliance with these requirements is signified by the /883 This is the Table 4 Group A Inspection which defines the
suffix in the model number. Non-compliant version is identified parameters and limits that the product must meet when tested
using M only in the model number. over the full military case temperature range of -55C to +125C.
Complete description of an APEX M or /883 product In the event of conflicting requirements, the order of precedence
consists of the following: will be: purchase order, customers SCD, the APEX M data sheet,
1. Industrial Grade Data Sheet (i.e. PA02/PA02A). and other reference documents.
This contains Typical Characteristics and Performance Graphs.
2. M Data Sheet (i.e. PA02M). 2.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
This is the Table 4 Group A Inspection which defines the The individual requirements are specified herein and in accor-
parameters and limits that the product must meet when tested dance with the applicable APEX M data sheet. The static and
over the full military case temperature range of 55C to +125C. dynamic electrical performance requirements for the hybrid circuit
3. APEX /883 Screening Program Data Sheet (i.e. this docu- and test conditions are as specified in the applicable APEX M data
ment). sheet.
This defines the manufacturing processes and screening steps
for an M or /883 product. (Refer to Figure 1 for order of flow.) 2.1 PROCESS CONDITIONING,
4. Package and Accessories Information Data Sheet TESTING, RELIABILITY, and QUALITY
This contains the package outline dimensions (i.e. 8-pin TO-3).
All applications data and performance optimization suggestions ASSURANCE SCREENING
given for the Industrial model apply to Military versions of a given Process conditioning, screening and testing are as specified in
product family as well. Package outlines are identical except that Section 4.0. Figure 1 illustrates the process flow for M or /883
Military grade pins are gold plated to meet the solderability require- products processed to MIL-PRF-38534, Class H.
ments of MIL-STD-883, Method 2003.
2.1.1 PRODUCT or PROCESS CHANGE
QML-38534 FACILITY APPROVAL STATUS APEX will not implement any major change, as listed in MIL-PRF-
APEX is a DESC certified and qualified QML-38534 facility. 38534, to the design, materials, construction, configuration, or
APEX received certification November 8, 1989 and a QML listing as manufacturing process which may affect the performance, quality,
of May 31, 1990. reliability, or interchangeability of the circuit without full or partial re-
qualification. M product is a HI-REL non-compliant product.
CONSTRUCTION
These power hybrids have been built and assembled using the 2.2 QUALITY CONFORMANCE
chip and wire process. A metallized ceramic (beryllia) substrate is The M or /883 hybrid circuits furnished under this specification
used with thick film resistors and gold conductors. Power transistors are products which have been produced and tested in conformance
are attached to silver conductors at the same time that the substrate with all the provisions of this specification.
is attached to the header, using high temperature solder and reflow
techniques. Small signal die are attached using MIL-STD-883 2.3 MARKING
method 5011 conductive epoxy. Chip capacitors are attached with 2.3.1 MARKING EACH DEVICE
conductive epoxy. Die to substrate and pin to substrate wire bonds
use 1, 5 or 10 mil diameter aluminum wire. The package is The following marking is placed on each hybrid circuit:
hermetically sealed using high-speed, one-shot resistance welding a) Index point (see 2.3.4)
in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. b) Part number (see 2.3.5)
c) CAGE code number (see 2.3.6)
1.0 APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS d) Lot identification code (see 2.3.7)
e) Manufacturers identification (see 2.3.8)
1.1 SPECIFICATIONS f) Country of origin (see 2.3.9)
MIL-M-55565 Microcircuits, Packaging of g) BeO warning (if applicable, see 2.3.10)
MIL-PRF-38534 General Specification for Hybrid Microcircuits h) ESD identifier
These units are Class 1 as defined in MIL-PRF-38534; therefore,
1.2 STANDARDS the ESD identifier is incorporated in the mark.
MIL-STD-883 Test Methods and Procedures for
Microelectronics 2.3.2 MARKING ON INITIAL CONTAINER
Marking on initial anti-static packaging for delivery includes:
1.3 BASELINE DOCUMENTS a) Manufacturers identification
APEX maintains on file the procedures, process specifications b) Customer name
and process qualification reports that are in general the documents c) Customers P.O. number
which have established the baseline for APEX in satisfying the d) Quantity packaged
requirements of certification in accordance with Appendix D of MIL- e) Lot code
PRF-38534. f) Customers SCD number
g) Date packaged
h) Packaging operators initials

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18
2.3.3 MARKING PERMANENCE 3.7 HERMITICITY
Marking is permanent in nature to MIL-STD-883, Method 2015. Hermiticity tests are performed per the following:
2.3.4 INDEX POINT 3.7.1 FINE LEAK TESTING
The index point, denoting location of Pin 1, is indicated as shown Fine leak testing is performed to MIL-STD-883, Method 1014,
on the appropriate Package Outline. Condition A, at 1X10-6 cc/sec standard leak rate.
2.3.5 PART NUMBER 3.7.2 GROSS LEAK TESTING
The part number is the APEX generic part number and DESC Gross leak testing is performed to MIL-STD-883, Method 1014,
SMD part number, when applicable. Condition C, at 60 PSIG pre-pressurization.
2.3.6 CAGE CODE NUMBER 3.8 EXTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION
The CAGE code number for APEX is 60024 as designated by the All M and /883 hybrid circuits receive external visual to MIL-
Federal government. STD-883, Method 2009.
2.3.7 LOT IDENTIFICATION CODE 4.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISION*
The lot identification code is a 9-digit alphanumeric code. The first
two letters indicate the assembly operator responsible for 4.1 QUALITY CONFORMANCE INSPECTION
manufacture of the lot. These initials are followed by a three digit lot Quality Conformance Inspection (QCI) is to MIL-PRF-38534,
code, a two digit year-of-seal code, and a two digit week-of-seal Option 1, in-line qualification method. Lots failing to meet quality
code. conformance inspection for a given product assurance level are
rejected.
2.3.8 MANUFACTURERS IDENTIFICATION
The manufacturers identification is signified by the name, logo, 4.1.1 GROUP A ELECTRICAL TESTING
or trademark of APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY incorporated in the Group A electrical testing is performed using in-line verification in
mark. accordance with Option 1 of MIL-PRF-38534. Electrical param-
eters and test limits are as shown in the M data sheet.
2.3.9 COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
The country of origin is signified by USA incorporated in the mark. 4.1.2 GROUP B INSPECTION
Group B inspection is satisfied by performing in-line inspection
2.3.10 BeO WARNING sampling, to MIL-PRF-38534, Option 1.
Since these hybrid circuits contain beryllium oxide substrates, the
BeO identifier is marked on the package as an alert to the user, that 4.1.3 GROUP C INSPECTION
if the package seal is broken, not to crush, machine, or subject the Group C inspection is performed on the first lot submitted for
substrate to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating inspection and as required to evaluate or qualify changes in
toxic fumes. manufacturing processes per MIL-PRF-38534, Option 1.
3.0 CONDITIONS AND METHODS OF TEST 4.1.4 GROUP D INSPECTION
Conditions and methods of test are to MIL-PRF-38534 and as Group D testing in accordance with MIL-PRF-38534, Option 1, is
specified herein. This section establishes the stress screening tests accomplished during package evaluation at incoming inspection
and quality conformance inspection tests for this program. The and is not repeated.
purpose of these tests is to assure the quality and reliability of the
product to a particular process level commensurate with the products 5.0 DATA AND REPORTS*
intended application. All tests are performed on a 100% basis
except where indicated. 5.1 CERTIFICATE of COMPLIANCE
3.1 HIGH POWER DIE INSPECTION All /883 hybrid circuits are accompanied by a Certificate of
Compliance.
High power die inspection is performed to MIL-STD-750 Method
2072 and 2073, and MIL-STD-883 Method 2010. 5.2 QUALITY CONFORMANCE REPORTS
3.2 INTERNAL VISUAL INSPECTION (PRECAP) MIL-PRF-38534, Option 1, Group A lot data is kept on file with the
production records. In-line Groups B, C and D (reference 4.1.4)
Internal visual inspection is performed to MIL-STD-883, Method
generic data is also on file.
2017 and 2032.
3.3 TEMPERATURE CYCLING 5.3 TRACEABILITY
Traceability is in accordance with MIL-PRF-38534. Each hybrid
Temperature cycling is performed to MIL-STD-883, Method
circuit is traceable to the production lot. Re-worked or repaired
1010, Condition C, using 10 cycles from 65C to +150C.
circuits maintain traceability.
3.4 BURN-IN 6.0 PACKAGING
Burn-in is performed to MIL-STD-883, Method 1015, Condition D
Packing and packaging are to MIL-M-55565.
for 160 hours at a case temperature of 125C.
3.5 CONSTANT ACCELERATION 7.0 CUSTOM MARKING
Production quantities of M and /883 devices may be dual or
Constant acceleration is performed to MIL-STD-883, Method
solely marked with an applicable SCD number.
2001, Condition B, at 10,000 Gs, in the Y1 axis only.
3.6 FINAL ELECTRICAL TEST
Final electrical tests are performed to MIL-PRF-38534*. Both
static and dynamic parameters from Group A, Subgroups 1-6, are
100% tested to the M data sheet limits at 55C, 25C and +125C.
The PDA (Percent Defective Allowable) shall be 10% maximum and
shall only apply to static (DC) measurements at 25C.

* Applies to compliant (/883) product only.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
19
FIGURE 1: APEX COMPLIANT /883 & NON-COMPLIANT M GRADE PRODUCT SCREENING FLOW

Header and cap: Package evaluation to MIL-PRF-38534*


Raw Substrate: Inspected in accordance with APEX specification QUAL 52, visual based
on MIL-STD-883, Method 2032
Small signal die: Component evaluation to MIL-PRF-38534* A
Large signal die: Component evaluation to MIL-PRF-38534*
Chip components: Component evaluation to MIL-PRF-38534*
(diodes, capacitors, etc.)
Wire: Inspected in accordance with APEX specification WIRE01
Epoxy: Inspected to MIL-STD-883, Method 5011
Thick film paste: Inspected in accordance with APEX specification PASTEI
Solder: Inspected in accordance with APEX specification PASTEI

Substrate fabrication
High power die inspection
to MIL-STD-883,
Method 2010, MIL-STD-750, 100% substrate manufacturing inspection per
Method 2072 and 2073 APEX specification PROC290; based on
MIL-STD-883, Method 2032

Sample nondestruct wire-pull


Substrate and power die attach
in reflow furnace

OPTIONAL FUNCTIONAL TEST


25C static and dynamic parameters tested per
APEX industrial data sheet with
widened min/max limits
Small signal die attach using
conductive epoxy;
oven-cured at 155C
OPTIONAL LASER TRIM
and 100% inspection to
MIL-STD-883, Method 2032

Sample destruct wire-pull

PRECAP TEST
25C static and dynamic parameters tested per
APEX industrial data sheet
Ultrasonic aluminum wire bond
(10, 5 & 1 MIL Wire)
and assembly inspection
A

* Applies to compliant (/883) product only.


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20
FIGURE 1: APEX COMPLIANT /883 & NON-COMPLIANT M GRADE PRODUCT SCREENING FLOW

FINAL ELECTRICAL TEST


APEX M data sheet;
both static and dynamic parameters at
Tc = 55C, +25C and +125C
A PDA = 10% for static DC
parameters @ 25C only

PRECAP VISUAL INSPECTION FINE LEAK TEST


100% manufacturing inspection to To MIL-STD-883,
MIL-STD-883, Method 2017and 2032 Method 1014, Cond. A
1X10-6 cc/sec standard leak rate

QI SAMPLE PRECAP INSPECTION GROSS LEAK TEST


To MIL-STD-883, Method 2017 and 2032 To MIL-STD-883,
and APEX specification QUAL 50 Method 1014, Cond. C
60 PSIG pre-pressurization

VACUUM BAKEOUT MARKING


2 hour bake at 150C To MIL-PRF-38534

PACKAGE SEAL EXTERNAL VISUAL


One shot resistance welding in a 100% manufacturing inspection to
dry nitrogen atmosphere MIL-STD-883, Method 2009
Moisture content will not exceed 5,000PPM

QI FINAL GATE
MIL-STD-883 Method 2009
TEMPERATURE CYCLING and APEX specification PROC99
To MIL-STD-883,
Method 1010, Cond. C M PRODUCT
65C to +150C for 10 cycles ?
/883 PRODUCT
LOT QUALIFICATION
BURN-IN TEST Quality conformance inspection (QCI)
To MIL-STD-883, is done to MIL-PRF-38534, Option 1,
Method 1015, Cond. D in-line inspection method and is performed
160 hours at 125C case temperature throughout the lot processing

APEX
CONSTANT ACCELERATION
MILITARY GRADE DEVICES; /883
To MIL-STD-883,
Method 2001, Cond. B
5,000 Gs in the Y1 axis only
PACKAGING FOR SHIPMENT
Packing and packaging for shipment are
done per MIL-M-55565

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked to
and is believed 5980 NORTH
be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or omissions.
possible inaccuracies USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
/883U REV. F FEBRUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
21
POWER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

PARAMETER DEFINITIONS & TEST METHODS


M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS COMMON MODE REJECTION: CMR


A
Absolute maximum ratings are stress levels which may be applied Common mode rejection is the ability of the amplifier to reject two
to the amplifier one at a time. The amplifier will not suffer permanent equal input signals as they vary from the midpoint of the two supply
damage. However, proper operation is not implied. Simultaneous voltages (ground in the case of dual symmetric supplies).
application of two or more of these maximum stress levels may induce
permanent damage to the amplifier. INPUT BIAS CURRENT: IB
IB is the net current flowing into or out of the amplifier input pins at
DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE a zero signal condition. This current results from base currents of
Differential input voltage is the voltage difference between the two bipolar input transistors (sometimes reduced by cancellation net-
input pins. It will be near zero in any linear (nonsaturated) operating works) or gate leakage of FET input transistors. Measurement tech-
mode. Non-zero voltages arise with very fast rising input waveform, niques require insertion of very large impedances in series with the
shorted outputs, overdriven inputs, and other abnormal conditions. inputs and converting the resulting output voltage change to a bias
current in accordance with Ohms Law.
RTI (REFERRED TO THE INPUT)
All input errors will be seen at the output of the amplifier at an 100R
amplitude equal to the input error term times the noninverting gain of
the circuit. Errors are seen from the noninverting input pin, i.e., voltage RIN
R
offset will appear at a gain of two at the output in an inverting gain of
one circuit.
EO
LOOP GAIN RIN+
Loop gain is the difference between open loop gain and the gain of
the external circuit. This excess gain over the required signal amplifi-
cation is the key feature of all operational amplifiers that provide a
IB = [ EO /101] /RIN
proportional increase in accuracy.

TYPICAL SUPPLY VOLTAGE FIGURE 2. INPUT BIAS CURRENT


Typical supply voltage is a value which APEX has determined to be
the optimum voltage to specify. This value is influenced by both INPUT OFFSET CURRENT: IOS
customer input and competitor specifications. IOS is the difference between the two bias currents. The offset
current rating is generally smaller than the bias current rating which
COMMON MODE IMPEDANCE: ZIN implies that matching impedances for the two amplifier inputs will result
ZIN is the effective impedance from either input to common (ground). in smaller error than either bias current alone would produce.
Because most op amps do not have ground pins, the specification is
often referred to the midpoint of the two power pin voltages as in the INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE: VOS
case of single supplies. Measuring the effect of a known source VOS is the voltage required at the input of an amplifier to produce zero
impedance driving a buffer configuration will yield common mode input output. Most often, this parameter is measured in the opposite man-
impedance. Low frequency inputs are used to characterize resistive ner, namely, the output voltage resulting from a zero input. With a given
elements and higher frequencies enable measuring capacitive ele- gain configuration, the output voltage is divided by the noninverting
ments of the input impedance. This value is generally very high and gain of the circuit to determine the voltage at the input (referred to the
can be neglected; therefore, it is usually part of the design character- input or RTI).
ization data rather than a 100% tested parameter.
100R
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE: CMV
CMV is the average (common component) of two input voltages with +VS
respect to the midpoint of the two power supply voltages (ground in the R
case of dual symmetric supplies). Because most op amps do not have
ground pins, the parameter is often specified as a minimum voltage EO
difference between the CMV and either supply rail. When operating
on a single supply, the CMV specifications of most APEX amplifiers do
not allow input pin voltages to reach zero or the supply voltage. In any VS VOS = EO /101
nonsaturated operating mode, both input voltages will be essentially
equal.
FIGURE 3. INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE
100R
INPUT VOLTAGE NOISE: VN
+40 [+10] VN is the noise component of voltage offset. The noise is measured
R at the output with a true RMS meter and referred to the input. Low pass
and bandpass filters may be used to limit meter response. At any given
EO 3dB bandwidth, the RMS value is divided by the square root of that
bandwidth to obtain the spectral noise density.
SUPPLY INPUT CURRENT NOISE: IN
10 [40] MIDPOINT = +15 [15]
CMV = 15V IN is the noise component of bias current. It is an RTI specification
CMR = 30V / [EO /101] similar to current offset. The use of the filters and the calculation of
FIGURE 1. SUPPLY MIDPOINT, COMMON MODE VOLTAGE, spectral noise density is similar to the procedures used for voltage
COMMON MODE REJECTION noise.

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22
POWER SUPPLY REJECTION: PSR
VERT
PSR is the ability of the amplifier to reject the effect of changes in
R R
total supply voltage on voltage offset. Dual supplies are varied simul-
taneously to test this parameter. Supply values will include the
100R
minimum and maximum operating specifications. Changing from dual
15V supplies to dual 20V supplies is a 10V change of total supply +VS
voltage. A resulting 1mV offset change would indicate a PSR of 100V/ R TRIG
V or 80dB. When PSR is plotted versus frequency, one supply at a time
has the AC waveform impressed upon it.
VIN
OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING: VO TIME
VO is the minimum voltage swing capability of the amplifier and is VS
usually specified at multiple current ratings. The amplifier is driven in
excess of the specified output and then checked for minimum output TRIG
with the appropriate load.
FIGURE 6. SETTLING TIME
100R

+VS
R
OPEN LOOP GAIN: AOL
AOL is the actual gain from the inverting input pin to output, with the
noninverting input grounded. If plotted versus frequency, it is called a
VOUT
bode plot.
VIN RL
VS 100R

FIGURE 4. OUTPUT VOLTAGE SWING +VS


R

CURRENT LIMIT: ICL VOUT


With the amplifier overdriven, a small resistor is used to detect the
point of current limiting. Resistance values and power supply voltages
are selected to insure that a nonlimiting amplifier will be detected VS
without excessive internal power dissipation. VIN
AOL = VOUT / VIN
100R AOL [dB] = 20 Log [VOUT /VIN]
+VS FIGURE 7. OPEN LOOP GAIN
R

VOUT
OPEN LOOP PHASE RESPONSE
Open loop phase response is the actual phase from the noninverting
VIN input pin to output. While ideally between 0 and 90, it may be higher.
RL
It is usually plotted versus frequency. Measurement techniques are
VS similar to those used for open loop gain.

ICL = VOUT /RL PHASE MARGIN


FIGURE 5. CURRENT LIMIT
Phase margin is 180 less the open loop phase at frequency where
the open loop gain of the amplifier is unity.
SLEW RATE: SR
SR is the maximum rate of change of the output voltage. An inverting QUIESCENT CURRENT: IQ
gain circuit is usually used with an input signal at least 10 times faster Quiescent current is the current drawn from each supply rail with
than the amplifier rating. Measurement points are between 10 and zero output voltage and load current. Insignificant differences between
90% of total output swing. Overdriving the amplifier is permissible the two supply rail currents may exist due to input bias currents.
though at times may result in overload recovery problems.

FULL POWER RESPONSE


Full power response is the highest frequency at which the amplifier
can drive a sine wave without visible distortion (3-5%) on an oscillo-
scope. Supply voltage is set to the typical rating. Power response
curves relate the reduced output as a function of frequency but
independent of gain.

GAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT


Gain Bandwidth Product is the product of gain times frequency at a
specified frequency. This is always measured at or below the unity gain
frequency of the amplifier.

SETTLING TIME
Settling time is the time required for the amplifier to settle within a
specified error of final value. Slewing time is included. This parameter
is usually measured using the inverting gain of one circuit, a false
summing junction, and a very fast rising input waveform triggering an
oscilloscope.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
23
REACTANCE CHART
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
24
NOTES:

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
25
DC/DC
CONVERTERS
B

Apex DC/DC Converter Features .......................................................................... 27


DC/DC Converter Competitive Comparisons ......................................................... 28
DB2800S Series .................................................................................................... 30
DHC2800S Series ................................................................................................ 36

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26
HIGH RELIABILITY DC/DC CONVERTERS

FEATURES
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HIGH RELIABILITY BUILT IN. 1


APEXS LIFETIME WARRANTY 2
We know our customers really put our converters to the test. Thats 1 3
why Apexs DHC2800 and DB2800 Series DC/DC Converters utilize 3
all ceramic capacitors and surface mount magnetics to provide hybrid
reliability across the full military temperature range and to 5000 g of
acceleration. The built-in ruggedness of Apex DC/DC Converters
allows Apex to offer the only lifetime product warranty in the industry.
4
All Apex DC/DC Converter products are sold in single unit quantities
to assist your circuit design evaluation. Our Evaluation Orders pro-
1
gram even allows you to purchase up to three DC/DC Converter units
and should they not meet your design needs, and they have not been 3 B
damaged or soldered, you can return them to Apex within 30 days of
the invoice date to receive a full credit.
2

1 Surface Mount Magnetics 5


2 100% Ceramic Capacitors
3 Reflow Soldered Components DHC2800 Series
4 Welded Package
Hermetically Sealed
5 Low Thermal Resistance,
Ceramic On Solid Steel 1
1 2
1

2 3
3 5
3

PRODUCT DESIGN HIGHLIGHTS


Commercial grade parts designed for military ruggedness
Withstands 5000g acceleration DB2800 Series
100% ceramic capacitors offer higher reliability
DHC Series: Input meets MIL-STD-704A/D requirements (80V transient play through)
DB Series: Input meets MIL-STD-704D requirements (80V transient survival)
55C to +125C full power operation
Fault Tolerant
Full short circuit protection
Fully isolated
Output voltage adjustment standard
Remote shutdown provides on/off capabilities

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27
DC/DC CONVERTERS ELECTRICAL/MECHANICAL

COMPETITIVE COMPARISONS
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

Advanced
Interpoint Analog
FEATURE
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y

DHC2800 MSA2800 ASA2800


Series Series Series

No Temperature Derating
Between 55C and 125C STD STD Extra
B
100% Temperature Tested
STD Extra Extra
DURABILITY

55C to 125C

Rugged Military Design


Internal components mounted to withstand military STD Extra Extra
applications up to 5000 G of acceleration

Welded Case STD STD STD


No flux left inside package from soldered lid

All Ceramic Capacitors STD N/A STD


Provide stable and reliable performance over both
time and temperature

Wave Solderable STD N/A STD


Converter can be easily wave soldered

Wide Continuous Input Voltage Range STD N/A N/A


1150 volt operation at full output current
UTILITY

Output Voltage Adjust Standard +/10% N/A N/A


Allows custom output voltage

3V Output Availability STD N/A N/A

Power Output Capabilities Up to 6W Up to 5W Up to 5W

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28
DC/DC CONVERTERS ELECTRICAL/MECHANICAL

COMPETITIVE COMPARISONS
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

Advanced
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y Interpoint Analog
FEATURE DB2800 MHE2800 AHE2800
Series Series Series
COTS

No Temperature Derating
STD N/A Extra
Between 55C and 125C

100% Temperature Tested


55C to 125C
STD Extra Extra
DURABILITY

Rugged Military Design


STD N/A Extra
Internal components mounted to withstand military appli-
cations up to 5000 G of acceleration

Welded Case STD N/A STD


No flux left inside package from soldered lid

All Ceramic Capacitors


Provide stable and reliable performance over both time STD N/A STD
and temperature

Wave Solderable
STD N/A STD
Converter can be easily wave soldered

Wide Continuous Input Voltage Range STD N/A N/A


1640 volt operation at full output current

Remote Sense
UTILITY

STD N/A N/A


Reduces DC output voltage errors

Synchronizable
Allows multiple converters to run at the same switching STD N/A Extra
frequencies

Output Voltage Adjust Standard


Allows custom output voltage +/10% +6%/0% +5%/0%

3V Output Availability STD N/A N/A

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29
DB2800S 20W SERIES DC/DC CONVERTERS

DB2803S DB2805S DB2812S DB2815S


M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

HI-REL DESIGN
SURFACE MOUNT MAGNETICS DB280
5S

WELDED HERMETIC PACKAGE



LOW INTERNAL TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS USA
TE9493 BeO
11
ALL CERAMIC CAPACITORS
WITHSTANDS 5000G

OTHER FEATURESSINGLE OUTPUT


NO DERATING 55 C to +125 C
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT STANDARD
REMOTE SHUTDOWN

DESCRIPTION
The DB2800S series of DC/DC converters provides the EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
ruggedness, reliability and features required to meet the
advanced design challenges of todays hi-rel market. This has
been accomplished using a new package pioneered by Apex
having very low thermal gradients, excellent hermeticity and + INPUT INPUT
high voltage isolation. The use of advanced substrate and 1 12
reflow soldering techniques during construction results in a SHUTDOWN + TIMING 2
2 11
rugged, cost-effective pin solderable package. CLOCK 3 10 TIMING 1
The DB2800S hybrid converter series utilizes all ceramic TOP
ADJUST/COMP* 4 VIEW 9
capacitors and surface mount magnetics to provide reliable CASE
5 8
operation at all operating temperatures while surviving very
OUTPUT 7 SENSE
high G forces. 6
DB2800S series standard features include kelvin sense, + OUTPUT + SENSE
indefinite short circuit protection, remote shutdown, output
fault monitoring, turn on voltage point adjustment, switching
* Optional N/C on DB2800S /F
frequency synchronization of up to 3 units using no external
components and pi-network input filtering. An output voltage
adjustment/load compensation pin is also standard, however BLOCK DIAGRAM
a DB2800S series converter may be ordered without this
feature (/F option)
Fault tolerant design protects these converters from most 1 6
external circuit faults. The output and output adjust pins will
withstand +35V while the shutdown and all synchronization
pins will withstand +50V protecting the converters from a
12 5
variety of system or board faults, i.e. solder bridges, etc.
Unique load fault protection circuitry allows this converter to
pull up loads having difficult static load line characteristics and
allows short term load excursions significantly beyond ratings
in most applications.
The DB2800 series is a current mode push-pull topology 7
PWM ERROR AMPLIFIER
converter which operates at a switching frequency of 500kHZ. CURRENT MODE REFERENCE AND 4
Internal filtering of both input and output eliminates the need for CONTROLLER ISOLATION
8
external capacitors in many applications. 2
The 12-pin MO-127 High Profile Power Dip package (see 3
Package Outlines) allows connection to a heatsink and is 10
hermetically sealed and isolated from the internal circuits.
11
Please see the package outlines dimension section for dimen-
sions and recommended mounting torque. The use of com-
pressible isolation washers may void the warranty.

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30
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
DB2800S SERIES SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE (Pin 12 to 1, 2, 3, 10 or 11) 0 - 50 Vdc


INPUT TRANSIENT (Pin 12 to 1) 80 V @ 50 ms
OUTPUT WITHSTAND (Pin 5 and 8 to 7, 6 or 4) 35 Vdc
OUTPUT CURRENT (Continuous) 5.5 Adc DB2803S
4 Adc DB2805S
1.9 Adc DB2812S
1.5 Adc DB2815S
TEMPERATURE, Storage 65oC, 150oC
TEMPERATURE, Pin Soldering 10s 300oC

SPECIFICATIONS DB2803S B
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS1 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

STEADY STATE CHARACTERISTICS

INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE 16 28 40 Vdc


OUTPUT VOLTAGE VIN; min max Vdc @ IMIN 3.2 3.3 3.4 Vdc
OUTPUT CURRENT VIN; min max Vdc 500 5500 mAdc
EFFICIENCY 66 %
OUTPUT RIPPLE VOLTAGE Bandwidth 10 kHz 1MHz 20 50 mVrms
INPUT RIPPLE CURRENT Bandwidth 10 kHz 1MHz 20 50 mArms
OUTPUT POWER2 1.6 18.0 W
LINE REGULATION3 VIN; min max3 2 20 mVdc
LOAD REGULATION3 IOUT; min max3 1 15 mVdc

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT .01 %/C


TEMPERATURE RANGE, case2 55 125 C
QUIESCENT CURRENT IOUT = 0 A 35 40 mAdc
INHIBITED VPIN5 ; < 8 Vdc .09 1.25 2.5 mAdc

ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS
(INPUT/OUTPUT/CASE)

LEAKAGE RESISTANCE (VTEST = 500Vdc) 100 M


LEAKAGE CAPACITANCE (f = 10kHz) 50 pF

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

LINE STEP RESPONSE VIN; TR, TF = 10s


VOLTAGE CHANGE VIN; 16 40 Vdc 300 mV
RECOVERY TIME (95%) 30 s
WITH 100F OUTPUT CAP
VOLTAGE CHANGE VIN; 16 40 Vdc 100 mV
RECOVERY TIME (95%) 100 s
LOAD STEP RESPONSE IOUT; TR, TF = 10s
VOLTAGE CHANGE IOUT; 50% max Adc 1400 mV
RECOVERY TIME (95%) 40 s
WITH 100F OUTPUT CAP
VOLTAGE CHANGE IOUT; 50% max Adc 300 mV
RECOVERY TIME (95%) 60 s
START-UP OVERSHOOT VIN ; 0 40 Vdc 0 mV
SHUTDOWN DELAY VPIN5 ; > 10 Vdc < 8 Vdc 220 500 s
SHUTDOWN RECOVERY4 VPIN5 ; < 8 Vdc > 10 Vdc 30 60 mS

NOTES: 1. Unless otherwise stated: TC = 25, VIN = 28V, IOUT = IMAX AMPS
2. Derate power linearly to zero from 125C to 135C.
3. Regulation measured between pin 8 and pin 7.
4. Recovery spec assumes that converter has been OFF for at least 500ms.

CAUTION
CAUTION: The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

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31
SPECIFICATIONS DB2800S SERIES

DB2805S DB2812S DB2815S


MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX UNITS

16 28 40 16 28 40 16 28 40 Vdc
5.00 5.05 5.1 12.00 12.05 12.1 15.0 15.1 15.2 Vdc
400 4000 190 1900 150 1500 mAdc
70 72 73 %
20 50 25 50 25 50 mVrms
20 30 20 30 20 30 mArms
2 20 2.3 23 2.2 22 W
5 50 5 50 10 50 mVdc
2 25 5 50 20 50 mVdc

.01 .01 .01 %/C


55 125 55 125 55 125 C
35 40 35 40 35 40 mAdc
.09 1.25 2.5 .09 1.25 2.5 .9 1.25 2.5 mAdc

100 100 100 M


50 80 85 pF

400 300 300 mV


30 40 40 s

200 150 150 mV


250 250 250 s

1400 800 800 mV


40 60 60 s

500 280 280 mV


150 400 400 s
0 0 0 mV
220 500 220 500 220 500 s
30 60 30 60 30 60 ms

PACKAGE THERMAL SPECIFICATIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS

RESISTANCE, case to air 12 C/W


TEMPERATURE RISE, junction to case 10 15 C

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32
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
DB2803S GRAPHS

EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS


40 40 40
40% 30% 40% TEMP = 125C
50% 40% 50%
TEMP = 25C
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)


56% 50% 60%
35 35 TEMP = 35 64%
60% 54%
64% 58% 55C 66%
66% 60%
30 30 62%
30
67% 67%
64%
68% 65%
25 25 66% 25 68%

69% 69%
20
70%
20 20 B
66% 67% 70% 64%
16 16 16
.55 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5 .55 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5 .55 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A)

LOW LINE DROP OUT LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 100F
20
OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)


CURRENT RATING
OUTPUT DC

TEMP = 25C
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

18 VOUT VOUT
1V

1V
16

14 5.5A 5.5A

12 2.75A 2.75A
2A

2A
IOUT IOUT

NO OUTPUT BUS CAPCITANCE INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


10
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) TIME, t (100sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 1000F LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE


OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

LOAD = 5.5A
100mV

VOUT VOUT
1V

40V

5.5A

16V
10V

2.75A VIN
2A

IOUT

INCLUDES 1000F ON OUTPUT BUS INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS

TIME, t (500sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

TURN ON THRESHOLD TURN ON RESPONSE AUDIO REJECTION


28 0
VIN = 28VDC
TURN ON VOLTAGE, ETO (V)

AUDIO REJECTION, AV (dB)

IOUT = 5.5 Amps


RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

3.3V
20
24
VOUT
LOAD = 5.5A 40
2V

20
0V 28V 60

16
VIN 80
10 V

INCLUDES 100F ON
0V OUTPUT BUS
12 100
10K 20K 30K 40K 60K 90K 100 200 400 1K 2K 10K 20K 100K
SET POINT RESISTOR, RSP () TIME, t (5msec/DIV) FREQUENCY, f (Hz)

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33
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS DB2805S

EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS


40 40 40
30% 40% 30%
40% 50% 50% TEMP =
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)


50% 55% 125C
35 35 TEMP = 35 60%
60% TEMP = 25C 60%
55C 64%
63% 64%
67%
66% 66% 30 69%
30 30
68% 68% 70%
70% 69%
71% 70% 71%
25 25 25
72%

72%
20 20 71% 20
73%
73% 67%
16 15 16
.4 .8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4 .8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4 .4 .8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A)

LOW LINE DROP OUT LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 100F
20
OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)


CURRENT RATING
OUTPUT DC

TEMP = 25C
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

VOUT VOUT
18
1V

1V
16
4A 4A

14
2A 2A
1A

1A
12 IOUT IOUT

NO OUTPUT BUS CAPCITANCE INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


10
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) TIME, t (100sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 1000F LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE


OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

LOAD 4A
100mV

VOUT VOUT
1V

4A 40V

2A
1A

16V
10V

IOUT VIN

INCLUDES 1000F ON OUTPUT BUS INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS

TIME, t (500sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

TURN ON THRESHOLD TURN ON RESPONSE AUDIO REJECTION


28 0
VIN = 28VDC
TURN ON VOLTAGE, ETO (V)

AUDIO REJECTION, AV (dB)

5.1V IOUT = 4 Amps


RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

20
24
VOUT
LOAD 4A 40
0V
2V

20
28V 60

16
0V VIN 80
10 V

INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


12 100
10K 20K 30K 40K50K 70K 90K 100 200 400 1K 2K 10K 20K 100K
SET POINT RESISTOR, RSP () TIME, t (5msec/DIV) FREQUENCY, f (Hz)

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34
APPLICATION
INFORMATION DB2800S SERIES

OUTPUT ADJUST / COMP MULTIPLE CONVERTER SYNCHRONIZATION


The output voltage of the DB2800S may be adjusted from Synchronized operation of up to three DB2800S series
90% to 110% of nominal value by the use of a 50k potentiom- converters may be accomplished without external compo-
eter as shown. Adjustment beyond this range is possible nents. One unit selected to be the master is connected
however certain characteristics of the converter such as but normally with pin 10 grounded. The clock output pin 3 will
not limited to input voltage range, efficiency, ripple and tem- provide the sync signal for up to two slave units. The slave units
perature performance will change. Characterization by the have pin 10 not connected and receive the clock signal into pin
user is recommended in such applications. 11. The clock signal lines may be shielded to prevent radiation.
A separate 50 ohm coax to each slave unit is recommended in
order to preserve signal integrity. Shield ends should be
connected to pin 12 of the nearest converter. B
4 7 8 DB2800S converters may also be synchronized to an exter-
nal 500 khz (+/- 5%) frequency source driving pin 11 of the
50K converters. Pin 10 is not connected. The converters synchro-
nize to the positive edge of the frequency source allowing a
variety of wave forms (pulse, square, spike) to be used. Pin 11
is internally capacitively coupled allowing unipolar or bipolar
Adjust/comp (pin 4) may be driven by external circuitry frequency sources to be used. The source should have a
referenced to pin 8 (-output sense) if desired. Grounding pin 4 waveform rise time of 20 ns or less and be capable of driving
causes output voltage to increase (25% typically) while driving at least 4 volts peak into each 50 ohm pin 11 input (50 volts
pin 4 above 1.3 V causes output voltage to decrease. Pin 4 may peak max).
be driven through 10K or more if connection of the comp An externally synchronized unit may be used to synchronize
function is also required. other (slave) units. The slave units may be used in turn to
The comp function of pin 4 allows transient response and synchronize other slave units from their pin 3 outputs. Each
phase margin to be tailored to suit a specific application. This generation of slave units has a delay (100-200ns typical)
feature may be utilized by connecting a small (1-500 nf) from the unit that it is synchronizing to.
capacitor between pins 4 and 6 or 7. This is generally recom-
mended when very large low esr load capacitances are used. TYPICAL APPLICATION
SHUTDOWN PLUS
Pin 2 is used for remote shutdown, output fault detection, 4
1 6 +V
and/or setting the input voltage point at which the converter will
turn on as shown in the typical application diagram. No VIN 7
connection to pin 2 is necessary for normal operation of the CONTROL
10 DB2800S 50K
converter. Pin 2 is referenced to pin 12 (-input). VTRIM SYSTEM
Shutdown may be implemented by simply connecting pin 2 11
8
to an open collector logic output or switch rated at 2.5 mA, 25
12 5 V
Vdc or higher. 2
Input voltage turn on point is programmed with a single +5V
SET UV R SP
resistor from pin 2 to 12. An input turn on/off hysteresis LOCKOUT
(typically 3.5% of Vin) will be observed. This should be consid- 200K 5K
ered when making or verifying set point adjustment. The value OPERATION
NORMAL
of the setpoint resistor may be determined by the following: J174 (TTL)
SHUTDOWN
3 OPTO
R = 210 10 (10% accuracy at 25C)
ETO 9.5
The above diagram shows the remote sense feature which
Set point temperature coefficient is typically +400ppm/C. reduces Vo errors due to the resistance of the conductors
Output fault monitoring is accomplished by observing pin 2 feeding the load. This diagram also shows the connections for
with a high impedance monitoring circuit. Pin 2 voltage drops non-synchronized operation (TIMING 1 and 2) as well as
from over 10 V to below 1 V when a load fault causes the output voltage trim, remote shutdown, fault monitoring, and
converters fault protection circuitry to activate. It will remain input voltage turn on point adjustment.
low for at least 100 mS and return high. If the load fault is still
present pin 2 will return low and the cycle will repeat. If there
is no input setpoint programming resistor already in place a
resistor > 400 k from pin 2 to 12 will provide pin 2 pull down.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data sheet has been carefully CORPORATION TELEPHONE
checked and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility assumed888-3329
for possibleinaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
DB2800SU REV. J AUGUST 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
35
DHC2800S SERIES 5W/6W DC/DC CONVERTERS

DHC2803S DHC2805S
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

HI-REL DESIGN
WAVE SOLDERABLE PACKAGE
ALL CERAMIC CAPACITORS
SURFACE MOUNT MAGNETICS
WITHSTANDS 5000G

FEATURESSINGLE OUTPUT
NO DERATING 55 C to +125 C
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE 12V to 50V Package Dimensions
1" W x 1" L x .35" H
HIGH ISOLATION 500V
HIGH POWER DENSITY 17W/IN3
OUTPUT VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT STANDARD TYPICAL APPLICATION WITH OPTIONS
REMOTE SHUTDOWN
OPERATES TO 11VIN AT 5W 10nF

8 3 1 +V
DESCRIPTION
50K
The DHC2800S series of DC/DC converters provides the DHC2800S 2 V
ruggedness, reliability, and features required to meet the VTRIM
Control
advanced design challenges of todays hi-rel market. This is 5 7 6 System
accomplished while retaining a power density of 17 W/in3 and RSP
425 mW/gram of power/package performance. The use of SET UV
LOCKOUT +5V
advanced substrate and reflow soldering techniques during 200K VIN
construction results in a rugged, cost-effective, and completely SHUTDOWN 5K
OPERATION
solderable package. OPTO NORMAL
J174 (TTL)
DHC2800S hybrid converter series utilizes all ceramic ca-
pacitors and surface mount magnetics to provide reliable
operation at all operating temperatures while surviving very
high G forces. BLOCK DIAGRAM
DHC2800S standard features include output fault monitor-
ing and/or turn on voltage point programming via the shutdown
6 1
pin. All three functions may be implemented simultaneously
with a minimum of external components. An output voltage
adjustment / load compensation pin is also standard however
DHC2800S may be ordered without this feature (/F option). 2
Fault tolerant design protects these converters from most PWM
5 FEED FORWARD
external circuit faults. The output and output adjust pins will CONTROLLER
withstand +35 V while the shutdown pin will withstand +50 V
protecting the converters from a variety of system or board
faults i.e. solder bridges etc. Unique load fault protection 7
ERROR AMPLIFIER
circuitry allows this converter to pull up loads having difficult REFERENCE AND
static load line characteristics and allows short term load ISOLATION
excursions significantly beyond ratings in most applications.
3
A resonant reset transformer isolated forward converter
topology operating at a switching frequency of 400 kHZ allows
operation over a wide input voltage range. Internal filtering of
EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
both input and output eliminates the need for external capaci-
+ OUTPUT 1 8 CASE
tors in many applications.
The 8-pin DIP package (see Package Outlines) is hermeti- OUTPUT 2
cally sealed and isolated from the internal circuits. Heat sinking TOP
ADJUST/COMP* 3 VIEW 7 INPUT
is recommended for full power operation at elevated ambient
temperatures. NO CONNECTION 4
SHUTDOWN PLUS 5 6 + INPUT

* Optional N/C on DHC2800S/F

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36
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
DHC2803S/DHC2805S SPECIFICATIONS

DHC2803S DHC2805S
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE (Pin 7 to 6 or 5) 0 50Vdc 0-50Vdc
INPUT TRANSIENT (Pin 7 to 6) 80V @ 50ms 80V @ 50ms
OUTPUT WITHSTAND (Pin 2 to 1 or 3) 35Vdc 35Vdc
OUTPUT CURRENT (Continuous) 2Adc5 1.2Adc
TEMPERATURE, Storage 65C, 150C 65C, 150C
TEMPERATURE, Pin Soldering 10s 300C 300C

DHC2803S DHC2805S
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS1 MIN TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX UNITS

STEADY STATE
CHARACTERISTICS
INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE 12 28 50 12 28 50 Vdc
OUTPUT VOLTAGE VIN; min max Vdc @ IMIN 3.2 3.3 3.4 5.00 5.05 5.1 Vdc
OUTPUT CURRENT VIN; min max Vdc 180 1520 120 1200 mAdc
VIN; 13 max Vdc 18205 mAdc

EFFICIENCY 61 66 64 69 %
OUTPUT RIPPLE VOLTAGE Bandwidth 10kHz 1MHz 38 80 30 80 mVrms
INPUT RIPPLE CURRENT Bandwidth 10kHz 1MHz 30 100 30 100 mArms

OUTPUT POWER2 .5 5.06 .6 6.0 W


LINE REGULATION VIN; min max3 6 15 6 15 mVdc
LOAD REGULATION IOUT; min max3 10 25 10 25 mVdc

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT .006 .006 %/C


TEMPERATURE RANGE, case2 55 125 55 125 C
QUIESCENT CURRENT IOUT = 0A 38 45 38 45 mAdc
INHIBITED Vpin5; < 8Vdc .09 1.25 2.5 .09 1.25 2.5 mAdc

ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS
(input/output/case)
LEAKAGE RESISTANCE VTEST = 500Vdc 100 100 M
LEAKAGE CAPACITANCE f = 10kHz 55 60 pF

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
LINE STEP RESPONSE VIN; TR, TF = 10s
VOLTAGE CHANGE VIN; 16 40 Vdc 350 300 mV
RECOVERY TIME (95%) 30 30 s

LOAD STEP RESPONSE IOUT; TR, TF = 10s


VOLTAGE CHANGE IOUT; 50% max Adc 700 700 mV
RECOVERY TIME (95%) 30 40 s

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
START-UP OVERSHOOT VIN; 0-50 Vdc 0 400 0 400 mV
SHUTDOWN DELAY VPIN5; > 10Vdc <8Vdc 220 500 220 500 s
SHUTDOWN RECOVERY TIME4 VPIN5; < 8Vdc > 10Vdc 60 60 ms

NOTES: 1. Unless otherwise stated: TC = 25C, VIN = 28V, IOUT = IOUT MAX.
2. Derate power linearly to zero from 125C to 135C.
3. Regulation measured between pin 1 and pin 2 1/6" from case.
4. Recovery spec assumes that converter has been OFF for at least 500ms.
5. DHC2803S IOUT MAX = 2.0ADC when voltage is adjusted to 3.0Vdc, VIN = 13-50Vdc, AND CLOAD 100F.
6. DHC2803S POUT MAX = 6W when VIN = 13-50Vdc

CAUTION
CAUTION: The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

PACKAGE THERMAL SPECIFICATIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS

RESISTANCE, case to air 30 C/W


TEMPERATURE RISE, junction to case 10 15 C

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37
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS DHC2803S

EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS


50 50 50
30% 30% 30% TEMP =
40% TEMP = 25C TEMP = 55C
125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)


40% 40%
50% 50%
40 40 40
55% 55%
50%
60% 60%
55%
63% 62%
30 30 60% 30
65%
63%
67% 64%
65%
66%
20 68% 20 20
67% 65%
69% 68% 66%
70% 67%
11 11 68% 11
.18 .36 .72 1.08 1.44 1.8 .18 .36 .72 1.08 1.44 1.8 .18 .36 .72 1.08 1.44 1.8
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A)

LOW LINE DROP OUT LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 100F
16
OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)


CURRENT RATING
OUTPUT DC
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

VOUT VOUT
1V

1V
14

1.8A 1.8A

12
500mA

500mA
.9A .9A
IOUT IOUT

NO OUTPUT BUS CAPCITANCE INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


10
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) TIME, t (100sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 1000F LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE
OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)


100mV
50mV

VOUT VOUT VOUT


1V

40V 80V
1.8A
500mA

.9A
16V
10V

IOUT VIN
VIN 11V
20V

INCLUDES 1000F ON OUTPUT BUS

TIME, t (500sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

TURN ON THRESHOLD TURN ON RESPONSE AUDIO REJECTION


28 0
LOAD 1.8A VIN = 28V
TURN ON VOLTAGE, ETO (V)

AUDIO REJECTION, A V (dB)

IOUT = 2.0A
RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

3.3V 20
24

VOUT 40
20
0V 28V 60
1V

16
80
INCLUDES 100F ON
10 V

12 0V VIN OUTPUT BUS


100
10K 20K 30K 40K 60K 90K 100 200 400 1K 2K 4K 10K 20K 40K 100K
SET POINT RESISTOR, RSP () TIME, t (5msec/DIV) FREQUENCY, f (Hz)

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38
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
DHC2805S GRAPHS

EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS EFFICIENCY CONTOURS


50 50 50
30% 30% 30%
40% TEMP = 25C TEMP = 55C TEMP =
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)


40% 40%
50% 125C
40 40 40 50%
55% 55%
50%
60% 60%
55%
63%
30 65% 30 60% 30
68% 63% 66%
70% 66%
20 71% 20 68% 20 68%

72% 69% 69%


70%
70%
11 11 11
.12 .24 .48 .78 .96 1.2 .12 .24 .48 .78 .96 1.2 .12 .24 .48 .78 .96 1.2
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A)

LOW LINE DROP OUT LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 100F
16
OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)


TEMP = 25C
CURRENT RATING
OUTPUT DC
INPUT VOLTAGE, VIN (V)

VOUT VOUT
1V

1V
14

12 1.2A 1.2A
500mA

500mA
IOUT 600mA IOUT 600mA

NO OUTPUT BUS CAPCITANCE INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


10
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6
OUTPUT CURRENT, IOUT (A) TIME, t (100sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE 1000F LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE
OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

OUTPUT RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

LOAD = 1.2A INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


VOUT
100mV
50mV

VOUT
1V

VOUT
40V 80V LOAD = 1.2A

1.2A
16V
10V

600mA
500mA

IOUT VIN
VIN 11V
20V

INCLUDES 1000F ON OUTPUT BUS INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS

TIME, t (500sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV) TIME, t (200sec/DIV)

TURN ON THRESHOLD TURN ON RESPONSE AUDIO REJECTION


28 0
LOAD = 1.2A VIN = 28V
TURN ON VOLTAGE, ETO (V)

AUDIO REJECTION, A V (dB)

5.0V IOUT = 1.2A


RESPONSE, X (UNITS/DIV)

20
24
VOUT
40
0V
28V
2V

20
60

16
0V VIN 80
10 V

INCLUDES 100F ON OUTPUT BUS


12 100
10K 20K 30K 40K 60K 90K 100 200 400 1K 2K 10K 20K 100K
SET POINT RESISTOR, RSP () TIME, t (5msec/DIV) FREQUENCY, f (Hz)

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39
APPLICATION
INFORMATION DHC2803S/DHC2805S

OUTPUT ADJUST / COMP LOAD FAULT RESPONSE


The output voltage of the DHC2800S may be adjusted from The Apex families of dc-dc converters share load fault
90% to 110% of nominal value by the use of a 50k potentiom- philosophies. Load fault conditions include short-circuit and
eter as shown. Adjustment beyond this range is possible severe overload conditions. The DHC2800 converter series
however certain characteristics of the converter such as but responds to load faults by turning off all power conversion
not limited to input voltage range, efficiency, ripple and tem- circuits for 250 mS and then attempting to restart for 10 mS
perature performance will change. Characterization by the (typical). The net "on" duty factor during a fault is very low
user is recommended in such applications. resulting in low converter dissipation and immunity from
overheating at 125C. Current beyond rated can flow into the
load at startup time. This allows the converter to bring up
capacitive and other difficult load types more reliably than
3 1 2 competing converters.
50K
10nF Vo

O
Adjust/comp (pin 3) may be driven by external circuitry
referenced to pin 2 (-output) if desired. Grounding pin 3 causes
voltage to increase (25% typically) while driving pin 3 above
1.3 V causes output voltage to decrease. Pin 3 may be driven
through 10K or more if connection of the comp function is
also required. Io
The comp function of pin 3 allows capacitive loads as large O
as 1000 F to be accommodated on the DHC2805S without
loss of stability. This feature may be utilized by connecting a 10
nF capacitor between pins 3 and 1. This is generally recom-
mended when low esr load capacitances of 100 F or greater NORMAL LOAD FAULT NORMAL
are used.
TIME
SHUTDOWN PLUS
Pin 5 is used for remote shutdown, output fault detection,
and/or setting the input voltage point at which the converter will
turn on as shown in the typical application diagram. No
connection to pin 5 is necessary for normal operation of the
converter. Pin 5 is referenced to the input (pin 7).
Shutdown may be implemented by simply connecting pin
5 to an open collector logic output or switch rated at 2.5 mA, 25
Vdc or higher.
Input voltage turn on point is programmed with a single
resistor from pin 5 to 7. An input turn on/off hysteresis (typically
3.5% of Vin) will be observed. This should be considered when
making or verifying set point adjustment. The value of the
setpoint resistor may be determined by the following:
3
R = 210 10 (10% accuracy at 25C)
ETO 9.5
Set point temperature coefficient is typically +400ppm/C.
Output fault monitoring is accomplished by observing pin 5
with a high impedance monitoring circuit. Pin 5 voltage drops
from over 10 V to below 1 V when a load fault causes the
converters fault protection circuitry to activate. It will remain
low for at least 100 ms and return high. If the load fault is still
present pin 5 will return low and the cycle will repeat. A resistor
> 400 k from pin 5 to 7 provides pull down for pin 5 if there is
no input setpoint programming resistor already in place.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked 5980
and is believed NORTH
to be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or USA
possible inaccuracies APPLICATIONS
omissions. HOTLINE:
All specifications are subject to 1 (800)
change 546-2739
without notice.
DHC2800SU REV. F SEPTEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
40
NOTES:

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41
POWER
AMPLIFIERS
Product Selector Guide ................................................................... 43 PA09, PA09A .............................................................................. 174
Second Sources .............................................................................. 46 PA09M ........................................................................................ 178
Frequency/Saturation Tables .......................................................... 48 PA10, PA10A .............................................................................. 180
PA10M ........................................................................................ 184
PWM AMPLIFIERS PA12, PA12A .............................................................................. 185
SA01 ............................................................................................... 50 PA12M ........................................................................................ 189
EK01 ............................................................................................. 54 PA12H ......................................................................................... 190
SA02 ............................................................................................. 58 PA19, PA19A .............................................................................. 191
EK02 Evaluation Kit for SA02 Pin-out ........................................... 64 PA21, PA21A, PA25, PA25A, PA26 ........................................... 195
SA03 ............................................................................................. 68 PA21M ........................................................................................ 200
EK03, Evaluation Kit for SA03/SA04 Pin-out ................................ 72 PA21, 25, 26 Design Ideas ......................................................... 201
SA04 ............................................................................................. 76 EK26, Evaluation Kit for PA26 Pin-out ........................................
EK21, Evaluation Kit for PA21 Pin-out ........................................
202
204
C
SA06 ............................................................................................. 80
PA25 DIE .................................................................................... 207
EK05, Evaluation Kit for SA06 Pin-out .......................................... 84 PA41, PA41A, PA42, PA42A ...................................................... 209
SA07 ............................................................................................. 88 PA41M ........................................................................................ 213
EK07, Evaluation Kit for SA07 Pin-out .......................................... 94 PA41DIE ..................................................................................... 214
SA13 ............................................................................................. 98 PA41/42 Design Ideas ................................................................ 215
EK10, Evaluation Kit for SA13/SA14 Pin-out ................................ 102 EK42, Evaluation Kit for SIP10 Pin-out ....................................... 217
SA14 ............................................................................................. 106 PA44 ........................................................................................... 219
SA16 ............................................................................................. 110 EK13, Evaluation Kit for PA44 Pin-out ........................................ 223
EK08, Evaluation Kit for SA16 Pin-out .......................................... 114 PA45 ........................................................................................... 225
SA50 ............................................................................................. 118 PA45DIE ..................................................................................... 229
EK-SA50 ....................................................................................... 122 PA46 ........................................................................................... 231
SA50M .......................................................................................... 123 EK12, Evaluation Kit for PA46 Pin-out ........................................ 235
SA51 ............................................................................................. 124 PA51, PA51A .............................................................................. 237
SA51M .......................................................................................... 128 PA51M ........................................................................................ 241
EK-SA51 ....................................................................................... 129 PA61, PA61A .............................................................................. 243
PA61M ........................................................................................ 247
POWER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS PA81J/82J ................................................................................... 249
PA01, PA73 .................................................................................. 130 PA83, PA83A .............................................................................. 253
PA73M .......................................................................................... 134 PA83M ........................................................................................ 257
PA02, PA02A ................................................................................ 136 PA84, PA84A, PA84S ................................................................. 259
PA02M .......................................................................................... 140 PA84M ........................................................................................ 263
PA85, PA85A .............................................................................. 265
PA02 Design Ideas ..................................................................... 141 PA85M ........................................................................................ 269
PA03, PA03A .............................................................................. 144
PA88, PA88A .............................................................................. 271
PA04, PA04A .............................................................................. 148
PA88M ........................................................................................ 275
EK04, Evaluation Kit for PA04 Pin-out ........................................ 152
PA05, PA05A .............................................................................. 158 PA89, PA89A .............................................................................. 277
PA07, PA07A .............................................................................. 162
PA07M ........................................................................................ 166 POWER BOOSTERS
PA08, PA08A .............................................................................. 168 PB50 ........................................................................................... 281
PA08M ........................................................................................ 172 EK50, Power Booster Evaluation Kit ........................................... 285
PA08V ......................................................................................... 173 PB58, PB58A .............................................................................. 287

NOTE:For a complete listing of all /883 products and Standardized Military Drawing numbers (SMD)
refer to the most current APEX Order Information and Price List.

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42
HIGH VOLTAGE/HIGH SPEED

PRODUCT SELECTOR GUIDE


M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

HIGH VOLTAGE

Model Supply IOUT mA Saturation Internal Slew VOS VOS Bias Iq


Gain BW Current Thermal Temp Packaging
Range Cont. (min) @IOCont. Power Rate Initial vs Temp Current Product Limit Shutdown Range Type
Volts Pk (Typ) (VS-VO) Watts V/s mV V/C nA mA MHz C
Min/Max Volts, Max Max Typ Max Max Max Max Typ (Amps) Min/Max
PA89 75/600 75/100 30 40 16 2 30 .05 6 10 Ext Adj No 25/85 MO-127
PA89A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA85 15/225 200/350 10 40 1000 2 30 .05 25 100 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA85A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA85M * * * * * 4 30 .05 * * * * 55/125 *
PA88 15/225 100/200 10 15 30 2 30 .05 2 2.1 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA88A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA41 50/175 60/120 14 12 40 60 130 .05 2 1.6 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA41A * * 12 * * 30 65 * 1.8 * * * * *
PA41M * * * * 5 60 130 * 2 * * * 55/125 *
PA42 50/175 60/120 14 9 40 60 130 2 2 1.6 Ext Adj No 25/85 SIP10
PA42A * * 12 * * 30 * * 1.8 * * * * *
PA44 50/175 60/120 14 12 40 60 130 .2 2 1.6 Ext Adj No -25/85 PSOP1
PA08 15/150 150 15 17.5 30 2 30 .05 8.5 5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA08A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA08M/883 * * * * * 2 30 .05 * * * * 55/125 *
PB58 15/150 1500 11 83 100 1750 7000 18 2.5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PB58A * 2000 12 * * 1000 * * * * * * *
PA83 15/150 75 10 17.5 30 3 25 .05 8.5 5 (.1) Yes 25/85 TO-3
PA83A * * * * * 1 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA83M/883 * * * * * 3 25 .05 * * * * 55/125 *
PA84 15/150 40 7 17.5 180 3 25 .05 7.5 75 (.05) Yes 25/85 TO-3
PA84A * * * * * 1 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA84M/883 * * * * * 3 25 .05 * * * * 55/125 *
PA82J 70/150 15 5 11.5 20 3 25 .05 8.5 5 (.025) Yes 0/70 TO-3
PB50 30/100 2000 11 35 100 1750 7000 25 2.5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA81J 32/75 30 5 11.5 20 3 25 .05 8.5 5 (.05) Yes 0/70 TO-3
PA45 15/75 5000 10 85 27 10 50 .1 50 4.5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA46 15/75 5000 10 75 27 10 50 .1 5/50 4.5 Ext Aju No -25/85 POWER SIP 10

Specifications apply for TC = 25C, unless otherwise stated. *Specification is same as above.

HIGH SPEED
Model Slew Output Supply Saturation Internal VOS VOS Bias Iq Gain BW Current Thermal Temp Packaging
Rate Current Range @IOMax Power Initial vs Temp Current Product Limit Shutdown Range Type
V/s (Cont.) Volts (VS-VO) Watts mV V/C nA mA MHz C
Typ Amps., Min Min/Max Volts, Max Max Max Max Max Max Typ (Amps) Min/Max

PA85 1000 .2 15/225 10 40 2 30 .05 25 100 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3


PA85A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA85M * * * * * 2 30 .05 * * * * 55/125 *
PA19 900 4 15/40 5 78 3 30 .2 120 100 Ext Adj Yes 25/85 TO-3
PA19A * * * * * .5 10 .05 * * * * * *
PA09 400 2 12/40 8 78 3 30 .1 85 150 (4.5) Yes 25/85 TO-3
PA09A * * * * * .5 10 .02 * * * * * *
PA09M/883 * 3 * 10 * 3 30 .1 * * * * 55/125 *

Specifications apply for TC = 25C, unless otherwise stated. *Specification is same as above.

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43
HIGH CURRENT

PRODUCT SELECTOR GUIDE


M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

HIGH CURRENT
Model Internal Output Supply Saturation Slew VOS VOS vs Bias Iq Gain BW Current Thermal Temp Packaging
Power Current Range @IOMax Rate Initial Temp Current Product Limit Shutdown Range Type
Watts (Cont.) Volts (VS-VO) V/s mV V/C nA mA MHz C
Max Amps., Min Min/Max Volts, Max Typ Max Max Max Max Typ (Amps) Min/Max
PA03 500 30 15/75 7 8 2 30 .05 300 1 Thermal Yes 25/85 MO-127
PA03A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA04 200 20 15/100 6.8/10(1) 50 10 50 .05 90 2 Ext Adj No 25/85 MO-127
PA04A * * * * * 5 30 .02 * * * * *
PA05 250 30 15/50 5.8/11.2(1) 100 10 50 .05 120 3 Ext Adj Yes -25/85 MO-127
PA05A * * * * * 5 30 .02 * * * * * *
PA12 125 10 10/45 6 4 6 65 30 50 4 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA12A * 15 10/50 7 * 3 40 20 * * * * 55/125 *
PA12M/883 * 10 10/45 6 * 6 65 30 * * * * * *
PA61(2) 97 10 10/45 7 2.8 6 65 30 10 1 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA61A(2) * * * 6 * 3 40 20 * * * * * *
PA61M/883(2) * * * 7 * 6 65 30 * * * * 55/125 *
PA51(2) 97 10 10/36 8 2.6 10 65 40 10 1 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA51A(2) * * 10/40 * * 5 40 20 * * * * 55/125 *
PA51M/883(2) * * * * * 10 65 40 * * * * * *
PA45
PA46
85
75
5
5
15/75
15/75
10
10
27
27
10
10
50
50
.10
.10
50
5/50
4.5
4.5
Ext Adj
Ext Adj
No
No
25/85
-25/85
TO-3
POWER SIP 10
C
PA07 67 5 12/50 5 5 2 30 .05 30 1.3 Ext Adj Yes 25/85 TO-3
PA07A * * * * * .5 10 .01 * * * * * *
PA07M/883 * * * * * 2 30 .05 * * * * 55/125 *
PA10 67 5 10/45 8 3 6 65 30 30 4 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA10A * * 10/50 6 * 3 40 20 * * * * 55/125 *
PA10M/883 * * 10/45 8 * 6 65 30 * * * * * *
PA73(2) 67 5 10/30 8 2.6 10 65 40 5 1 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA73M/883(2) * * * * * * * * * * * * 55/125 *
PA01 67 5 10/28 10 2.6 12 65 50 50 1 * * 25/85 TO-3
PA02 48 5 7/19 4 20 10 50 .2 40 4.5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PA02A * * * * * 3 25 .1 * * * * 55/125 *
PA02M/883 * * * * * 10 50 .2 * * * * * *
PA21 36 2.5 2.5/20 3.0 1.2 10 15 typ 1000 90 .6 (3) No 25/85 TO-3
PA21A * 3.0 * 4.0 * 4 10 typ 250 * * (4) * * *
PA21M * 2 * * * 10 15 typ 1000 75 * (3) * 55/125 *
PA25 36 2.5 2.5/20 3.0 1.2 10 15 typ 1000 90 .6 (3) No 25/85 TO-3
PA25A * 3.0 * 4.0 * 4 10 typ 250 * * (4) * * *
PA26 36 2.5 2.5/20 1.2 10 15 typ 1000 90 .6 (3) No 25/85 SIP12
PB50 35 2 30/100 11 100 1750 7000 25 2.5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PB58 83 1.5 15/150 11 100 1750 7000 18 2.5 Ext Adj No 25/85 TO-3
PB58A * 2.0 * 12 * 1000 * * * * * * *
Specifications apply for TC = 25C, unless otherwise stated. *Specification is same as above.
(1) 1st number with Boost Voltage = VS + 5V; 2nd number without Boost Voltage (2) Class C outputoptimized for low costnot recommended above 1KHz

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44
PWM AMPLIFIERS

PRODUCT SELECTOR GUIDE


M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

PWM AMPLIFIERS
Model Output Power Efficiency Internal Supply Switching Bridge Current Thermal Temp Packaging
Current Delivery % Power Range Frequency Type Limit Shutdown Range C Type
(Cont.) (Cont.) Watts Volts KHz Min/Max
Amps., Min Watts Max Min/Max Typ

SA01 20 2000 97 185 16/100 42 Full Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 PD10/60S
SA02 10 800 94 160 16/80 250 Full Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 DIP7
SA03 30 3000 97 300 16/100 22.5 Full Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 MO-127
SA04 20 4000 97 300 16/200 22.5 Full Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 MO-127
SA06 10 5000 97 300 16/500 22.5 Full Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 MO-127
SA07 5 200 94 80 5/40 500 Full Ext Adj Yes -25/+85 DIP6
SA13 30 3000 97 150 16/100 22.5 Half Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 MO-127
SA14 20 4000 97 150 16/200 22.5 Half Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 MO-127
SA16 10 5000 97 150 16/500 22.5 Half Ext Adj Yes 25/+85 MO-127
SA50 5 400 97 120 /80 45 Full No No 25/+85 TO-3
SA51 5 400 97 120 /80 Full No No 25/+85 TO-3

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45
POWER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

EQUIVALENT/SECOND SOURCES
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

SECOND SOURCES FOR APEX POWER AMPLIFIERS

PA01 (page 130) OPA511AM (P/D) Burr-Brown Higher cost; slightly improved Vos and Vsat.
PA02 (page 136) LH0101 (F/E) National PC layout can be designed to accept either; output=case; may require
external swing enhancement network; some loss of speed and
linearity.
PA10 (page 180) OPA511AM (P/D) Burr-Brown No foldover current limit; supplies to 30V only.
OPA512 (P/D) Burr-Brown 10A output; higher cost.
PA12 (page 185) OPA512 (P/F) Burr-Brown
PA25 (page 195) OPA2541 (P/D) Burr-Brown Higher Vsat, higher cost, more distortion, higher supply voltages,
wider bandwidth.
OPA2544 (P/D) Burr-Brown Lower IQ, higher VSAT, higher VS, wider bandwidth
PA51 (page 237) OPA501 (P/F) Burr-Brown
PA73 (page 130) 3573 (P/F) Burr-Brown
PA81J (page 249) 3581J (P/F) Burr-Brown
PA82J (page 249) 3582J (P/F) Burr-Brown
PA83 (page 253) 3583 (P/D) Burr-Brown Supplies down to +/-50V only.
PA84 (page 259) 3584 (P/D) Burr-Brown Slightly slower; supplies down to 70V only.
Products not listed have no known second source.

APEX ALTERNATIVES FOR EXISTING DESIGNS


ALLEGRO (SPRAGUE) C
ULN3755W PA26 (page 195) (P/F)

BURR-BROWN
OPA501 PA51 (page 237) (P/F) Slightly improved thermal performance for all grades.
PA61 (page 243) (P/D) Supplies to 45V; lower Vsat, Lower Vos.
OPA511AM PA01 (page 130) (P/D) Lower cost; slightly higher Vos and Vsat.
PA10 (page 180) (P/D) Supplies to 45V; lower Vos; faster; slightly higher cost.
OPA502BM PA12 (page 185) (P/D) Bipolar, slew rate = 4V/s, VS = 50V.
OPA502SM PA12A (page 185) (P/D) Bipolar, slew rate = 4V/s, IOUT = 15A, VS = 50V.
OPA512BM PA12 (page 185) (P/F)
OPA512SM PA12A (page 185) (P/F)
OPA541 Apex alternatives provide: independent setting of current limits; lower distortion, except
on class C units; PC layout could accommodate alternates easily except for PA02. Two
grades of OPA541 are FET input amplifiers with 1 and 10 mV of input offset. Both have
max DC thermal resistance of 1.9 C/W.
PA02 (page 136) (F/E) Lower Vsat; higher speed; Vos = 3 and 10mV; thermal resistance is 2.6 C/W.
PA10 (page 180) (P/D) Bipolar; Vos = 3 and 6 mV, thermal resistance is 2.6 C/W.
PA45 (page 225) (P/D) MOSFET input and output, VOS = 10mV; thermal resistance is 1.5C/W; supplies to 75V,
external compensation (slew rate to 27V/s).
PA61 (page 243) (P/D) Bipolar; Vos = 3 and 6 mV; thermal resistance is 1.8 C/W; class C output stage.
PA51 (page 237) (P/D) Bipolar; Vos = 5 and 10 mV; thermal resistance is 1.8 C/W; class C output stage.
PA12 (page 185) (P/D) Bipolar; Vos = 3 and 6 mV; thermal resistance is 1.4 C/W; fully tested to 10A or 15A.
PA07 (page 162) (P/D) FET Vos = 0.5 and 2 mV; thermal resistance is 2.6 C/W; supplies to 50V; includes
thermal shutdown.
OPA2541 PA25 (page 195) (P/D) Supplies to 20V only; lower Vsat; lower cost; lower distortion.
OPA2544 PA25 (page 195) (P/D) Higher IQ, Lower VSAT, lower VS, lower bandwidth.
3571, 72 PC layout could accommodate Apex alternates easily.
PA07 (page 162) (P/D) Higher voltage, power dissipation, frequency response.
PA01 (page 130) (P/D) Supplies to 28V; bipolar input; very low cost.
PA10 (page 180) (P/D) High performance bipolar input; supplies to 50V; much lower cost than 3572.
PA12 (page 185) (P/D) Output currents to 15A; supplies to 50V; high performance bipolar input.
PA61 (page 243) (P/D) Output currents up to 10A; bipolar input; class C output; lower cost than 3572.
3573 PA73 (page 130) (P/F)
3580-83 PA83 (page 253) (P/F) Extends the best specs of each model through the entire voltage range.
3581J PA81J (page 249) (P/F) Recommend PA41 for any new design of 3580-3583 series.
3582J PA82J (page 249) (P/F)
3583AM PA83 (page 253) (P/F)
3583AMQ PA83Q (Consult Factory) (P/F)
3583J PA83 (page 253) (P/F)
3584JM PA84 (page 259) (P/D) Slightly faster, improved phase margin, higher current; APEX
temperature range is -25 to +85C.

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46
POWER OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

EQUIVALENT/SECOND SOURCES
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTERSIL, HARRIS
8510, 15 PA01 (page 130) (F/E) All Apex current models offer more power and several offer accuracy improvements.
8520, 30 PA07 (page 162) (F/E) The models listed here are 5A, 67W devices. All are 8 pin TO-3 packages.

NATIONAL
LH0101 PA02 (page 136) (P/D) PA02 swing enhancement network is internal; PC layout can often accept either part;
isolated case; better speed and linearity; 19V supplies max.
LM12 PA02 (page 136) (F/E) Often has efficiency advantages on applications up tp 19V due to low Vsat at 5A or less.
PA07 (page 162) (F/E) Lower Vos; adjustable Vos balance; supplies to 50V; output currents to 5A.
PA10 (page 180) (F/E) Lower Vos; supplies to 45V and 50V; 5A output current.
PA61 (page 243) (F/E) Lower Vos; supplies to 45V; 10A output current; low Iq; class C operation.
PA12 (page 185) (F/E) Lower thermal resistance; lower Vos; supplies to 45V or 50V; 10A or 15A output
currents.
LM675 PA26 (page 195) (F/E) PA26 is a dual, unity gain stable.

SGS-THOMPSON
L165 PA26 (page 195) (F/E) PA26 is a dual, unity gain stable.

TELEDYNE
1460 PA09 (page 174) (P/D) Faster and considerably more powerful.
1461 PA09 (page 174) (F/E) Slower but more powerful.
1468 PA12 (page 185) (P/D) PC layout could accommodate both parts; PA12 offers foldover current limit.
1480 PA83 (page 253) (P/F)
PA84 (page 259) (P/D) Faster; external compensation; lower output current; PC layout could accommodate
either part.

NOTES: (P/F) = Pin for pin compatibleform, fit and functional replacement
(P/D) = Pin for pin compatiblemajor performance differences noted
(F/E) = Functional equivalentnot pin for pin compatiblemajor differences noted

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47
POWER AMPLIFIERS/PWM AMPLIFIERS

FREQUENCY/SATURATION TABLES
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OUTPUT SATURATION VOLTAGE FREQUENCY (kHz) VS PEAK-TO-PEAK


VS OUTPUT CURRENT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (TYP)
RANKED BY OUTPUT CURRENT RANKED BY SUPPLY VOLTAGE RANGE
IO .05 .12 .5 2.5 5 7.5 10 15 20 30 VO(p-p) 20 25 30 45 60 90 120 180 280 430 1000
SA13 .01 .02 .1 .4 .7 1.1 1.4 2.1 2.8 4.2 PA89 30 23 17 10 6 2.7
SA03 .01 .03 .1 .7 1.4 2.1 2.8 4.2 5.6 8.4 PA85 3000 3000 3000 3000 2500 1600 1250 830 530 350
SA01 .05 .2 .5 1.0 2.0 2.3 5.0 7.0 9.2 14 PA87 200 200 200 200 180 110 85 60 40 24
PA05+Vb 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.6 5.8 PA88 70 60 55 40 28 21 15 11 7 4
PA03 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 SA06 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
PA05 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.4 6.9 7.3 7.8 8.8 9.5 11.3 SA16 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
SA14 .01 .02 .1 .5 1.0 1.4 1.9 2.9 3.9 PA41 350 300 250 150 110 70 55 35 25
SA04 .02 .05 .2 1.0 1.9 2.9 3.9 5.8 7.7
PA42/43 350 300 250 150 110 70 55 35 25
SA01 .02 .05 .2 1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 6.6 8.8
PA04+Vb 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.3 6.1 6.8 PA84 500 500 500 500 500 380 330 220 130
PA04 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.4 6.9 7.3 7.8 8.8 9.7 PB58 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 160 102
PA12A 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.7 6.0 PA08 630 500 420 280 210 140 105 70 45
SA02 .04 .09 .4 1.8 3.7 5.5 7.4 PA83 700 560 460 310 230 150 110 80 50
SA16 .04 .10 .4 2.1 4.2 6.3 8.4 PA82 500 400 330 220 160 110 80 55 36
SA06 .08 .20 .8 4.2 8.3 12.5 16.6 PB50 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 160
PA12 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0 PA04 900 720 600 400 300 200 150 100
PA61A 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0 PA81 500 400 330 220 160 110 80 55
PA61 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 SA04 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
PA51 6.0
SA50 .04
6.0
.11
6.1
.4
6.5
2.2
7.0
4.4
7.5 8.0







SA14 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 C
PA03 135 108 90 60 45 30 22
SA51 .04 .11 .4 2.2 4.4 PA45 400 380 260 190 130 80 65
PA02 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.7 4.0 PA05 1800 1440 1200 800 600 400
PA07 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
PA07 60 48 40 27 20 13
PA10A 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.5 6.0
PA73 5.0 5.1 5.3 6.5 8.0 PA12 60 48 40 27 20 13
PA10 5.0 5.1 5.3 6.5 8.0 PA10 88 70 60 40 30 20
PA01 5.1 5.1 5.5 7.5 10.0 PA61 40 33 30 24 18 13
PA45 5.5 5.6 6.0 7.8 10.0 SA03 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
PA19 1.2 1.3 1.7 3.6 6.0 SA13 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
PA21/25/26.7 .8 1.2 3.1 SA02 25 25 25 25 25
PA09 6.9 7.0 7.2 SA01 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
PB50 7.9 8.0 8.6 SA50 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
PB58 7.9 8.0 8.9 PA195000 5000 5000 5000 5000
PA85 8.3 9.1 PA09 2600 2600 2200 1500 1100
PA85 8.3 9.1 PA51 55 45 37 25 18
PA87 6.0 10.2 PA73 50 42 35 23
PA08 7.4 12.7 PA01 50 42 35 23
PA88 9.5 13.0 PA02 300 240 200
PA41/42 12.3 14.0
PA21/25 33 20 17
PA89 25.4
PA83 8.0 PA26 33 20 17
PA84 7.7 Av = 10V/V

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48
NOTES:

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49
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA01
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
SINGLE SUPPLY OPERATION
SA01
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE 16-100V
20A CONTINUOUS OUTPUT
PROGRAMMABLE CURRENT LIMIT USA
TE9493 BeO
11
SHUTDOWN CONTROL
HERMETIC PACKAGE
2 IN2 FOOTPRINT
APPLICATIONS
BRUSH TYPE MOTOR CONTROL
PELTIER CONTROL
REACTIVE LOADS
MAGNETIC COILS (MRI)
ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING TYPICAL APPLICATION
VIBRATION CANCELLING

DESCRIPTION
The SA01 amplifier is a pulse width modulation amplifier that
EA
3 7
C
can supply 2KW to the load. The full bridge output amplifier can +VS
+VIN IN OUT
be operated from a single power supply over a wide range of 1
voltages. An error amplifier is included which can provide gain A
for the velocity control loop in brush type motor control appli- 7.5V 6
5 EA OUT
cations. Current limit is programmable by a single resistor. A C1 REF PWM M T
shutdown input turns off all four drivers of the H bridge output. .1F
2
A precision reference output is provided for use in offsetting +IN B
9
the error amplifier. The error amplifier can then be scaled for SHDN/ OUT
SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
standard input signals. The amplifier is protected from shorts
to supply or ground. The H bridge output MOSFETs are 10 8 4
protected from thermal overloads by directly sensing the RFILTER
temperature of the die. The 10-pin hermetic power package RLIMIT
occupies only 2 square inches of board space. SHUT CFILTER
DOWN
Motor Driver With Tach Feedback
BLOCK DIAGRAM
7 +VS
7.5V REF OUT
5 SUP/
REF OUTPUT
DRIVERS EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
9 B OUT
3 PWM 6 A OUT CFILTER
EA OUT
CURRENT
LIMIT
AND ISENSE
SHUTDOWN 8
IN 1
CONTROL 10 SHDN/
IN 1 10
ERROR SHDN/ R FILTER
FILTER
+IN 2
AMP FILTER
+IN 2 9
B OUT +
GND 4 EA OUT 3 TOP 8
VIEW I SENSE
AS EA OUT (3) GOES MORE POSITIVE, HIGH STATE OF A OUT (6)
GND 4 7 +VS
INCREASES AND HIGH STATE OF B OUT (9) DECREASES. REF
5 6
.1F A OUT
C1 R LIMIT

R LIMIT = .2
ILIMIT

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50
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA01 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 100V


OUTPUT CURRENT, peak 30A
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 185W1
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
SHUTDOWN VOLTAGE 10V
REFERENCE LOAD CURRENT 10mA
ERROR AMP INPUT 0 to +12V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

ERROR AMP
OFFSET VOLTAGE 10 mV
BIAS CURRENT 5 A
OFFSET CURRENT 1 A
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE RANGE4 +2 +8 V
COMMON MODE REJECTION, DC4 75 dB
SLEW RATE 15 V/S
OPEN LOOP GAIN4 75 dB
GAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT 2 MHz

OUTPUT
TOTAL RON .25
EFFICIENCY, 10A OUTPUT VS = 100V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY 35.3 42 48.7 KHz
CURRENT, continuous4 20 A
CURRENT, peak4 30 A

REFERENCE
VOLTAGE IREF = 5mA 7.46 7.50 7.54 V
VOLTAGE VS. TEMP4 Full temperature range 50 PPM/C
OUTPUT CURRENT 5 mA
LOAD REGULATION4 20 50 PPM/mA
LINE REGULATION 1 PPM/V

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE Full temperature range 16 50 100 V
CURRENT IOUT = 0, IREF = 0 76 90 mA
CURRENT, shutdown IREF = 0 25 mA

SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT .18 .22 V
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL2
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temp range, for each transistor 1.0 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two active output transistors can dissipate 125W, however the N-channel will be about 1/3 of the total dissipated
power. Internal connection resistance is .05.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power dissipation to
achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.

The SA01 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

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51
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA01

NORMALIZED SWITCHING FREQUENCY, (%)


POWER DERATING NORMALIZED CLOCK DRIFT VOLTAGE DROP
INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, P (W)

125
101 9
8 CASE TEMP. 60C
100 CASE TEMP. 85C

VOLTAGE DROP, (V)


7
100 6 CASE TEMP. 110C
75
5
4
50
99 3

25 2
CASE TEMP. 35C
EACH OUTPUT TRANSISTOR 1
0 98 0
0 25 50 75 100 125 55 15 25 85 125 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
CASE TEMPERATURE, T C (C) CASE TEMPERATURE, TC (C) OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)

MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS OUTPUT ERROR AMP SMALL SIGNAL GAIN ERROR AMP SMALL SIGNAL PHASE
OPEN LOOP GAIN RESPONSE, A (dB)

25 120 0

OPEN LOOP PHASE, ()


OUTPUT CURRENT , (A)

20
45
80
15
90 C
40
10
135
5
0
TJ = 150C 180
0
25 45 65 85 105 125 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 1 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M
CASE TEMPERATURE, TC (C) FREQUENCY, F (Hz) FREQUENCY, F (Hz)

FLYBACK DIODES FET ON RESISTANCE BRIDGED OUTPUT SWING


VOLTAGE DROP, VS [AOUTBOUT] (V)
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE

4 .3
10.0 125C
25C L
N NE .25 6.00
HA VS NEL
ON RESISTANCE, ()

3 P-C O+ 85C
TT HAN 2.00
U P-C
A /B O .2 25C
1.00
2 .15 0.40
L
ANNE
N-CH
NEL .1 0.10
1 N-CHAN
0.06
TO I SENSE
A/B OUT .05
0.02 JUNCTION TEMPERATURE
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 50 70 90 110 130 150 0.1 0.4 1.0 2.0 6.010.0 40.0
FLYBACK CURRENT, I SD, (A) CASE TEMPERATURE, T J (C) BRIDGE DRIVE CURRENT, IOUT (A)

QUIESCENT CURRENT DRIFT NORMALIZED REFERENCE DRIFT DUTY CYCLE


NORMALIZED REFERENCE, VREF, (X)

1.0004
QUIESCENT CURRENT, IQ (mA)

VS = 100V
80 80
1.0002
VS = 80V
PERCENT HIGH

VS = 60V
70 1.0000
40
BO

VS = 40V
UT

UT
O
A

0.9998
60
VS = 20V
0.9996 0
55 15 25 85 125 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 2 4 6 8
CASE TEMPERATURE, TC (C) CASE TEMPERATURE, TC (C) CONTROL, EA OUT (V)

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52
OPERATING
SA01 CONSIDERATIONS

GENERAL PROTECTION CIRCUITS


Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and There are two conditions which will latch all the output
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- transistors off. The first of these conditions is activation of the
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the high side current limit. Specifically, current in pin 7 (+VS) is
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the monitored. The DC trip level is about 35A and response time
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data book. about 5us. As actual currents increase the response time
Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics. decreases. The external fault generally associated with this
condition is shorting one of the outputs to ground. However, a
CURRENT LIMIT load fault can also activate this high side current limit if the
current rise time is less than the response time of the filter
The current limit function sets a peak limit on current flow in discussed under Current Limit. The second of these condi-
pin 8 (Isense). This limits load current and also limits current in tions is activation of any of the four output transistor over-
the event of a short of either output to +Vs. This circuit can trip temperature sensors at about 165C. Ambient temperature, air
anytime during the conduction period and will hold the output flow, amplifier mounting problems and all the previously men-
transistors off for the remainder of that conduction period. tioned high current faults contribute to junction temperature.
For proper operation the current limit sense resistor must be When either of these protection circuits are activated, the root
connected as shown in the external connection diagram. It is fault must be corrected and power cycled to restore normal
recommended that the resistor be a non-inductive type. Load operation.
current flows in pin 8. No current flows in pin 10 (Shutdown/
filter) so no error will be introduced by the length of the DEAD TIME
connection to pin 10. However, the voltage at pin 10 is com- There is a dead time between the on and off of each output.
pared to GND (pin 4) and an error could be introduced if the The dead time removes the possibility of a momentary conduc-
grounded end of RLIMIT is not directly tied to pin 4. Good circuit tion path through the upper and lower transistors of each half
board layout practice would be to connect RLIMIT directly be- bridge output during the switching interval. During the dead
tween pins 8 and 4. time all output transistors are off. Noise or flyback may be
Switching noise spikes will invariably be found at pin 8. The observed at the outputs during this time due to the high
amplitude and duration will be load dependent. The noise impedance of the outputs in the off state. This will vary with the
spikes could trip the current limit threshold which is only 200 nature of the load.
mV. RFILTER and CFILTER should be adjusted so as to reduce the
switching noise well below 200 mV to prevent false current
REF OUT 5
limiting. The sum of the DC level plus the noise peak will .1F
determine the current limiting value. Suggested starting values
are CFILTER = .01F, RFILTER = 5k.
R2 R1
The required value of RLIMIT may be calculated by: C1 R3
C2 R4
RLIMIT = .2 V / ILIMIT TO TACH
where RLIMIT is the required resistor value, and ILIMIT is the IN
R5
maximum desired current. SIGNAL 1
R6 3
+IN
SHUTDOWN 2 E/A OUT
The shutdown circuitry makes use of the internal current R7
limiting circuitry. The two functions may be externally combined
as shown below in Figure 1. RLIMIT will normally be a very low FIGURE 2.
value resistor and can be considered zero for this application.
RSD and RFILTER form a voltage divider for the shutdown signal.
After a suitable noise filter is designed for the current limit adjust ERROR AMPLIFIER
the value of RSD to give 317 mV of shutdown signal at pin 10 The internal error amplifier is an operational amplifier. For
when the shutdown signal is high. This means pin 10 will reach highest loop accuracy it is best to configure the op amp as an
the 200 mV trip point in about one time constant with low output integrator (See Figure 2). Feedback can be adjusted with
current and less time as output current increases. The voltage appropriate poles and zeroes to properly compensate the
at pin 10 is referenced velocity loop for optimum stability.
RSD to pin 4 (GND). CFILTER The op amp is operated from a single supply voltage gener-
SHUTDOWN SHDN/FILTER will filter both the cur- ated internally. The non-inverting input of the op amp does not
SIGNAL 10 rent limit noise spikes have a common mode range which includes ground. R2 and R7
and the shutdown sig- are used with the reference voltage provided at pin 5 to bias the
CFILTER nal. Shutdown and cur- non-inverting input to +5 volts, which is approximately half of
R FILTER rent limit operate on the voltage supplied internally to the op amp. Similarly, R1 and
each cycle of the inter- the parallel combination of R5 R6 are selected to bias the
8
nal switching rate. As inverting input also at +5 volts. Resistors R1 R2 must be
I SENSE
RLIMIT long as the shutdown matched. Likewise the parallel combination of R5 R6 must be
signal is high the output matched with R7. The source impedances of the tach and the
will be disabled. signal source may affect the matching and should be consid-
FIGURE 1. ered in the design.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked 5980
and is believed NORTH
to be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or USA
possible inaccuracies APPLICATIONS
omissions. HOTLINE:
All specifications are subject to 1 (800)
change 546-2739
without notice.
SA01U REV. D JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
53
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA01 PIN-OUT

EK01
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of 1. From the non-silk screen side, insert and solder cage jacks. Be
PWM amplifiers using the SA01 pin-out configuration. It can be used sure each one is fully seated.
to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit configura- 2. From the non-silk screen side, push spacer grommets into PC
tions, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier test board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
configurations. The board is designed for surface mounting all inserted for heatsink mounting.
components except the switching amplifier. 3. Apply TW10 thermal washer or a thin, even coat of thermal
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- grease to the bottom of the SA01. If grease is from a tube make
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any sure there is no sign separation of solids and liquids. If from a jar,
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others stir it prior to application.
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. 4. Use #14 sleeving to insulate and align at least 2 opposite pins of
Only components unique to the EK01 are provided in this kit. the amplifier.
Hardware similar to that shown in figure 1 must be obtained locally. 5. Mount amplifier to heatsink using #6 screws and nuts. Do not
The PC board and the foot print of the heatsink measure 3" by 5". over torque.
6. Install components as needed. External connections may be
PARTS LIST soldered directly or standard banana jacks may be soldered to
these pads.
Part # Description Quantity 7. Insert amplifier pins into cage jacks and fasten board to heatsink.
HS16 Heatsink 1
MS04 PC mount Cage Jacks 1 Bag/12 each
EK01PC PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
TW10 Thermal Washer 1 Box/10 each
C
BEFORE YOU GET STARTED
* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precautions.
* Always use the heatsink included in this kit with thermal grease.
* Torque the part to the specified 8 to 10 in-lbs (.9 to 1.13 N*M)
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.
* Check for oscillations.

Cage Jack
PC Board (Silkscreen side) Solder as required

Spacer Grommet
6-32 x 1/2 Lg. Screw

TW10 thermal washer or


thermal grease as required

Heatsink
#8 or #10 Screw (1/2" - 3/4" LG) Switching Amplifier
Hex Nut 6-32 THD 1/4"

FIGURE 1.

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54
EVALUATION KIT
EK01 FOR SA01 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.


TACH/
FEEDBACK
R7
C3 C4 R2
R12 R16
R11
C10
+VS
R6 C6 C1 C7
SIG C5
R5 3 7
EA +VS
IN OUT
IN 1
D4
A
D6 R14 7.5V 6 AOUT
R1 5 EA OUT
11V
REF PWM
D1
REF D3
2 B
OUT +IN 9 BOUT
SHDN/ OUT
C9
D7 C12 SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
11V 10 8 4 D2
R4 R17 R3 GND
GND
R8 R9

R10
SHDN
C8 SIG
+IN
C13 C2
D5
C11 11V
R13 R15

TYPICAL COMPONENT FUNCTIONS


R1 Provides -IN bias from the Reference voltage.
R2 Sets DC scaling for external feedback such as tachometers, position sensors or current sensors.
R3 With R4 sets DC operating point of +IN, with R13 and R15 sets gain of voltage feedback circuit.
R4 With R3 sets DC operating point of +IN.
R5 Input scaling of the control signal.
R6 With C6 sets the corner frequency of the integrator.
R7 With C3 & C4 forms a low pass filter for the external feedback loop. Often used with tachometers.
R8 With C2 forms a low pass filter for the current limit circuit.
R9 Current sense. Often is a piece of resistance wire.
R10 With R8 divides shutdown signal voltage feeding SHDN/FILTER pin.
R11 With C5 sets corner frequency for external feedback loop.
R12, 13, 15, 16 Provides voltage feedback for a voltage controlled output.
R14 Helps set gain or scale input voltage levels.
R17 With C12 provides low pass filtering of +IN signal.
C1 Power supply bypass.
C2 With R8 form a low pass filter for the current limit circuit, also filters the SHDN signal.
C3, 4 With R7 forms a low pass filter for the external feed back loop. Often used with tachometers.
C5 With R11 sets corner frequency for external feedback loop.
C6 With R6 sets the corner frequency of the integrator.
C7 Power supply bypass, must have very low ESR in MHz range.
C8 Filters reference or feedback voltage at +IN.
C9 Bypass for the reference voltage.
C10, 11 With R15 and R16 provides low pass filtering of voltage feedback.
C12 With R17 provides low pass filtering of +IN signal.
C13 Provides AC coupling of +IN signal.
D1 D4 Optional flyback diodes.
D5 D7 Input protection zener diodes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
55
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA01 PIN-OUT EK01

FIGURE 3. PCB FRONT.

OPEN LOOP OPERATION


R6 C6
+VS

3 7 C1 C7
EA +VS
IN OUT
1
A
7.5V 6 AOUT
5 EA OUT
REF PWM
REF 2
OUT +IN B
9 BOUT
C9 SHDN/ OUT
SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
R17 C12
10 8 4
GND
IN R8 R9
+2.5/+7.5
R10
VIN Duty Cycle @ AOUT SHDN
SIG
2.5V 0% C2
5V 50%
7.5V 100%

VIN 5
(A B) = V I R
2.5 * S O * DSON

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
56
COMMON
EK01 CONFIGURATIONS

VOLTAGE CONTROL R12 R16


RF C10
+VS
SIG R6 C6
3 7 C1 C7
R5
EA +VS
IN OUT
1
A
7.5V 6 AOUT
R1 5 EA OUT
RO REF PWM
REF 2
OUT +IN B
9 BOUT
R17 SHDN/ OUT
C9
SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
10 8 4
R3 GND
R4
RF RO R8 R9
(A B) = VIN * RI
RI R10
SHDN
C8 SIG
RF C2

R13 C11 R15

POSITION CONTROL
TACH/
FEEDBACK
R7
R2

R11 +VS
SIG
R6 C6 C1 C7
R5 C5 3 7
EA +VS
IN OUT
1 +REF
A AOUT
7.5V 6
R1 5 EA OUT
REF PWM M
REF 2
OUT +IN B
9
SHDN/ OUT BOUT
C9 R17 REF
SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
10 8 4
R3 GND
R4
R8 R9

R10
SHDN
C8 SIG
+IN
C2

SPEED CONTROL
TACH/
FEEDBACK
R7
C3 C4 R2

R11
+VS
R6 C6
SIG C5 C1 C7
R5 3 7
EA +VS
IN OUT
1
A AOUT
7.5V 6
R1 5 EA OUT
REF PWM M T
REF 2
OUT +IN B
9
SHDN/ OUT BOUT
C9 R17
SA01 FILTER I SENSE GND
10 8 4
R3 GND
R4
R8 R9

R10
SHDN
C8 SIG
+IN
C2

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked 5980
and is believed NORTH
to be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or USA
possible inaccuracies APPLICATIONS
omissions. HOTLINE:
All specifications are subject to 1 (800)
change 546-2739
without notice.
EK01U REV. C JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
57
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA02
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES SA02

250kHz SWITCHING
7
Q 9 8 1e O
MB 3 0 9U S A B
600 24
FULL BRIDGE OUTPUT 16-80V (160V P-P)
10A OUTPUT
FAULT PROTECTION
SHUTDOWN CONTROL
SYNCHRONIZABLE CLOCK
HERMETIC PACKAGE
APPLICATIONS EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
AIRCRAFT AUDIO AMPLIFIER
BRUSH TYPE MOTOR CONTROL INT 1 18 ILIM/SHDN
VIBRATION CANCELLING AMPLIFIER + INT 2 17 NC
INT OUT 3 16 ISENSE B *R LIMIT
DESCRIPTION *
RAMP/PWM 4 15 B OUT
The SA02 amplifier is an 80 volt, 250kHz PWM amplifier. TOP
The full bridge output circuit provides 10 amps of continuous * +PWM 5 14 Vs
VIEW *
drive current for applications as diverse as aircraft audio and GND 6 13 A OUT
brush type motors. Clock output and input pins can be used for *R LIMIT
synchronization with other amplifiers or an externally gener- CLK IN 7 12 ISENSE A
ated clock. A separate integrator amplifier is also accessible *
CLK OUT 8 11 NC
and the integration may be varied for the application. Direct
access to the pwm input is provided for connection to digital NC 9 10 Vcc
motion control circuits. Protection circuits guard against ther- *
mal overloads as well as shorts to supply or ground. The Case tied to pin 6. Bypassing of supplies is required.
current limit is programmable with one or two external resistors Package is Apex DIP7. See Outline Dimensions/Packages
depending on the application. A shutdown input disables all in Apex data book.
output bridge drivers. The 18 pin DIP7 steel package is
If +PWM > RAMP/PWM then A OUT > B OUT
hermetically sealed. and ISENSE B > ISENSE A.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND * See text.
TYPICAL APPLICATION +VS
CONNECTIONS 14
Vcc
AIRCRAFT THERMAL,
SHORT 10
AUDIO CIRCUIT
PROTECT. NC
+PWM B REG.
100 100 R 17
5 I
100K D
1000pF A OUT
G 5V
1000pF RAMP/PWM E 13
100
4
D B OUT
R
18K I 15
LOAD
V 5V
100pF
CLK OUT E
R
8 ILIM/SHDN R FILTER R SHDN
18
C FILTER 1K
OSC CLK/2
I SENSE B
CLK IN 16
7 I SENSE A
12
GND R LIMIT
NC 9
6

NC 11
INT OUT
3
+ INT
2.5V 2
INT
1
2.5V
SIGNAL

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
58
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA02 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, Vcc to GND 15V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS to GND 80V
OUTPUT CURRENT, peak 15A
PWM 0 TO Vcc
CLK IN, INT VIN, ILIM/SHDN VIN 0 to +6V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 156W1
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

INTEGRATOR, CLOCK3
OFFSET VOLTAGE 2 mV
BIAS CURRENT 150 nA
OFFSET CURRENT 30 nA
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE RANGE 0 +3 V
COMMON MODE REJECTION, DC 80 dB
SLEW RATE 15 V/S
OPEN LOOP GAIN RL = 10K 94 dB
GAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT 4.5 MHz
CLOCK OUT RL 10K 500 kHz
CLOCK OUT, high level 4.7 5.3 V
CLOCK OUT, low level 0 .2 V
CLOCK IN, low level 0 .3 V
CLOCK IN, high level 2 5.6 V

OUTPUT
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 80V 94 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY 250 kHz
CURRENT, continuous 10 A
CURRENT, peak3 15 A
RDS(ON)3 .42

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 10 12 15 V
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 16 80 V
CURRENT, VCC VCC = 12V 36 50 mA
CURRENT, VS Switching, No Load, VS = 60V 70 90 mA

INPUTS3
ILIM/SHDN, trip point 90 110 mV
PWM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE 1 Vcc 1.5 V

THERMAL4
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range 1.6 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 15 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 85 C

NOTES: 1. 80W in each of the two active output transistors on at any one time.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C.
3. Min max values guaranteed but not tested.
4. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power dissipation
to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.

The SA02 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
59
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA02
POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP
INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

80 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


101.5
99.5
60 101.0

99.0 100.5
40 100
98.5 99.5
20
98.0 99.0
EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR F NOMINAL = 500kHz 98.5
0 97.5 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 100 1K 10K 100K 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE INTEGRATOR GAIN INTEGRATOR PHASE


10 100 0
8
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

6
OPEN LOOP GAIN, A (dB)

OPEN LOOP PHASE, ()


5 80
4 45
3
60
2

40 90
1
8
20
6
5 135
4 0
3
20 180
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE FREQUENCY, F (Hz) FREQUENCY, F (Hz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


10 100 100
B OUTPUT
90
8 80
CONTINUOUS AMPS

DUTY CYCLE, (%)

80
6 60 70

60
4 40
50
2 20
40
A OUTPUT
0 0 30
25 50 75 100 125 150 1 2 3 4 0 50 100 150 200 250
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

125 180 100


Vcc = 12V 90
F = 250kHz 160
125C 80
100 140 85C 70
NORMAL OPERATION 120 25C 60
75 100 55C 50
80 40
30
50 60
20
40 10
SHUTDOWN OPERATION
25 20 0
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 50 100 150 200 250
CASE TEMPERATURE, TC (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
60
OPERATING
SA02 CONSIDERATIONS

TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP NOISE FILTERING


6
CASE Switching noise can enter the SA02 through the INT OUT to
70C
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

5 TEMPERATURE +PWM connection. A wise precaution is to low pass filter this


connection. Adjust the pass band of the filter to 10 times the
4
125C bandwidth required by the application. Keep the resistor value
100C to 100 ohms or less since this resistor becomes part of the
85C hysteresis circuit on the pwm comparator.
3

2 PCB LAYOUT
25C The designer needs to appreciate that the SA02 combines
1 25C in one circuit both high speed high power switching and low
55C level analog signals. Certain layout rules of thumb must be
0 considered when a circuit board layout is designed using the
0 2 4 6 8 10 SA02:
OUTPUT, I (A)
1. Bypassing of the power supplies is critical. Capacitors must
be connected directly to the power supply pins with very
GENERAL short lead lengths (well under 1 inch). Ceramic chip capaci-
Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and tors are best.
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider-
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the 2. Make all ground connections with a star pattern at pin 6.
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the 3. Beware of capacitive coupling between output connections
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data book.
and signal inputs through the parasitic capacitance be-
Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics.
tween layers in multilayer PCB designs.
4. Do not run small signal traces between the pins of the output
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR section (pins 11-17).
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of
5. Do not allow high currents to flow into the ground plane.
approximately 500 kHZ. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an 6. Separate switching and analog grounds and connect the
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the RAMP pin. An two only at pin 6 as part of the star pattern.
external clock signal can be applied to the CLK IN pin for
synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower than INTEGRATOR
500kHZ is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the
The integrator provides the inverted signal for negative
RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal capaci-
feedback and also the open loop gain for the overall application
tor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 2.5 volts p-p
circuit accuracy. Recommended value of CINT is 10 pF for
with the lower peak 1.25 volts above ground.
stability. However, poles and zeroes can be added to the circuit
for overall loop stability as required.
BYPASSING
Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for CURRENT LIMIT
proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
There are two load current sensing pins, I SENSE A and I
efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
SENSE B. The two pins can be shorted in the voltage mode
The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
connection but both must be used in the current mode connec-
capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
tion (see figures A and B). It is recommended that RLIMIT
10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
resistors be non-inductive. Load current flows in the I SENSE
switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
pins. To avoid errors due to lead lengths connect the I LIMIT/
ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
SHDN pin directly to the RLIMIT resistors (through the filter
directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
network and shutdown divider resistor) and connect the RLIMIT
will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
resistors directly to the GND pin.
very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
61
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA02

I SENSE A SHUTDOWN
The shutdown circuitry makes use of the internal current
R LIMIT limiting circuitry. The two functions may be externally com-
I SENSE B
bined in voltage and current modes as shown below in Figures
1K
A and B. The RLIMIT resistors will normally be very low values
SHUTDOWN
I LIMIT/SHDN R
FILTER SIGNAL and can be considered zero for this application. In Figure A,
RSHDN and 1K form a voltage divider for the shutdown signal.
R SHDN
C FILTER After a suitable noise filter is designed for the current limit,
adjust the value of RSHDN to give a minimum 110 mV of
shutdown signal at the I LIMIT/SHDN pin when the shutdown
FIGURE A. CURRENT LIMIT WITH
SHUTDOWN VOLTAGE MODE. signal is high. Note that CFILTER will filter both the current limit
noise spikes and the shutdown signal. Shutdown and current
I SENSE A limit operate on each cycle of the internal switching rate. As
1K long as the shutdown signal is high the output will be disabled.

R LIMIT PROTECTION CIRCUITS


I SENSE B Circuits monitor the temperature and load on each of the
1K
bridge output transistors. On each cycle should any fault
R LIMIT
condition be detected all output transistors in the bridge are
shut off. Faults protected against are: shorts across the out-
puts, shorts to ground, and over temperature conditions.
I LIMIT/SHDN R SHUTDOWN
FILTER SIGNAL Should any of these faults be detected, the output transistors
will be latched off. The fault must be removed and VCC power
R SHDN
C FILTER recycled to restart the SA02. In addition there is a built in dead
time during which all the output transistors are off. The dead
FIGURE B. CURRENT LIMIT WITH time removes the possibility of a momentary conduction path
SHUTDOWN CURRENT MODE. through the upper and lower transistors of each half bridge
during the switching interval. Noise or flyback may be ob-
Switching noise spikes will invariably be found at the I served at the outputs during this time due to the high imped-
SENSE pins. The noise spikes could trip the current limit ance of the outputs in the off state. This will vary with the nature
threshold which is only 100 mV. RFILTER and CFILTER should be of the load.
adjusted so as to reduce the switching noise well below 100
mV to prevent false current limiting. The sum of the DC level
plus the noise peak will determine the current limiting value. As
in most switching circuits it may be difficult to determine the
true noise amplitude without careful attention to grounding of
the oscilloscope probe. Use the shortest possible ground lead
for the probe and connect exactly at the GND terminal of the
amplifier. Suggested starting values are CFILTER = .001uF,
RFILTER = 5k .
The required value of RLIMIT in voltage mode may be calcu-
lated by:
RLIMIT = .1 V / ILIMIT
where RLIMIT is the required resistor value, and ILIMIT is the
maximum desired current. In current mode the required value
of each RLIMIT is 2 times this value since the sense voltage is
divided down by 2 (see Figure B). If RSHDN is used it will further
divide down the sense voltage. The shutdown divider network
will also have an effect on the filtering circuit.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked to
and is believed 5980 NORTH
be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD is TUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or
possible inaccuracies omissions.
USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
SA02U REV. E DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
62
NOTES:

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
63
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA02 PIN-OUT

EK02
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of 1. From the non-silk screen side, insert and solder cage jacks. Be
PWM amplifiers using the SA02 pin-out configuration. It can be used sure each one is fully seated.
to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit configura- 2. From the non-silk screen side, push spacer grommets into PC
tions, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier test board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
configurations. The board is designed for surface mounting all inserted for heatsink mounting.
components except the switching amplifier. 3. Apply TW02 thermal washer to the bottom of the SA02.
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- 4. Use #14 sleeving to insulate and align at least 2 opposite pins of
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any the amplifier.
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others 5. Mount amplifier to heatsink using #6 screws and nuts. Torque the
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. part to the specified 8 to 10 in-lbs (.9 to 1.13 N*M). Do not over
Only components unique to the EK02 are provided in this kit. torque.
Hardware similar to that shown in figure 1 must be obtained locally. 6. Install components as needed. External connections may be
soldered directly or standard banana jacks may be soldered to
PARTS LIST these pads.
7. Insert amplifier pins into cage jacks and fasten board to heatsink.
Part # Description Quantity
HS19 Heatsink 1
MS02 PC mount Cage Jacks 3 Bags/8 each
EVAL08 PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
TW02
OX7R105KWN
Thermal Washer
1F Capacitor
1 Box/10 each
6
C
1825B105K201N/Novacap
HK03 Clamp 1 Bag/2 each

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED


* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precautions.
* Always use the heatsink included in this kit with TW02 washer.
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.
* Check for oscillations.
Cage Jack
PC Board (Silkscreen side) Solder as required

Spacer Grommet
6-32 x 1/2 Lg. Screw

TW02 thermal washer

Heatsink
#8 or #10 Screw (1/2" - 3/4" LG) Switching Amplifier

Hex Nut 6-32 THD 1/4"


FIGURE 1. HK03 CLAMP

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
64
EVALUATION KIT
EK02 FOR SA02 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.

A block diagram of the SA02


is shown in Figure 2 along with
pcb connections of all the com-
monly used external compo-
nents. Your application circuit
will not use all of the compo-
nents. Add those components
required by your circuit. You
may have to jumper some com-
* ponents to make the desired
electrical connections. J2 is an
optional way to connect the clock
circuit. Power supply bypass-
ing is particularly important and
that is why high quality ceramic
chip capacitors are supplied with
the kit. In addition you may
need to add a 10-50 uF or larger
capacitor on the +Vs pin. This
additional capacitor needs to be
rated for switching operation.
Note that the signal ground and
power ground are separated and
tie together only at the ground
pin (6). A breadboarding area is
supplied which can accomodate
1 or 2 IC amplifiers and associ-
ated components. The large
terminal pads can be used to
solder wire connections or
bannana jacks.

*
*

* Input protection, 5V zener diode.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
65
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA02 PIN-OUT EK02

FIGURE 3. FUNCTIONAL TEST CIRCUIT

The schematic of Figure 3 can be


used to verify the functionality of your
amplifier and help you gain a familiarity
with proper operation. At either A Out
or B Out, with respect to ground, you
should observe a square wave approxi-
mately 30 V in amplitude with a fixed
frequency and duty cycle that varies
from approximately 0 to 100% at a rate
of 1 Hz. The current limit is set to 2
amps.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
66
EK02

FIGURE 4. PCB COMPONENT SIDE

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked 5980
and is believed NORTH
to be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or USA
possible inaccuracies APPLICATIONS
omissions. HOTLINE:
All specifications are subject to 1 (800)
change 546-2739
without notice.
EK02U REV. C JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
67
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA03
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE16-100V SA03
30A CONTINUOUS TO 60 C CASE
3 PROTECTION CIRCUITS USA
ANALOG OR DIGITAL INPUTS TE9493
11
BeO

SYNCHRONIZED OR EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR


FLEXIBLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
MOTORS TO 4HP
REACTIVE LOADS
LOW FREQUENCY SONAR
LARGE PIEZO ELEMENTS
EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
OFF-LINE DRIVERS
C-D WELD CONTROLLER

DESCRIPTION ISENSE A
The SA03 is a pulse width amplifier that can supply 3000W CLK IN 1 12
A OUT
to the load. An internal 45kHz oscillator requires no external CLK OUT 2 11
components. The clock input stage divides the oscillator +PWM 10
* VCC
3
frequency by two, which provides the basic switching of 22.5 TOP
4 VIEW 9 *
kHz. External oscillators may also be used to lower the PWM/RAMP
switching frequency or to synchronize multiple amplifiers. 5 8 +VS
Current sensing is provided for each half of the bridge giving GND 6 7 B OUT
amplitude and direction data. A shutdown input turns off all ILIM/SHDN I SENSE B
four drivers of the H bridge output. A high side current limit and
the programmable low side current limit protect the amplifier
from shorts to supply or ground in addition to load shorts. The
H bridge output MOSFETs are protected from thermal over- Case tied to pin 5. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies
loads by directly sensing the temperature of the die. The 12- is required. Package is Apex MO-127 (STD). See Outline
pin hermetic MO-127 power package occupies only 3 square Dimensions/Packages in Apex data book.
inches of board space.
If +PWM > RAMP/PWM then A OUT > B OUT.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TYPICAL APPLICATION * See text.

Vcc
10 CURRENT 9
LIMIT +VS
+PWM
3
PWM
4
PWM/RAMP B OUT
470pF
OUTPUT 8
56K DRIVERS MOTOR
11
CLK OUT
A OUT
2 OSC 2 1K
I SENSE A
SHUTDOWN 12
CLK IN 5K RSENSE
CONTROL 6
1 .01F
ILIM/SHDN 1K
5
7
CONTROL GND
SIGNAL I SENSE B RSENSE
3/7V

5V

5V

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
68
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA03 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 100V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 300W
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, +PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, PWM 0 to +11V
SPECIFICATIONS INPUT VOLTAGE, ILIM 0 to +10V

PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

CLOCK (CLK)
CLK OUT, high level4 IOUT 1mA 4.8 5.3 V
CLK OUT, low level4 IOUT 1mA 0 .4 V
FREQUENCY 44 45 46 kHz
RAMP, center voltage 5 V
RAMP, P-P voltage 4 V
CLK IN, low level4 0 .9 V
CLK IN, high level4 3.7 5.4 V

OUTPUT
TOTAL RON .16
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 100V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY OSC in 2 22 22.5 23 kHz
CURRENT, continuous4 60C case 30 A
CURRENT, peak4 40 A

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 165 60 100 V
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 14 15 16 V
CURRENT, VCC IOUT = 0 80 mA
CURRENT, VCC, shutdown 50 mA
CURRENT, VS No Load 50 mA

ILIM/SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT 90 110 mV
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range, for each die .83 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two active output transistors can dissipate 150W.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, VS, VCC at typical specification.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.
5. If 100% duty cycle is not required VS(MIN) = 0V.

The SA03 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush,
machine, or subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
69
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA03

POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP


INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

150 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)
101.5
125
99
101.0
100
98 100.5
75 100
97 99.5
50
99.0
25 96
EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR 98.5
F NOMINAL = 45kHz
0 95 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 10K 100K 1M 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP


3 10
2 CASE TEMPERATURE
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

60C
8
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

10 85C
9
7 100C
6 6
5
125C
4
3
4
2

1 2
8
25C
7
25C
6 55C
5 0
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


30 100 100
A OUT
28
80 95
CONTINUOUS AMPS

DUTY CYCLE, (%)

26

24 60 90

22
40 85
20
20 80
18
B OUT
16 0 75
25 50 75 100 125 150 3 4 5 6 7 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

115 180 100


Vcc = 15V Vs = 60V, NO LOAD
110 F = 22.5 kHz 160
90
140
105
NORMAL 80
120
100 OPERATION 55C
100 70
95 125C
80
60
90 60
SHUTDOWN 50
85 OPERATION 40
80 20 40
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 20 40 60 80 100 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
70
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA03

GENERAL I SENSE A noise spikes could trip the cur-


1K rent limit threshold which is only
Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- 100 mV. RFILTER and C FILTER
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the R LIMIT should be adjusted so as to
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the I SENSE B reduce the switching noise well
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data below 100 mV to prevent false
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics. current limiting. The sum of the
R LIMIT DC level plus the noise peak
will determine the
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR current limiting
I LIMIT/SHDN R SHUTDOWN
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of FILTER SIGNAL value. As in most
approximately 45kHz. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied switching circuits
R SHDN
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an C FILTER
it may be difficult
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the PWM/ to determine the
RAMP pin. An external clock signal can be applied to the CLK true noise ampli-
FIGURE B. CURRENT LIMIT WITH
IN pin for synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower SHUTDOWN CURRENT MODE. tude without
than 45kHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the careful attention
PWM/RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal to grounding of the oscilloscope probe. Use the shortest
capacitor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 4 volts possible ground lead for the probe and connect exactly at the
p-p with the lower peak 3 volts above ground. GND terminal of the amplifier. Suggested starting values are
CFILTER = .01uF, RFILTER = 5k .
PWM INPUTS
The full bridge driver may be accessed via the pwm input The required value of RLIMIT in voltage mode may be calcu-
comparator. When +PWM > -PWM then A OUT > B OUT. A lated by:
motion control processor which generates the pwm signal can RLIMIT = .1 V / ILIMIT
drive these pins with signals referenced to GND. where RLIMIT is the required resistor value, and ILIMIT is the
maximum desired current. In current mode the required value
PROTECTION CIRCUITS of each RLIMIT is 2 times this value since the sense voltage is
In addition to the externally programmable current limit there divided down by 2 (see Figure B). If RSHDN is used it will further
is also a fixed internal current limit which senses only the high divide down the sense voltage. The shutdown divider network
side current. It is nominally set to 140% of the continuous rated will also have an effect on the filtering circuit.
output current. Should either of the outputs be shorted to
ground the high side current limit will latch off the output BYPASSING
transistors. Also, the temperature of the output transistors is Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for
continually monitored. Should a fault condition occur which proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
raises the temperature of the output transistors to 165C the efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
thermal protection circuit will activate and also latch off the The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
output transistors. In either case, it will be necessary to remove capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
the fault condition and recycle power to VCC to restart the circuit. 10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
CURRENT LIMIT ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
There are two load current sensing pins, I SENSE A and I directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
SENSE B. The two pins can be shorted in the voltage mode will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
connection but both must be used in the current mode connec- very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
tion (see figures A and B). It is recommended that RLIMIT connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
resistors be non-inductive. Load current flows in the I SENSE less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
pins. To avoid errors due to lead lengths connect the I LIMIT/ capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.
SHDN pin directly to
the R LIMIT resistors I SENSE A STARTUP CONDITIONS
(through the filter net- The high side of the all N channel output bridge circuit is
work and shutdown di- R LIMIT driven by bootstrap circuit and charge pump arrangement. In
I SENSE B
vider resistor) and con- order for the circuit to produce a 100% duty cycle indefinitely
nect the RLIMIT resis- the low side of each half bridge circuit must have previously
tors directly to the GND I LIMIT/SHDN 1K SHUTDOWN
R FILTER
been in the ON condition. This means, in turn, that if the input
pin. SIGNAL
signal to the SA03 at startup is demanding a 100% duty cycle,
Switching noise R SHDN the output may not follow the command and may be in a tri-
C FILTER
spikes will invariably state condition. The ramp signal must cross the input signal at
be found at the I some point to correctly determine the output state. After the
SENSE pins. The FIGURE A. CURRENT LIMIT WITH ramp crosses the input signal level one time, the output state
SHUTDOWN VOLTAGE MODE. will be correct thereafter.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked TELEPHONE
and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility assumed888-3329
for possible inaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
SA03U REV. D DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
71
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA03/SA04/SA23/SA24 PIN-OUT

EK03
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of 1. From the non-silk screen side, insert and solder cage jacks. Be
PWM amplifiers using the SA03 pin-out configuration. It can be used sure each one is fully seated.
to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit configura- 2. From the non-silk screen side, push spacer grommets into PC
tions, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier test board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
configurations. The board is designed for surface mounting all inserted for heatsink mounting.
components except the switching amplifier. 3. Apply TW05 thermal washer to the bottom of the amplifier.
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- 4. Use #14 sleeving to insulate and align at least 2 opposite pins of
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any the amplifier.
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others 5. Mount amplifier to heatsink using #6 screws and nuts. Torque the
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. part to the specified 8 to 10 in-lbs (.9 to 1.13 N*M). Do not over
Only components unique to the EK03 are provided in this kit. torque.
Hardware similar to that shown in figure 1 must be obtained locally. 6. Install components as needed. External connections may be
soldered directly or standard banana jacks may be soldered to
PARTS LIST these pads.
7. Insert amplifier pins into cage jacks and fasten board to heatsink.
Part # Description Quantity
HS18 Heatsink 1
MS04 PC mount Cage Jacks 1 Bag/12 each
EVAL09 PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
TW05 Thermal Washer 1 Box/10 each
OX7R105KWN 1F Cap 1825B105K201N, 6
Novacap

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED


* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precautions.
* Always use the heatsink included in this kit with TW05 washer.
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.
* Check for oscillations.

Cage Jack
PC Board (Silkscreen side) Solder as required

Spacer Grommet
6-32 x 1/2 Lg. Screw

TW05 thermal washer

Heatsink
#8 or #10 Screw (1/2" - 3/4" LG) Switching Amplifier
Hex Nut 6-32 THD 1/4"

FIGURE 1.

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72
EVALUATION KIT
EK03 FOR SA03 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.

A block diagram of the amplifier is shown in


Figure 2 along with pcb connections of all the
commonly used external components. Your
application circuit will not use all of the compo-
nents. Add those components required by your
circuit. You may have to jumper some compo-
nents to make the desired electrical connec-
tions. J1 is an optional way to connect the clock
circuit. Power supply bypassing is particularly
important and that is why high quality ceramic
chip capacitors are supplied with the kit. In
addition you may need to add a 10-50 uF or
larger capacitor on the +Vs pin. This additional
capacitor needs to be rated for switching opera-
tion. Note that the signal ground and power
ground are separated and tie together only at
the ground pin (5). A breadboarding area is
supplied which can accomodate 1 or 2 IC
amplifiers and associated components. The
large terminal pads can be used to solder wire
connections or bannana jacks.

SA03 SA04/
SA23 SA24

* *

* Input protection, 10V zener diode.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
73
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA03 PIN-OUT EK03

FIGURE 3. FUNCTIONAL TEST CIRCUIT

The schematic of Figure 3 can be used to


verify the functionality of your amplifier and help
you gain a familiarity with proper operation. At
either A Out or B Out, with respect to ground,
you should observe a square wave approxi-
mately 30 V in amplitude with a fixed frequency
and duty cycle that varies from approximately 0
to 100% at a rate of 1 Hz. The current limit is set
to 2 amps.

SA03 SA04/
SA23 SA24

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
74
EK03

FIGURE 4. PCB COMPONENT SIDE

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data sheet has been carefully CORPORATION TELEPHONE
checked and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility assumed888-3329
for possible inaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
EK03U REV. D APRIL 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
75
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA04
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE16-200V SA04

20A CONTINUOUS TO 85 C CASE


3 PROTECTION CIRCUITS USA
TE9493 BeO
11
ANALOG OR DIGITAL INPUTS
SYNCHRONIZED OR EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
FLEXIBLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
MOTORS TO 4HP
REACTIVE LOADS
LOW FREQUENCY SONAR
LARGE PIEZO ELEMENTS EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
OFF-LINE DRIVERS
C-D WELD CONTROLLER

DESCRIPTION ISENSE A
The SA04 is a pulse width amplifier that can supply 4000W CLK IN 1 12
A OUT
to the load. An internal 45kHz oscillator requires no external CLK OUT 2 11
components. The clock input stage divides the oscillator +PWM 3 10
* VCC
frequency by two, which provides the basic switching of 22.5 TOP
4 VIEW 9 *
kHz. External oscillators may also be used to lower the PWM/RAMP
switching frequency or to synchronize multiple amplifiers. 5 8 +VS
Current sensing is provided for each half of the bridge giving GND 6 7 B OUT
amplitude and direction data. A shutdown input turns off all ILIM/SHDN I SENSE B
four drivers of the H bridge output. A high side current limit and
the programmable low side current limit protect the amplifier
from shorts to supply or ground in addition to load shorts. The
H bridge output MOSFETs are protected from thermal over- Case tied to pin 5. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies
loads by directly sensing the temperature of the die. The 12- is required. Package is Apex MO-127 (STD). See Outline
pin hermetic MO-127 power package occupies only 3 square Dimensions/Packages in Apex data book.
inches of board space. If +PWM > RAMP/PWM then A OUT > B OUT.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TYPICAL APPLICATION *See text.
TORQUE MOTOR DRIVER
Vcc
10 CURRENT 9
LIMIT +VS
+PWM
3
PWM
4
PWM/RAMP B OUT
470pF
OUTPUT 8
56K DRIVERS MOTOR
11
CLK OUT
A OUT
2 OSC 2 1K
I SENSE A
SHUTDOWN 12
CLK IN 5K RSENSE
CONTROL 6
1 .01F
ILIM/SHDN 1K
5
7
CONTROL GND
SIGNAL I SENSE B RSENSE
3/7V

5V

5V

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
76
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA04 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 200V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 300W
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, +PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, ILIM 0 to +10V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

CLOCK (CLK)
CLK OUT, high level4 IOUT 1mA 4.8 5.3 V
CLK OUT, low level4 IOUT 1mA 0 .4 V
FREQUENCY 44.10 45.00 46.90 kHz
RAMP, center voltage 5 V
RAMP, P-P voltage 4 V
CLK IN, low level4 0 .9 V
CLK IN, high level4 3.7 5.4 V

OUTPUT
TOTAL RON .22
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 200V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY OSC in 2 22.05 22.50 22.95 kHz
CURRENT, continuous4 85C case 20 A
CURRENT, peak4 30 A

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 165 120 200 V
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 14 15 16 V
CURRENT, VCC IOUT = 0 80 mA
CURRENT, VCC, shutdown 50 mA
CURRENT, VS No Load 50 mA

ILIM/SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT 90 110 mV
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range, for each die .83 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two active output transistors can dissipate 150W.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, VS, VCC at typical specification.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.
5. If 100% duty cycle is not required VS(MIN) = 0V.

The SA04 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush,
machine, or subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
77
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA04

POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP


INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

150 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)
101.5
125
99
101.0
100
98 100.5
75 100
97 99.5
50
99.0
25 96
EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR 98.5
F NOMINAL = 45kHz
0 95 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 10K 100K 1M 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP


2 10
CASE TEMPERATURE
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

10
8 8 85C
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

7
6
5
4 100C
3 6
2 125C
4
1
8
7
6
5 2
4 60C
3 25C
2 0 55C 25C
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 5 10 15 20
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


20 100 100
A OUT
80 95
CONTINUOUS AMPS

18
DUTY CYCLE, (%)

60 90
16
40 85

14
20 80
B OUT
12 0 75
25 50 75 100 125 150 3 4 5 6 7 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

115 140 100


Vcc = 15V Vs = 120V, NO LOAD
110 F = 22.5 kHz 120
80
105
NORMAL 100
100 OPERATION
80 60
95
60
90
40
SHUTDOWN 40
85 OPERATION
80 20 20
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
78
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA04

GENERAL I SENSE A noise spikes could trip the cur-


1K rent limit threshold which is only
Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- 100 mV. RFILTER and C FILTER
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the R LIMIT should be adjusted so as to
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the I SENSE B reduce the switching noise well
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data below 100 mV to prevent false
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics. current limiting. The sum of the
R LIMIT DC level plus the noise peak
will determine the
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR current limiting
I LIMIT/SHDN R SHUTDOWN
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of FILTER SIGNAL value. As in most
approximately 45kHz. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied switching circuits
R SHDN
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an C FILTER
it may be difficult
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the PWM/ to determine the
RAMP pin. An external clock signal can be applied to the CLK true noise ampli-
FIGURE B. CURRENT LIMIT WITH
IN pin for synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower SHUTDOWN CURRENT MODE. tude without
than 45kHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the careful attention
PWM/RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal to grounding of the oscilloscope probe. Use the shortest
capacitor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 4 volts possible ground lead for the probe and connect exactly at the
p-p with the lower peak 3 volts above ground. GND terminal of the amplifier. Suggested starting values are
CFILTER = .01uF, RFILTER = 5k .
PWM INPUTS
The full bridge driver may be accessed via the pwm input The required value of RLIMIT in voltage mode may be calcu-
comparator. When +PWM > -PWM then A OUT > B OUT. A lated by:
motion control processor which generates the pwm signal can RLIMIT = .1 V / ILIMIT
drive these pins with signals referenced to GND. where RLIMIT is the required resistor value, and ILIMIT is the
maximum desired current. In current mode the required value
PROTECTION CIRCUITS of each RLIMIT is 2 times this value since the sense voltage is
In addition to the externally programmable current limit there divided down by 2 (see Figure B). If RSHDN is used it will further
is also a fixed internal current limit which senses only the high divide down the sense voltage. The shutdown divider network
side current. It is nominally set to 140% of the continuous rated will also have an effect on the filtering circuit.
output current. Should either of the outputs be shorted to
ground the high side current limit will latch off the output BYPASSING
transistors. Also, the temperature of the output transistors is Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for
continually monitored. Should a fault condition occur which proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
raises the temperature of the output transistors to 165C the efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
thermal protection circuit will activate and also latch off the The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
output transistors. In either case, it will be necessary to remove capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
the fault condition and recycle power to VCC to restart the circuit. 10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
CURRENT LIMIT ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
There are two load current sensing pins, I SENSE A and I directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
SENSE B. The two pins can be shorted in the voltage mode will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
connection but both must be used in the current mode connec- very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
tion (see figures A and B). It is recommended that RLIMIT connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
resistors be non-inductive. Load current flows in the I SENSE less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
pins. To avoid errors due to lead lengths connect the I LIMIT/ capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.
SHDN pin directly to
the R LIMIT resistors I SENSE A STARTUP CONDITIONS
(through the filter net- The high side of the all N channel output bridge circuit is
work and shutdown di- R LIMIT driven by bootstrap circuit and charge pump arrangement. In
I SENSE B
vider resistor) and con- order for the circuit to produce a 100% duty cycle indefinitely
nect the RLIMIT resis- the low side of each half bridge circuit must have previously
tors directly to the GND I LIMIT/SHDN 1K SHUTDOWN
R FILTER
been in the ON condition. This means, in turn, that if the input
pin. SIGNAL
signal to the SA04 at startup is demanding a 100% duty cycle,
Switching noise R SHDN the output may not follow the command and may be in a tri-
C FILTER
spikes will invariably state condition. The ramp signal must cross the input signal at
be found at the I some point to correctly determine the output state. After the
SENSE pins. The FIGURE A. CURRENT LIMIT WITH ramp crosses the input signal level one time, the output state
SHUTDOWN VOLTAGE MODE. will be correct thereafter.

This data
APEX sheet has been carefully CORPORATION
MICROTECHNOLOGY checked and is believed to be reliable,(520)
TELEPHONE however, no responsibility
690-8600 FAXis(520)
assumed for possibleinaccuracies
888-3329 or omissions.
ORDERS (520) All specifications
690-8601 EMAILare subject to change without notice.
prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
SA04U REV. C DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
79
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA06
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE16-500V SA06
10A CONTINUOUS TO 75 C CASE
3 PROTECTION CIRCUITS USA
ANALOG OR DIGITAL INPUTS TE9493
11
BeO

SYNCHRONIZED OR EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR


FLEXIBLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
MOTORS
REACTIVE LOADS
LOW FREQUENCY SONAR
LARGE PIEZO ELEMENTS EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
OFF-LINE DRIVERS
C-D WELD CONTROLLER
ISENSE A
DESCRIPTION CLK IN 1 12
A OUT
The SA06 is a pulse width modulation amplifier that can CLK OUT 2 11
supply 5000W to the load. An internal oscillator requires no +PWM * VCC
3 10
external components. The clock input stage divides the oscil- TOP
lator frequency by two, which provides the switching fre- 4 VIEW 9 *
PWM/RAMP
quency of 22.5 kHz. External oscillators may also be used to 5 8 +VS
lower the switching frequency or to synchronize multiple GND 6 7 B OUT
amplifiers. Current sensing is provided for each half of the
ILIM/SHDN I SENSE B
bridge giving amplitude and direction data. A shutdown input
turns off all four drivers of the H bridge output. A high side
current limit and the programmable low side current limit
protect the amplifier from shorts to supply or ground in addition Case tied to pin 5. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies
to load shorts. The H bridge output MOSFETs are protected is required. Package is Apex MO-127/40S. See Outline
from thermal overloads by directly sensing the temperature of Dimensions/Packages in Apex data book.
the die. The 12-pin hermetic MO-127/40S power package
If +PWM > RAMP/PWM then A OUT > B OUT.
occupies only 3 square inches of board space.
*See text.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TYPICAL APPLICATION
MOTOR TORQUE CONTROL Vcc
10 CURRENT 9
LIMIT
+PWM +VS
3
PWM
4
PWM/RAMP 100pF B OUT
OUTPUT 8
45K DRIVERS MOTOR
11
CLK OUT
A OUT
2 OSC 2 1K
I SENSE A
SHUTDOWN 12
CLK IN 5K RSENSE
CONTROL 6
1 .01F
ILIM/SHDN 1K
5
7
CONTROL GND
SIGNAL I SENSE B RSENSE
2.5 / 7.5V

5V

5V

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
80
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA06 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 500V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 300W
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, +PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, ILIM 0 to +10V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

CLOCK (CLK)
CLK OUT, high level4 IOUT 1mA 4.8 5.3 V
CLK OUT, low level4 IOUT 1mA 0 .4 V
FREQUENCY 44.10 45.00 46.90 kHz
RAMP, center voltage 5 V
RAMP, P-P voltage 4 V
CLK IN, low level4 0 .9 V
CLK IN, high level4 3.7 5.4 V

OUTPUT
TOTAL RON .95
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 500V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY OSC in 2 22.05 22.50 22.95 kHz
CURRENT, continuous4 75C case 10 A
CURRENT, peak4 15 A

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 165 240 500 V
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 14 15 16 V
CURRENT, VCC IOUT = 0 80 mA
CURRENT, VCC, shutdown 50 mA
CURRENT, VS No Load 90 mA

ILIM/SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT 90 110 mV
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range, for each die .83 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two active output transistors can dissipate 150W.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, VS, VCC at typical specification.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.
5. If 100% duty cycle is not required VS(MIN) = 0V.

The SA06 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush,
machine, or subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
81
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA06

POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP


INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

150 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


101.5
125
99
101.0
100
98 100.5
75 100
97 99.5
50

96 99.0
25 EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR F NOMINAL = 45kHz 98.5
0 95 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 10K 100K 1M 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP


10 20
CASE TEMPERATURE 75C
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

85C
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

15
100C

10 125C

1 5

25C
25C
55C
0
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0 2 4 6 8 10
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


10 100 100
A OUT
9 80 95
CONTINUOUS AMPS

DUTY CYCLE, (%)

8 60 90

7 40 85

6 20 80
B OUT
5 0 75
25 50 75 100 125 3 4 5 6 7 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

115 140 100


Vcc = 15V Vs = 250V, NO LOAD
110 F = 22.5 kHz
120 80
105
NORMAL
100 OPERATION
100 60
95

90 80 40
SHUTDOWN
85 OPERATION
80 60 20
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 100 200 300 400 500 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
82
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA06

GENERAL I SENSE A noise spikes could trip the cur-


1K rent limit threshold which is only
Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- 100 mV. RFILTER and C FILTER
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the R LIMIT should be adjusted so as to
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the I SENSE B reduce the switching noise well
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data below 100 mV to prevent false
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics. current limiting. The sum of the
R LIMIT DC level plus the noise peak
will determine the
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR current limiting
I LIMIT/SHDN R SHUTDOWN
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of FILTER SIGNAL value. As in most
approximately 45kHz. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied switching circuits
R SHDN
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an C FILTER
it may be difficult
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the PWM/ to determine the
RAMP pin. An external clock signal can be applied to the CLK true noise ampli-
FIGURE B. CURRENT LIMIT WITH
IN pin for synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower SHUTDOWN CURRENT MODE. tude without
than 45kHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the careful attention
PWM/RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal to grounding of the oscilloscope probe. Use the shortest
capacitor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 4 volts possible ground lead for the probe and connect exactly at the
p-p with the lower peak 3 volts above ground. GND terminal of the amplifier. Suggested starting values are
CFILTER = .01uF, RFILTER = 5k .
PWM INPUTS
The full bridge driver may be accessed via the pwm input The required value of RLIMIT in voltage mode may be calcu-
comparator. When +PWM > -PWM then A OUT > B OUT. A lated by:
motion control processor which generates the pwm signal can RLIMIT = .1 V / ILIMIT
drive these pins with signals referenced to GND. where RLIMIT is the required resistor value, and ILIMIT is the
maximum desired current. In current mode the required value
PROTECTION CIRCUITS of each RLIMIT is 2 times this value since the sense voltage is
In addition to the externally programmable current limit there divided down by 2 (see Figure B). If RSHDN is used it will further
is also a fixed internal current limit which senses only the high divide down the sense voltage. The shutdown divider network
side current. It is nominally set to 140% of the continuous rated will also have an effect on the filtering circuit.
output current. Should either of the outputs be shorted to
ground the high side current limit will latch off the output BYPASSING
transistors. Also, the temperature of the output transistors is Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for
continually monitored. Should a fault condition occur which proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
raises the temperature of the output transistors to 165C the efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
thermal protection circuit will activate and also latch off the The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
output transistors. In either case, it will be necessary to remove capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
the fault condition and recycle power to VCC to restart the circuit. 10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
CURRENT LIMIT ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
There are two load current sensing pins, I SENSE A and I directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
SENSE B. The two pins can be shorted in the voltage mode will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
connection but both must be used in the current mode connec- very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
tion (see figures A and B). It is recommended that RLIMIT connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
resistors be non-inductive. Load current flows in the I SENSE less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
pins. To avoid errors due to lead lengths connect the I LIMIT/ capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.
SHDN pin directly to
the R LIMIT resistors I SENSE A STARTUP CONDITIONS
(through the filter net- The high side of the all N channel output bridge circuit is
work and shutdown di- R LIMIT driven by bootstrap circuit and charge pump arrangement. In
I SENSE B
vider resistor) and con- order for the circuit to produce a 100% duty cycle indefinitely
nect the RLIMIT resis- the low side of each half bridge circuit must have previously
tors directly to the GND I LIMIT/SHDN 1K SHUTDOWN
R FILTER
been in the ON condition. This means, in turn, that if the input
pin. SIGNAL
signal to the SA06 at startup is demanding a 100% duty cycle,
Switching noise R SHDN the output may not follow the command and may be in a tri-
C FILTER
spikes will invariably state condition. The ramp signal must cross the input signal at
be found at the I some point to correctly determine the output state. After the
SENSE pins. The FIGURE A. CURRENT LIMIT WITH ramp crosses the input signal level one time, the output state
SHUTDOWN VOLTAGE MODE. will be correct thereafter.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data sheet has been carefully CORPORATION TELEPHONE
checked and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility assumed888-3329
for possible inaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
SA06U REV. D DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
83
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA06 PIN-OUT

EK05
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of 1. From the non-silk screen side, insert and solder cage jacks. Be
PWM amplifiers using the SA06 pin-out configuration. It can be used sure each one is fully seated.
to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit configura- 2. From the non-silk screen side, push spacer grommets into PC
tions, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier test board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
configurations. The board is designed for surface mounting all inserted for heatsink mounting.
components except the switching amplifier. 3. Apply TW05 thermal washer to the bottom of the SA06.
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- 4. Use #14 sleeving to insulate and align at least 2 opposite pins of
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any the amplifier.
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others 5. Mount amplifier to heatsink using #6 screws and nuts. Torque the
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. part to the specified 8 to 10 in-lbs (.9 to 1.13 N*M). Do not over
Only components unique to the EK05 are provided in this kit. torque.
Hardware similar to that shown in figure 1 must be obtained locally. 6. Install components as needed. External connections may be
soldered directly or standard banana jacks may be soldered to
PARTS LIST these pads.
7. Insert amplifier pins into cage jacks and fasten board to heatsink.
Part # Description Quantity
HS18 Heatsink 1
MS02 PC mount Cage Jacks 2 Bag/8 each
EVAL10 PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
TW05
OX7R105KTN
Thermal Washer
1F Cap 3530B105K501N,
1 Box/10 each
1
C
Novacap
OX7R105KWN 1F Cap 1825B105K201N, 1
Novacap

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED


* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precautions.
* Always use the heatsink included in this kit with TW05 washer.
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.
* Check for oscillations. Cage Jack
PC Board (Silkscreen side) Solder as required

Spacer Grommet
6-32 x 1/2 Lg. Screw

TW05 thermal washer

Heatsink
#8 or #10 Screw (1/2" - 3/4" LG) Switching Amplifier
Hex Nut 6-32 THD 1/4"

FIGURE 1.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
84
EK05 EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA06 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.

A block diagram of the SA06 is shown in


Figure 2 along with pcb connections of all the
commonly used external components. Your
application circuit will not use all of the compo-
nents. Add those components required by your
circuit. You may have to jumper some compo-
nents to make the desired electrical connec-
tions. J1 is an optional way to connect the clock
circuit. Power supply bypassing is particularly
important and that is why high quality ceramic
chip capacitors are supplied with the kit. In
addition you may need to add a 10-50 uF or
larger capacitor on the +Vs pin. This additional
capacitor needs to be rated for switching opera-
tion. Note that the signal ground and power
ground are separated and tie together only at
the ground pin (5). A breadboarding area is
supplied which can accomodate 1 or 2 IC
amplifiers and associated components. The
large terminal pads can be used to solder wire
connections or bannana jacks.

SA06

*
* *

* Input protection, 10V zener diode.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
85
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA06 PIN-OUT EK05

FIGURE 3. FUNCTIONAL TEST CIRCUIT

The schematic of Figure 3 can be used to


verify the functionality of your amplifier and help
you gain a familiarity with proper operation. At
either A Out or B Out, with respect to ground,
you should observe a square wave approxi-
mately 30 V in amplitude with a fixed frequency
and duty cycle that varies from approximately 0
to 100% at a rate of 1 Hz. The current limit is set
to 2 amps.

SA06

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
86
EK05

FIGURE 4. PCB COMPONENT SIDE

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked to
and is believed 5980 NORTH
be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD is TUCSON,
no responsibility assumed for ARIZONA 85741 or
possible inaccuracies omissions.
USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
EK05U REV. C JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
87
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA07
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
500kHz SWITCHING SA
07

FULL BRIDGE OUTPUT 5-40V (80V P-P) Q


93
17

5A OUTPUT MB

9
3 0 USA 2 4
6 0 0
O
1 IN2 FOOTPRINT Be

FAULT PROTECTION
SHUTDOWN CONTROL
SYNCHRONIZABLE CLOCK
HERMETIC PACKAGE
APPLICATIONS
HIGH FIDELITY AUDIO AMPLIFIER
EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
BRUSH TYPE MOTOR CONTROL
VIBRATION CANCELLING AMPLIFIER
5V OUT 1 18 CLK OUT*
DESCRIPTION INT 2 17 CLK IN
+INT 3 16 Ilim/SHDN
The SA07 amplifier is a 40 volt, 500kHz PWM amplifier. The
Isense B
full bridge output circuit provides 5 amps of continuous drive INT OUT* 4 15
current for applications as diverse as high fidelity audio and B OUT Rlimit*
+PWM 5 14
brush type motors. Clock output and input pins can be used for RAMP/PWM 6 13
+Vs
synchronization with other amplifiers or an externally gener- *
GND 7 12 A OUT
ated clock. An integrator amplifier is provided. Direct access Isense A
to the pwm input is provided for connection to digital motion NC 8 11
control circuits. Protection circuits guard against thermal over- Vcc Rlimit*
NC 9 10
loads as well as shorts to supply or ground. The current limit *
is programmable with one or two external resistors depending
on the application. A shutdown input disables all output bridge
drivers. The 18 pin steel package is hermetically sealed. Case tied to Pin 7. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies is
required. Package is Apex DIP6. See Outline Dimensions/Packages. If
+PWM > RAMP then A OUT > B OUT.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND
* See text.
TYPICAL APPLICATION
CONNECTIONS THERMAL,
5V OUT
1
HIGH FIDELITY SHORT
CIRCUIT
PROTECT.
+VS
13
AUDIO +PWM
Vcc
5
10
6
B REG.
RAMP/PWM 18K R
I
100pF D A OUT
CLK OUT G 5V
E 12
18
D B OUT
R
I 14 LOAD
OSC CLK/2
V 5V
E
R
CLK IN ILIM/SHDN R FILTER R SHDN
17 16
C FILTER 1K
GND I SENSE A
7
11
SA07
INT OUT
15
4
I SENSE B R LIMIT
INT +
3
INT
2

SIGNAL

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
88
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA07 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS to GND, 10mS surge 60V
SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC to GND 16V
OUTPUT CURRENT, peak 7.5A
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 80W1
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUTS .4/+5.4V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

ERROR AMP, CLOCK REF3


OFFSET VOLTAGE 10 mV
BIAS CURRENT 50 pA
OFFSET CURRENT 30 pA
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE RANGE 0 3 V
COMMON MODE REJECTION, DC 70 dB
SLEW RATE 12 V/S
OPEN LOOP GAIN 100 dB
GAIN BANDWIDTH PRODUCT 10 MHz
CLOCK OUT .98 1 1.02 MHz
CLOCK OUT, high level 4.7 5.3 V
CLOCK OUT, low level 0 .2 V
5V OUT LOAD 5mA 4.988 5 5.012 V

OUTPUT
EFFICIENCY, 5A output VS = 40V 94 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY 500 kHz
CURRENT, continuous 5 A
CURRENT, peak3 100 ms, 10% duty cycle 7 A
RDS(ON)3 .55

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 10 12 16 V
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 5 40 V
CURRENT, VCC Switching 50 mA
CURRENT, VS Switching, No Load 90 mA

INPUTS3
ILIM/SHDN, trip point 90 110 mV
PWM, +PWM, low level 0 .8 V
PWM, +PWM, high level 2.7 Vcc V
CLOCK IN, low level 0 .3 V
CLOCK IN, high level 3 5.6 V

THERMAL4
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range 3.5 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 15 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 85 C

NOTES: 1. 40W in each of the two active output transistors on at any one time.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C.
3. Min max values guaranteed but not tested.
4. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power dissipation
to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.

The SA07 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
89
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA07
POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP
INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

40 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


101.5
99.5
30 101.0

99.0 100.5
20 100
98.5 99.5
10
98.0 99.0
EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR F NOMINAL = 1M 98.5
0 97.5 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 100 1K 10K 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE INTEGRATOR GAIN INTEGRATOR PHASE


5 100 0
4
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

3
OPEN LOOP GAIN, A (dB)

OPEN LOOP PHASE, ()


80
2 45
60
1.0
40 90
5
4
20
3
135
2 0

20 180
0.6 1.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.4 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE FREQUENCY, F (Hz) FREQUENCY, F (Hz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


5 100 100
B OUTPUT
80 90
4
CONTINUOUS AMPS

DUTY CYCLE, (%)

80
3 60
70
2 40
60

1 20
50
A OUTPUT
0 0 40
25 50 75 100 125 150 1 2 3 4 0 100 200 300 400 500
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

125 120 100


Vcc = 12V 90
F = 500kHz 125C
100 80
100 85C
70
NORMAL OPERATION
80 60
25C
75 50
60 40
55C
30
50 40 20
10
SHUTDOWN OPERATION
25 20 0
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 100 200 300 400 500
CASE TEMPERATURE, TC (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
90
OPERATING
SA07 CONSIDERATIONS

TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP NOISE FILTERING


6
Switching noise can enter the SA07 through the INT OUT to
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

5 +PWM connection. A wise precaution is to low pass filter this


125C connection. Adjust the pass band of the filter to 10 times the
4 bandwidth required by the application. Keep the resistor value
100C to 100 ohms or less since this resistor becomes part of the
85C hysteresis circuit on the pwm comparator.
3

2 PCB LAYOUT
The designer needs to appreciate that the SA07 combines
1 in one circuit both high speed high power switching and low
55C 25C 25C level analog signals. Certain layout rules of thumb must be
0 considered when a circuit board layout is designed using the
0 1 2 3 4 5 SA07:
OUTPUT, I (A)
1. Bypassing of the power supplies is critical. Capacitors must
be connected directly to the power supply pins with very
GENERAL short lead lengths (well under 1 inch). Ceramic chip capaci-
Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and tors are best.
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider-
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the 2. Make all ground connections with a star pattern at pin 7.
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the 3. Beware of capacitive coupling between output connections
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data book. and signal inputs through the parasitic capacitance be-
Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics.
tween layers in multilayer PCB designs.
4. Do not run small signal traces between the pins of the output
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR section (pins 11-16).
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of
5. Do not allow high currents to flow into the ground plane.
approximately 1MHZ. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an 6. Separate switching and analog grounds and connect the
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the RAMP pin. An two only at pin 7 as part of the star pattern.
external clock signal can be applied to the CLK IN pin for
synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower than INTEGRATOR
1MHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the
The integrator provides the inverted signal for negative
RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal capaci-
feedback and also the open loop gain for the overall application
tor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 2.5 volts p-p
circuit accuracy. Recommended value of CINT is 10 pF for
with the lower peak 1.25 volts above ground.
stability. However, poles and zeroes can be added to the circuit
for overall loop stability as required.
BYPASSING
Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for CURRENT LIMIT
proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
There are two load current sensing pins, I SENSE A and I
efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
SENSE B. The two pins can be shorted in the voltage mode
The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
connection but both must be used in the current mode connec-
capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
tion (see figures A and B). It is recommended that RLIMIT
10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
resistors be non-inductive. Load current flows in the I SENSE
switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
pins. To avoid errors due to lead lengths connect the I LIMIT/
ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
SHDN pin directly to the RLIMIT resistors (through the filter
directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
network and shutdown divider resistor) and connect the RLIMIT
will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
resistors directly to the GND pin. Do not connect RLIMIT sense
very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
resistors to the ground plane.
connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
91
OPERATING
SA07 CONSIDERATIONS

I SENSE A SHUTDOWN
The shutdown circuitry makes use of the internal current
R LIMIT
I SENSE B limiting circuitry. The two functions may be externally com-
bined in voltage and current modes as shown below in Figures
1K A and B. The RLIMIT resistors will normally be very low values
I LIMIT/SHDN R SHUTDOWN
FILTER SIGNAL and can be considered zero for this application. In Figure A,
RSHDN and 1K form a voltage divider for the shutdown signal.
R SHDN
C FILTER After a suitable noise filter is designed for the current limit,
adjust the value of RSHDN to give a minimum 110 mV of
FIGURE A. CURRENT LIMIT WITH shutdown signal at the I LIMIT/SHDN pin when the shutdown
SHUTDOWN VOLTAGE MODE. signal is high. Note that CFILTER will filter both the current limit
noise spikes and the shutdown signal. Shutdown and current
I SENSE A limit operate on each cycle of the internal switching rate. As
1K
long as the shutdown signal is high the output will be disabled.

R LIMIT PROTECTION CIRCUITS


I SENSE B
1K Circuits monitor the temperature and load on each of the
bridge output transistors. On each cycle should any fault
R LIMIT condition be detected all output transistors in the bridge are
shut off. Faults protected against are: shorts across the out-
SHUTDOWN puts, shorts to ground, and over temperature conditions.
I LIMIT/SHDN R
FILTER SIGNAL Should any of these faults be detected, the output transistors
R SHDN
will be latched off.* In addition there is a built in dead time
C FILTER
during which all the output transistors are off. The dead time
removes the possibility of a momentary conduction path through
FIGURE B. CURRENT LIMIT WITH the upper and lower transistors of each half bridge during the
SHUTDOWN CURRENT MODE. switching interval. Noise or flyback may be observed at the
outputs during this time due to the high impedance of the
Switching noise spikes will invariably be found at the I outputs in the off state. This will vary with the nature of the load.
SENSE pins. The noise spikes could trip the current limit
threshold which is only 100 mV. RFILTER and CFILTER should be * To restart the SA07 remove the fault and recycle VCC or,
adjusted so as to reduce the switching noise well below 100 alternatively, toggle the ILIMIT/SHDN (PIN16) with a shut down
mV to prevent false current limiting. The sum of the DC level pulse.
plus the noise peak will determine the current limiting value. As
in most switching circuits it may be difficult to determine the
true noise amplitude without careful attention to grounding of
the oscilloscope probe. Use the shortest possible ground lead
for the probe and connect exactly at the GND terminal of the
amplifier. Suggested starting values are CFILTER = .001uF,
RFILTER = 5k .
The required value of RLIMIT in voltage mode may be calcu-
lated by:
RLIMIT = .1 V / ILIMIT
where RLIMIT is the required resistor value, and ILIMIT is the
maximum desired current. In current mode the required value
of each RLIMIT is 2 times this value since the sense voltage is
divided down by 2 (see Figure B). If RSHDN is used it will further
divide down the sense voltage. The shutdown divider network
will also have an effect on the filtering circuit.

This data
APEX sheet has been carefully checked
MICROTECHNOLOGY and is believed
CORPORATION to be reliable,
5980 NORTH however,
SHANNONno responsibility
ROAD isTUCSON,
assumed forARIZONA
possible inaccuracies
85741 or USA
omissions. All specifications are
APPLICATIONS subject to 1
HOTLINE: change
(800)without notice.
546-2739
SA07U REV. B DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
92
NOTES:

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
93
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA07 PIN-OUT

EK07
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of 1. From the DUT side of the PCB push the spacer grommets in the
PWM amplifiers using the SA07 pin-out configuration. It can be used PC board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit configura- inserted for heat sink mounting.
tions, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier test 2. Apply a thin coat of thermal grease to the bottom of the amplifier.
configurations. The board is designed for surface or through hole 3. Slip 1/8" lengths of #22 sleeving over the pins at the four corners
mounting all components except the switching amplifier. of the amplifier.
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- 4. Mount the amplifier to the heat sink with #6 x 1/4" machine
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any screws through the HK03 clamps and into the threaded holes in
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others the heat sink.
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. 5. Mount the application circuit components as required.
Only components unique to the EK07 are provided in this kit. 6. Mount the amplifier/heat sink assembly to the PCB and solder
Hardware similar to that shown in Figure 1 must be obtained locally. the amplifier pins to the PCB.
7. Secure the heat sink to the PCB as shown in Figure 1.
PARTS LIST
Part # Description Quantity
HS18-1 Heatsink 1
EVAL12 PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
OX7R105KWN 1F Capacitor 2
1825B105K201N/Novacap
HK03 Clamp 1 Bag/2 each

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED


* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precautions.
* Always use thermal grease between the amplifier and heatsink.
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.

FIGURE 1.

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94
EVALUATION KIT
EK07 FOR SA07 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.

A block diagram of the SA07 is shown


in Figure 2 along with pcb connections
of all the commonly used external com-
ponents. Your application circuit will
not use all of the components. Add
those components required by your
circuit. You may have to jumper some
components to make the desired elec-
trical connections. J3 is an optional
way to connect the clock circuit. Power
supply bypassing is particularly impor-
tant and that is why high quality ce-
ramic chip capacitors are supplied with
the kit. In addition you may need to add
a 10-50 uF or larger capacitor on the
+Vs pin. This additional capacitor needs
to be rated for switching operation.
Note that the signal ground and power
ground are separated and tie together
only at the ground pin (7). A bread-
boarding area is supplied which can
C
accomodate 1 or 2 IC amplifiers and
associated components. The large ter-
minal pads can be used to solder wire
connections or bannana jacks.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
95
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA07 PIN-OUT EK07

FIGURE 3. FUNCTIONAL TEST CIRCUIT

The schematic of Figure 3 can


be used to verify the functionality
of your amplifier and help you gain
a familiarity with proper operation.
At either A Out or B Out, with
respect to ground, you should ob-
serve a square wave approximately
30 V in amplitude with a fixed fre-
quency and duty cycle that varies
from approximately 0 to 100% at a
rate of 1 Hz. The current limit is set
to 2 amps.

APEX
This MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
data sheet has been carefully 5980
checked and is believed to beNORTH SHANNON
reliable, however, ROAD TUCSON,
no responsibility is assumed ARIZONA 85741 USA
for possible inaccuracies APPLICATIONS
or omissions. HOTLINE:
All specifications are subject 1 (800) without
to change 546-2739
notice.
EK07U REV. A MARCH 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
96
NOTES:

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
97
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA13
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
HALF BRIDGE OUTPUT SA13
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE16-100V
30A CONTINUOUS TO 60 C CASE USA
3 PROTECTION CIRCUITS TE9493
11
BeO

ANALOG OR DIGITAL INPUTS


SYNCHRONIZED OR EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
FLEXIBLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
MOTORS TO 4HP
REACTIVE LOADS
LOW FREQUENCY SONAR EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
LARGE PIEZO ELEMENTS
OFF-LINE DRIVERS
C-D WELD CONTROLLER
NC
DESCRIPTION CLK IN 1 12
NC
The SA13 is a half bridge pulse width modulation amplifier CLK OUT 2 11
that can supply 3000W to the load. Flexible frequency control +PWM 3 10
* VCC
TOP
is provided. An internal 45kHz oscillator requires no external 4 VIEW 9 *
PWM/RAMP
components and can be used to synchronize multiple ampli- 5 8 +VS
fiers. The oscillator output may be divided down and con- SIG GND 6 7 OUT
nected to the clock input to lower the switching frequency . The
clock input stage divides by two and determines the output SHDN PWR GND
switching rate (normally 22.5 kHz). A shutdown input turns off
both output drivers. High side current sensing protects the
amplifier from shorts to ground. In addition, the half bridge Case tied to pin 5. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies
output MOSFETs are protected from thermal overloads by is required. Package is Apex MO-127 (STD). See Outline
directly sensing the temperature of the die. The 12-pin her- Dimensions/Packages in Apex data book.
metic MO-127 power package occupies only 3 square inches If +PWM < RAMP/PWM then OUT = HIGH.
of board space.
*See text.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TYPICAL APPLICATION
PROGRAMMABLE POWER SUPPLY
Vcc
10 CURRENT 9
LIMIT +VS
+PWM
3
PWM
4
PWM/RAMP 10V OUT
470pF
P-P OUTPUT 8 LOAD
56K DRIVERS
12
CLK OUT
NC
2 OSC 2
NC
SHUTDOWN 11
CLK IN CONTROL 5K
6
1
SHDN .01F
5
7
CONTROL SIG GND
SIGNAL PWR GND RSENSE
3/7V

5V

5V

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
98
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA13 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 100V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 150W
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, +PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, ILIM 0 to +10V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

CLOCK (CLK)
CLK OUT, high level4 IOUT 1mA 4.8 5.3 V
CLK OUT, low level4 IOUT 1mA 0 .4 V
FREQUENCY 44 45 46 kHz
RAMP, center voltage 5 V
RAMP, P-P voltage 4 V
CLK IN, low level4 0 .9 V
CLK IN, high level4 3.7 5.4 V

OUTPUT
RON Each output driver .08
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 100V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY OSC in 2 22.05 22.5 22.95 kHz
CURRENT, continuous4 60C case 30 A
CURRENT, peak4 40 A

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 165 60 100 V
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 14 15 16 V
CURRENT, VCC IOUT = 0 80 mA
CURRENT, VCC, shutdown 50 mA
CURRENT, VS No Load 50 mA

ILIM/SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT 90 110 mV
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range, for each die .83 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two output transistors can dissipate 150W.


2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, VS, VCC at typical specification.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.
5. If 100% duty cycle is not required VS(MIN) = 0V.

The SA13 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush,
machine, or subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

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99
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA13
POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP
INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

150 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)
101.5
125
99
101.0
100
98 100.5
75 100
97 99.5
50
99.0
25 96
EACH OUTPUT TRANSISTOR 98.5
F NOMINAL = 45kHz
0 95 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 10K 100K 1M 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP


3 5
2 CASE TEMPERATURE
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

60C
4
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

10 85C
9
7 100C
6 3
5
125C
4
3
2
2

1 1
8
25C
7
25C
6 55C
5 0
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


30 100 100
A OUT
28
80 95
CONTINUOUS AMPS

DUTY CYCLE, (%)

26

24 60 90

22
40 85
20
20 80
18
B OUT
16 0 75
25 50 75 100 125 150 3 4 5 6 7 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

115 180 100


Vcc = 15V Vs = 60V, NO LOAD
110 F = 22.5 kHz 160
90
140
105
NORMAL 80
120
100 OPERATION 55C
100 70
95 125C
80
60
90 60
SHUTDOWN 50
85 OPERATION 40
80 20 40
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 20 40 60 80 100 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
100
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA13

GENERAL An external shutdown command can be mixed with the


Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and protection circuit of Figure A. In figure B a 5V shutdown
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- command signal is divided down by R2, R1 to the 100 mV
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the threshold level of the SHDN pin of the SA13. As long as the
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the shutdown command remains high both output transistors will
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data remain off.
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics.
PWR GND
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of
R2 SHUTDOWN
approximately 45kHz. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied
SHDN SIGNAL
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an R1
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the PWM/
C1
RAMP pin. An external clock signal can be applied to the CLK
IN pin for synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower RSENSE
than 45kHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the
PWM/RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal
capacitor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 4 volts
FIGURE B. ADDING SHUTDOWN CONTROL.
p-p with the lower peak 3 volts above ground.

PWM INPUTS BYPASSING


The half bridge driver may be accessed via the pwm input Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for
comparator. When +PWM < -PWM then OUT is HIGH. A proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
motion control processor which generates the pwm signal can efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
drive these pins with signals referenced to SIG GND. The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
PROTECTION CIRCUITS 10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
A high side current monitor will latch off the output transistors switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
when the high side current rises to approximately 150% of ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
rated output. The temperature of the output transistors is also directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
monitored. When either of the output transistors reaches will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
approximately 165C both are latched off. In either case, it will very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
be necessary to remove the fault condition and recycle power connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
to Vcc to restart the circuit. A short to +Vs can be protected less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
against by inserting a sensing resistor into the PWR GND capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.
circuit as shown in Figure A.
STARTUP CONDITIONS
The high side of the all N channel output half bridge circuit
PWR GND is driven by a bootstrap circuit and charge pump arrangement.
In order for the circuit to produce a 100% duty cycle indefinitely
the low side transistor must have previously been in the ON
SHDN
R1 condition. This means, in turn, that if the input signal to the
SA13 at startup is demanding a 100% duty cycle, the output
C1 R SENSE may not follow the command and may be in a tri-state condi-
tion. The ramp signal must cross the input signal at some point
to correctly determine the output state. After the ramp crosses
FIGURE A. PROTECTING AGAINST SHORTS TO +Vs. the input signal level one time, the output state will be correct
thereafter.

In Figure A, the sense resistor inserted into the PWR GND


connection is tied to the SHDN pin. When the current from a
short to +Vs develops 100 mV across the sense resistor the
shutdown circuit will shut off the output transistors for the
remainder of the switching cycle. The SA13 will restart at the
beginning of a new cycle and retest for this condition. This
circuit does not test for shorts to ground. The RC circuit R1, C1
filters out any switching spikes and may need to be adjusted to
ignore normal current spikes in the application circuit.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data sheet has been carefully CORPORATION TELEPHONE
checked and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility 888-3329
assumed for possibleinaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
SA13U REV. C DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
101
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA13/SA14 PIN-OUT

EK10
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of (See Figure 1)
PWM amplifiers using the SA13 or SA14 pin-out configuration. It
can be used to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit 1. From the non-silk screen side, insert and solder cage jacks. Be
configurations, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier sure each one is fully seated.
test configurations. The board is designed for surface mounting all 2. From the non-silk screen side, push spacer grommets into PC
components except the switching amplifier. board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- inserted for heatsink mounting.
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any 3. Apply TW05 thermal washer to the bottom of the SA13 or SA14.
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others 4. Use #14 sleeving to insulate and align at least 2 opposite pins of
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. the amplifier.
Only components unique to the EK10 are provided in this kit. 5. Mount amplifier to heatsink using #6 screws and nuts. Torque the
Hardware similar to that shown in figure 1 must be obtained locally. part to the specified 8 to 10 in-lbs (.9 to 1.13 N*M). Do not over
torque.
PARTS LIST 6. Install components as needed. External connections may be
soldered directly or standard banana jacks may be soldered to
Part # Description Quantity these pads.
HS18 Heatsink 1 7. Insert amplifier pins into cage jacks and fasten board to heatsink.
MS04 PC mount Cage Jacks 1 Bag/12 each
EVAL 09 PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
TW05
OX7R105KWN
Thermal Washer
1F Cap 1825B105K201N,
1 Box/10 each
6
C
Novacap

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED


* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precau-
tions.
* Always use the heatsink included in this kit with TW05 washer.
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.
* Check for oscillations.

Cage Jack
PC Board (Silkscreen side) Solder as required

Spacer Grommet
6-32 x 1/2 Lg. Screw

TW05 thermal washer

Heatsink
#8 or #10 Screw (1/2" - 3/4" LG) Switching Amplifier
Hex Nut 6-32 THD 1/4"

FIGURE 1.
APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
102
EK10 EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA13/SA14 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.

A block diagram for both the SA13 and SA14


is shown in Figure 2 along with pcb connections
of all the commonly used external components.
Your application circuit will not use all of the
components. Add those components required
by your circuit. You may have to jumper some
components to make the desired electrical con-
nections. J1 is an optional way to connect the
clock circuit. Power supply bypassing is par-
ticularly important and that is why high quality
ceramic chip capacitors are supplied with the
kit. In addition you may need to add a 10-50 uF
or larger capacitor on the +Vs pin. This addi-
tional capacitor needs to be rated for switching
operation. Note that the signal ground and
power ground are separated and tie together
only at the ground pin (5). A breadboarding
area is supplied which can accomodate 1 or 2
IC amplifiers and associated components. The
large terminal pads can be used to solder wire
connections or banana jacks.
Note that the EK10 Evaluation Kit uses the
same circuit board as the EK03 Evaluation kit
intended for the Apex models SA03 and SA04.
The SA13 and SA14 are half bridge versions of
the SA03 and SA04 and are indentical in design
except for that fact. Some of the pin designa-
SA13/SA14 tions of the SA13 and SA14 are, however,
different. The SA13 and SA14's OUT (PIN 8)
are equivalent to the SA03 and SA04's B OUT
(PIN 8). The SA13 and SA14's PWR GND (PIN
7) are equivalent to the SA03 and SA04's
I SENSE B (PIN7). Pins 11 and 12 of the SA13
and SA14 are not connected. The designations
on the PCB are those used for the SA03 and
SA04. See the SA13 or SA14 data sheet for
specific operating considerations.

*
* *

* Input protection, 10V zener diode.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
103
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA13/14 PIN-OUT EK10

FIGURE 3. FUNCTIONAL TEST CIRCUIT

The schematic of Figure 3 can be used to


verify the functionality of your amplifier and help
you gain a familiarity with proper operation. At
Out, with respect to ground, you should ob-
serve a square wave approximately 30 V in
amplitude with a fixed frequency and duty cycle
that varies from approximately 0 to 100% at a
rate of 1 Hz.

SA13/SA14

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
104
EK10

FIGURE 4. PCB COMPONENT SIDE

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked 5980
and is believed NORTH
to be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or omissions.
possible inaccuracies USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
EK10U REV. B JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
105
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA14
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
HALF BRIDGE OUTPUT SA14

WIDE SUPPLY RANGE16-200V


20A CONTINUOUS TO 85 C CASE USA
TE9493 BeO
11
3 PROTECTION CIRCUITS
ANALOG OR DIGITAL INPUTS
SYNCHRONIZED OR EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
FLEXIBLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
MOTORS
REACTIVE LOADS
LOW FREQUENCY SONAR EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
LARGE PIEZO ELEMENTS
OFF-LINE DRIVERS
C-D WELD CONTROLLER
NC
DESCRIPTION CLK IN 1 12
NC
The SA14 is a half bridge pulse width modulation amplifier CLK OUT 2 11
that can supply 4000W to the load. Flexible frequency control +PWM 3 10
* VCC
TOP
is provided. An internal 45kHz oscillator requires no external 4 VIEW 9 *
components and can be used to synchronize multiple ampli- PWM/RAMP
5 8 +VS
fiers. The oscillator output may be divided down and con-
SIG GND 6 7 OUT
nected to the clock input to lower the switching frequency . The
clock input stage divides by two and determines the output SHDN PWR GND
switching rate (normally 22.5 kHz). A shutdown input turns off
both output drivers. High side current sensing protects the
amplifier from shorts to ground. In addition, the half bridge Case tied to pin 5. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies
output MOSFETs are protected from thermal overloads by is required. Package is Apex MO-127 (STD). See Outline
directly sensing the temperature of the die. The 12-pin her- Dimensions/Packages in Apex data book.
metic MO-127 power package occupies only 3 square inches
of board space. If +PWM < RAMP/PWM then OUT = HIGH.
*See text.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TYPICAL APPLICATION
PROGRAMMABLE POWER SUPPLY
Vcc
10 CURRENT 9
LIMIT +VS
+PWM
3
PWM
4
PWM/RAMP 10V OUT
470pF
P-P OUTPUT 8 LOAD
56K DRIVERS
12
CLK OUT
NC
2 OSC 2
NC
SHUTDOWN 11
CLK IN CONTROL 5K
6
1
SHDN .01F
5
7
CONTROL SIG GND
SIGNAL PWR GND RSENSE
3/7V

5V

5V

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
106
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA14 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 200V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 150W
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, +PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, ILIM 0 to +10V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

CLOCK (CLK)
CLK OUT, high level4 IOUT 1mA 4.8 5.3 V
CLK OUT, low level4 IOUT 1mA 0 .4 V
FREQUENCY 44 45 46 kHz
RAMP, center voltage 5 V
RAMP, P-P voltage 4 V
CLK IN, low level4 0 .9 V
CLK IN, high level4 3.7 5.4 V

OUTPUT
RON Each output driver .11
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 200V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY OSC in 2 22.05 22.5 22.95 kHz
CURRENT, continuous4 85C case 20 A
CURRENT, peak4 30 A

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 165 120 200 V
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 14 15 16 V
CURRENT, VCC IOUT = 0 80 mA
CURRENT, VCC, shutdown 50 mA
CURRENT, VS No Load 50 mA

ILIM/SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT 90 110 mV
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range, for each die .83 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two output transistors can dissipate 150W.


2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, VS, VCC at typical specification.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.
5. If 100% duty cycle is not required VS(MIN) = 0V.

The SA14 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush,
machine, or subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
107
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA14

POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP


INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

150 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


101.5
125
99
101.0
100
98 100.5
75 100
97 99.5
50

96 99.0
25 EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR F NOMINAL = 45kHz 98.5
0 95 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 10K 100K 1M 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP


2 5
CASE TEMPERATURE
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

10
8 4 85C
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

7
6
5
4 100C
3 3
2 125C
2
1
8
7
6
5 1
4 60C
3 25C
2 0 55C 25C
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 5 10 15 20
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


20 100 100
A OUT
80 95
CONTINUOUS AMPS

18
DUTY CYCLE, (%)

60 90
16
40 85

14
20 80
B OUT
12 0 75
25 50 75 100 125 150 3 4 5 6 7 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

115 140 100


Vcc = 15V Vs = 120V, NO LOAD
110 F = 22.5 kHz 120
80
105
NORMAL 100
100 OPERATION
80 60
95
60
90
40
SHUTDOWN 40
85 OPERATION
80 20 20
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
108
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA14

GENERAL An external shutdown command can be mixed with the


Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and protection circuit of Figure A. In figure B a 5V shutdown
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- command signal is divided down by R2, R1 to the 100 mV
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the threshold level of the SHDN pin of the SA14. As long as the
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the shutdown command remains high both output transistors will
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data remain off.
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics. PWR GND

CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR


R2
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of SHUTDOWN
SHDN SIGNAL
approximately 45kHz. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied R1
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an
C1
RC network which produces a ramp signal at the PWM/
RAMP pin. An external clock signal can be applied to the CLK RSENSE
IN pin for synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower
than 45kHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the
PWM/RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal
FIGURE B. ADDING SHUTDOWN CONTROL.
capacitor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 4 volts
p-p with the lower peak 3 volts above ground.
BYPASSING
PWM INPUTS
Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for
The half bridge driver may be accessed via the pwm input proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
comparator. When +PWM < -PWM then OUT is HIGH. A efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
motion control processor which generates the pwm signal can The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
drive these pins with signals referenced to SIG GND. capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
PROTECTION CIRCUITS switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
A high side current monitor will latch off the output transistors ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
when the high side current rises to approximately 150% of directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
rated output. The temperature of the output transistors is also will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
monitored. When either of the output transistors reaches very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
approximately 165C both are latched off. In either case, it will connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
be necessary to remove the fault condition and recycle power less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
to Vcc to restart the circuit. A short to +Vs can be protected capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.
against by inserting a sensing resistor into the PWR GND
circuit as shown in Figure A. STARTUP CONDITIONS
The high side of the all N channel output half bridge circuit
PWR GND is driven by a bootstrap circuit and charge pump arrangement.
In order for the circuit to produce a 100% duty cycle indefinitely
the low side transistor must have previously been in the ON
SHDN condition. This means, in turn, that if the input signal to the
R1
SA14 at startup is demanding a 100% duty cycle, the output
C1 R SENSE may not follow the command and may be in a tri-state condi-
tion. The ramp signal must cross the input signal at some point
to correctly determine the output state. After the ramp crosses
FIGURE A. PROTECTING AGAINST SHORTS TO +Vs. the input signal level one time, the output state will be correct
thereafter.

In Figure A, the sense resistor inserted into the PWR GND


connection is tied to the SHDN pin. When the current from a
short to +Vs develops 100 mV across the sense resistor the
shutdown circuit will shut off the output transistors for the
remainder of the switching cycle. The SA14 will restart at the
beginning of a new cycle and retest for this condition. This
circuit does not test for shorts to ground. The RC circuit R1, C1
filters out any switching spikes and may need to be adjusted to
ignore normal current spikes in the application circuit.

This data
APEX sheet has been carefully CORPORATION
MICROTECHNOLOGY checked and is believed to be reliable,(520)
TELEPHONE however, no responsibility
690-8600 FAXis(520)
assumed888-3329
for possibleinaccuracies or omissions.
ORDERS (520) All specifications
690-8601 EMAILare subject to change without notice.
prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
SA14U REV. C DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
109
PULSE WIDTH MODULATION AMPLIFIER

SA16
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
HALF BRIDGE OUTPUT SA16
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE16-500V
10A CONTINUOUS TO 75 C CASE USA
BeO
3 PROTECTION CIRCUITS TE9493
11

ANALOG OR DIGITAL INPUTS


SYNCHRONIZED OR EXTERNAL OSCILLATOR
FLEXIBLE FREQUENCY CONTROL
APPLICATIONS
MOTORS
REACTIVE LOADS
LOW FREQUENCY SONAR EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
LARGE PIEZO ELEMENTS
OFF-LINE DRIVERS
C-D WELD CONTROLLER
NC
DESCRIPTION CLK IN 1 12
NC
The SA16 is a half bridge pulse width modulation amplifier CLK OUT 2 11
+PWM * VCC
that can supply 5000W to the load. Flexible frequency control 3
TOP
10
is provided. An internal 45kHz oscillator requires no external 4 VIEW 9 *
PWM/RAMP
components and can be used to synchronize multiple ampli- 5 8 +VS
fiers. The oscillator output may be divided down and con- SIG GND 6 7 OUT
nected to the clock input to lower the switching frequency . The SHDN
clock input stage divides by two and determines the output PWR GND
switching rate (normally 22.5 kHz). A shutdown input turns off
both output drivers. High side current sensing protects the
amplifier from shorts to ground. In addition, the half bridge Case tied to pin 5. Allow no current in case. Bypassing of supplies
output MOSFETs are protected from thermal overloads by is required. Package is Apex MO-127/40S. See Outline
Dimensions/Packages in Apex data book.
directly sensing the temperature of the die. The 12-pin her-
metic MO-127/40S power package occupies only 3 square If +PWM < RAMP/PWM then OUT = HIGH.
inches of board space.
*See text.
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TYPICAL APPLICATION
PROGRAMMABLE POWER SUPPLY
Vcc
10 CURRENT 9
LIMIT +VS
+PWM
3
PWM
4
PWM/RAMP 10V OUT
470pF
P-P OUTPUT 8 LOAD
56K DRIVERS
12
CLK OUT
NC
2 OSC 2
NC
SHUTDOWN 11
CLK IN CONTROL 5K
6
1
SHDN .01F
5
7
CONTROL SIG GND
SIGNAL PWR GND RSENSE
3/7V

5V

5V

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
110
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA16 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 500V


SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VCC 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 150W
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction2 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 55 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, +PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, PWM 0 to +11V
INPUT VOLTAGE, ILIM 0 to +10V
SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

CLOCK (CLK)
CLK OUT, high level4 IOUT 1mA 4.8 5.3 V
CLK OUT, low level4 IOUT 1mA 0 .4 V
FREQUENCY 44 45 46 kHz
RAMP, center voltage 5 V
RAMP, P-P voltage 4 V
CLK IN, low level4 0 .9 V
CLK IN, high level4 3.7 5.4 V

OUTPUT
RON Each output driver .48
EFFICIENCY, 10A output VS = 500V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY OSC in 2 22.05 22.5 22.95 kHz
CURRENT, continuous4 75C case 10 A
CURRENT, peak4 14 A

POWER SUPPLY
VOLTAGE, VS Full temperature range 165 240 500 V
VOLTAGE, VCC Full temperature range 14 15 16 V
CURRENT, VCC IOUT = 0 80 mA
CURRENT, VCC, shutdown 50 mA
CURRENT, VS No Load 90 mA

ILIM/SHUTDOWN
TRIP POINT 90 110 mV
INPUT CURRENT 100 nA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temperature range, for each die .83 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 12 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case Meets full range specifications 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two output transistors can dissipate 150W.


2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, VS, VCC at typical specification.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.
5. If 100% duty cycle is not required VS(MIN) = 0V.

The SA16 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush,
machine, or subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION TELEPHONE (520) 690-8600 FAX (520) 888-3329 ORDERS (520) 690-8601 EMAIL prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
111
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA16
POWER DERATING CLOCK LOADING CLOCK FREQUENCY OVER TEMP
INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

150 100 102.0

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)

NORMALIZED FREQUENCY, (%)


101.5
125
99
101.0
100
98 100.5
75 100
97 99.5
50

96 99.0
25 EACH ACTIVE
OUTPUT TRANSISTOR F NOMINAL = 45kHz 98.5
0 95 98.0
0 25 50 75 100 125 10K 100K 1M 50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) CLOCK LOAD RESISTANCE, () CASE TEMPERATURE, (C)

REVERSE DIODE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP


10 10
CASE TEMPERATURE 75C
FLYBACK CURRENT, Isd (A)

85C
TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

7.5 100C

5 125C

1 2.5
25C
25C
55C
0
0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0 2 4 6 8 10
SOURCE TO DRAIN DIODE VOLTAGE OUTPUT CURRENT, (A)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

CONTINUOUS OUTPUT DUTY CYCLE VS ANALOG INPUT Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT


10 100 100
A OUT
9 80 95
CONTINUOUS AMPS

DUTY CYCLE, (%)

8 60 90

7 40 85

6 20 80
B OUT
5 0 75
25 50 75 100 125 3 4 5 6 7 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) ANALOG INPUT, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)
NORMALIZED Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

Vcc QUIESCENT CURRENT Vs QUIESCENT VS VOLTAGE Vs QUIESCENT VS FREQUENCY


NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

NORMALIZED Vs QUIESCENT CURRENT, (%)

115 140 100


Vcc = 15V Vs = 250V, NO LOAD
110 F = 22.5 kHz
120 80
105
NORMAL
100 OPERATION
100 60
95

90 80 40
SHUTDOWN
85 OPERATION
80 60 20
50 25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0 100 200 300 400 500 5 10 15 20 25
CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) Vs, (V) SWITCHING FREQUENCY, F (kHz)

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
112
OPERATING
CONSIDERATIONS SA16

GENERAL An external shutdown command can be mixed with the


Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and protection circuit of Figure A. In figure B a 5V shutdown
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider- command signal is divided down by R2, R1 to the 100 mV
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the threshold level of the SHDN pin of the SA16. As long as the
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the shutdown command remains high both output transistors will
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data remain off.
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics.
PWR GND
CLOCK CIRCUIT AND RAMP GENERATOR
The clock frequency is internally set to a frequency of R2 SHUTDOWN
approximately 45kHz. The CLK OUT pin will normally be tied SHDN SIGNAL
to the CLK IN pin. The clock is divided by two and applied to an R1

RC network which produces a ramp signal at the PWM/ C1


RAMP pin. An external clock signal can be applied to the CLK
RSENSE
IN pin for synchronization purposes. If a clock frequency lower
than 45kHz is chosen an external capacitor must be tied to the
PWM/RAMP pin. This capacitor, which parallels an internal
capacitor, must be selected so that the ramp oscillates 4 volts FIGURE B. ADDING SHUTDOWN CONTROL.
p-p with the lower peak 3 volts above ground.

PWM INPUTS
The half bridge driver may be accessed via the pwm input BYPASSING
comparator. When +PWM < -PWM then OUT is HIGH. A Adequate bypassing of the power supplies is required for
motion control processor which generates the pwm signal can proper operation. Failure to do so can cause erratic and low
drive these pins with signals referenced to SIG GND. efficiency operation as well as excessive ringing at the outputs.
The Vs supply should be bypassed with at least a 1F ceramic
PROTECTION CIRCUITS capacitor in parallel with another low ESR capacitor of at least
A high side current monitor will latch off the output transistors 10F per amp of output current. Capacitor types rated for
when the high side current rises to approximately 150% of switching applications are the only types that should be consid-
rated output. The temperature of the output transistors is also ered. The bypass capacitors must be physically connected
monitored. When either of the output transistors reaches directly to the power supply pins. Even one inch of lead length
approximately 165C both are latched off. In either case, it will will cause excessive ringing at the outputs. This is due to the
be necessary to remove the fault condition and recycle power very fast switching times and the inductance of the lead
to Vcc to restart the circuit. A short to +Vs can be protected connection. The bypassing requirements of the Vcc supply are
against by inserting a sensing resistor into the PWR GND less stringent, but still necessary. A .1F to .47F ceramic
circuit as shown in Figure A. capacitor connected directly to the Vcc pin will suffice.

STARTUP CONDITIONS
PWR GND The high side of the all N channel output half bridge circuit
is driven by a bootstrap circuit and charge pump arrangement.
In order for the circuit to produce a 100% duty cycle indefinitely
SHDN the low side transistor must have previously been in the ON
R1
condition. This means, in turn, that if the input signal to the
C1 R SENSE SA16 at startup is demanding a 100% duty cycle, the output
may not follow the command and may be in a tri-state condi-
tion. The ramp signal must cross the input signal at some point
FIGURE A. PROTECTING AGAINST SHORTS TO +Vs. to correctly determine the output state. After the ramp crosses
the input signal level one time, the output state will be correct
thereafter.
In Figure A, the sense resistor inserted into the PWR GND
connection is tied to the SHDN pin. When the current from a
short to +Vs develops 100 mV across the sense resistor the
shutdown circuit will shut off the output transistors for the
remainder of the switching cycle. The SA16 will restart at the
beginning of a new cycle and retest for this condition. This
circuit does not test for shorts to ground. The RC circuit R1, C1
filters out any switching spikes and may need to be adjusted to
ignore normal current spikes in the application circuit.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data sheet has been carefully CORPORATION TELEPHONE
checked and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility 888-3329
assumed for possibleinaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
SA16U REV. C DECEMBER 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
113
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA16 PIN-OUT

EK08
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION ASSEMBLY
This easy-to-use kit provides a platform for the evaluation of (See Figure 1)
PWM amplifiers using the SA16 pin-out configuration. It can be used
to analyze a multitude of standard or proprietary circuit configura- 1. From the non-silk screen side, insert and solder cage jacks. Be
tions, and is flexible enough to do most standard amplifier test sure each one is fully seated.
configurations. The board is designed for surface mounting all 2. From the non-silk screen side, push spacer grommets into PC
components except the switching amplifier. board until fully seated. Grommets will snug when screws are
The schematic is shown in Figure 2. Note that all of the compo- inserted for heatsink mounting.
nents shown on the schematic will probably not be used for any 3. Apply TW05 thermal washer to the bottom of the SA16.
single circuit. Some components will simply be omitted, while others 4. Use #14 sleeving to insulate and align at least 2 opposite pins of
require installation of a jumper to complete the signal path. the amplifier.
Only components unique to the EK08 are provided in this kit. 5. Mount amplifier to heatsink using #6 screws and nuts. Torque the
Hardware similar to that shown in figure 1 must be obtained locally. part to the specified 8 to 10 in-lbs (.9 to 1.13 N*M). Do not over
torque.
PARTS LIST 6. Install components as needed. External connections may be
soldered directly or standard banana jacks may be soldered to
Part # Description Quantity these pads.
HS18 Heatsink 1 7. Insert amplifier pins into cage jacks and fasten board to heatsink.
MS02 PC mount Cage Jacks 2 Bag/8 each
EVAL10 PC Board 1
60SPG00001 Spacer Grommets 4
TW05
OX7R105KTN
Thermal Washer
1F Cap 3530B105K501N,
1 Box/10 each
1
C
Novacap
OX7R105KWN 1F Cap 1825B105K201N, 1
Novacap

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED


* All Apex amplifiers should be handled using proper ESD precautions.
* Always use the heatsink included in this kit with TW05 washer.
* Always use adequate power supply bypassing.
* Do not change connections while the circuit is powered.
* Initially set all power supplies to the minimum operating levels allowed in the device data sheet.
* Check for oscillations.
Cage Jack
PC Board (Silkscreen side) Solder as required

Spacer Grommet
6-32 x 1/2 Lg. Screw

TW05 thermal washer

Heatsink
#8 or #10 Screw (1/2" - 3/4" LG) Switching Amplifier
Hex Nut 6-32 THD 1/4"

FIGURE 1.
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114
EK08 EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA16 PIN-OUT

FIGURE 2. PCB SCHEMATIC.

A block diagram of the SA16 is shown in


Figure 2 along with pcb connections of all the
commonly used external components. Your
application circuit will not use all of the compo-
nents. Add those components required by your
circuit. You may have to jumper some compo-
nents to make the desired electrical connec-
tions. J1 is an optional way to connect the clock
circuit. Power supply bypassing is particularly
important and that is why high quality ceramic
chip capacitors are supplied with the kit. In
addition you may need to add a 10-50 uF or
larger capacitor on the +Vs pin. This additional
capacitor needs to be rated for switching opera-
tion. Note that the signal ground and power
ground are separated and tie together only at
the ground pin (5). A breadboarding area is
supplied which can accomodate 1 or 2 IC
amplifiers and associated components. The
large terminal pads can be used to solder wire
connections or banana jacks.
Note that the EK08 Evaluation Kit uses the
same circuit board as the EK05 Evaluation kit
intended for Apex's model SA06. The SA16 is
a half bridge version of the SA06 and is
indentical in design except for that fact. Some of
the pin designations of the SA16 are, however,
different. The SA16's OUT (PIN 8) is equivalent
SA16 to the SA06's B OUT (PIN 8). The SA16's PWR
GND (PIN 7) is equivalent to the SA06's I SENSE
B (PIN7). Pins 11 and 12 of the SA16 are not
connected. The designations on the PCB are
those used for the SA06. See the SA16 data
sheet for specific operating considerations.

* *

* Input protection, 10V zener diode.

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115
EVALUATION KIT
FOR SA16 PIN-OUT EK08

FIGURE 3. FUNCTIONAL TEST CIRCUIT

The schematic of Figure 3 can be used to


verify the functionality of your amplifier and help
you gain a familiarity with proper operation. At
Out, with respect to ground, you should ob-
serve a square wave approximately 30 V in
amplitude with a fixed frequency and duty cycle
that varies from approximately 0 to 100% at a
rate of 1 Hz.

SA16

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116
EK08

FIGURE 4. PCB COMPONENT SIDE

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked 5980
and is believed NORTH
to be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or USA
possible inaccuracies APPLICATIONS
omissions. HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
EK08U REV. C JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
117
H/BRIDGE MOTOR DRIVER/AMPLIFIER

SA50
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
LOW COST COMPLETE H-BRIDGE
SELF-CONTAINED SMART LOWSIDE/HIGHSIDE DRIVE
CIRCUITRY
SINGLE SUPPLY OPERATION
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE: UP TO 80V
5A CONTINUOUS OUTPUT
HERMETIC SEALED PACKAGE
HIGH EFFICIENCY: 97%
FOUR QUADRANT OPERATION, TORQUE
CONTROL CAPABILITY
INTERNAL PWM GENERATION
TYPICAL APPLICATION
APPLICATIONS
+VS
BRUSH TYPE MOTOR CONTROL
Vcc
CLASS D SWITCHMODE AMPLIFIER
REACTIVE LOADS
MAGNETIC COILS (MRI)
ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING
AUDIO
C
VIBRATION CANCELLING SA50
INPUT

SPEAKER
DESCRIPTION
The SA50 is a pulse width modulation amplifier that can
supply 5A continuous current to the load. The full bridge GND
amplifier can be operated over a wide range of supply volt-
ages. All of the drive/control circuitry for the lowside and
highside switches are internal to the hybrid. The PWM circuitry
is internal as well, leaving the user to only provide an analog +VS
Vcc
signal for the motor speed/direction, or audio signal for
switchmode audio amplification. The SA50 is packaged in a
space efficient isolated 8-pin TO-3 that can be directly con-
nected to a heatsink.
ANALOG
INPUT SA50
+VS
BLOCK DIAGRAM DC MOTOR

GND

(LOAD)

B A EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
VCC
(+12V) B OUT
+VS
2
45KHz 3
PWM 1 RSENSE B
GENERATOR H-BRIDGE RSENSE B RSENSE A
A OUT 4
DRIVE (CURRENT)
INPUT CIRCUITRY TOP VIEW
RSENSE A 5

8
GND 6 INPUT
7
Vcc
GND

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118
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA50 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 80V


OUTPUT CURRENT, peak 7A
LOGIC SUPPLY VOLTAGE, Vcc 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 120W1
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction3 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 65 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE +1 to Vcc 1.5 Vdc

SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

INPUT
ANALOG INPUT VOLTAGES Vcc = 12V
MOTOR A, B = 50% Duty Cycle 6 Vdc
MOTOR A = 100% Duty Cycle High 8 Vdc
MOTOR B = 100% Duty Cycle High 4 Vdc

OUTPUT
Vds (ON) VOLTAGE, each MOSFET Ids = 5A 1.25 1.8 Vdc
TOTAL Ron, both MOSFETs 0.5
EFFICIENCY, 5A OUTPUT +VS = 80V 97 %
SWITCHING FREQUENCY 40 45 50 Khz
CURRENT, continuous 5 A
CURRENT, peak t = 100 msec 7 A
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS4 +VS = 28V, Vcc = 12V, Ic =2A
RISE TIME 36 54 nS
FALL TIME 170 250 nS
DEAD TIME 100 nS

POWER SUPPLY
+VS VOLTAGE +VS Current = Load Current 80 Vdc
Vcc VOLTAGE 9 12 16 Vdc
Vcc CURRENT Vcc = 12Vdc 15 20 mA
3
THERMAL
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temp range, for each transistor 2.0 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 30 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two active output transistors can dissipate 60W.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, Vcc = 12Vdc.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.

The SA50 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

WARNINGAMPLIFIER PROTECTION
The SA50 contains an internal logic chip that turns on and time, thus destroying the SA50. A well laid out PC board with
turns off output MOSFET drivers at a certain sequence. Noises low impedance copper ground plane is necessary for the
or oscillation caused by external wiring inductance, lack of SA50 to function properly. The Apex EK-SA50 evaluation
proper power supply bypass capacitors, ground, supply and board is recommended for fast and easy breadboarding of
local internal loops, may be fed back to this logic chip and circuits using the SA50.
cause it to turn on one or more MOSFET drivers at the wrong

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
119
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA50
POWER DERATING INPUT CURRENT VS TEMP EFFICIENCY CONTOURS
INTERNAL POWER DISSIPATION, (W)

60 1.05 80
%
0.95 70 97

PWM BIAS CURRENT, (A)

SUPPLY VOLTAGE, VS (V)


50
0.85 60
40
0.75 50
95%
30 0.65 40

0.55 30
20 90%
0.45 20
10 80%
0.35 10
EACH OUTPUT TRANSISTOR
0 70%
0.25 0
0 25 50 75 100 125 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 2 3 4 5
CASE TEMPERATURE, T C (C) CASE TEMPERATURE, (C) LOAD CURRENT, (A)

EFFICIENCY VS TEMP @ 80V EFFICIENCY VS TEMP @ 20V EFFICIENCY VS LOAD CURRENT


100 100 100
99 95 VS = 80
IOUT = 1 IOUT = 1 V
A, V = 80V A, V = 20V 97
98 S S
EFFICIENCY, (%)

EFFICIENCY, (%)

EFFICIENCY, (%)
90 VS =
60V
97 IO VS =
85 IO 94
96
UT
=
5A
UT
=
5A
40V
C
,V 80 ,V 91
95 S = S
80 = V
V 75 20 S
94 V =2
88 0V
93 70
92 65 85
60 20 20 60 100 140 180 60 20 20 60 100 140 180 1 2 3 4 5
JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (C) JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (C) LOAD CURRENT, (A)

OUTPUT RESISTANCE DRIFT H-BRIDGE FET CAPACITANCE QUIESCENT CURRENT VS VOLTAGE


OUTPUT RESISTANCE, (NORMALIZED)

2.5 500
14.0
DRAIN-TO-SOURCE CAP, (pF)

QUIESCENT CURRENT, (mA)

2 400
12.0

1.5 300 10.0

8.0
1 200
6.0
0.5 100
4.0

0 0 2.0
60 20 20 60 100 140 180 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
JUNCTION TEMPERATURE (C) DRAIN-TO-SOURCE VOLTAGE, (V) Vcc VOLTAGE (V)

VOLTAGE DROP (BOTH MOSFETS) QUIESCENT CURRET VS PWM FREQ


5 15
CASE TEMPERATURE
QUIESCENT CURRENT, (mA)

4 14
VOLTAGE DROP, (V)

85C

3 110C 13

2 12
60C

1 35C 11

0 10
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 200 400 600
OUTPUT CURRENT, (A) PWM FREQUENCY (Hz)

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120
OPERATING
SA50 CONSIDERATIONS

GENERAL TYPICAL SYSTEM OPERATION


Helpful information about power supplies, heatsinking and +VS
+12V
mounting can be found in the General Operating Consider-
ations section of the Apex data book. For information on the 3
package outline, heatsinks, and mounting hardware see the 6 +VS
Vcc SNUBBER NETWORK
Package Outlines and Accessories section of the data 22F MOTOR A
4 MOTOR
book. Also see Application Note 30 on PWM Basics. 100
SA50 2W
8 1000pF
INPUT
PIN DESCRIPTION 2 200V
7 MOTOR B
MYLAR
VCC - is the low voltage supply for powering internal logic GND 6.8F
RSENSE A 5 100V
and drivers for the lowside and highside MOSFETS. The POLY
supplies for the highside drivers are derived from this voltage. RSENSE B
1 SENSE
VS - is the higher voltage H-bridge supply. The MOSFETS RESISTORS
obtain the output current from this supply pin. The voltage on 0.1
R
this pin is limited to +80V by the drive IC. The MOSFETS are
rated at 100 volts. Proper by-passing to GND with sufficient NO OUTPUT
R SWITCHING +12V
capacitance to suppress any voltage transients, and to ensure GND CURRENT
removing any drooping during switching, should be done as RDIVIDE
+12V RIN
close to the pins on the hybrid as possible. (VCC2)
A OUT - is the output pin for one half of the bridge. Increasing RDIVIDE RDIVIDE = 2X Rf
ANALOG
the input voltage causes increasing duty cycle at this output. INPUT
B OUT - is the output pin for the other half of the bridge.
Decreasing the input voltage causes increasing duty cycles at
Rf RIN
this point.
RSENSE A - This is the connection for the bottom of the A
half bridge. This can have a sense resistor connected to the VS
return ground for current limit sensing, or can be connected CURRENT CONTROL
directly to ground. The maximum voltage on this pin is 2 volts
This is a diagram of a typical application of the SA50. The
with respect to GND.
design Vcc voltage is +12 volts and should have a good low
GND - is the return connection for the input logic and Vcc.
ESR bypass capacitor such as a tantalum electrolytic. The
RESENSE B - This is the connection for the bottom of the B
analog input can be an analog speed control voltage from a
half bridge. This can have a sense resistor connection to the
potentiometer, other analog circuitry or by microprocessor and
VS return ground for current limit sensing, or can be connected
a D/A converter. This analog input gets pulled by the current
directly to ground. The maximum voltage on this pin is 2 volts
control circuitry in the proper direction to reduce the current
with respect to GND.
flow in the bridge if it gets too high. The gain of the current
INPUT - is an analog input for controlling the PWM pulse
control amplifier will have to be set to obtain the proper amount
width of the bridge. A voltage higher than Vcc/2 will produce
of current limiting required by the system.
greater than 50% duty cycle pulses out of A OUT. A voltage
Current sensing is done in this case by a 0.1 sense resistor
lower than Vcc/2 will produce greater than 50% duty cycle
to sense the current from both legs of the bridge separately. It
pulses out of B OUT.
is important to make the high current traces as big as possible
to keep inductance down. The storage capacitor connected to
the VS and the hybrid GND should be large enough to provide
the high energy pulse without the voltage sagging too far. A
low ESR capacitor will be required. Mount capacitor as close
to the hybrid as possible. The connection between GND and
the VS return should not be carrying any motor current. The
sense resistor signal is common mode filtered as necessary to
feed the limiting circuitry. This application will allow full four
quadrant torque control for a closed loop servo system.
A snubber network is usually required, due to the inductance
in the power loop. It is important to design the snubber network
to suppress any positive spikes above +VS and negative spikes
below 2V with respect to pin 7 (GND).

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked to
and is believed 5980 NORTH
be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD isTUCSON,
no responsibility assumed forARIZONA 85741 or omissions.
possible inaccuracies USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
SA50U REV. D JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
121
EVALUATION KIT FOR SA50

EK-SA50
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

INTRODUCTION EQUIVALENT SCHEMATIC


Fast, easy breadboarding of circuits using the SA50 are possible J1
with the EK-SA50 PC board. Mounting holes are provided and the R1 1
provision for standard banana jacks simplifies connection and RSENSE A
8
0.1 3W INPUT INPUT
testing. Components are labeled on both sides of the board for ease
in probing. A OUT
2
A OUT GND
7
*D2 R3 R4
10K *D1 10K
*D4 *D3 SA50
TYPICAL COMPONENT FUNCTIONS R5
TO-3
1/4W 1/4W

100 3 +VS VCC 6


C2, C3, C4 Power supply bypass capacitors 2W VCC
C1
R3, R4 Resistor divider to set the input voltage at 1000pF *D5
+
C2 C3
4 B OUT
50% of Vcc under nominal conditons B OUT
RSENSE B 5
22F
TANT
0.1F
*D6
R5, C1 Snubber network
R2
R1, R2 Current sensing resistors or jumpered to ground +Vs
C4
0.1 J2
3W
6.8F
POLY
PARTS LIST
Part # Description Quantity * D1 and D2 Input protection, high speed such as IN4148.
D3 through D6 Flyback protection, high speed (<200nS).
EK-SA50PC P.C. Board 1
Solder as close to SA50 as possible.
HS14 Heatsink 1
MS03 Mating Socket 1
TW03 Thermal Washers 1 bag of 10 3"
76.2mm
C

5.2"
132.1mm

NOTE: Illustration only, not to exact scale.

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data sheet has been carefully CORPORATION TELEPHONE
checked and is believed to be reliable,(520) 690-8600
however, FAXis(520)
no responsibility assumed888-3329
for possible inaccuracies
ORDERS (520) 690-8601
or omissions. EMAILare
All specifications prodlit@apexmicrotech.com
subject to change without notice.
EK-SA50U REV. C JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
122
TABLE 4 GROUP A INSPECTION

SA50M
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

SG PARAMETER SYMBOL TEMP. POWER TEST CONDITIONS MIN MAX UNITS

1 Quiescent Current IQ 25C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 20 mA


1 ON Voltage VDS 25C +28Vdc ID = 5A 1.8 V
1 OFF Leakage IDSS 25C +70Vdc Output off, VDS = 70V 25 A

3 Quiescent Current IQ 55C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 20 mA


3 ON Voltage VDS 55C +28Vdc ID = 5A 1.2 V
3 OFF Leakage IDSS 55C +70Vdc Output off, VDS = 70V 25 A

2 Quiescent Current IQ 125C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 20 mA


2 ON Voltage VDS 125C +28Vdc ID = 5A 2.4 V
2 OFF Leakage IDSS 125C +70Vdc Output OFF, VDS = 70V 250 A

4 Switching Frequency FS 25C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 41 49 Khz


4 Duty Cycle A DC A 25C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 40 60 %
4 Duty Cycle B DC B 25C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 40 60 %

6 Switching Frequency FS 55C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 40 50 Khz

5 Switching Frequency FS 125C +28Vdc VIN = 6Vdc 40 50 Khc

7 Duty Cycle A DC A 25C +28Vdc VIN = 3Vdc, verify 0% duty cycle Pass/Fail
7 Duty Cycle A DC A 25C +28Vdc VIN = 9Vdc, verify 100% duty cycle Pass/Fail
7 Duty Cycle B DC B 25C +28Vdc VIN = 3Vdc, verify 0% duty cycle Pass/Fail
7 Duty Cycle B DC B 25C +28Vdc VIN = 9 Vdc, verify 100% duty cycle Pass/Fail

1/VCC=+12Vdc, RSENSE A, B = Ground, RL = 1K ohm, AOUT to BOUT

BURN IN CIRCUIT +12V

R1

1 8 DEVICE
INPUT
2 7 R2
DEVICE
OUTPUT

+28V
3 DUT 6
+12V
C2
C1

R3
4 5

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY
This data CORPORATION
sheet has been carefully checked to
and is believed 5980 NORTH
be reliable, SHANNON
however, ROAD is TUCSON,
no responsibility assumed for ARIZONA 85741 or
possible inaccuracies omissions.
USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE:
All specifications are 1 (800)
subject to change 546-2739
without notice.
SA50MU REV. A JANUARY 1998 1998 Apex Microtechnology Corp.
123
H/BRIDGE MOTOR DRIVER/AMPLIFIER

SA51
M I C R O T E C H N O L O G Y HTTP://WWW.APEXMICROTECH.COM (800) 546-APEX (800) 546-2739

FEATURES
LOW COST COMPLETE H-BRIDGE
SELF-CONTAINED SMART LOWSIDE/HIGHSIDE DRIVE
CIRCUITRY
SINGLE SUPPLY OPERATION
WIDE SUPPLY RANGE: UP TO 80V
5A CONTINUOUS OUTPUT
HERMETIC SEALED PACKAGE
HIGH EFFICIENCY: 97%
FOUR QUADRANT OPERATION, TORQUE
CONTROL CAPABILITY

APPLICATIONS
BRUSH TYPE MOTOR CONTROL TYPICAL APPLICATION
CLASS D SWITCHMODE AMPLIFIER +VS
REACTIVE LOADS
MAGNETIC COILS (MRI) Vcc
ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING
VIBRATION CANCELLING PWM C
INPUT
SA51
DESCRIPTION
The SA51 is a pulse width modulation amplifier that can DISABLE
SPEAKER
supply 5A continuous current to the load. The full bridge INPUT
amplifier can be operated over a wide range of supply volt-
ages. All of the drive/control circuitry for the lowside and
GND
highside switches are internal to the hybrid. The user provides
a TTL compatible PWM signal for simultaneous amplitude and
direction control in four quadrant mode. The internal circuitry
will provide proper deadtime protection for each half bridge. All +VS
N-channel FETs mean the best efficiency for the size, both in Vcc
terms of on-resistance and switching capability. For an idle/
sleep mode or for fault protection, a TTL compatible disable pin
is provided so as to shut down all four transistors. The SA51 PWM
is packaged in a space efficient isolated 8-pin TO-3 that can be INPUT
directly connected to a heatsink. SA51

DISABLE DC MOTOR
BLOCK DIAGRAM +VS
INPUT

GND

(LOAD) EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS


B A B OUT
VCC 2
3 +VS
1
VCC
(+12V) DISABLE 4

TOP VIEW
DISABLE GND 5
H-BRIDGE RSENSE 8
DRIVE (CURRENT) 6 RSENSE
(PWM) INPUT CIRCUITRY INPUT 7
A OUT

GND

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124
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SA51 SPECIFICATIONS

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS SUPPLY VOLTAGE, +VS 80V


OUTPUT CURRENT, peak 7A
LOGIC SUPPLY VOLTAGE, Vcc 16V
POWER DISSIPATION, internal 120W1
TEMPERATURE, pin solder - 10s 300C
TEMPERATURE, junction3 150C
TEMPERATURE, storage 65 to +150C
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 65 to +125C
INPUT VOLTAGE, INPUT 0 to Vcc
INPUT VOLTAGE, DIS 0 to Vcc

SPECIFICATIONS
PARAMETER TEST CONDITIONS2 MIN TYP MAX UNITS

INPUT
PWM PULSE LOW VOLTAGE 0 0.6 Vdc
PWM PULSE HIGH VOLTAGE 3.6 5.0 Vdc
PWM FREQUENCY 45 500 KHz
DISABLE ON 3.6 VCC Vdc
DISABLE OFF 0 0.6 Vdc

OUTPUT
Vds (ON) VOLTAGE, each MOSFET Ids = 5A 1.25 1.8 Vdc
TOTAL Ron, both MOSFETs 0.5
EFFICIENCY, 5A OUTPUT +VS = 80V 97 %
CURRENT, continuous 5 A
CURRENT, peak T = 100ms 7 A
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS4 +VS = 28V, Vcc = 12V, Ic =2A
RISE TIME 36 54 nS
FALL TIME 170 250 nS
DEAD TIME 100 nS

POWER SUPPLY
+VS VOLTAGE +VS Current = Load Current 80 Vdc
Vcc VOLTAGE 9 12 16 Vdc
Vcc CURRENT Vcc = 12Vdc 11 18 mA

THERMAL3
RESISTANCE, junction to case Full temp range, for each transistor 2.0 C/W
RESISTANCE, junction to air Full temperature range 30 C/W
TEMPERATURE RANGE, case 25 +85 C

NOTES: 1. Each of the two active output transistors can dissipate 60W.
2. Unless otherwise noted: TC = 25C, Vcc = 12Vdc.
3. Long term operation at the maximum junction temperature will result in reduced product life. Derate internal power
dissipation to achieve high MTTF. For guidance, refer to the heatsink data sheet.
4. Guaranteed but not tested.

The SA51 is constructed from MOSFET transistors. ESD handling procedures must be observed.
CAUTION
The internal substrate contains beryllia (BeO). Do not break the seal. If accidentally broken, do not crush, machine, or
subject to temperatures in excess of 850C to avoid generating toxic fumes.

WARNINGAMPLIFIER PROTECTION
The SA51 contains an internal logic chip that turns on and thus destroying the SA51. A well laid out PC board with low
turns off output MOSFET drivers at a certain sequence. Noise impedance copper ground plane is necessary for the
or oscillation caused by external wiring inductance, lack of SA51 to function properly. The Apex EK-SA51 evaluation
proper power supply bypass capacitors, ground, supply, and board is recommended for fast and easy breadboarding of
local internal loops may be fed back to this logic chip and cause circuits using the SA51.
it to turn on one or more MOSFET drivers at the wrong time,

APEX MICROTECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 5980 NORTH SHANNON ROAD TUCSON, ARIZONA 85741 USA APPLICATIONS HOTLINE: 1 (800) 546-2739
125
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE
GRAPHS SA51
Typical