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Silicon Controlled Rectifiers

UNIT-1
Silicon Controlled Rectifier

A Silicon Controlled Rectifier (or Semiconductor Controlled


Rectifier) is a four layer solid state device that controls current
flow
The name silicon controlled rectifier is a trade name for the
type of thyristor commercialized at General Electric in 1957
Silicon Controlled Rectifier

An SCR can be seen as a conventional rectifier controlled by a


gate signal
It is a 4-layered 3-terminal device
When the gate to cathode voltage exceeds a certain threshold,
the device turns 'on' and conducts current
Silicon Controlled Rectifier

The operation of a SCR can be understood in terms of a pair of


tightly coupled Bipolar Junction Transistors
SCR has three states:
Reverse blocking mode, forward blocking mode, and forward
conducting mode
V-I Characteristic Curve
Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Industrially SCRs are applied to produce DC voltages for


motors from AC line voltage
Rectifier
Half-wave rectifier, full-wave rectifier
Half-wave rectifier
Half-wave rectifier
Half-wave rectifier
SCRIGT20mA,0V
,,SCR?

V=20m 150+0.7=3.7V
Reviews

A SCR is essentially a diode with an extra terminal added


This extra terminal is called the gate, and it is used to trigger
the device into conduction by the application of a small
voltage
Application: DC Motor Driver

DC motor speed generally depends on a combination of the


voltage and current flowing in the motor coils and the motor
loads or braking torque
The speed of the motor is proportional to the voltage, and the
torque is proportional to the current
DC Motors Current Driver
A rectifier is one or more diodes arranged for converting AC
to DC
The current used to drive the DC motor typically comes from :
Fixed voltage:
Battery
Voltage regulator
Adjustable voltage:
PWM current source
Silicon controlled rectifier modulated AC source
DC Motors Current Drives

Voltage regulator
DC Motors Current Drives

Linear power transistor & OP amp


DC Motors Current Drives

Pulse Width Modulation


DC Motors Current Drives
DC Motors Current Drives
DC Choppers

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Introduction
Chopper is a static device.
A variable dc voltage is obtained from a
constant dc voltage source.
Also known as dc-to-dc converter.
Widely used for motor control.
Also used in regenerative braking.
Thyristor converter offers greater
efficiency, faster response, lower
maintenance, smaller size and smooth
control.
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
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Choppers are of Two Types
Step-down choppers.
Step-up choppers.
In step down chopper output voltage is
less than input voltage.
In step up chopper output voltage is
more than input voltage.

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Principle Of
Step-down Chopper

Chopper
i0
+

V R V0

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
A step-down chopper with resistive load.
The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch.
When thyristor is ON, supply voltage
appears across the load
When thyristor is OFF, the voltage across
the load will be zero.

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
v0
V

Vdc

t
tON tOFF
i0

V/R
Idc
t
T

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Vdc Average value of output or load voltage.
I dc Average value of output or load current.
tON Time interval for which SCR conducts.
tOFF Time interval for which SCR is OFF.
T tON tOFF Period of switching or chopping period.
1
f Freq. of chopper switching or chopping freq.
T
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Average Output Voltage
tON
Vdc V
tON tOFF
tON
Vdc V V .d
T
tON
but d duty cycle
t
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Average Output Current
Vdc
I dc
R
V tON V
I dc d
R T R
RMS value of output voltage
tON
1 2
VO v dt
o
T 0

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
But during tON , vo V
Therefore RMS output voltage
tON
1 2
VO V dt
T 0

2
V tON
VO tON .V
T T
VO d .V
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Output power PO VO I O
VO
But IO
R
Output power
2
V O
PO
R
2
dV
PO
R
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Effective input resistance of chopper
V
Ri
I dc
R
Ri
d
The output voltage can be varied by
varying the duty cycle.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Methods Of Control
The output dc voltage can be varied by the
following methods.
Pulse width modulation control or
constant frequency operation.
Variable frequency control.

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Pulse Width Modulation
tON is varied keeping chopping frequency
f & chopping period T constant.
Output voltage is varied by varying the ON
time tON

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
V0
V

tON tOFF

t
T
V0

t
tON tOFF
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Variable Frequency Control
Chopping frequency f is varied keeping
either tON or tOFF constant.
To obtain full output voltage range,
frequency has to be varied over a wide
range.
This method produces harmonics in the
output and for large tOFF load current may
become discontinuous

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
v0
V

tON tOFF
t
T
v0

tON tOFF
t
T
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Step-down Chopper
With R-L Load

Chopper
i0
+
R

V V0
FWD L

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
When chopper is ON, supply is connected
across load.
Current flows from supply to load.
When chopper is OFF, load current
continues to flow in the same direction
through FWD due to energy stored in
inductor L.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Load current can be continuous or
discontinuous depending on the values of
L and duty cycle d
For a continuous current operation, load
current varies between two limits Imax and
Imin
When current becomes equal to Imax the
chopper is turned-off and it is turned-on
when current reduces
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
to Imin.
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v0
Output
voltage
V
tON tOFF
t
T
i0 Output
Imax current

Continuous
Imin current
t
i0 Output
current
Discontinuous
current
t
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Principle Of Step-up Chopper

I L D
+
+

L
C O VO
V A
D
Chopper

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Step-up chopper is used to obtain a load
voltage higher than the input voltage V.
The values of L and C are chosen
depending upon the requirement of output
voltage and current.
When the chopper is ON, the inductor L is
connected across the supply.
The inductor current I rises and the
inductor stores energy during the ON time
of the chopper, tON.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
When the chopper is off, the inductor
current I is forced to flow through the diode
D and load for a period, tOFF.
The current tends to decrease resulting in
reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L.
Therefore voltage across load is given by

dI
VO V L i.e., VO V
dt
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
A large capacitor C connected across the
load, will provide a continuous output
voltage .
Diode D prevents any current flow from
capacitor to the source.
Step up choppers are used for
regenerative braking of dc motors.

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression For Output Voltage
Assume the average inductor current to be
I during ON and OFF time of Chopper.
When Chopper is ON
Voltage across inductor L V
Therefore energy stored in inductor
= V .I .tON
Where tON ON period of chopper.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
When Chopper is OFF
(energy is supplied by inductor to load)
Voltage across L VO V
Energy supplied by inductor L VO V ItOFF
where tOFF OFF period of Chopper.
Neglecting losses, energy stored in inductor
L = energy supplied by inductor L

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
VItON VO V ItOFF
V tON tOFF
VO
tOFF
T
VO V
T tON
Where
T = Chopping period or period
of switching.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
T tON tOFF

1
VO V
tON
1
T
1
VO V
1 d
tON
Where d duty cyle
T
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
For variation of duty cycle ' d ' in the
range of 0 d 1 the output voltage VO
will vary in the range V VO

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Performance Parameters
The thyristor requires a certain minimum time to
turn ON and turn OFF.
Duty cycle d can be varied only between a min.
& max. value, limiting the min. and max. value
of the output voltage.
Ripple in the load current depends inversely on
the chopping frequency, f.
To reduce the load ripple current, frequency
should be as high as possible.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Classification Of Choppers
Choppers are classified as
Class A Chopper
Class B Chopper
Class C Chopper
Class D Chopper
Class E Chopper

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class A Chopper

i0 v0
+

Chopper
L
O v0 V
V A
FWD D

i0

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
When chopper is ON, supply voltage V is
connected across the load.
When chopper is OFF, vO = 0 and the load
current continues to flow in the same
direction through the FWD.
The average values of output voltage and
current are always positive.
Class A Chopper is a first quadrant
chopper . 53
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class A Chopper is a step-down chopper
in which power always flows form source
to load.
It is used to control the speed of dc motor.
The output current equations obtained in
step down chopper with R-L load can be
used to study the performance of Class A
Chopper.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
ig Thyristor
gate pulse

t
i0
Output current

CH ON
t
v0 FWD Conducts
Output voltage

t
tON
T
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class B Chopper

D
i0 v0
+
R

V L v0

Chopper
E i0

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
When chopper is ON, E drives a current
through L and R in a direction opposite to
that shown in figure.
During the ON period of the chopper, the
inductance L stores energy.
When Chopper is OFF, diode D conducts,
and part of the energy stored in inductor L
is returned to the supply.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Average output voltage is positive.
Average output current is negative.
Therefore Class B Chopper operates in
second quadrant.
In this chopper, power flows from load to
source.
Class B Chopper is used for regenerative
braking of dc motor.
Class B Chopper is a step-up chopper.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
ig
Thyristor
gate pulse

t
i0 tOFF tON

T
t
Output current
Imax
Imin
D
conducts Chopper
conducts
v0 Output voltage

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Expression for Output Current

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
During the interval diode 'D' conducts
voltage equation is given by
LdiO
V RiO E
dt
For the initial condition i.e.,
iO t I min at t 0
The solution of the above equation is obtained
along similar lines as in step-down chopper
with R-L load
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
R R
V E L
t
L
t
iO t 1 e I min e 0 t tOFF
R
At t tOFF iO t I max
R R
V E L
tOFF
L
tOFF
I max 1 e I min e
R
During the interval chopper is ON voltage
equation is given by
LdiO
0 RiO E
dt
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Redefining the time origin, at t 0 iO t I max
The solution for the stated initial condition is
R R
L
t E L
t
iO t I max e 1 e 0 t tON
R
At t tON iO t I min
R R
L
tON E L
tON
I min I max e 1 e
R
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class C Chopper

CH1 D1
i0 v0
+

V R

CH2 D2 L v0

Chopper
i0
E

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class C Chopper is a combination of Class
A and Class B Choppers.
For first quadrant operation, CH1 is ON or
D2 conducts.
For second quadrant operation, CH2 is
ON or D1 conducts.
When CH1 is ON, the load current is
positive.
The output voltage is equal to V & the
load receives power from the source.
When CH1 is turned OFF, energy stored
in inductance L forces current to flow
through the diode D 2
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
and the output 65
Current continues to flow in positive
direction.
When CH2 is triggered, the voltage E
forces current to flow in opposite direction
through L and CH2 .
The output voltage is zero.
On turning OFF CH2 , the energy stored in
the inductance drives current through
diode D1 and the supply
Output voltage is V, the input current
becomes negative and power flows from 66
Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Average output voltage is positive
Average output current can take both
positive and negative values.
Choppers CH1 & CH2 should not be turned
ON simultaneously as it would result in
short circuiting the supply.
Class C Chopper can be used both for dc
motor control and regenerative braking of
dc motor.
Class C Chopper can be used as a step-up
or step-down chopper.
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
ig1
Gate pulse
of CH1

t
ig2 Gate pulse
of CH2
t
i0
Output current

D1 CH1 D2 CH2 D1 CH1 D2 CH2


ON ON ON ON
V0
Output voltage

t
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class D Chopper

v0
CH1 D2

R i0 L E
V
+ v0 i0

D1 CH2

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class D is a two quadrant chopper.
When both CH1 and CH2 are triggered
simultaneously, the output voltage vO = V
and output current flows through the load.
When CH1 and CH2 are turned OFF, the
load current continues to flow in the same
direction through load, D1 and D2 , due to
the energy stored in the inductor L.
Output voltage vO = - V .
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Average load voltage is positive if chopper
ON time is more than the OFF time
Average output voltage becomes negative
if tON < tOFF .
Hence the direction of load current is
always positive but load voltage can be
positive or negative.

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
ig1
Gate pulse
of CH1

t
ig2 Gate pulse
of CH2
t
i0
Output current

t
CH1,CH2 D1,D2 Conducting
ON
v0
Output voltage
V
Average v0
t

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
ig1
Gate pulse
of CH1

t
ig2 Gate pulse
of CH2
t
i0
Output current

CH1
CH2
t
D1, D2
v0 Output voltage
V

t
Average v0

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Class E Chopper

CH1 D1 CH3 D3

i0 R L E
V
+
v0
CH2 D2 CH4 D4

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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT
Four Quadrant Operation
v0
CH2 - D4 Conducts CH1 - CH4 ON
D1 - D4 Conducts CH4 - D2 Conducts

i0

CH3 - CH2 ON D2 - D3 Conducts


CH2 - D4 Conducts CH4 - D2 Conducts
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Prof. T.K. Anantha Kumar, E&E Dept., MSRIT