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In oil exploration it is essential to be able to distinguish potentially productive areas in the rock
formation under investigation and to evaluate the quantity of hydrocarbons which may be present.
By Formation evaluation we mean the process of evaluating the petrophysical characteristics of a
reservoir. Formation evaluation employs a great variety of measurements and techniques, such as
Well Logs. These are to be considered as essential in the sense that they are registered in practically
every well and are directly usable by other associated discipline. By Well Logging we mean any
operation in which data relating to the formations being surveyed are recorded in relation to depth.
An individual reading is known as a Log.


The primary objective of Formation evaluation is, therefore, to determine the dimensions of a
reservoir, to quantity the amount of hydrocarbons present and to define the productive potential
zones. Formation Evaluation therefore presupposes that a reservoir has already been located and
defined by the drilling of a number of exploration wells. Formation Evaluation is the means of
obtaining data required for economic evaluation of the reservoir and for defining the best possible
production plan for it.


The methods employed by Formation Evaluation depend on the size of the problem and the
different stages of the exploratory survey. Different types of measurements are employed, among
which the most commonly used are:


The process of drilling a well can be schematically described as a drilling bit at the end of a string
of pipes, rotated from the surface at a speed which is normally from 50 to 150 revolutions per
minute. At the same time a weight of 10,000-40,000 pounds is applied to the drilling bit. The
combined action of these two factors crushes the rock. The resulting fragments, known as
CUTTINGS, are carried to surface by the drilling mud which is pumped down through the drilling
string, passes out of the bit into the well and rises to the surface in the space between the drilling
string and the wall of the well. The main product generated during the drilling phase is the master
log. It generally includes:

. Name of the customer or, in the case of a Joint Venture, the partners
. Name of the service company supplying geological assistance
. Type of drilling equipment and name of the contractor
. Well identification data
. Start date, end of drilling and release of equipment
. Final depth
. Key: all the symbols and abbreviations necessary for reading the master log
In the main part of the profile are, from left to right:

. data required for the evaluation of daily progress

. main characteristics of the mud, such as type, density, viscosity and salinity
. penetration rate of the bit, which depends not only on drilling parameters, but also on how easy
the rock is to drill through. The penetration rate depends on both the hardness of the rock and on its
resilience (which is an expression of the energy required to crush the rock). It is because of
differences in resilience that very hard rocks such as limestones or dolomites can be more easily
penetrated than other, softer rocks such as compact marls. For a given lithotype the ease of
penetration generally decreases with depth. By analysing the penetration rate it is possible to
identify, for example, lithological variations, areas of overpressure, karst cavities and strongly
fractured areas. The diagram for penetration speed against depth is all the more revealing, the more
the drilling parameters remain constant. In the master log the column for speed of penetration
shows the types of drilling bit used, their numbers, the diameter and average drilling parameters
(WOB = weight of bit; RPM = rotation per minute of the rotary table; FR = flow rate = flow
through the pumps).
. Calcimetry and dolometry. These analyses make it possible to distinguish between rock types
which contain carbonates of calcium and magnesium. To distinguish the limestones from the
dolomites use is made of the equations which express the reactions of these rock types to
hydrochloric acid, as follows:
CaCO3 + 2HCl = CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O
CaMg(CO3) + 4HCl = 2CO2 +CaCl2 +MgCl2 + 2H2O
From the quantity of CO2 produced it is possible to calculate the quantity of calcium carbonate or
magnesium carbonate in the rock.
. Percentage of lithological types. To obtain this percentage and then reconstruct the stratigraphic
series crossed, careful sampling of the drilling detritus is required.
. Fluorescence, which indicates the presence of oil, using the Wood lamp.
. Lithological column, obtained by taking into account all the elements which produced during
drilling (penetration; cuttings; special analyses such as petrographic and palaeontological analyses).
. Core and percentage recovery.
. Percentage of hydrocarbons, basically evidence of gas present in the mud.
. Signs of oil; in other words, presence of hydrocarbons visible to the naked eye.
. Columns. Notes on the type of casing and the positioning depth of the shoe.
. Observation columns, mainly reserved for lithological description.

However, other information also appears, such as:

. Brief description of cores taken
. geophysical logs carried out
. stratum tests
. brief descriptions of signs of oil
. measurements of well deviation (depth, inclination and azimuth)

Where the cuttings are concerned there is always an element of uncertainty about the depth, and the
samples are not accurate enough for petrophysical measurements. Some samples are lost, either due
to their small size (Silt) or because they dissolve in the mud (Salt). There are some problems
relating to falls from parts of the wall of the well drilled previously which fall to the bottom and
then return to the surface, causing errors in the lithostratigraphic reconstruction.


Another type of well log is a graph showing brief descriptions of sections of rock taken from the
bottom of the well during drilling (CORES) with reference to the depth or their characteristics
(porosity, permeability). Cores are an excellent source of information in that they are easily
localised in terms of depth and large enough to be analysed in the laboratory. However, since the
cost of obtaining and analysing them is very high this is only done in certain wells (key wells).
Measurements of porosity and permeability which can be obtained in the laboratory may, however,
be misleading as a result of damage undergone (poorly cemented sands) and the physical changes
undergone by the core on its way from the formation to the surface. Hydrocarbon saturation in the
reservoir cannot be obtained from the core, due to expulsion of part of the fluid contained in the
pores because of mud-flow through the core itself and to pressure reduction resulting from the
operation of extracting it. Another method of obtaining cores is used when a number of
supplementary samples is required after the well has been drilled and before installation of the
casing. This method requires use of equipment which cuts samples from the wall of the well

1.2c TESTS

Testing an interval of rock drilled means doing this in such a way that the pressure inside this
interval is higher than that in the well so that the fluids present in the formation can reach the
surface. The test not only demonstrates the existence of hydrocarbons, but also gives an indication
of the productive capacity of the reservoir. As a complement to the traditional tests, the RFTs allow
sampling of the fluids in the formation at different horizons in the well and supply information on
the reservoir pressure. These detailed pressure data may be used to define the contact between the
different fluids in the formation.


Since it is not possible to refer only to direct measurements (core, test, cutting) which still only
refer to intervals in the well, and as these measurements are incapable of supplying quantitative
data on hydrocarbon saturation, indirect measurements such as GEOPHYSICAL LOGS are
commonly used. Geophysical logs are the only method to supply continuous recording, referenced
to depth, of the basic petrophysical properties such as:
These petrophysical properties are calculated, by means of theoretical or experimental correlations,
from measurement of certain physical properties. Apart from quantitative evaluation, geophysical
logs are used for qualitative discrimination between strata impregnated with hydrocarbons and
strata with water, defining the contact between them. They are used to distinguish the permeable
strata from the clays and for correlation (giving indications of structural trends, thickness and
lateral extensions of the reservoir). From the decision-making point of view, the geophysical log is
the most important stage of the drilling and completion process and constitutes only about 5% of
the final cost of a well. In geophysical logging the physical characteristics of the formations
traversed are taken in situ using special instruments called PROBES or TOOLS and are
continuously recorded on the surface. It has become standard practice, at intervals during drilling,
to take geophysical logs in order to gain a complete picture of the formations being surveyed as
soon as possible. These readings are immediately useful for geological correlation of strata and
recognition of any productive horizons.
Geophysical logs can be taken in three time phases:
- During drilling, with special equipment attached to the drilling equipment. This method of
registration is known as LOGGING WHILE DRILLING (LWD).
- After each stage of drilling: this is called WIRE LINE LOGGING (WLL). This method makes use
of probes connected to a wire. Depending on whether the well is open or cased this is known as an
- During the production phase cased hole wire line logs are used.

Modern registration of a wire line log presupposes the presence of a sensor incorporated into a
probe along with its electronics, suspended in the well at the end of a multicore registration cable
which carries the signal to control and registration apparatus on the surface. As the cable is lowered
or raised by a winch, depth measurement and registration devices are activated. In general, a
distinction is made between Logging Survey (Service), Logging Tool (Equipment) and Log. The
Logging Survey is a service supplied to a client by a registration company. During the execution of
this service the company employs different Logging Tools which register different Logs in each of
which there are some curves. The Logging tool is, therefore, a cylindrical tube containing a number
of sensors with associated electronics which can be attached to the registration cable with a
particular head (Logging Head). The usual diameter of these devices is 3 5/8" and they are between
10 and 30 feet long. They can resist temperatures of 300-400 degrees Fahrenheit and pressures of
up to 20,000 psi. Over the course of the years the various types of equipment have been both
economically and technically improved so as to allow the simultaneous registration of a number of
parameters during a single descent into the well. The registrations (logs) are represented graphically
in diagrammatic form with depth on the y axis and the parameter measured on the x axis. The
diagram is usually 8.25" wide and is divided into three tracks, each of 2.5". Between the first and
the second track there is a space of 0.75" in which the depths are noted. Each track, which contains
one or more curves, is in the form of a grid which may be linear or logarithmic. The logarithmic
grid is used when there is a wide field of variation in the measurements. It is standard practice to
register the logs on two depth scales simultaneously: the correlation scale (1-1,000 or 1-500) and
the detailed scale (1-200). Since the tools have a number of sensors at different points along their
axis, their respective measurements have to be memorised and related to a common reference
depth. Thus the signal of the highest sensor in the tool has to be recorded until the signal of the
lowest sensor arrives at the reference depth. Despite this, among the different logs registered by the
same tool there are often differences in the depth positioning caused by the elasticity of the cable
and by the viscous forces acting on the tool. It must also be borne in mind that a certain interval at
the foot of the well (from 10' to 30') is not registered by all sensors due to the distance between the
point of measurement and the base of the combined probe. Another problem associated with depth
positioning occurs with different surveys registered by different descents into the well. The only
method of ensuring good control of depth positioning is correlation with a Repeat Section in a good
Marker level. All the logs registered after this must be positioned depth wise with reference to the
repeat section of the preceding Survey.


In wireline readings a special unit is anchored around 100-200 feet from the well. Two large
pulleys are mounted on the derrick. The registration cable, which is wound on a winch associated
with the registration unit, is made to pass over the pulleys and is hooked up to the Tool. This
system allows the equipment to be raised and lowered. Between the upper pulley and the elevator
there is a device which measures the force applied to the cable. The tension in the elevator is twice
that in the cable.


Each unit includes the following components:

. Registration cable
. Winch for raising and lowering the cable
. Auto generators
. Control panels at the surface
. Probes
. Registration mechanisms


Modern registration cables are of two types:

MONOCONDUCTORS, used for particular well completion services, such as casing and packer
positioning and for production logs as Flowmeters and temperature logs. The diameter is 1/4".
MULTICONDUCTORS, used for open hole logs, are composed of 7 individual insulated
conducting cables (2 for the power supply) surrounded by 2 spiral wound steel cables.


The cable ends in a particular HEAD which is attached to the tool, allowing contact with its
electronics. In the head is the so-called 'break-off point', which is a small cable which should break
at a given tension (normally 6,000 pounds). This system makes it possible to free the cable when
the equipment is irretrievably lodged in the well.


In recent years the major companies have substituted computerised systems for the old surface


The stages of a wireline operation are as follows:

- Connection of the probe to the cable (already described in the preceding paragraph)
- Surface checking and calibration
- Rapid descent to the foot of the well
- Calibration at the foot of the well
- Return to the surface and registration


Before registration begins, calibration of the sensors on the tool is fundamental. To understand the
concept of calibration we shall take a very simple sensor such as the well diameter measurement as
an example. An OFFSET variable resistor is regulated when the sensor is at the minimum level for
its field of measurement (a 6" ring) and a GAIN variable resistor is regulated when the sensor is at
its maximum level of measurement (12" ring). These two values (OFFSET and GAIN) are fed into
the computer to convert the acquisition data into calibrated data. There are three types of
calibration. The first is known as SHOP CALIBRATION and is the principal form of calibration.
The tool's response to a well-defined source whose characteristics do not vary over time (BLOCK)
is measured and it is calibrated to it. At the same time the same operation is carried out using a
source with the same characteristics which can be transported to the well head (JIG). BEFORE
SURVEY CALIBRATION means calibration carried out before the tool is lowered into the well,
where the tool's response to the source (Jig) is compared with the response of the same tool during
Shop Calibration and it is recalibrated if necessary. The AFTER SURVEY CALIBRATION is the
comparison between the equipment's measurements relative to the Jig before and after registration.


This is necessary, before starting registration, to check that the sensors are working correctly, as
when they were calibrated at the surface.


The speed of return to the surface is between 1,800-5,400 feet/hour, depending on the type of tool.

The representativity of geophysical logs is defined as:

. Vertical resolution
. Depth of investigation
. Sampling rate


The Vertical Resolution is the minimum thickness of a level in correspondence with which the
mean value of a physical parameter measured by the log at its central point is equal to the real
value. It is, therefore, the smallest thickness for which a representative reading may be obtained.
The vertical resolution is generally determined by the shape of the probe.


This is the mean radius around the probe which makes a significant contribution to the
measurement. The depth of investigation is also partly determined by the shape of the probe.


This is the interval between two successive measurements at different depths. The analogic log is
simply a curve which is interpolated from these two discrete measurements.

A reservoir can be schematically described in terms of matrix and pore space. The matrix of the
rock (the solid component) consists of grains mainly composed of sand, limestone, dolomite or a
mixture of these. Between the grains there is a space, known as the pore space, which is filled with
water, oil or, in some cases, gas. Water is present as a film around the grains and occupies even the
tiniest cavities, forming a continuous, often very tortuous, path through the rock. Oil occupies the
larger spaces in the pores. If gas is present it occupies the largest spaces, leaving the oil in the
intermediate spaces. The fundamental petrophysical properties of a reservoir in log analyses are:
Water saturation,
The first two determine the quantity of hydrocarbons present whilst the last one defines the means
of production.


Porosity means the percentage relationship between the pore volume and the total volume of the
rock. This relationship may be measured in the laboratory from cores or downhole using
geophysical logs.
Three main types of porosity are recognised:
. INTERCONNECTED, which uses multiple passages to link the different pores. The hydrocarbon
may be displaced by water.
. CONNECTED, where there is only one passage to connect one pore to another. The hydrocarbon
may not be displaced with water, but only by expansion due to changes of pressure.
. ISOLATED, where there is no connection between the pores. There may be trapped, non-mobile
The first two constitute Effective Porosity, so-called because the hydrocarbon may move about.
The relationship between effective porosity and total porosity is important because it defines the
permeability of a rock.

Porosity may be classed in two major categories, depending on origin:

PRIMARY, which is porosity formed during deposition of the lithotype and in turn
subdivided into Intergranular (present between the grains of a sediments, typical of sandstones) and
Intragranular (present inside the grains, typical of fossiliferous limestones).
SECONDARY, formed after the deposition of the lithotype and in turn subdivided into
Cavity (this develops where there is an interruption of the lithotype which is larger than the normal
pore space, typical of lagoon pelmicrites where dehydration effects cause contraction and curvature
of the layers), Intercrystalline (typical of secondary dolomitisation), by Solution (this concerns
Moldic) porosity typical of pellets or Cellular; this porosity cannot be interconnected) and, finally,
by Fracture.
Porosity, however, is continually evolving from the moment the sediment is deposited. This
evolutionary process is known as diagenesis.


A rock containing only sand or carbonate grains is defined in log analyses as 'clean'. If clay is
present, on the other hand, it is defined as 'dirty' or shaly.
The Clays are common constituents of sedimentary rocks. They are composed of very small
particles (from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the sands) and their surface area to volume ratio
is very high (100 to 10,000 times), so they can hold great quantities of non-mobile water which
renders log analysis more difficult.
Shale is a mixture of clay and Silt and has high porosity, but permeability is practically absent.
The following types of clay are distinguished, according to depositional criteria:

- Structural, with the deposition of clayey clastics which take the place of sandy ones (very rare)
- Dispersed, with partial substitution of the porosity and reduction of permeability.
- Laminated, of detrital origin.


As outlined previously, in a 'clean', sandy model the total porosity will be equal to the effective
porosity and the volume of the solid matrix will be simply given by the total volume minus the
porosity. Also in a sandy model with the presence of structural clay, the total porosity will be equal
to the effective porosity. The volume of the solid matrix will be the sum of the individual volumes
of the sand and the clay components. In a sandy model with dispersed clay the effective porosity
will be lower than the total porosity, by the volume of the clay itself. The volume of the solid
matrix will therefore be given only by the grains of sand. In a model with laminated clay the
effective porosity will be even less than the total porosity by the difference between the total
volume and the volume of the clay.


Porosity may be measured using various methods:

- Well gravimetry
- Geophysical logs
- Core analyses
Each method examines different volumes of the formation: the first method surveys large volumes,
of the order of 10*3 - 10*6 cubic feet; the second can analyse volumes of between 1 and 10 cubic
feet, whilst the last surveys smaller volumes of between 10*-3 and 10*-1 cubic feet.


Sediments are normally deposited in a watery environment, except for aeolian or wind-blown
sediments. Later, after the sediment has been buried, the hydrocarbon may migrate into it,
displacing the water from the larger pores. The fraction of the pores containing water is called
WATER SATURATION (Sw) and is expressed as the percentage relationship between the volume
of water and the pore volume.
Sw = Vw / Vp x 100
The remaining fraction, containing oil or gas, is called HYDROCARBON SATURATION (Sh).
Therefore, Sh = (1-Sw)
The migration of hydrocarbons does not displace all the interstitial water. There is still a portion of
the water which is held by surface tension on the surface of the grains or in the small cavities, and
which cannot be displaced. This water fraction is called IRREDUCIBLE SATURATION WATER

Whilst the porosity is a static property of the rock, the permeability is a dynamic property.
Permeability (K) is the measurement of the rock's capacity to make a fluid flow through it or,
rather, the measurement of the quantity of fluid which passes through a given area of rock
subjected to a specific pressure gradient. The permeability is defined by Darcy's Equation in terms
of Flow (Q, expressed in cc/sec), Area (A, expressed in cm2), Length (L, expressed in cm),
Differential Pressure (DP, expressed in atmospheres) and Fluid Viscosity (M, expressed in
centipoise) as:

K = Q M L/DP A

If only one fluid is present, this equation defines ABSOLUTE PERMEABILITY, in other words,
dependent only on the properties of the rock.
The unit of measurement of permeability is the Darcy, which expresses the capacity of a fluid of 1
centipoise of viscosity to flow at a speed of 1 centimetre per second with a differential pressure of 1
atmosphere per centimetre. Since most reservoirs have a permeability of less than 1 darcy the unit
of measurement used is the millidarcy (a thousandth of a darcy)


If only one fluid is present in a porous system, its flow will be regulated by Darcy's Law (absolute
permeability). If several fluids are present it is necessary to insert the concept of EFFECTIVE
PERMEABILITY. This is defined as the permeability of a fluid in relation to its relative quantity
(Saturation). So, for example, if in a two-phase oil-water system subjected to a pressure gradient
the oil and the water flow together, we have effective permeability to oil (Ko) which will be
defined by:

Ko = Qo Mo L/DP A
and to water Kw = Qw Mw L/DP A

and the total flow (QT = Qo + Qw) will be less than that for a single liquid. The two phases
interfere with one another.
To quantify this phenomenon we define the RELATIVE PERMEABILITY (Kr) which expresses
the relationship between the effective permeability of a rock to a given fluid phase and the absolute
Therefore the relative permeability to oil will be
Kro = Ko/K
and permeability to water will be
Krw = Kw/K


There are many methods of estimating permeability:

- Rise of pressure during the Test

- Rise and fall of pressure with RFT
- Analysis of Geophysical Logs
- Core Analyses
The different methods have a different survey radius. The Tests normally survey between 10*2-
10*4 feet, for pressure rises with RFT from 10-10*2 feet and 10*-2-10 feet for the falls. Analysis of
geophysical logs surveys between 1 and 5 feet whilst core analysis covers from .8 to 3 feet.
Some authors have sought a relationship between permeability and the measurements from
geophysical logs. These measurements belong to two categories, those carried out above the zone
of transition (see next paragraph) and those in the zone of transition.

The relationship between porosity and permeability is closely linked to lithotype. In general there
is a direct linear proportional relationship between the logarithm of the permeability and the
porosity, but the precise relations can only be defined by direct measurements from the core. In
certain reservoirs permeability is a vector. Depositional effects tend to align the grains along
preferred axes, increasing the permeability in this direction. In these types of reservoir, however,
horizontal and vertical permeability will differ greatly. In fractured reservoirs the permeability is
chiefly controlled by the number and orientation of the fractures.

Because of gravitational segregation gas accumulates above the oil and is in its turn above the
water. In the absence of rock, gas, oil and water would form distinct levels with clear contacts
between each phase. In the presence of a reservoir, on the other hand, these contacts are more
gradual. The reservoir can be divided into three main sections.
The top section is composed mainly of oil, the bottom one only of water, and the intermediate
section will have an Sw which increases with depth (Transitional Zone).
This phenomenon may be demonstrated experimentally with a small glass tube and a container of
water. A capillary tube of radius 'r' will sustain a column of water of height 'h'. If the air density is
Rhoa and that of the water is Rhow, the pressure difference at the air-water contact will be: (Rhow
- Rhoa). h. This pressure, which acts on the capillary cross section, is counterbalanced by a surface
tension 'T' of the water film on the internal circumference of the capillary tube. If at the water-glass
interface the angle of contact is , we have a condition of equilibrium expressed as follows:
2 rT cos = (Rhow - Rhoa) h r for which h = 2T cos/r (Rhow - Rhoa)
It is therefore evident that a decrease in the radius 'r' will increase the height 'h'.
Translating this laboratory observation into reservoir terms, it may be shown how water can rise
inside the oil zone (the air of the experiment) due to the capillary effect of small pores in the rock.
The maximum height to which the water can rise will therefore be determined by the following
. Surface tension between the phases
. Angle of contact between the saturating phases (generally water) and the rock
. Radius of the pores
. Density difference between the phases

Thus, reservoirs with large pores have a limited transitional zone and a transitional zone at the gas-
water contact will be more limited than for oil-water. In a system saturated with water the water
'soaks' the surface of the grains at the time of the hydrocarbon migration. In the reservoir the
capillary pressure resists the migration, particularly in the smaller pores, whilst the larger ones offer
less resistance to the migration. Thus the quantity of hydrocarbons present and therefore the Sw
will be a function of the pore dimensions.

The continuous accumulation of oil, which stretches from the top of the structure to the water table,
is known as the OIL COLUMN.
An oil column may be divided into three different zones:
- 100% oil production zone
- Transitional zone
- 100% water production zone
In the first zone the permeability to oil is much greater than that for water. The limits of this zone
are the top of the structure and the FREE OIL LEVEL, the limit above which only anhydrous oil is
produced. This level is on average defined at a Sw of 30%.
In the second zone both oil and water are produced. The limits of this zone are given by the free oil
level and point at which it is possible to start producing oil. (PRODUCTIVE OIL WATER
CONTACT). On average this level is defined at a Sw of 80%. Inside the transitional zone it is
possible to define an ECONOMIC OIL WATER CONTACT which corresponds to the level until
which it is possible to produce enough oil to make it economically worthwhile. This level is
generally around a Sw of 50%.
In the third zone the permeability to water is much greater than for oil and the oil saturation is
generally around 10%. The limits of this zone are the productive oil water contact and the FREE
WATER LEVEL, or the point where capillary pressure is zero and therefore the Sw is100%.
When speaking of the Oil Water Contact, then, it is necessary to be very clear what this refers to.
Often this term is used to identify the economic contact, and at other times the productive contact
area. This type of OWC may be defined by log analysis and from tests. Applying the capillary
pressure data (from cores), the Free Water Level is the only OWC which is not a function of the
rock type.

After drilling into a permeable formation a process of invasion generally occurs.

During drilling the pressure in the annulus (space between the string and the walls of the well) has
to be greater than the hydrostatic pressure in the pores of the formation (Pr) in order to prevent
blowouts. The pressure difference (Pm - Pr), usually a few hundred psi, forces the drilling fluid into
the formation. At the same time, the solid elements present in the mud are deposited on the surface
of the well, forming a layer (MUD CAKE). The liquid part which passes through the Mud Cake,
and which is known as MUD FILTRATE, enters the formation and displaces part of the fluid
present there, forming an INVADED ZONE next to the wall of the well.
The depth of penetration of the mud filtrate in a porous formation depends on a number of factors,
among which the main ones are the characteristics of the mud and the pressure difference between
the mud and the reservoir. Once the mud cake has started to form, its permeability becomes low
compared with that of the formation so that practically all of the pressure difference (Pm - Pr) is
applied to it and little to the formation. The mud cake therefore controls the filtration process.
However, after a certain time the same volume of fluid will invade in a different way, depending on
the porosity or permeability of the formation. The depth of invasion will be lowest for high porosity
and greatest for low porosity. The depth of invasion is roughly proportional to 1/ (with
porosity) and generally varies from a few inches to a few feet, with an average value of around 1-2
feet. Therefore, making a section through the well, as in fig. and moving outwards from the axis of
a logging tool towards the formation, we find:

- Drilling mud
- Mud cake
- Invaded zone
-Transitional zone
- Virgin zone

The invaded zone is important because it influences the readings of the logging tools and because it
is the part of the fluids which comes out first during a test. It is assumed that all the formation water
in this zone has been displaced and replaced with mud filtrate, whilst only a part of the hydrocarbon
present has been displaced. About 10-40% of the original hydrocarbon content usually remains in
the invaded zone. This quantity of hydrocarbons, known as Saturation with Residual Hydrocarbons
(Srh), will depend on the initial hydrocarbon content and on the contrast between the mobility of
the filtrate and of the hydrocarbon itself. Water displaces medium density oil more easily than it
displaces very viscous oil and light low viscosity gas. The water is thus able to penetrate.
In the transitional zone part of the water in the formation and the hydrocarbons are replaced by the
mud filtrate, but to a lesser extent than in the invaded zone. The transitional zone is initially very
close to the wall of the well and it gradually moves into the formation, following the process of
invasion. It takes a few days after drilling stops to reach a condition of equilibrium.
In extremely porous and permeable lithotypes there may be a vertical, gravitational segregation in
the process of lateral invasion. For example, low salinity filtrates which invade formations with
very salty water tend to rise to the top of the levels, whilst the water which invades an oil-bearing
formation will tend to fall below the oil.
Shales, due to their zero permeability, are not invaded and do not produce mud cake.
More often, the low salinity of the drilling mud causes a swelling of the clayey component, causing
cavity closure.

The quantity of hydrocarbons present in the pores of a rock may be derived from the measurements
of the formation's electrical resistance. There are many similarities between the flow of a fluid and
that of an electric current through a rock.


Ohm's Law states that the difference of potential (V, measured in volts) between two points of a
conductor is equal to the product of the flow of current in the conductor (I, measured in amperes)
times the resistance of the conductor itself (R, measured in Ohms).
In log analysis use of the RESISTIVITY is preferred to the resistance; this is the resistance of a
specific quantity of a substance. The resistivity, by definition, is the voltage required to pass one
ampere of current through a cube one metre square. The unit of measurement of resistivity is the
ohm-metre/metre (abbreviated as ohmm). Why choose the resistivity instead of the resistance?
Because the resistance is a function not only of the resistivity measured, but also of the geometry of
the material in which it is measured. We shall see how this law is applied in log analysis to
calculate the saturation with water.
Let us imagine a cube one metre square which has only two opposing conductive faces and is open
at the top. It is then filled with water containing a certain quantity of sodium chloride (e.g. 10%).
A low-frequency voltage V is then applied through the two conducting faces (which function as
electrodes) and the resulting current I1 is measured. The relationship V/I1 will therefore be a
specific resistivity for the water contained in the cube, which will be referred to as Rw1.
The salinity of the water is then increased by adding more salt and the same voltage is applied. The
resulting current I2 is then measured. I2 will be greater than I1 and therefore Rw1 will be greater
than Rw2.
If the temperature inside the cube is then varied and the current is measured again with the same
voltage applied, the result is that I3 will be higher than I2 and therefore Rw2 will be greater than
This means that the resistivity is an intrinsic property of the water and is a function of its salinity
and temperature.
In log analysis the resistivity of the water in the formation is denoted by the symbol Rw.

Let us return to our experiment. The cube is filled with sand and the volume of water expelled is
measured. Let us imagine that, for example, 0.6 cubic metres of water are measured. We will
therefore have obtained, experimentally, the equivalent of a rocky lithotype with a porosity of 40%
for water. If the voltage is then applied again and the new current I4 is measured, it will be less than
all those measured previously. The relationship V/I4 which we shall call Ro will therefore be
greater than the Rw measured previously because the electrical conductivity is a function only of
the presence of the ions in the water in the communicating pores.
In log analysis the resistance of a water bearing formation is denoted by the symbol Ro.


The resistivity of a water bearing formation Ro will therefore be proportional to the resistivity of
the water which saturates it, Rw.
Ro = F . Rw
This constant of proportionality is known as the Formation Factor and is denoted in log analyses by
F. As a general principle it is clear that F must depend on the porosity with a formula:
F = 1/
In fact when the porosity equals 100% (only water without the matrix) Ro must equal Rw, whilst
when is zero Ro must be infinite, since the rock does not conduct electricity on its own.
Archie (1942) explained this relationship, taking numerous cores of differing porosity and
saturating them with different brines. For each type of brine he measured an Rw and the respective
Ro for the different samples. The results of the measurements, on cartesian axes, will demonstrate
the validity of the expressions above. The laboratory measurements demonstrated in particular that
F is linked to the porosity of a rock from an equation of the type F = a / m where 'a' and 'm' are
constants close to one and two respectively.
This exponent m is known as the Cementation Exponent in log analysis and reflects the
tortuousness of the current flow through the pores. In an ideal case in which the pores were
cylindrical tubes the current would flow in a straight, linear fashion and m would be equal to 1. In
reality porous formations display an average m value of around 2.
The equations generally used in log analyses are:
F = 1/2 for limestones
F = .81/2 for sands
where the constants 1 and .81 are known as Cementation Factors and are denoted by a in a more
general formula.


We return once again to our experiment with the cube. Oil is poured in and a new current I5,
generated from the same voltage, is measured. I5 will be less than I4, since the oil, which does not
conduct, has been substituted for part of the water which alone contributes to the electrical
conductivity. Therefore the relationship V/I5, which will be denoted by Rt, will be greater than Ro.
The resistivity of a formation is denoted in log analyses by the symbol Rt.


If Ro and Rt are known, this means that it is possible to calculate the fraction of the pores which
contain water, the Saturation with Water. These two quantities are in fact related by the expression
Rt = Ro/Swn
If the saturation with water equals 1 (indicating that there is only water in the pores) Rt will equal
Ro, whilst if Sw equalled zero (only oil in the pores, if this were possible) Rt would be infinite.
Archie's experiment showed that the relationship between the measured resistivity of a rock at
different degrees of saturation with water and the corresponding value of the same rock completely
saturated with water was related to the Sw of an exponent n called the Saturation Exponent, which
experimentally was equal to two in the majority of cases, a function of the wettability.
Thus, the relationship Sw = Ro/Rt or better Sw = FRw/Rt may be used as an initial approach
for calculation of the saturation with water in a mineralised formation with hydrocarbons.
The entire well logging industry was constructed on this equation. The bases of geophysical logging
start, therefore, from the measurement of the electrical resistivity of the formation compared with
that which would exist if the formation were completely saturated with water. If this resistivity Rt is
higher than that calculated (Ro), the presence of hydrocarbons is inferred.

Three logs are essentially required for adequate formation evaluation:

1) A log which shows the permeable zones
2) A log which registers the resistivity of the formation
3) A log which defines the porosity
All logs which give information of the first type are known as 'lithological'.
Logs which give information of the second type are known as 'Resistivity', whilst those of the third
type are 'Porosity' logs.
By means of this group of logs it is possible to define the whereabouts of potentially productive
zones and say how much hydrocarbon they contain.

As we have already seen, evaluation of the fundamental petrophysical parameters (Porosity, Sw, K)
in well logging derives from the survey of certain physical properties of a rock using specialised


Measurement of Saturation with Fluids requires knowledge of the formation's resistivity value, but
due to mud filtrate invasion phenomena, it is necessary to have measuring instruments which can
read at different depths. Immediately behind the wall of the well there will be a flushed zone
containing almost exclusively mud filtrate, with its own resistivity (Rmf) which differs from that of
the water in the formation and that of any residual hydrocarbons. The resistivity of this zone is
denoted by the symbol Rxo and the saturation by Sxo. This zone is about 6" thick, but may be more
or less than this. Behind this is a transitional zone which may extend for several feet (difficult to
quantify) and finally there is the undisturbed zone with resistivity Rt and saturation Sw. For this the
industry has standardised the registration of at least three resistivity curves at the same time (Deep,
Medium, Shallow). Using these curves it is possible to correct the depth of the invasion, taking an
invasion profile of the 'step' type. In reality the transitional zone exhibits a resistivity value
gradually varying from Rxo to Rt. Tests and laboratory measurements have, however, shown that
correction of the Rt using a step profile criterion is sufficiently adapted. There are, however, special
conditions, with very porous formations and high hydrocarbon saturation, where the filtrate
displaces the hydrocarbon more quickly than the interstitial water. This creates a ring or annulus
where the resistivity is temporarily (a few days) lower both for Rxo and Rt.


A second group of measurements is those related to porosity and includes:



A final group of measurements comprises those which are essentially linked to lithology, in that
they allow recognition of permeable and potentially productive strata and comprise:

Independently of the moment and the way in which they are registered, all geophysical logs are
based on the measurement of the physical parameters referred to above.

When analysing geophysical logs the first stage is to differentiate between the permeable and the
impermeable zones. The logs which allow this discrimination to be made are always registered in
the trace on the left.


The spontaneous potential or SP was one of the first log measurements ever produced and is still
used, not only as an indicator of permeability, but also of lithology and porosity and for
correlations. The spontaneous potential may also be used to derive measurements of Rw (at present
no longer used).
The SP is registered simply by suspending an electrode in the well and measuring the difference of
potential between this electrode and another on the surface. Since the electrode on the surface has
fixed potential (it does not move) only the variations in potential in the well are registered.
The conditions governing generation of spontaneous potential are:

. Presence of a succession of permeable and shaly strata.

. Presence of conducting mud (no cased hole, no mud with oil).
Under these conditions electrochemical activity develops in the clay-mud-water contact zones of
the formation which generate currents which flow along closed circuits. The resulting potential
gives rise to 4 different electrical potentials; two of the electrochemical type and two of the
electrokinetic type, the latter two being of opposing polarity and negligible.
One form of electrochemical potential is known as membrane potential and is generated through
impermeable shale at the interface with the permeable stratum and with the well.
The other form of electrochemical potential takes the name liquid junction potential and is present
through the transition between the invaded zone and the undisturbed zone inside a permeable
The sum of the two electrochemical potentials generates an electromotive force which generates
current. The membrane potential may be demonstrated with a semi-permeable membrane which
separates two fluids with different salt concentrations. The clay, which has a negative charge,
behaves selectively, attracting positive ions and repelling the negative ones. If the water in the
formation has a higher salt content than the mud a negative charge is produced at the clay-
formation contact and a positive charge at the clay-mud contact. The size of this potential is a
function of the ionic activity of the two solutions and therefore of their resistivity. Thus, the
potential of a sodium chloride solution at 77F is = -59.1 log (Rmfe/Rwe)
In the case of contact between two liquids at different salt concentrations there is a migration of
ions towards the fluid with the lower concentration. But the sodium ion is larger and has a strong
affinity with the water molecule, so the chlorine ions move more quickly. This is why there is a
negative charge in the mud and positive charge in the formation. Thus, the junction potential of a
solution of sodium chloride at 77F is = -11.5 log (Rmfe/Rwe)
The total potential will be = -(61 + 0.13T) log (Rmfe/Rwe) and is defined as Static (SSP).
Therefore, in the case of clay which is distant from a permeable zone there will be no currents and
the potential will be constant. Correspondingly, in a porous stratum, when the salinity of the mud
filtrate is lower than that of the connate water (Rmfe > Rwe), the potential will be negative and the
curve will bend towards the left. With the salinity inverted (Rmfe < Rwe) the curve will bend
towards the right.
Obviously there will be no development of SP if the salinity of the filtrate and of the connate water
are equal (Rmfe = Rwe).

As outlined above, where there is a clayey bed at a distance from a permeable bed the potential
will be constant. Nearer the contact the instrument will register current and therefore the curve will
be deflected, with respect to its value measured in the clays, to the left or right depending on the
polarity (contrast in resistivity between mud and the connate water). At exactly the height of the
contact the current flow reaches its maximum, so the variation in potential per unit of length and,
thus, the gradient of the curve, will reach a maximum. Beyond the contact the density of the current
decreases gradually to zero. If the permeable stratum is thick enough the potential measured will be
very close to the static potential. The form of the curve at the contact and the vertical resolution
depend on the distribution of current flow at the contact which is a complicated function of the
relative resistivity of mud, permeable beds (invaded portion and undisturbed zone) and clays and, to
a lesser extent, the diameter of the well and the depth of the invasion. The principle is that the
current seeks the paths of lowest resistance and therefore lines of current will be distributed
towards the point where the resistance of the formation is negligible in comparison with the
resistance of the well (which increases in linear fashion with the length of the current path in the
mud). Thus, when the relationship between resistivity of the formation and the mud is high, the
current will disperse in a broad pattern. We will have a long current flow in the well and the
contacts between levels will be poorly defined. On the contrary if the contrast is low the contacts
will be better defined. In general the contact between levels will be opposite the points of inflection
in the curve and the vertical resolution (thickness required for the SP to reach 80% of the SSP
value) is given by
h = Rxo/Rm
and with a coarser approximation by
h = 1/
The SP curve, therefore, gives a good picture of the stratum limits in very porous sandy clay
sequences, but its resolution is very poor in cemented levels.


To obtain measurements of Rw from SP it is enough to apply the fundamental equation with the
values read for the difference in a sufficiently thick, non-clayey, aquifer level and the clay itself. In
reality this equation does not satisfactorily explain the electrochemical behaviour of a saline
solution. In effect, the development of the potential is governed by the relative activity in the
solutions concerned, that is, in the water in the formation and the mud filtrate. The resistivities are
only approximately proportional to the reciprocal of the activity and only at low salinities. For this
reason equivalent resistivities are used, which can be converted into effective resistivity using
nomographs. Considering all the uncertainties involved in this method, the probable error in
estimation of Resistivity for the water in the formation may vary between + 10% and 20%. The
error may be greater if the water contains a significant percentage of non-sodium chloride salts
(particularly Calcium and Magnesium).


In clayey sands, finely laminated or with dispersed clay, an internal membrane potential is created
which is opposed to that which develops in the adjacent clays. This reduces the static potential to
what is called Pseudo-Static Potential (PSP). In the case where these clayey laminations have the
same resistivity as the sandy laminations the percentage reduction in the SSP will equal the
percentage volume of clay present. In the case where the sands are substantially more resistive than
the clays the percentage reduction in SSP will be larger than the percentage of clay. Given that
these premises are accurate, the SP curve may be used as an indicator of the clay content in the
following form:
Vsh = SP - SP(sd)/ SP(sh) - SP(sd)


. Oil-bearing sands do not allow development of spontaneous potential.

. The clay content reduces the development of spontaneous potential, with the result that the curve
registered may be used as an indicator of clay content.
. The presence of hydrocarbons reduces the spontaneous potential.
. If the mud column is not balanced with the differential pressure in the formation this may generate
streaming potential which increases the spontaneous potential. This effect may be noted in depleted
. In compact formations with high resistivity the definition of spontaneous potential is very limited.
. The thickness of the levels may drastically influence the measurement of spontaneous potential.
Generally speaking, there is a greater reduction in SP in the thin levels where the relationship
Rx0/Rm is high and where the invasion is deep.
. The use of drilling muds other than those with a sodium chloride base (KCl, for example) may
influence evaluation of the Rw.


This is a nuclear measurement in that it measures the natural radioactivity of formations and has
been in use since 1940. In nature there are elements which spontaneously emit gamma rays, such as
the isotopes Uranium235 and 238, Thorium232 and Potassium40. It will be recalled that each type of
radioactive decay is characterised by a gamma ray of a specific energy (1.46 Mev for K40; 2.62
Mev for Th232; 1.76 Mev for U238) with a different decay time. These elements are particularly
concentrated in clays, but also in silts and in volcanic rocks. The gamma rays are registered by a
scintillation detector (Sodium iodide crystal) which translates them into electrical pulses. The
parameter registered is the number of pulses per unit of time. The log is always present in the left-
hand track with a linear grid and the scale is in API units which correspond to 1/200 of the response
generated by a standard calibration. The apparatus is a cylinder 24 feet long and 4 feet in diameter
which contains a central 8 foot section composed of a mixed cement of 13 ppm of uranium, 24 ppm
of thorium and 4% of potassium. This central section is enclosed in 8 feet of Portland cement
sheathed in a J55 5 1/2 inch steel tube. The calibration at the well is carried out with a Jig placed at
the centre of the gamma detector which produces an increase in the background radiation count of a
definite number of API units in accordance with the type of instrument. The gamma ray log is used
for four basic purposes:

. Correlation and definition of the contacts between levels.

. Evaluation of the clay content of a formation.
. Mineralogical analysis.
. To check the drilling depth in tests and in tracing moving radioactive fluids.

Since the gamma rays pass through the steel, the gamma ray log may also be registered in a cased
well. The depth of penetration of the instrument varies on average between 6 and 12 inches, being
higher at low than at high densities. The log is calibrated under 8" well conditions, with mud at 10
lb and a 3 5/8" tool off-centre in the well. Only under these conditions does the log not require the
use of corrections, which would otherwise be made using nomographs. The correction factors are,
however, modest and may be ignored in a manual interpretation (except when interpreting clay
content in the presence of major cavities and very heavy muds).


The gamma ray log, like all nuclear logs, never repeats exactly, owing to statistical fluctuations
due to the nature of the nuclear emission processes themselves. The number of occurrences of
gamma rays in a given time interval will always differ from that for a subsequent time interval of
the same length, even with the tool stationary. This difference will be small with the time period
which allows registration of a sufficiently large number of pulses. The percentage measurement of
this fluctuation may be given by the expression 100/n, with 'n' representing the average number of
pulses in the period of measurement. Statistical fluctuations may be reduced by increasing the time
constant which, however, would involve less vertical resolution without a drastic reduction in the
speed of ascent of the tool. At present the gamma log is registered at a speed of ascent of 1,800
ft/hr with a time constant of 2 seconds.


Since the radioactive minerals which generate gamma rays are mainly concentrated in the clay
minerals, this log is used to evaluate the clay content. This means scaling the log, between its
minimum and maximum values, between 0% and 100% of clay. A linear clay content index is
thereby defined, expressed by the following equation:

Vsh = GR - GRmin/GRmax - GRmin

A number of studies have shown that this is not the best method and therefore alternative equations
have been suggested. Taking X to be the linear clay content index, the following equations may
also be used:

CLAVIER : Vsh= 1.7 - (3.38 - (X + 0.7)2)1/2

STEIBER : Vsh= 0.5 X/ (1.5 - X)
BATEMAN : Vsh= X(X + GRfactor) GRfactor+ number which stands for the
Steiber and Clavier equations


The idea of this tool is to distinguish the three main gamma ray emitters by their energies and
thereby break down the overall GAMMA RAY log measurements into their relative concentrations
of Thorium, Potassium and Uranium. The method employed is that of counting the number of
gamma ray occurrences in terms of energy groups, in other words, evaluating the spectrum. The
different service company generated new version of this tool with:
- Best repeatability at higher registration speeds
- Reduced environmental effects and real-time correction of the remaining effects
- Estimation of the well's potassium contribution to the overall total

These new tools comprise new gamma ray detection using two Bismuth Germanium (BGO)
scintillation counters which can function in temperatures of up to 260 C. This tool has twice the
statistical precision of the previous one.

Before arriving at the detector the gamma rays originating from the terrain have to pass through the
mud where they undergo a diminution. For normal muds this diminution is essentially a function of
the electronic density of the mud which can be referred in a linear way to its weight. If barite is
used, there will be an extra diminution (photoelectric effect) which varies in accordance with the
energy of the gamma rays themselves. It will be strong at low energies and negligible at high
energies (over 500 KeV). The new tool makes it possible to analyse gamma rays in a high energy
field and is therefore less sensitive to the presence of barite in the mud.


New tools can estimate the presence of potassium in the mud, distinguishing between the signal
coming from near the detector (due to the mud) and that from further away (formation).


The caliper is a special tool. It has one or more arms which are opened when the tool is in the well,
until they touch the walls of the well. In this way it is possible to measure the real size and shape of
the well. The caliper is generally shown in the left track along with the lithological logs, since it can
be used to distinguish between permeable and impermeable levels. The presence of permeable
strata, which normally produce mud cake, may be indicated by a slight decrease in the diameter of
the hole. The presence of clayey layers, on the other hand, which frequently collapse, is shown by
an increase in the diameter of the hole. A special use of the caliper comes from the particular tools,
which allow quantification of the volume of cement required based on the actual size and shape of
the well.

As outlined above, the basic equation for log analyses is that which expresses the water saturation
as a function of the resistivity, or Sw = c Rw/Rt /
The most important input in this equation is the resistivity of the undisturbed zone (Rt), but no tool
can give such a deep reading as to guarantee the measurement of this parameter under any possible
condition of invasion and with sufficient vertical resolution. This is why tools capable of reading at
different depths in the formation under investigation were produced and perfected.
Using these different measurements and assuming a step-type invasion profile, corrections can be
applied to the deepest reading to obtain the most accurate value for Rt.
In general, we can state that a tool will be able to read an acceptable measurement for Rt, unless:
- Rt/Rm is greater than 10
- Rt/Rs is greater than 10
- Hole Size is greater than 12 inches
- Levels are less than 15 feet thick
- Invasion is greater than 40 inches
The first tool for measuring the resistivity downhole, which was developed by modifying a method
of measurement used at the surface for geological purposes and for surveying for metals, consisted
of electrodes for current input and electrodes for measuring potential and had its theoretical basis in
Ohm's Law. If, in an infinite and isotropic medium, a spherical electrode which inputs current is
attached, this current will be distributed radially in a spherical manner. According to Ohm's Law
the fall in potential between two concentric spheres of radius X and X+dX will be given by:
dV = I dr
where dr is the resistance between the two spheres.
Transforming the equation in terms of resistivity and integrating between points A (surface of the
electrode) and M (equipotential surfaces at distance X from the electrode) we find that the potential
in M will be given by:
VM = I R/4 AM

which means that the voltage measured at a certain distance M from the electrode of current A will
be a function of the resistivity of the medium and of the shape of the tool (distance AM). This
equation expresses an ideal case with a homogeneous, infinite, isotropic medium, which does not
correspond to the operating conditions for the tool (presence of the hole and formations which are
not infinite or homogeneous).


For the reasons referred to above, tools for measuring resistivity have been continuously altered and
improved over the last fifty years. They may first be classified in terms of their radius of
investigation, distinguishing between deep, medium, shallow and flushed zone. All the deep,
medium and shallow measurements are obtained with electrodes or coils mounted on metal
cylinders more or less centrally positioned in the well: these instruments are known as
MACRORESISTIVITY tools. The flushed zone measurements are obtained using electrodes
mounted on blocks forced against the wall of the well and the instruments are known as
Another means of classification is based on the functioning of the current emitters, which allows us
to distinguish three large groups of resistivity tools:

- Tools with simple electrodes (Normal and Lateral), now obsolete.

- Tools with focused electrodes (Laterolog, Spherical and Microspherical)
- Inductive tools (Induction)

A further recent tool, the DIELECTRIC tool, the functioning of which is based on the propagation
of electromagnetic waves, may be included in this classification although it does not measure
resistivity directly, since its main aim is to determine the fluid saturation in the formation.


Prior to 1950 all instruments for measuring resistivity were composed of simple electrodes (Normal
and Lateral). A current of constant intensity was emitted from an electrode A and returned to an
electrode B. The voltage between 2 electrodes M and N was measured and the ratio between this
voltage and the current (V/I), multiplied by a constant depending on the spacing of the electrodes,
gave a value for Resistivity. The vertical resolution of these tools was around 1.5 times the spacing
of the electrodes, as the depth of investigation was directly proportional to the spacing. The main
problem with this type of tool was that the direction of propagation of the current could not be
controlled, so it followed the paths of least resistance such as conductive mud or more conductive
layers behind a resistive layer at the height of the probe. The only macrodevice to have survived is
an instrument called the ULSEL (Ultra Long Spacing Electric Log) which is a Normal device with
an AM spacing of between 100 and 1,000 feet. It is used to control a well from another well
(blowout control) or in searching for resistivity anomalies, such as salt domes.


In the nineteen-fifties, the first tools with electrodes were superseded by focused tools, where the
current distribution could be controlled. The focusing minimised the effect of the well and of the
adjacent strata and supplied more depth of investigation and better vertical resolution. The first
major system which replaced ES survey was the combination of an induction tool and a Short
Normal. This combination was called IES. The tool was originally developed to measure the
resistivity in the case of wells which contained non-conductive fluids (mud with oil) where the
devices with electrodes did not work. Subsequent experience showed that induction had an
advantage over logs with conventional electrodes for muds with low salinity water and in high or
medium porosities. In the years that followed, the IES combination was replaced with the ISF,
where the Short Normal was replaced with another focused device, the Spherical Focused. The
mid-Sixties saw the introduction of the Dual Induction tool which allowed a medium and a deep
reading with which a focused, shallow reading with electrodes (DIL) was combined.


The probe, formed of two sets of coils set in glass fibre housings (normally 6 or more coils spaced
about 40" between the main transmitter-receivers are used), may be represented as if consisting of
only two coils: one a transmitter and the other a receiver. An oscillator sends a high frequency
alternating current of constant intensity to the transmitter coil, thus creating a variable magnetic
field which induces Foucault currents in the formation around the well. These currents, which flow
along annular paths within the formation, coaxially with regard to the transmitter coil, give rise in
their turn to a magnetic field which induces a difference of potential in the receiver coil. Since the
current emitted by the transmitter is of constant frequency and amplitude, the currents induced in
the formation are directly proportional to the conductivity of the formation. The difference of
potential at the receiver is proportional to the currents circulating in the formation and therefore to
the conductivity of the formation.

The geometrically integrated factor of an instrument is the relative weight that the instrument
assigns to cylindrical surfaces of the apparatus which surround the probe starting from its surface.
Each cylindrical surface of the tool contributes to the total conductivity of the signal in relation to
the product of its own conductivity and its relative weight. The following expression may
exemplify the concept (overcoming the well effect)
Ca = Cxo Gdi + Ct(1-Gdi)
where Cxo is the conductivity of the invaded zone
di is the diameter of the invaded zone
Ct id the conductivity of the undisturbed zone
Gdi is the geometric factor relative to the zone of invasion
To minimise the terms for the mud, a focused signal employing more coils is used for the invaded
zone and the adjacent strata. The response of a probe with a number of coils is obtained by
considering all the possible combinations of two-coil transmitter-receiver pairs. The response of
each pair of coils is looked at and evaluated with attention to the algebric expression of their
contributions and relative positions.

11.1.b.3 SKIN EFFECT

The error in the reading for Rt, which may be mathematically derived by applying the expression
given above, is often much greater in the presence of very conductive muds. In fact, in very
conductive formations the induced currents are of high intensity and, therefore, so too are the
induced magnetic fields. These magnetic fields induce additional electromotive forces in other
annuli of the formation which are out of phase with respect to those induced by the transmitter coil.
This interaction causes a reduction of the signal registered. This reduction is called the SKIN
EFFECT. Induction logs are automatically corrected for this effect.

11.1.b.4 WELL EFFECT

The fluids contained in the well make a negative contribution to the final response of the tool. This
contribution may be minimal in the case of non-saline muds, with small well diameters or with very
conductive formations. A correction for the well effect may be made using charts.


The vertical resolution of the induction log is about 4 feet (coil spacing). There is, however, a
contribution from the adjacent strata even more than 4 feet from the section opposite the tool. This
contribution may be negligible, but becomes important with compact rocks where the beds adjacent
to those being measured are more conductive.

11.1.b.6 PROBE ERROR

If the induction probe is raised in air, putting a non-conductive material nearby, it nonetheless
registers a small signal due to the residual coupling between transmitter and receiver.
This is known as Probe Error. Normally this contribution is compensated for before the start of
registration. It is, however, not certain that this error remains constant inside the well under
different temperature and pressure conditions.

The calibration system is implemented in two stages. First the tool is suspended above ground,
distant from conducting materials, and is calibrated for a conductivity reading equal to zero. Then a
small circular ring of known conductivity (1 or 2 ohmm) is placed around the instrument and the
response of the tool is calibrated to this new measurement. With these two points of extreme
conductivity the tool is now capable of taking measurements over a sufficiently wide field of
resistivity. To check the response of the tool in the well a T.D. measurement is taken with an
internal calibrator which is checked every month against the value of the ring used for the primary


This induction tool can operate at frequencies of 10 KHz, 20 KHz and 40 KHz. The lower
frequency reduces the skin effect in formations with very low resistivity, whilst the higher
frequency supplies more accurate measurements in high resistivity formations. This instrument,
which also measures the difference in potential induced by the magnetic field generated by the
transmitter coil, is more precise in its correction of the skin effect and improves the response in the
presence of thin strata.


The AIT (Schlumberger mark) instrument can be described as example of the family of the array
induction tools. It differs substantially from its predecessors in that it measures conductivity in the
formation as a function of the distance from the well. It employs eight coils which operate at
multiple frequencies and software which allows it to generate a series of resistivity logs with
progressive investigation depths. The instrument's potential is summed up in the following points;
. It generates 5 resistivity logs with vertical resolution and progressive radial investigation from 10
to 90 inches.
. It gives conductivity curves corrected for environmental effects.
. It supplies a two-dimensional quantitative image of the resistivity of the formation.
. It makes it possible to obtain two-dimensional quantitative information on water saturation.

11.1.b.9.a DESCRIPTION

The probe contains 8 mutually balanced arrays with variable spacing of from a few inches to a few
feet. A single transmitter operates on three frequencies simultaneously and the combination of
receivers generates 28 induction measurements corrected for the well, which are combined in such
a way as to obtain a set of 5 logs acquired over a depth interval of 3 inches. The average depth of
investigation of these five curves is 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 inches from the centre of the well and
remains constant in a wide range of measured resistivities.
The first set of logs has a vertical resolution of 1 foot. Two alternatives may be obtained, with
vertical resolution of 2 feet (similar to the Phasor) and 4 feet (similar to the classic Induction tool).
The calibration is carried out as for the tools mentioned above, with a set of rings, and the tool is
also self-calibrated during registration.


The median depth of investigation is defined as the 50% point in the radial response function. In
the AIT this point remains basically constant, whilst in the preceding tools it only had a nominal
value (60" doe the deep and 30" for the medium Induction) of the depth of investigation.


In the presence of invasion the Rt must be derived from the combination of logs which read at
different radial depths using a technique of inversion. The method used for the standard tools is an
interpolation between points following a step profile model with parameters Rxo, di and Rt. With
the 5 logs from the AIT it is possible to use a more realistic model of four parameters (the
transitional zone is considered).


The focusing consists of associating the classic current input electrodes with other bucking
electrodes which generate current in such a way as to direct and contain the input of current into a
precise, orientated section of the formation. The first instrument in commercial use, the Laterolog
7 (medium depth of investigation) used small containment electrodes. The resistivity of the
formation was obtained by monitoring the voltage required to maintain the input current at a fixed
value Io. Following this a laterolog 3 was marketed (medium depth of investigation) which used
long containment electrodes, where the measurement of resistivity in the formation was
extrapolated from variations in the intensity of the current maintaining a constant voltage at the
measurement electrode. The width of the central current electrode (between 1 and 12 inches)
determined the vertical resolution, whilst the length of the containment electrodes (between 2.5 and
5 feet) and the proximity of the point of return of the service current defined the depth of the
investigation. The instrument in use at present is a Dual Laterolog which is a hybrid of the first two
in that it uses a constant product of current and voltage and was commercialised in the nineteen-


The laterolog is advisable when there are the following conditions:

- Salty mud
- Rmf/Rw ratio of less than 3
- Well diameter less than 16 inches

In any case the laterolog is better than the induction log when the resistivity is more than 150 ohmm
and when the beds are thinner than 10 feet.


The main part of the tool is composed of 9 electrodes which give a deep and a shallow
measurement of resistivity. The deep measurement is obtained at 35 Hz, whilst the shallow is at
280 Hz. The deep measurement uses a long current electrode (28 feet) with a return current
electrode on the surface, whilst the shallow one uses a return electrode very close to the emitter
one. The vertical resolution for both the curves is 24 inches. A focused microdevice (MSFL) may
be registered at the base of the tool so as to obtain a caliper as well and centralise the instrument.


The current produced by the instrument is radially propagated through the mud, the invaded zone
and so to the undisturbed zone before returning to the return electrode. The current, if kept
constant, thus develops a series of falls in voltage through any obstacle it encounters. Every fall in
voltage is proportional to the product of the current, the resistivity of the zone and geometrical
constants in relation to the size of the zones. The relative value that each device assigns to the
invaded zone is defined as a pseudogeometric factor J. It is known as pseudo because the value is
defined from the relative resistivities of the invaded zone and undisturbed zone as well as the
diameter of the invasion. The invaded zone and the undisturbed zone contribute to the measurement
of the resistivity read by the tool as a product of the respective resistivities and values. That is, it
will be
Ra = Rxo Jdi + Rt (1 - Jdi)
The equation shows why the laterolog is advisable in the case of salty muds.


The vertical resolution for the two curves (LLS and LLD) is two feet. The effect of the adjacent
strata is small and corrections are not required for the thickness of the strata.

11.1.c.6 WELL EFFECT

For holes between 6 and 12 inches corrections are less than 15% and are generally overlooked. For
large holes they may become important. In each case, once the site data have bee corrected for the
well effect it is possible to correct the measurement of resistivity for the invasion, using the
appropriate charts.


In the early Fifties, the laterolog registrations in the Permian basin showed anomalous behaviour
when nearing a thick resistant stratum, such as the anhydrites and salt which overlay the
DELAWARE SAND. There was a gradual increase in the apparent resistivity much greater than the
real figure until the instrument entered the evaporite zone. The Dual Laterolog at present in use
corrects this effect, but presents another anomaly known as the Groningen Effect.
This is an effect similar to the previous one, found for the first time in Holland and due to the
frequencies in the presence of low resistivity formations immediately below a massive evaporitic
bed. The modern laterologs correct for this effect.
When the probe encounters a bed confined by resistive strata, the current tends to spread into the
low resistance zone, creating a phenomenon known as squeezing. It is possible to correct for it with
charts in relation to the thickness of the beds and the contrast between resistivity read and that of
the adjacent strata (Ra/Rs). When this relationship is less than one a squeezing situation exists.
When the ratio is more than one the current tends to go into the adjacent, more conductive zones,
thus producing an antisqueeze phenomenon.


This is the new generation of laterolog tools which supply deep measurements and with better
vertical resolution than the classic DLL (2-3"). Since laterolog-type measurements are heavily
influenced by the dip of the strata a directional measurement of resistivity around the axis of the
well allows correction of the readings. Twelve azimuthal electrodes are incorporated into the
classic DLL configuration and supply measurements of resistivity with better vertical resolution
than the classic deep laterolog and comparable depth of investigation. Other measures of resistivity
of the very shallow type allow correction for the well effect. The Groningen Effect may be
minimised in two ways depending on whether there is a casing or not. It is particularly innovative
for the following applications:
- Evaluation of thin strata (for vertical resolution)
- Evaluation of formational heterogeneities
- Identification of fractures
- Horizontal holes (readings less influenced by the adjacent strata)
- Corrected measurements of resistivity with steeply inclined strata
- Evaluation of the dip of the strata

The depth of investigation is much greater than LLS and is comparable with a LLD. The vertical
resolution, for a hole of diameter between 6 and 8 inches, is of the order of 8 inches. Increasing the
diameter of the hole the vertical resolution falls drastically. It is possible to maintain good vertical
resolution by increasing the diameter of the tool up to 6 inches above the azimuthal system.
The tool is very sensitive to position inside the well (centralisation) and to irregularities in it. For
this reason an auxiliary measurement at 64KHz is taken.
The current passes very close to the instrument and since the mud is generally more conductive
than the formation the path of the current responds mainly to the volume of mud in front of the
azimuthal electrodes. The measurement is therefore sensitive to the diameter and form of the well.
This measurement makes it possible to correct the primary measurement using measurements of
electrical stand-off. The correction applied is a function of the electrical measurements of stand-off,
the resistivity of the mud and of the formation.


The Spherical (SFL) gives a shallow resistivity measurement and is registered by a set of separate
electrodes mounted on an induction probe (DIL). The containment electrodes force the service
current to enter the formation along spherical equipotential lines. The depth of penetration is low if
compared with an LL-8 or to a 16-in Normal. This means that it gives great importance to the
invaded zone, but reads more deeply than the flushed zone. Its vertical resolution is about 1 foot.


Microdevices are mainly used to determine the following parameters:

- Saturation of the invaded zone (Sxo)

- Saturation with residual hydrocarbons (Srh)
- Mobility of hydrocarbons
- Density of hydrocarbons
- Diameter of invasion
- Correction factor in measurements of Rt of the macrodevices

The microresistivity tools read only the flushed zone, consisting of electrodes inserted in an
insulating pad forced against the wall by a mechanical arm (Caliper).


This was one of the first devices on the market and allows good discrimination between porous
strata and impermeable strata. The microlog is a non-focused instrument with 3 electrodes spaced 1
inch apart. A constant service current is emitted from the lower button and the instrument registers
two resistivity curves which define the contrast between the resistivity of the mud cake and that of
the invaded zone (Micronormal and microinverse). The Micronormal is registered by measuring the
potential between the upper button and the mass of the probe, whilst the Microinverse is derived
from the measurement of the potential between the middle and the upper buttons. The depth of
investigation of the Micronormal is approximately 4 inches and for the Microinverse it is 1.5
inches. If the Micronormal reads higher than the Microinverse and this latter reads close to the Rmc
this indicates the presence of permeability.


The Microspherical is a focused instrument composed of 5 rectangular electrodes mounted on a

block. The service current flows from the central electrode. The confining current is regulated so as
to have a nil voltage between the more external monitoring electrodes. The voltage is measured
between the second electrode and the monitor electrodes.


The water saturation (filtrate) in the flushed zone (Sxo) may be estimated from Archie's equation
Sxon = F Rmf/Rxo
The water saturation of the flushed zone does not define the quantity of hydrocarbon present, but
reveals how much of the hydrocarbon present may be displaced and therefore recovered.

The indirect measurement of water saturation in the reservoir rocks is calculated using a
measurement of the resistivity of the formation compared with what it should have if it was
completed saturated with water of a given salinity. In some geological sequences this salinity can
vary considerably over relatively short distances, or in reservoirs where secondary recovery with
water has been carried out the salinity can vary considerably during the operation. An alternative
way of determining the water saturation without taking knowledge of the salinity into account is
from the measurement of the relative dielectric constant. The dielectric constant of a material
determines the way in which an electromagnetic wave passes through it.
Apart from water most of the components present in sedimentary rocks have low values, so the
dielectric constant measured is mainly a function of the water-filled pores. The salinity and the
temperature of the water influence its dielectric constant, making it vary, but over a relatively small
range and still very much less than the amount of variation in the resistivity. The measures of
attenuation and phase difference of an electromagnetic wave propagated inside a formation allow
calculation of the dielectric constant and the conductivity of the formation itself.
There dielectric tools use small antennae which send electromagnetic waves through the formation
(in the first 5 inches). The electromagnetic measurements are used for the following purposes:

- To determine the mobility of hydrocarbons by comparing the water saturation of the flushed zone
with that of the undisturbed zone. The mobile hydrocarbon, as a fraction of the pore volume, is in
fact given by (Sxo - Sw). This technique is more applicable in the case of non-saline muds where
the normal microdevices may supply measurements which are not entirely correct.
- Definition of hydrocarbons in areas where the water in the formation is not saline.
- Identification of true aquifer zones (Sw = 100%) for calculating the Rw.


The dielectric constant of a body is linked to the degree of polarisation induced by an electric field.
Along with the magnetic permeability and the electrical conductivity, the dielectric constant
influences the transmission of the electromagnetic wave in the material. The equation for the
propagation of the electromagnetic wave in a material is defined by Maxwell's Equation where the
above variables are entered and the frequency of the wave itself.
The magnetic permeability of the material is generally considered equal to that of a vacuum (in the
absence of consistent magnetic minerals) and therefore negligible. When an electromagnetic wave
is emitted near a formation different types of polarisation are observed.
The first type of polarisation is known as Induced Polarisation. The action of the field separates the
centres of the positive charge and the negative charge so that the atom becomes polarised and
acquires an induced dipole electrical momentum which disappears when the electric field ceases.
The loss of energy associated with the movement of the centres of charge influences the
propagation of the electromagnetic waves.
The second type of polarisation is that known as Dipolar Polarisation and which is found in
molecules with permanent dipoles, such as water, for example. In the absence of an electric field
the individual dipoles are orientated casually, whilst in the presence of a field they tend to align
themselves in accordance with the field. Since the molecules are undergoing continuous thermal
agitation, the degree of alignment will not be complete, but will increase with an increase in the
field applied or diminishing the temperature. An electromagnetic wave loses considerable energy at
each reorientation of the dipoles. At high frequencies the water molecule cannot follow the fast
variations in the direction of the electric field, because of inertia phenomena. The result is a loss of
energy dissipated in the form of heat. This phenomenon is known as Dipolar Relaxation.
A third type of polarisation is found on ions and electrons free to move about when an electric field
is applied to them which is sufficient to supply energy for the transport of charges. High
frequencies limit this transport of charges and the resulting loss of energy.

Polarisation, conductivity and dipolar relaxation phenomena are represented by a single parameter
which is the dielectric constant (which can be expressed as a complex number).
The Schlumberger EPT, as example, operates in a frequency band close to 1.1 Ghz.
The instrument measures two values, attenuation, or the change in amplitude, and the propagation
time of the electromagnetic wave between two receivers. From these two measurements it is
possible to calculate the dielectric constant which is a complex number composed of a real and an
imaginary part. The imaginary part includes all the phenomena associated with losses of energy
which for high frequencies (1.1 Ghz) are essentially a function of the dipolar losses, whilst the
conduction losses are significant only for high salinity of the water.


The probe has a block, composed of an antenna, rigidly attached to the body of the instrument, and
an opposing arm, which has the dual function of forcing the antenna against the wall of the well
and supplying a caliper measurement. An attachment for the Microlog may be fitted, which allows
measurement of resistivity with vertical resolution comparable with electromagnetic measurement.
A second opposing arm is mounted on the probe on the same side as the antenna used for the
roughness of the wall. Two transmitters and two receivers are mounted in the antenna support. The
space between the transmitters and the closest receiver is 8 centimetres and that between the two
receivers is 4 cm. The transit time for the electromagnetic wave and the attenuation between one
receiver coil and the other are measured every sixtieth of a second and transmitted to the surface
where they are mediated through a space 2 or 6 inches deep. Because of the closeness of the
receivers to the transmitters the waves measured are of the spherical type. Therefore to compensate
for the loss due to spherical diffusion a correction (SL) must be applied to the measurement of
attenuation (Laboratory measurements indicates that it is a function of the porosity).


The vertical resolution of the EPT is around 2 inches whilst the depth of penetration varies
between around 1 inch in conductive formations and about 6 inches in resistive ones. The lower
limit of resistivity of the formation for correct use of the equipment is about 0.3 ohmm. If the block
is in close contact with the formation corrections for the well are not required, although a thick mud
cake (more than 3/8 inch) or an excessive stand-off may be a problem.


The transit time of an electromagnetic wave (corrected for loss due to spherical diffusion) in a
porous, clean material is defined as the sum of the times for the individual constituents, as follows:
Tpo = phi x Tpf + (1 - phi) Tpm
where Tpo = ( Tpl2 - (A - 60)2 / 3600 ) 1/2
The values of Tpf and Tpm are known and represented in a table where it may be noted that water
has a value much higher than almost any other component.
Resolving this for the porosity we obtain
phi = (Tpo - Tpm)/(Tpf - Tpm)
We define a porosity for EPT, assuming only water which fills the pores as:
EPT = (Tpo - Tpm)/(Tpw - Tpm)
where Tpw is the time of the water corrected for the diffusion
This value depends on the temperature and, to a lesser extent, the pressure. In a range of
temperature between 100-300 F and normal pressures this value may be expressed with good
approximation as
Tpw = 31.1 - 0.029T
If in the corresponding equation the presence of hydrocarbons is also taken into account we have:
Tpo = x Sxo Tpw + x (1 - Sxo) Tph + (1- ) Tpm
which expressed in terms of saturation in the flushed zone becomes
Sxo = ((Tpo - Tpm) + (Tpm - Tph))/((Tpw - Tph))
considering the propagation times in the matrix (Tpm) and in the hydrocarbon (Tph) to be equal we
will obtain
Sxo = EPT/
The comparison, then, between the measured porosity of EPT and the total porosity measured with
another system (a porosity log, for example) allows speedy determination of the water saturation of
the flushed zone which will be realistic with high Sxo. Generally in aquifer zones the porosity of
EPT will be equal to the total porosity whilst in zones mineralised with hydrocarbons it will be less
than the total.


The equipment responds to the water bound in the clays as to the free water in the pores of a rock,
but this response appears excessive. A simple explanation is to allow a higher dielectric constant
for bound water than for free water.

The commonest tools for measuring porosity are ACOUSTIC, DENSITY and NEUTRON.
Why three instruments when there is only one measure of porosity? The reason is that all these
instruments are sensitive not only to the porosity, but also to the type of rock matrix and the fluid
contained in the pores (especially to gas).If the matrix is known and the fluid is only liquid a single
type of measurement is enough. In all the other cases all the types of measurement are necessary.


The idea of continuous registration of acoustic velocities in the well was conceived for taking the
transit times of seismic waves at depth. However, this type of log proved effective at determining
porosity, at correlations and at defining the secondary porosity, thus becoming a standard log for
formation evaluation. Dresser Atlas introduced the Acoustilog in 1954. This instrument measures
the transit time of an acoustic impulse across a unit of distance in the part of the formation
immediately adjacent to the well. The transit time, Dt, defines the time taken, in microseconds, for
a compressional wave to traverse a foot of rock. The specific transit time of a given formation will
depend on its mineralogical composition, porosity and type of fluids contained. The modified
version of the basic tool has found further applications in the field of estimation of the mechanical
properties of rock, in the study of fractures and the conditions of the cement between casing and


All substances possess an intrinsic force which tends to generate a casual movement of the
molecules. At the same time there exists a force of attraction which tends to hold the molecules
together. It is the result of these two forces which opposes any deformation caused by small
external forces. Elasticity is the property of the material which allows it to resist deformations of
volume or form. The behaviour of an elastic material is described by Hooke's Law and can be
summarised by saying that the deformation produced is proportional to the force applied. The
relationship between the force applied and the deformation caused is known as the modulus of
elasticity. Another important constant of elasticity is Poisson's Ratio, defined as the relationship of
the deformation in an orthogonal direction to the strain deformation. The distances between
adjacent molecules increase when passing from the solid to the liquid to the gaseous state. The
solids, however, have little compressibility in comparison to the liquids and the gases. If an elastic
material is subjected to a temporary deformation (perturbation), this generates a periodic oscillatory
motion of the particles which is transmitted through the material in all directions and for long
distances from the origin of the deformation, continuing even when the cause of the deformation
has ceased. The state of vibration generated in an elastic material is called an elastic or acoustic
wave. The particles of the material do not travel with the wave, but only vibrate about their centre
of gravity. The points reached by this perturbation at any instant constitute a surface (wave front)
which is generally spherical. The direction of propagation of the wave is perpendicular to the wave
Acoustic waves are classified in two groups according to the direction of the motion of the particles
with respect to the direction of propagation of the wave:
- LONGITUDINAL WAVES = where the direction of propagation of the wave is parallel to the
movement of the particles.
TRANSVERSE WAVES = where the direction of propagation of the wave is perpendicular to the
movement of the particles.

Each of these two groups includes different types of waves, the most important of which are the
compressional and the shear waves which belong respectively to the first and second groups.

Compressional Waves
In this type of wave the movement (in an infinite material) of the particles towards their neighbours
in the direction of propagation of the wave creates a zone of compression of the elastic material.
The neighbouring particle moves in its turn towards the next one, propagating the compression.
After being moved, each particle returns to its original place because of the elasticity, generating a
rarefaction. A compressional wave is therefore composed of compressions and rarefactions which
are propagated through the material far from the source. This type of wave may be transmitted
through all states of material (solid, liquid, gaseous) since they posses resistance to compression. A
compression with the adjacent rarefaction (which precedes or follows) constitutes a complete cycle.
The number of cycles which are propagated through a point in the middle in a unit of time is the
The velocity of an elastic wave which is propagated is an isotropic medium may be derived from
the combination of the theory of elasticity and Newton's Law of Motion. The velocity of a
compressional wave is a function of the density and of the modulus of elasticity of the material.
Therefore, in a non-porous limestone the compressional wave will travel at the speed of
640,000cm/sec (21,000 ft/sec). The reciprocal of the velocity expressed in microseconds/foot is
what is measured with an acoustic log. However, the specific interval transit time for a limestone is
Dt = 1,000,000 / 21,000 = 47.6 Microsec/ft.
The compressional wave travels faster than all other waves.

Shear Waves
Infinite solid materials tend to oppose shear forces (rigidity), which provoke slipping between one
particle and another. The liquids and the gases do not possess rigidity and therefore these waves
cannot be transmitted through them. A shear wave is propagated through an elastic solid material
with a velocity which is a function of the density and the modulus of elasticity of the material.
Therefore in a non-porous limestone it will be 338,000 cm/sec (11,100 ft/sec). However, the
specific interval transit time for a limestone is
Dt = 1,000,000 / 11,100 = 90 Microsec/ft
The velocity of a shear wave is around 0.5-0.7 times that of a compressional wave, but it possesses
greater amplitude.

In a finite material (well) other types of wave are also propagated:

- RAYLEIGH WAVES, which are generated at the mud-formation interface and are the
combination of two movements, one parallel and the other perpendicular to the interface.
- STONELEY WAVES, which travel in the mud through mud-formation interaction.


The acoustic tool measures the velocity of sound waves in the formation crossed by a well. The
acoustic wave is generated by a transducer in the well (device which oscillates in compression and
expansion if inserted into an electric or magnetic field of the oscillating type) which normally
generates an oscillatory pulse at a frequency of 20 Khz. (Dresser Atlas) or 25 Khz (Schlumberger)
in the mud. This generates six waves which travel up and down in the well at different speeds:
. two refracted through the formation (Compressional and Shear). On the wall of the well the
acoustic wave is refracted and transmitted into the formation. It will travel along the wall of the
well until it reaches the critical angle (law of optics), creating a new wave front at each point and
making energy return into the well.
. two direct waves along the equipment and in the mud (compressional at the speed of the mud)
. two along the surface of the hole (Pseudo-Rayleigh and Stoneley)

At a certain distance inside the well a receiver transducer will identify a particular wave train which
will start with a compressional wave which will be the one which has travelled in the formation if
the diameter of the well is small in relation to the transmitter-receiver distance (assuming formation
velocity > fluid velocity in the well). Then we have the arrival of the other waves of little applied
importance masked by the compressional arrivals which travel in the fluid which fills the well. The
arrivals of the shear waves are often out of phase with respect to the compressional waves and may
cause interference in the overall wave train.
The standard equipment measures the time difference between the arrival of the compressional
wave at a receiver-transducer near the transmitter (typically 3 feet from the transmitter) with
respect to the time of arrival at one further away (2 feet away from the first receiver). The
difference between the two times is defined as Dt and represents the time required for a
compressional wave to travel in the formation for a distance equal to the space between the


The first generation of tools were replaced in the sixties by a compensated tool (BHC Acoustilog,
Dresser Atlas) with two transmitters symmetrically placed on top and bottom which pulse
alternately and two receivers with standard figuration T, 4R1,2R2,4T2. The two receivers register
two specific transit times which are mediated at the surface. The interval transit time for 1 foot of
formation for this instrument is:
((T1R2 - T1R1) + (T2R1 - T2R2)) / 2
Schlumberger, on the other hand, commercialised another instrument with two transmitters and
four receivers. The probe has a spacing of 3 feet between transmitter and near receiver and a
distance of 2 feet between the other receivers. The transmitters pulse 20 times a second in such a
way that 5 complete measurements may be obtained every second, which with a rising velocity of
5,000 feet/hour means having a measurement every 3 inches of well.


This tool was introduced to solve certain environmental problems which change the original
velocity of a formation. Factors which diminish the velocity are:
- stress experienced by the walls of the well during drilling
- variation in the transit time that clays undergo due to prolonged contact with the drilling mud,
Factors which increase the velocity are:
- invasion phenomena with displacement of gas in the formation
- deposition of solid particles between the pores of the rock
To resolve this problem tools were constructed which had more space between transmitter and
receiver (7, 8, 10 or 12 feet) that would be able to receive the compressional wave which travels in
the undisturbed zone first, with a greater impulse energy to limit attenuation due to the greater
distance concerned. The Log-Spaced BHC acoustilog (Dresser Atlas) has a configuration
T1,7R1,2R2,7T2, whilst the SLS (Schlumberger) takes the measurements in a special way. It
memorises the measurements for the transit time when the instrument is at a given depth and
combines them with those made when the instrument is raised by a definite amount (9 feet and 8
inches for the Schlumberger tool with an 8 foot transmitter-receiver space).


The vertical resolution is defined by the spacing of the receivers (2 feet). The depth of penetration
is small and is controlled by the frequency of the waves (25 Khz). For a homogeneous formation it
varies between 1 and 2 inches and is independent of the spacing of the tool. The tool is centralised
and this involves the registration of the shortest transit time present for the whole well surface. The
limit of a stratum is defined by the mean reading between the high and low value which is shown
passing through a slow and a fast stratum, for example. The resolution of the counter circuits is
defined by a quartz crystal with a frequency of 2.5 mHz (0.4 microsec/ft for each measurement


The specific transit time, however, is represented in linear scale in microsec/ft, associated with a
Gamma ray Log and with resistivity. The instrument is checked by taking a measurement in an
aluminium container filled with water or directly in the well on the steel of the casing (57


It is possible to find a particular sonic log presentation where, in the depth track, the integrated
transit times appear represented by little pips, each of which indicates one millisecond. The bigger
pips correspond to an interval of 10 milliseconds. The total time necessary for a compressional
wave per cross a certain depth interval may be derived by counting the number of pips present in
the interval and consequently the mean velocity of an interval is obtained by dividing the thickness
by the total transit time. This measurement is used, setting it on check shots, to calibrate the surface
seismic data.


A surface seismic measurement is basically a measurement of the acoustic impedance (density x

velocity) contrasts. These contrasts are defined by the time (two-way) required for the seismic
impulse to reach the contrasts and return to the surface.
A check shot defines the time required for a surface impulse to reach a certain depth in the well.
The system includes:
- a seismic source (air gun)
- a receiver in the well fixed at a given depth
- a system of registration on the surface which shows a signal coming from a detector near the
source and a signal from the well.
Both the signals are defined in terms of time by a quartz clock. The time of the check shots is that
between the arrival of the surface signal and that from the well, corrected in vertical time and
referred to a Seismic Reference Datum. It is assumed, therefore, that the time at the check shots is
vertical measure. This is true for vertical wells with little offset of the source and little dip of the
strata. The precision of the TTI is defined by the pulses of the registration cable while that of the
check shots id of the order of 1-2 msec. The difference between the corrected time at check shots
and the Integrated Transition Time is defined as Drift. If this drift is represented graphically we
may find situations of the type shown in fig. There are two main sources of error in the sonic log.
The first is in relation to the method of identifying the signal at the receiver, whilst the second is
inherent in the refraction of the acoustic wave.
The sonic log has too long a transit time in cases of::
- disturbance at a neighbouring receiver, which causes an isolated spike which can therefore be
- stretch in a distant receiver caused by strong attenuation (error of around 2 microsec/ft).
- Cycle skipping through strong attenuation at a distant receiver for very strong attenuation (error of
40 microsec for each cycle skipped with transmitter frequency at 25 Khz, or 10 microsec/ft).
- Well conditions such as roughness or significant increases in diameter. The roughness causes
diffraction phenomena, but does not influence the accuracy of the measurements except in cases of
rapid and profound variation in the walls of the well which increase the tortuosity of the sonic
wave's path. Variations in the diameter of the well should be resolved by the compensated system
up to a certain limit (critical distance) where the first to arrive is the wave which has travelled in the
- Alteration of the formation, which generally causes an increase in the transit time.
The sonic log has too short a transit time in the case of:
- disturbance at a distant receiver, which causes an isolated spike which can then be corrected.
- Negative stretch at a nearby receiver caused by a weak signal.
- Cycle skipping due to attenuation of amplitude at a nearby receiver.
- Transit time of the formation greater than that of the mud. In this case refraction is not possible
and the equipment will measure the transit time in the mud. It is possible with gas trapped in clay or
in gas reservoirs at slight depths and generally with lithologies of little depth.
- Inversion of velocity near the wall of the well. This happens with an invaded zone faster than the
undisturbed zone and both faster than the mud. An example is the invasion of a permeable aquifer
formation by part of the filtrate denser than the water in the formation. A specific case of inversion
of velocity is generated with mineralised formations with gas deeply invaded by mud filtrate. We
recall that the check shots are influenced by the undisturbed zone of the formation, whilst the sonic
log registers in the flushed zone.
Errors, however, are also present in the check shot measurements.
A statistic shows that at little depth the drifts are variable, with a certain predominance towards the
negative (alterations and bigger wells), whilst at greater depths the drift is more regular and is
positive and could be attributed to the type of frequency used in the different systems.


The speed of a compressional wave which travels in an elastic material is a function of the rigidity
(M) and the density (Rho) of the material.
Vc = (M/Rho)1/2
The effect of the porosity on the velocity is to greatly diminish the rigidity and the density. It
would be very complicated to try to express the porosity in terms of elastic properties, so recourse
is made to the empirical relation between velocity, transit time and porosity. The empirical
expression which is universally used is that of Wyllie. It is based on laboratory observations and
assumes that the path of a compressional wave through a porous material is equal to that in a
material where all the solid part is concentrated on one side and all the fluid in the remaining part. ,
and that the wave crosses through the two parts one after the other. Therefore:
Dt(total transit time) = x Dtf(fluid transit time) + (1 - ) x Dtma(matrix transit time)
Solving this for the porosity:
= (Dt-Dtma) / (Dtf - Dtma)
The fluid in the zone of investigation is usually mud filtrate (189 microsec/ft - 185 microsec/ft)
whilst the matrix depends on the lithology.

Wyllie's equation is valid in consolidated terrains, which typically have the transit time of
intercalated clays, less than 100 microsec/ft, but is not representative in unconsolidated terrain. An
unconsolidated area may be visualised as a collection of individual grains one in contact with the
other without the benefit of cement or compaction. This system does not offer the necessary rigidity
to support an acoustic wave and therefore we have the cycle skipping. Of the porous space is filled
with fluids the major part of the acoustic signal is transmitted by the fluids. Therefore, the porosity
values which would be obtained by applying Wyllie's equation would be much too great and are
therefore corrected with a compaction factor.


A rock with an appreciable clay content possesses a higher transit time than the same rock if it is
clean (with usual effective porosity), since the velocity of the clays is generally greater than that of
the more common lithological matrices. Applying the normal formula for porosity calculation an
overestimate is obtained for the clayey lithotypes. To correct this it is necessary to define the
fraction of clay present. It is not only the quantity of clay which influences the acoustic
measurement, but also the type of clay and its distribution within the rock.


- Definition of the formation pressures

- Mechanical properties of the rock
- Identification of fractures
- Analysis of the cementation quality


The normal pressure of the fluids present in a sedimentary rock is equal to the hydrostatic pressure
(column of water from the surface to the point underground which is under consideration). It is
possible to find pressures which exceed the normal gradient and the possible prediction is very
important for the definition of a drilling programme. In normal pressure environments the
lithostatic load is supported by the grains, whilst in overpressure regimes part of the lithostatic load
is sustained by the fluids. The presence of overpressure is mainly attributed to compaction
phenomena (reduction of volume with expulsion of water) during an accelerated sedimentation. In
situations like this the clays contain an excess of water (high transit time). Graphs of transit times in
clays in relation to depth may show the zones of overpressure.


The elasticity constants may be calculated using the acoustic compressional and shear
measurements. The elastic properties of a rock are influenced by many geological factors, but in
general we can say that the texture and geological history determine the elastic properties of a rock
to a greater extent than the mineralogical composition. Using the elasticity constants it is possible
to determine the possible deformations of friable sands (originating from sand).

Before describing those instruments that measure the porosity of a rock formation using density as
a basis, we need to introduce certain concepts that lie at the heart of radioactivity logging. Gamma
rays interact with matter in basically three ways:
COMPTON SCATTERING, a photon (gamma ray) is scattered and loses some of its energy, as a
result of a collision with an electron which is subsequently expelled from the atom. This form of
interaction takes place when the gamma ray's energy is between 75 ev and 2 Mev.
PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION, on the other hand, all the photon's energy is absorbed by the
electron which is then expelled from the atom. This phenomenon can be seen when the gamma
ray's energy falls below 0.2 Mev.
PAIR PRODUCTION takes place when the gamma ray's energy exceeds 1.02 Mev, and the photon
is completely absorbed leading to the expulsion of a neutron and a positron.
The density log is based on the emission of gamma rays which, given off from an appropriate
source, are then scattered in proportion to the apparent density of the medium they pass through.


Since as we have seen the energy of the photons does not exceed 1.02 Mev, then the main form of
interaction with matter consists in Compton scattering. The instrument used to measure density
consists of a radioactive source (cesium usually) positioned on a shielded lateral pad which is
forced to slide against the walls of the hole, and which emits gamma rays with an average energy of
665 Kev. The number of collisions due to Compton scattering is directly connected to the electron
density (the number of electrons per volume unit of the formation), and as a result to the apparent
density Rhob, which depends on the density of the rock, on its porosity and on the density of
those fluids contained within the pores. Photoelectric absorption depends on both the electronic
density and the average atomic number of the material which constitutes the medium in question.
Two detectors are placed at a specific distance from the source in order to count the number of
scattered gamma rays.


The gamma rays, which are constantly emitted from the source, pass through the mud cake and
penetrate into the rock formation. Here they gradually lose their energy (Compton scattering) until
they are completely absorbed by the rock matrix (photoelectric absorption) or reach one of the two
detectors. Dense rock formations absorb more gamma rays than do those formations that are not so
dense. We can assume that at any one time a cloud of gamma rays of about a foot in radius
surrounds the source. The size of this cloud depends on the degree of interaction with the matter in
question, and thus on the latter's electronic density. The greater the density the smaller the cloud
will be. The population of this cloud (mainly low-energy gamma rays) depends on the absorption
properties of the formation. The greater the absorption coefficient, the smaller the population.
This brings us to the concept of mass absorption coefficient.
If gamma rays of Iin intensity hit a target of X thickness, their Iout intensity is given as follows:
Iout = Iin e-m.x
where m is the linear absorption coefficient, which is a function of the type of material which the
target is made of and of the type of interaction that takes place.
The mass absorption coefficient, mm = m/Rhob, is in physical terms the fraction of a gamma ray
removed per unit of density multiplied by unit of thickness.
Iout = Iin e-mm.x.rhob
This equation could be written in terms of density where:
Iout = receiver count
Iin = gamma ray intensity at source
mm = mass absorption coefficient of the rock formation
Rhob = formation density
X = distance between source and receiver

If the receiver is placed further away from the source (near the edge of the cloud) then it will
register more impulses as the cloud expands and fewer impulses as the cloud shrinks in size. Thus a
low gamma ray count from the detector indicates low density of the formation, and vice-versa. The
instrument is shielded and designed in order to measure only interaction of the Compton scattering
type (the receivers can only detect energy over and above 0.2 Mev). Since Iin, X and Mm are all
constants; the receiver counts are going to be logarithmically proportional to the formation's
electron density.

Log (count) = -b. (density) + c

The role of the receiver placed nearer to the source is that of compensating for the mud cake effect
and for the unevenness of the hole. Having a lower penetration depth than the other receiver, the
near detector takes greater account of the mud cake and the unevenness of the hole. Since both
detectors work on the same principle, the relationship between the far detector counts and those of
the near detector will be defined in terms of a line representing the variations in density of the


The instrument responds to the electron density of the medium. In the case of a single element, the
relationship between electron density and apparent density is as follows:

RHOel = RHOb (2Z/A)

where Z = atomic number

and A = atomic weight

For those common elements that make up sedimentary rock formations (with the exception of
hydrogen) the 2Z/A ratio is practically equal to 1. In the case of hydrogen, this ratio doubles, thus
the presence of water or hydrocarbon alters the proportional relationship between the different
densities. The density measure is calibrated in order to be able to give a correct reading for
limestone formations saturated by freshwater. The primary calibration is carried out on laboratory
samples, while the well calibration is carried out using two high and low density field gauges (Al =
2.8; Mg = 2.2). The gauge is used both before and after the logging survey.


90% of the survey depth of a normal density measure corresponds to about 4 inches in the case of
average-density formations (flux zone). Vertical resolution is approximately one and a half feet if
the rate of rise is very slow. Otherwise, with a more normal rate of rise resolution is 3 feet.


Porosity is calculated from density (in a linear way) for a non-clay formation, as follows:
RHOb = . RHOf + (1 - ) . RHOma
and therefore = (RHOma - RHOb) / (RHOma - RHOf)


The presence of residual hydrocarbons influences the performance of the instrument. Change in
apparent density is a function of porosity, of the density of the hydrocarbons (RHOh) and of the
residual saturation in hydrocarbons (Srh). Therefore the formula needs to be modified as follows:

RHOb = RHOf..Sxo + RHOh. (1-Sxo) + RHOma (1-)

Since the instrument is calibrated for freshwater saturated chalks, the reading will not show the true
apparent density.
The relationship between apparent density and electron density in those lithologies for which the
instrument is calibrated is as follows:
RHOb = 1.07 RHOel - 0.188
and therefore the presence of residual hydrocarbons influences the density log so that:
RHOblog = RHOb - DRHOb
where DRHOb is going to be more or less:

DRHOb = 1.07 o Srh ((1.11 - 0.15P) RHOmf - 1.11 RHOh - 0.03)

in the case of oil formations, and

DRHOb = 1.07 o Srh ((1.11 - 0.15P) RHOmf - 1.24 RHOh)

in the case of gas formations

where P is the concentration of mud filtrate in NaCl ppm 10-6.


The first instrument for measuring the apparent density of a formation was composed of a
radioactive source and a receiver. Subsequently, the use of a two-receiver instrument (Formation
Density Compensated) made it possible to compensate for mud cake and wall effects. The third-
generation instrument, known as the Litho Density Tool, not only provides a RHOb reading but
also traces a photoelectric absorption curve (Pe). This curve indicates the average atomic number of
the formation and thus provides vital information concerning the nature of the matrix. The format
of the tool is the same as that of the previous FDC, but the LDT allows one to select the energy of
the gamma rays that are to reach the further-away receiver. The basic reading of density is carried
out by measuring only those gamma rays that fall within the high-energy zone (scattering effect
only). The photoelectric reading is obtained by recording those gamma rays that fall within the low-
energy window (photoelectric absorption). The degree of absorption depends on the sum of the
electron absorption coefficient (Pe) and electron density.
The photoelectric absorption index is defined as follows:

U = Pe. RHOel

The greater its value the smaller the number of pulses received. The value of U for each formation
can be established.
Thus Pe = (1.070 U)/ RHOb + 0.188
The parameter Pe depends on the atomic number of the medium (Z) and is virtually independent of
porosity or fluid content.


Clay density normally increases with depth as it becomes more compact deeper down, as can be
shown from a graph of clay density against depth. This trend is inverted in areas of excess pressure,
since the clay contains an excess amount of water, and is thus less dense.


Neutron logs are used to calculate porosity in that they furnish results which are mainly connected
with the quantity of hydrogen present. Before going into a detailed description of the instrument,
we need to summarise the possible forms of interaction between neutrons and matter:

Elastic scattering, in which a neutron, after a collision with the nucleus of an atom, releases a
certain quantity of its kinetic energy (a function of the scattering angle after the collision and the
mass of the atom). The atom is not excited.
Inelastic scattering, where there is a greater energy loss on the part of the neutron, and where the
atom is excited and in order to return to its initial energy level emits one or more gamma rays.
Neutron absorption, where the neutron is completely absorbed, resulting in the emission of alpha,
beta and gamma rays.

In the neutron log a source emits fast neutrons (high energy) into the formation that interact with
the medium's nuclei in the form of mainly elastic collisions. The life of a neutron fired into a rock
formation is characterised by the following phenomena:
SLOWING of fast neutrons. The neutrons that collide with those atoms with approximately the
same mass as they have lose a substantial quantity of kinetic energy compared with those that
collide with atoms of greater mass. The hydrogen atom, which has a similar mass to that of a
neutron, has an important role to play during this phase. As a result of the continuous collisions, the
neutrons little-by-little lose their energy until they reach a level somewhere between 1 and 0.2 eV
(epithermal state). Continued collisions reduce the energy of the neutrons to levels similar to the
average thermal energy of the medium's atoms, which depends on absolute temperature (0.025 eV;
thermalised state).
THERMAL SCATTERING of the medium's neutrons with the reciprocal exchange of energy
(energy remains at a constant value).
The CAPTURING of thermalised neutrons, which is a function of a neutron's effective capture area
and of its concentration in the medium (Chlorine plays an important part during this phase).
Capture is generally accompanied by the emission of one or more gamma rays (capture gamma
The above clearly shows that the presence of thermal neutrons and gamma rays in a rock formation
is a function of the concentration of hydrogen.


There are two kinds of commercially-available neutron source:

- Chemical sources, where two elements come into contact and as a result continually emit
neutrons (4 - 6 MeV). The most common of these are plutonium/beryllium and
- Pulsating sources, with a neutron accelerator and a target which can be activated by turning on
and off the accelerator.
The first neutron instrument, called a Gamma Neutron Tool (GNT), had a chemical source and a
single receiver which could detect capture gamma rays. This tool was very sensitive to the state of
the bore hole and to the salinity of fluids. Later in the 1960s the Sidewall Neutron Porosity (SNP)
was developed, and this had a receiver which could detect epithermal neutrons and was thus
unaffected by the salinity of those fluids present. At the end of the 1960s the Compensated Neutron
Tool (CNT) made its appearance: this tool had two receivers which could detect thermal neutrons.
The advantage of this probe is that as well as not being influenced by liquid salinity, it is also
compensated through its use of two receivers. One problem with the CNT's measurements results
from the possible presence of absorbers of thermal neutrons, such as boron or cadmium.


The CNT measures an index of neutron porosity that can only be compared with the porosity of the
formation being tested if the lithology and composition of the fluids are known. A thermal neutron
flow is defined as being the number of thermal neutrons that cross a unit area in a fixed unit of
time. This flow is checked by the quantity of hydrogen in the formation that is basically
concentrated in the gaps in the rock (porosity). It is possible to conceive of an ever-present neutron
cloud surrounding the source to a radial depth of about two feet. The smaller the cloud, the greater
the hydrogen content, and vice-versa. The population of this cloud (thermal neutrons) depends on
the formation's absorption capacity: the greater the latter, the smaller the population will be. There
will be a high flow of thermal neutrons near the source, directly proportional to porosity, while this
flow will be much weaker some distance from the source, as well as being inversely proportional to
porosity at this distance. A receiver is located at the edge of this cloud, and it will register stronger
signals as the cloud expands (less hydrogen) and weaker signals as the cloud contracts (more
hydrogen). The detector counts alone are a poor indicator of porosity as they are greatly influenced
by environmental factors, such as the diameter of the bore, the weight of mud, etc. These effects
are compensated for through the taking of two readings of thermal flow at different distances from
the source which give dip lines. The main measurement taken by the CNT is thus a relationship
between receiver counts at a distance of 1 foot from the source and those taken at a distance of 1
foot from the first receiver. If the ratio between the two is high, this indicated a high degree of
porosity. The conversion from these ratios into degrees of porosity is carried out in the laboratory
using samples of known porosity.


Basic calibration of the instrument is carried out using a laboratory sample of well-known lithology
and porosity, and using a standard API test conducted at the University of Houston. At the well,
calibration is carried out both before and after measurement using portable calibrators.


The survey depth is a function of the porosity and salinity of the mud filtrate and can be expressed
in terms of the geometrical factor (J) as follows:

neut. = J ( neut.) invaded + (1 - J) (O neut.) not invaded

The vertical resolution of the CNT is approximately 15 inches if recorded at very slow speed,
whereas it is about 3 feet if recorded at the usual average of 2 secs. at a speed of 1,800 feet/hour.


Liquid hydrocarbons have a hydrogen index similar to that of water. If the rock matrix only
contains small quantities of hydrogen and the pores are full of just liquid hydrocarbons or water,
then the neutron log will give a sufficiently accurate porosity reading. Gas, on the other hand, has a
lower concentration of hydrogen which varies with changes in temperature and pressure. In the
presence of gas, the CNT will give a short porosity reading. The quantitative solution given by a
neutron log in the case of formation's containing hydrocarbons will depend on its hydrogen index:

n = ((1-Srh) Hmf + (Srh.Hh))

Freshwater's hydrogen index is equal to one, whereas that of sodium chloride solution is much
lower. Since the instrument is calibrated so as to take readings of porosity in aquifers the general
equation becomes:

n = ((1-Srh) + (Srh.Hh/Hmf))

The hydrocarbon's hydrogen index can be calculated if we know its composition and density, or by
means of the empirical relation roughly expressed by the following two linear equations:

Hh (gas) = 2.2 RHOh if RHOh < 0.25

Hh (oil) = RHOh + 0.3 if RHOh lies between 0.25 and 0.9

The mud filtrate's hydrogen index can be expressed as follows:

Hmf = RHOmf (1-P) where P = the NaCl concentration in ppm 10-6

Thus by substitution, we get:

n = ((1-Srh) + (Srh. (RHOh + 0.3)/RHOmf (1-P))

n = ((1-Srh) + (Srh. (2.2 RHOh)/ RHOmf (1-P))

Thus the neutron log porosity will be equal to real porosity less an adjustment factor in the case of
hydrocarbons which can be quantified as follows:

n = - Dnh
where Dnh = .Srh (RHOmf(1-P) - RHOh -0.3)/ (RHOmf (1-P)) for oil
and = -Srh (RHOmf (1-P) - 2.2 RHOh) / (RHOmf (1-P)) for gas

Some studies have shown that the effect of gas on the rock formation near to the bore hole is
greater than would have been expected if just the quantity of hydrogen had been taken into
consideration. There is an "excavation" effect caused by the fact that gaseous hydrocarbons occupy
a greater volume of pores compared with the quantity of water containing the same amount of
Thus neutron log porosity in hydrocarbon formations is going to be:
n = - Dnh - Dnex where Dnex = the escavation effect adjustment.

An approximate relation for the CNT tool, including all adjustments for hydrocarbons, would be:

Dn = .Srh (RHOmf (1-P) - (2.67. RHOh) + 0.87) / (RHOmf (1-P))


The presence of clay means that porosity as measured by the tool is too high in that it also measures
the hydrogen bound to the clay. If we assume that the log's reaction to the clay present in the
reservoir is the same as its reaction to the adjacent argillaceous layers, then:

n = + Vsh.nsh

where nsh is the neutron reading in the adjacent layers. Therefore in an argillaceous formation
containing hydrocarbons the neutron reading is:

n = - Dnh - Dnex + Vsh.nsh


In order to eliminate the interference caused by neutron absorbers (boron, gadolinium), commonly
present in clays, a new tool can be used. There are thermal detectors, and these simulate the normal
CNL log, and other epithermal, and these give a second porosity reading which is insensitive to the
thermal absorbers. Two porosity readings are given by the combination of counts at the near,
medium and far detectors. The instrument is shielded towards the bore hole, and therefore the
measurements need to be slightly adjusted to compensate for environmental factors. The
measurement taken by the far detector is similar in principle to the normal CNT, while the reading
from the medium detector represents a porosity level which is independent of the density of the
formation's components, thus eliminating the clay effect and the excavation effect. The third
porosity measurement, calculated using the deceleration time of the epithermal neutrons,
corresponds exclusively to the hydrogen index of the formation and of that part of the hole situated
near to the detector, and makes it possible to have a vertical resolution of about 8 inches and a
survey depth of approximately 6 inches.

The interpretation of the log can be divided into two recognisably different but interdependent
aspects. Firstly, we need to know how the different physical characteristics of the formation
influence the log, which can be represented by the Tool Response Equations. Secondly, we need
to resolve these tool response equations in order to discover the petrophysical characteristics of the
formation. By increasing the number of instruments and, as a consequence, the complexity of the
models used, the problem of interpreting the findings becomes more and more complicated. The
first measurements based on formation resistivity allowed us to interpret simple argillaceous-sand
sequences in terms of the type of fluid present. The calculation of porosity was limited to a
qualitative distinction between permeable and impermeable layers (for example using SP
measurements). The present number of instruments makes it possible to solve much more
complicated models.


Nuclear and acoustic logs did not exist before the Second World War, and interpretation was
simply based on measurements of resistivity and of spontaneous potential. The first resistivity
log was in fact recorded by Henri Doll in 1927 (a single resistivity curve), while the PS was
introduced in 1931. Until 1937 these logs were only used for correlation and for the calculation of
the thickness of layers. A quantitative interpretation was based on the comparison between
resistivity (unfocused) recorded at the same level in nearby wells with the aim of identifying the
presence of hydrocarbons. In 1938 the standard instruments were capable of measuring three
resistivity curves with a spontaneous potential at the same time (ES Survey). This made it possible
to provide sufficient information concerning unconsolidated sands but not for compact terrain,
especially where salty mud was concerned. Porosity could not be calculated using the logs, and
hydrocarbon saturation could only be calculated in those unconsolidated sands whose porosity had
been calculated using other methods. The main use made of spontaneous potential at the time was
in fact for the definition of permeable layers, since the real meaning of clay membrane potential
was still unknown (the relationship between Rw - Rmf and the potential curve's deflection was
discovered much later). The turning point in the history of the quantitative interpretation of logs
was the report produced by G.E. Archie in 1941, which described the relationship between the
Resistivity, Porosity and Water Saturation of a rock formation. This was when the concept of
Formation Resistivity Factor (F) was introduced, the concept which saw the existence of a
relationship between the resistivity of a water-saturated rock (Ro) and the resistivity of water itself

Thus Ro = F Rw

This factor was independent of water resistivity but was connected to the porosity and permeability
of lithotypes, as follows:
F = 1/m
where the value of "m between 1.8 and 2.0 in sandstones became known as the Cementation
The original equation was later modified with the introduction of the empirical constant "a".
Archie later formulated a third equation involving the relationship between the true resistivity of the
formation (Rt) and the apparent resistivity measured by the resistivity logs, taking resistivity
measurements of sandstone samples whose water content was varied by substituting it with non-
conductive fluid where Rt = Ro/Swn with "n" being practically 2.
This relationship made it possible to quantitatively evaluate the hydrocarbon content present using
the well logs available at the time but with the measurement of Ro obtained from other sources.
One method was to measure resistivity in a nearby well where the given level was known to be
water, or in the lower sections of the same well (where the presence of water was inevitable) taking
porosity to be a constant. Where this was not possible, the Ro value was calculated from porosity
measurements and "m was taken from core samples using direct measurements of Rw.
Since resistivity calibrators were of the unfocused variety, measurements were strongly influenced
by borehole conditions and needed substantial adjustment before they could be used quantitatively.
The first interpretative models thus assumed the following:
- the reservoir has to be sandstone (for the core samples)
- the sandy part of the reservoir has to be "clean"
- porosity has to be constant, both in the radial sense (in all the field's wells), as well as in the
vertical sense (in the different parts of the same well).
- Environmental adjustments have to be properly carried out in order to obtain the log reading
of the Rt of apparent resistivity (Ra).

After the War, theoretical research concentrated on Spontaneous Potential, and in 1953 a model
which could be applied to sands containing both laminated and dispersed clays. The model was
based on the following equation:

PSP (pseudo-static deflection) = -K log Rxo/Rt -2K log Sxo/Sw

where K =the proportional coefficient at absolute temperature.

This formula therefore presupposed the following:

- a relationship between SP deflection and Rw-Rmf in "clean" sands
- the same relationship for argillaceous sands if the relation between fluid resistivities is
replaced by the relation between the resistivities of invaded and virgin areas
- the possibility of measuring the resistivity of the invaded area by drawing up its relationship
with Archie's formula (F = Rxo Sxon/Rmf)

All of this was made possible by the introduction of the Microlog in 1948.
Tixier produced the equation
Swn/Sxon = RwRxo /Rmf Rt
The problem however was how to accurately measure resistivity with unfocused detectors and in
the presence of salty muds. The introduction of focused instruments (Induction, Laterolog and
Microlaterolog) marked an important step forward in log analysis. At the same time (from 1940
onwards) production of instruments for measuring natural radioactivity (gamma rays) began,
followed by the development of a nuclear tool (the Neutron Tool) in 1942, a tool which made it
possible to indirectly calculate porosity (in clean areas) from the measurement of the hydrogen
index, rather than from resistivity values. The Neutron Tool measured overall rather than effective
porosity, since it responded to the water present in the clay. However, a calibration based on
porosity obtained from other sources (core samples, resistivity measurements) was still necessary.
This tool was widely used in the qualitative identification of gaseous hydrocarbons. The early
1950s saw the introduction of acoustic wave transit time measurements, and in 1956 Wyllie came
up with an equation for the calculation of porosity in clean consolidated formations:
Dt = Dtf + (1-) Dtma
with the possibility of an adjustment for argilleous characteristics. At the beginning of the 1960s a
third instrument, the Formation Density Tool, was introduced: this calculated porosity as a function
of density using an equation similar to that introduced by Wyllie.

The early 1960s saw the introduction of the computer in formation evaluation, through the use of
Fortran. At the same time, Schlumberger introduced well-side magnetic tape recordings of the data
obtained using the various instruments, which was to become common practice from the end of the
1970s onwards. Portable calculators were not in common use until the beginning of the 1970s, and
so a whole series of charts, nomographs and crossplots were employed in order to solve more
complex equations such as that relative to spontaneous potential. A series of crossplots are still
used to solve Archie's equation concerning water saturation. In 1959 Hingle produced the crossplot
whereby points of equal Sw lie along straight lines. The plot is based on the development of
Archie's equation as follows:
= aRw/RtSwn
and so a plot of against 1/Rt will show straight lines that correspond to different Sw values with
a common origin at zero porosity.
An adjustment of Archie's equation
- logRt = -m log + log (a Rw) -n log Sw
is expressed in graphic form in the Pickett plot, which shows the logarithm of Rt against the
logarithm of porosity, where the water levels lie along straight lines whose slopes represent the
cementation factor (m).


As we have already shown, the porosity of a formation of known lithology can be represented by a
linear equation solvable using just one log. The possibility of using two instruments to measure
porosity makes it possible to solve response equations for both porosity and for lithology if fluid
properties are known. In the mid-1960s the Dual Mineral interpretative method was introduced,
using the Density/Neutron crossplot in order to calculate the porosity and the density of the matrix
formation. The acoustic log was used to identify secondary porosity areas and as an aid in
identifying lithology on other types of crossplot (M-N). Density and Neutron Logs give a result
which may be adjusted for the presence of clay and for the hydrocarbon effect. In the case of the
acoustic log this adjustment is more difficult to quantify. The neutron and density tool response
equations can be written as
Rhob = f1 (lithology, porosity, fluid effects, clay fraction)
N = f2 (lithology, porosity, fluid effects, clay fraction)
expressed in a quantitative form using linear mathematical equations.
In the early 1970s these ideas were further developed into formal interpretative procedures such as
Shaly Sand and Complex Lithology.


In the Shaly Sand method it is assuned that the (clean) lithology is constant (generally sandstone)
and has a well-defined matrix density. In this case, the Density and Neutron Tool response
equations can be solved for hydrocarbon porosity and density. Silt creates the greatest problems
when using a Shaly Sand constant matrix interpretative model. Poupon and others put forward a
technique based on the statistical analysis of density-neutron crossplots for the argilleous sands of
the Gulf Coast. The second big problem with the Shaly Sand method was the water saturation
calculation, as this was complicated by the conductivity of clays, a conductivity which is different
from the normal ionic type of conductivity present in clean lithotypes.

Archie's equation for "clean" formations can be considered to be an empirical compromise between
two extremes:
- electric current in series that meets the rock's constituents (hydrocarbons, water, matrix) does not
produce conductivity
- parallel electric current that meets the rock's constituents produces conductivity equal to
Archie concluded that a formation's conductivity is a compromise between these two extremes and
depends on the shape of the pores
Cw Sw > Cw (m /a) Swn >0
What happens when clay is introduced into this model?
The effect of the clay is to increase conductivity in a clean rock formation of the same porosity,
represented by Worthington as extra parallel conductivity. In 1977 Clavier and others proposed a
Dual Water model that calculated conductivity excess in clays in terms of the water present on their


Up until about 1980 the interpretative models being used utilised logs in a rather rigid fashion
(Density-Neutron for the porosity calculation). The introduction of new instruments required that a
new approach to the problem be made, involving the use of mathematical techniques to solve
response equations by means of inversion. As has already been mentioned, the technique used to
solve response equations was first employed from 1963 onwards in the case of the three porosity
instruments (Density, Neutron and Acoustic). This method enables one to solve them in the
presence of 4 unknowns (3 minerals plus porosity) since a fourth equation concerning material
balance is added to the previous three.
Vi = 1
This technique for establishing lithology through direct matrix inversion was studied by J.A. Burke
in 1967.


The inversion process poses one or two problems as a result of the fact that some response
equations are not linear and also due to other considerations:
- log readings are heavily influenced by the state of the borehole which is not part of the response
- the response equations themselves can be somewhat uncertain
- there may be no correspondence between the number of minerals to be defined and the number of
available readings
- It is necessary to impose certain constraints on eventual solutions.

A different approach to the inversion technique was developed by Mayer and Sibbit in 1980, and
applied to a computer programme entitled "GLOBAL". This method used certain techniques aimed
at finding the optimum solution, minimizing error function "I" which represented the inconsistency
between the solution and the given log. For example, let us take the bulk density reading from the
log (Rhob) and the theoretical reading obtained from the density log's response equation for a given
lithology (Rhob*). Given A and B to be the log reading and the instrument's response equation
respectively, the solution's inconsistency will be:
I(Rhob) = (Rhob - Rhob*) / A2 + B2
We can see from this that the greater the uncertainty the smaller the inconsistency, so that the
minimizing process will be controlled by the faith placed with the log.
Inconsistency is always positive and thus for multiple logs will be for example as follows:
I = I(Rhob) + I (0N) + I (Rt) ....
In the case where the model and the logs match perfectly then the inconsistency value will be zero.
Another method has recently been put forward by Querein and others in a computerised format
called ELAN, featuring the following innovations:
- all the response equations are linear
- multiple equations make it possible to find the best correspondence between logs and equations,
avoiding choosing parameters A and B.
- the multiple approach enables one to evaluate a number of different solutions at the same time and
to create more complex combined models.
These analytical methods require the use of highly powerful computers (workstations).