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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University

CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL


LABORATORY MANUAL

6
LC

HC

LC
1

Department of Chemical Engineering 1999

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 1


Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07


King Saud University
Chemical Engineering Department

LABORATORY MANUAL- CHE 405


PROCESS CONTROL LAB

Instructors:
Dr. Abdulhamid Ajbar
Dr. Khalid Alhumaizi
Dr. Emadadeen Ali

Teaching Assistants:
Eng. Arimao Idris

Technician:
Attyah al-zahrani
Ahmed hydra
Abdulrazzaq alshammry

Edited and typed by: Dr. Emadadeen Ali

September 1999

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

Table of Contents

Table of contents Page

Introduction 1

General Instructions 4

Report Preparation Guidelines 5

Laboratory Safety Rules 7

Exp1A: Open-loop dynamic of two interacting storage tanks 8

Exp1B: Open-loop dynamics of temperature sensors 10

Exp2: Open-loop dynamic of three stirred tanks in series 12

Exp3: Open-loop response of tank pressure to step disturbances 15

Exp4: Determination of PID Settings for Level Control System 19

Exp5: Pressure control using pneumatic Proportional controller 22

Exp6: Level automatic control with outflow 26

Exp7: Temperature Control System (Test I) 29

Exp8: Temperature Control System (Test II) 34

Exp9: Temperature Control System (Test III) 39

Exp10: Temperature Control System (Test IV) 44

Appendix A: Process Identification from Plant Data 48

Supplement 1: Digital Controller Keypad supplement (Level control system) 52

Supplement 2: Supplement for the Temperature Control Apparatus 57

Supplement 3: Write a good technical report: Chemical Engineering Article 64

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

CHE405- Chemical Engineering Lab III


(Process Dynamics and Control)

INTRODUCTION

I remember the first time I was assigned the CHE405 (Chemical Engineering Lab III)
course, I found difficulties with operating and running the Lab experiments. Although, at that
time, some fragmented handouts for the lab experiments were available, it was still not easy
to understand every detail of the experiments. I discovered that most of the small details and
tactics associated with running these pieces of equipment were stored in the memory of the
lab technicians. For this reason I decided to write our own Lab instruction manual. This effort,
thus, collects the information given in the old handouts and in instruction manuals provided
by the manufacturers and the technician experience, and compiles them in one easy-to-use
manual. This manual will not only help the student running the Lab experiments, but also
remains as a reference for future generation to come.

This lab is designed particularly to strengthen the process control theory taught in
CHE 323 (Instrumentation and Control Course) through direct visualization, observation and
implementation of basic feedback control concepts. Specifically, the students will be given
the opportunity to observe the dynamic behavior of lab-scale physical processes during step
changes and upsets. Moreover, they will be introduced to some plant instrumentation and
understand their function. Finally, Students will learn how to tune classical PI controller and
observe their real-time feedback performance.

The importance of such a Lab is attributed to the vital part that process control system
plays in the industry. The basic control loops in the plant are the necessity not the option,
without which the process can not operate. Moreover, the control system is used to maintain
plant safety, i.e. prevents flooding, dry out, explosion due to pressure buildup, over heating,
etc. Recently, process control system became of potential economic benefits. It is used to
deliver high product quality and tight product specifications. In addition, satisfying
environmental regulations is achieved through good implementation of control systems to
meet specific constraints of gaseous emissions and liquid waste.

In the following section, the general aim and the specific objectives of the existing lab
experiments are given. Possible upgrade, i.e. expected additional lab experiments, is also
presented. Next the general lab course guidelines is outlined. The following section presents
the report preparation guidelines. The last section addresses the major lab safety rules.

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 4


Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

Process Control Lab:

Aim: To strengthen the concept of dynamics, instrumentation and control of chemical


processes through lab experimentation, visualization and data analysis.

Contents: 7 existing Lab experiments*, which emphasize the following:

Introduction to temperature sensors such as thermocouple, thermostor, etc:


- calibration,
- transient responses,
- characterization of their dynamic properties,
- Comparison of different types of temperature sensors.

Introduction to open-loop dynamics of (i)Single storage tank, (ii)Two interacting tanks


and (iii)Three interacting stirred tanks:
- investigation of transient responses to step and pulse changes,
- characterization of their dynamic properties,
- verification of process non-linearity.

Introduction to open-loop and closed \loop dynamics of a Gas pressure tank:


- investigation of transient responses to step changes,
- characterization of their dynamic properties,
- verification of process non-linearity,
- Feedback performance of digital PID control system for set point changes.

Introduction to closed-loop dynamics of Liquid level in a storage tank:


- PID design and tuning:
- Analysis of offset associated with P mode
- Effect of PID parameters
- Feedback performance of digital PID control system for set point and disturbances
changes

Introduction to closed-loop dynamics of a temperature control system:


- Studying, analyzing and designing feedback control loop for the temperature of a
heated tank combined with a heat exchanger process.
- Real-time runs of digital feedback control systems (PID, On/Off).

Introduction to open-loop and closed-loop dynamics of a Gas flow system:


- Investigation of transient response to step change for three pressurized tanks in
series.
- Feedback performance of pneumatic PID control system for set point change in the
form of: Step change, Pulse change and Ramp change.

*Please check the Lab manual for more details on the experiments setup, objectives,
procedure and required analysis.

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General Instructions

References:

Process Dynamic and Control; by D. Seborg, T. Edgar, and D. Mellichamp


Principles and Practice of Automatic Control; by C. Smith and A. Corripio
Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control; by W. Luyben
Chemical Process Control; by G. Stephanopuolos.

Grading:

Attendance & participation: 10 points


Reports: 40 points
Exam or presentation: 50 points

The above grading guideline is subject to change according to the instructor approach.

Lab and Report Rules:

All students are expected to abide with the following requirements:

Respecting all lab safety regulations


Reading the experiment handout before performing the experiment, points will be
deducted for unprepared students
Delayed reports will not be accepted, if accepted under special reasons, grade will be
halved.
Reports quality should meet the specification outlined in the report guidelines discussed in
the next section.
Hand-written reports are accepted, however, typed is preferable.
The layout and organization of the reports are very important, bad-looking and
unorganized reports may be subjected to grade deduction.
The results whether in form of tables or figures should be very informative, clear and
precise that reflects the work of an Engineer.
Figures should be very well labeled and scaled.
The text should be written in the past tens or passive voice and avoid using the pronouns I
and/or We.
The student may refer to supplement 3 to find out how to enhance the quality of his report

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Report Preparation Guidelines

CHE405 lab report must contain the following items in the order listed:

Title
Summary
Objective
Theory
Procedure
Results & discussion
Conclusions
Literature cited
Nomenclature
Appendices

The following regulations should be taken care of while preparing a report, which define the
purpose of each item fo the report contents:

Title page

The title page should be in a separate page and it must consists of the following:

The name of the experiment


The course number
The name of students and their ID numbers
The date when the experiment was run and the date of submission.
The instructor name.

Summary

Summary section should be no more than one paragraph and it should summarize the
Major results of the experiment. It can include the following items:

Introduction to the subject of the specific experiment.


Brief description of the work done.
Numerical values of key results and findings.

Objective

Objective section should be 2-3 lines paragraph outlining the main objectives of the
experiment. The objective is not necessarily the same as the title.

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Theoretical background

Theory section should be no less than a page and no more than 3 pages. In the section, the
necessary equations and derivations should be presented. Theory must be pertaining to the
experiment in hand.

Procedure

In this section, the student should list the actual step-by-step used to carry out the experiment.
The student should use his own wording or at least rephrase the procedure given in the
handouts.

Results and Discussion

The collected data and calculated results can be outlined in the form of neat Tables and
Figures for best demonstration. Discussion should contain your engineering analysis of
unexpected, abnormal or contradictory results and/or of experimental design or procedure
deficiencies. Interpretation of false results or mismatch between theoretical and
experimental values can be addressed in this section.

Conclusions

Conclusion should be no more than paragraph addressing the conclusive results of the
experiment. It should also highlight some of the interesting findings or problems encountered.
Similarly, special recommendations may be expressed if any. Conclusions and
recommendation should be written in an itemized format.

Literature cited

In this section, the student should list all books, Journals articles, etc. used in preparing the
report and analyzing the results. References must be arranged alphabetically by authors
name.

Nomenclature

An alphabetical list of all symbols, variables and abbreviations used in the report should be
given in this section. Proper units should be given whenever applicable.

Appendices

Appendix section can be added to include the raw experimental data, analyzed data,
calculations, etc. Any additional data or information should also be attached to the appendix.

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Laboratory Safety Rules

The laboratory rules apply to everyone using the lab, i.e., Professor, Instructors, Teaching
assistant, Technicians, and Students.

Anyone running an experiment, in particularly students, must abide with the safety
rules posted around the labs.

All personal belongings such as books, note books, Ghutrah (head cover), etc. must
be placed in the assigned lockers. These items must not be carried on during
experiments.

Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the laboratories. Similarly, eating or drinking


is not allowed.

Laboratory apron (Lab coat) must be on at all times during experimentation


sessions.

Protective eye-glasses and gloves must be worn especially when handling


chemicals.

Students should not manipulate the laboratory equipment or their accessories unless
under the supervision of Lab personnel (Instructors, Technician).

Students are requested to remain within their experiment vicinity and should not
wander around. Mingling with other groups is not recommended.

Report any injuries regardless of its intensity.

Report any equipment faults or safety hazards to lab personnel.

Avoid unnecessary fluid leakage, waste of water, or waste of energy.

Avoid inhalation of gases and vapors of any kind.

In case of getting exposed to chemical spill, run to the emergency shower available
in the labs.

At the end of the experiment, students are requested to clean the equipment and its
surrounding and return all apparatus to its normal places. Turn off the equipment
and disconnect the power supply.

Remove all trash and place it in the receptacle.

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment #1
Part (A) Open-loop dynamic of two interacting storage tanks

Experiment
The objective of the experiment is to study the open-loop dynamic behavior of a single
storage tank and two interacting tanks to step change in feed flow rate.

Procedure
Equipment:
The schematic of the process is shown in figure 1a. The apparatus consists of two
interacting tanks and four regular manual valves. Water is supplied to the storage tanks from a
constant head tank. The latter obtains its water from a reservoir through an electric-driven
pump. The diameter of each tank is 10 cm.

Preparation and experiment steps:


1. Set valve #3 fully closed, and valve #4 and #2 fully open. Start the pump.
2. Open valve 1 to maintain steady feed flow of 0.2 GPM until steady liquid level is
established. Record the initial steady state conditions, i.e., h1ss and F1ss.
3. Introduce a specific step change in the feed flow of 0.1 GPM by increasing the opening of
valve #1. Record the new value of feed flow rate (F1).
4. Record the change in h1 with time till it reaches a new steady state. Denote this record
as data set#1.
5. Next open valve #3 fully and close valve 2 fully and reset feed flow rate (F1) to 0.2
GPM. Wait till the two tanks reach another steady state. Use this value as the initial
steady state for the next step.
6. Next make another step change in F1 of 0.1 GPM and record h1 and h2 with time till
they reach another steady state. Denote this record as data set#2.

Note: In all cases, data should be taken every 30 sec for the first 10 minutes and every 1 min
afterwards.

Results
1. Derive the theoretical equations for the response of a single tank and of two interacting
tanks to a step change assuming linear flow-height relationship.
2. Plot the measurements of the liquid levels, i.e., h1 and h2, against time using data set#1
and #2 in order to get the system response to a step change in feed flow rate.
3. Compute the experimental time constant and static gain of the first tank using the plot of
h1 versus time for data set#1. Compute also the theoretical time constant.
4. Compute the experimental static gain of the first and second tank using the plot of h1
and h2 versus time for data set#2.
5. Knowing F1 (the magnitude of step change), and using the theoretical equations
compute R1 and R2, the resistance to flow for valve 3 and 4 respectively. Knowing the
cross sectional areas of the tanks and using R1 and R2 compute the theoretical values of
1 & 2. Does 1 found in step 5 equal that found in step 3, and why?
6. Compute the theoretical value of for the second tank. Based on this value, determine
the dynamic behavior of the second tank.

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

constant head tank

valve #1

flow meter

over
flow
F1

h1 h2
valve #4

valve #2 valve #3
Feed tank

Figure 1a: Schematic of Experiment 1a (Interacting Storage Tanks)

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment #1
Part (B) Open-loop dynamics of temperature sensors

Experiment
To study the dynamic behavior of different types of temperature sensors, i.e.,
thermometer, thermocouples, etc. for step change.

Procedure
Equipment:
The experiment general layout is depicted in figure 1b. The equipment consists of
heating pot (boiler) and electric heater and is supplied with the following different types of
temperature measuring devices (sensors):
Platinum Resistance thermometer
Thermistor thermometer
Thermocouple Thermometer
Mercury-in-glass Thermometer
The temperature measurement is displayed digitally on the instrument panel.

Preparation and experiment steps:


1. Fill the tank with water and switch ON the power of the apparatus to heat up the
water. The water is heated via electrical heater.
2. Heat the water inside the boiler to a suitable temperature, (normally below the
boiling point). Consider the room temperature is the initial steady state temperature.
3. Insert the probe of one of the sensors in the tank and record its temperature reading
every 5 sec.
4. Repeat step 3 (or step 2 and 3 if the water cools down) for the other sensors.

Note: Since the dynamic of most sensors is rapid, student should follow this data collection
procedure:
1. Insert the sensor probe in the tank and record its reading in 5 sec.
2. Take the probe out of the tank and insert in a flask filled with water at room
temperature.
3. Wait till the sensor reading goes back to steady state (room temperature).
4. Insert the probe back into the hot water and record the reading at 10 sec.
5. Repeat steps 2 to 4. In each cycle increase the reading time by 5 sec.
6. The procedure should be stopped when steady state is reached.

Results
1. Plot the temperature readings versus time for each sensor.
2. Compute the experimental time constants for each device.
3. Derive the theoretical equations for the sensor dynamics.
4. Determine which sensor has faster dynamics and explain your conclusion.

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Instrument Panel

On/Off
1 0 0
Switch

Temperature Sensor

Water heater
Power Cord

Figure 1a: Schematic of Experiment 1b (Temperature Measurement System)

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department
CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab
Experiment #2
Open-loop dynamic of three stirred tanks in series

Experiment
The objective of the experiment is to study the open-loop dynamic response of the
solute concentration in three stirred tanks in series to step change and impulse change in feed
concentration.

Procedure
Equipment:
The experiment set up is shown in figure 2. The equipment consists of three
transparent vessels in series. Each vessel is provided with stirrer driven by electric motor
system. The two feed tanks contain solutions of potassium/sodium chloride of 0.1M and
0.0001M (actually it is just tab water) respectively. The conductivity of the solution in each
tank can be measured by a conductivity bridge which is connected to three-way selector
switch. The conductivity can be related to the concentration as follows:

1000 KG
C=
L
where: G = conductivity measurement
K = conductivity cell constant
L = equivalent conductance

Or the concentration can be calculated directly from the following relations:

C1 = 0.0141G1 0.0076
C2 = 0.0147G2 0.0077
C3 = 0.0131G3 0.0074

The following table gives the numerical values of the process parameters:

Diameter (cm) steady state height (cm) cell constant


Tank1 10.5 11 1.46
Tank2 10.5 10.8 1.45
Tank3 10.5 10.5 1.35

Preparation:

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1. Feed the system with 0.0001M solution first until tanks are full and the liquid
levels have established. Keep the feed flow constant at 60 lt/hr.
2. Record the initial conductivity for each tank and denoted as Gi(0), i=1,2,3.

Experiment steps:
1. Using the three-way valve, suddenly switch from 0.0001M to 0.1M solution and keep
at flow rate of [60 lt/hr ] for 30 seconds only and return to 0.0001M solution.
2. Record the conductivity in each tank simultaneously every minute until the
concentration return back to steady state.
3. Using the three-way valve, switch from 0.0001M to 0.1M and keep the flow rate
constant at [20 lt/hr ].
4. Record the conductivity in each tank simultaneously every 30 seconds till new steady
state is reached.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the three stirred tanks.
2. Derive the time response of the first tank for step change and impulse change in the
feed concentration.
3. Plot the system response of all tanks, (concentration versus time) for step and pulse
changes.
4. Compute the experimental time constant and static gain for the first tank from the
step change experiment.
5. Compute the theoretical time constant and static gain of the first tank and compare it
to the experimental one.
6. Compute the experimental static gain and time constant for the first tank using the
impulse change response.
7. Approximate the step response for the second and thirst tank with first-order system
with delay and estimate the time delay in each case.

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3-way
switch

constant head tanks

Stirrer motor

flow meter

over over
flow flow

3-way
3-way valve switch

Drain

00:0
1
2

Conductivity
Feed tanks Bridge

Figure 2: Schematic of Experiment 2 (Stirred Tanks System)

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment #3
Open-loop response of tank pressure to step disturbances

Experiment
The objectives of the experiment are to
Determine the open-loop time response of the pipe pressure to step changes in the feed
and outlet flow rates.
Determine the effect of the steady state operating condition on the open-loop response
characteristics for the process.
Assess the non-linearity of the process dynamics.

Procedure
Equipment:
The experiment set up is shown in figure 3a. The tank is supplied with constant air
flow rate through air inlet nozzle. Regulation of the pipe pressure is obtained through
pneumatically operated control valve or hand operated exhaust valve. Controller
configuration can be achieved by adjustment of the internal controller dial mounted in the
back of the apparatus. The front panel contains the control switches and scale as detailed by
figure 3b.

Preparation:
1. Connect the receiver and the regulator air lines to the air source. Open the air source
valves to start filling the tank with air and to activate the pneumatic controller.
2. Open the hand-operated exhaust valve fully.
3. Using the front panel transfer switch, set the operation to MAN. This enables manual
operation of the process.
4. Adjust the thumb wheel in the front panel switch until red pointer B indicating a set
point of 100%. Wait till the pressure (PV) reaches final steady state.
5. Set the red pointer B again to 50%, and wait till the system reaches this value as
indicated by the black pointer A. Denote this as the initial steady state of PV.

Experiment steps:
(a) Assessment of the non-linearity of the process dynamic
1. Decrease the controller output (valve opening) by small amount corresponding to
40% on the gauge by adjusting the red pointer (B) using the thumb wheel. This
introduces step disturbance in the outlet flow rate.
2. Record the pressure changes in the test pipe every 30 sec until new steady state
conditions are obtained. Pressure changes are indicated by the green pointer in the
scale or by the black pointer A in the gauge
3. Adjust the set point back to its original value of 50% and allow the system to re-
stabilize
(b) Effect of steady state operating condition on dynamic characteristics:

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1. Increase the controller output (valve opening) by small amount corresponding to 60%
on the gauge by adjusting the red pointer (B) using the thumb wheel.
2. Record the pressure changes in the test pipe every 30 sec until new steady state
conditions are obtained.
3. Increase the controller output (valve opening) by small amount corresponding to 70%
on the gauge by adjusting the red pointer (B) using the thumb wheel.
4. Record the pressure changes in the test pipe every 30 sec until new steady state
conditions are obtained.
5. Adjust the set point back to its original value of 50% and allow the system to re-
stabilize
(c) Open-loop dynamic response to step disturbances in the feed flow:
1. Reduce the inlet flow arbitrary by closing its valve. This introduces disturbance in the
inlet flow rate.
2. Record the pressure changes in the test pipe every 30 sec until new steady state
conditions are obtained.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the pressure inside the tank and the step response of
the pressure to step changes in outlet flow.
2. Plot the pressure response versus time for 10% step change in part (a).
3. Compute the experimental time constant and static gain.
4. Plot the pressure response versus time for the two positive steps in part (b).
5. Compute the time constant and static gain for each case and compare them.
6. Based on the comparison, discuss the effect of the operating condition on the
dynamic characteristics.
7. Compare the dynamic characteristics obtained for 10% step change in part (a) and
for +10% change in part (b).
8. Based on the comparison discuss whether the process behave linearly or not.
9. Plot the pressure response obtained from step 9. Compute the time constant and static
gain and compare it for that obtained from 60% change in outlet flow.
10. Discuss your comparison and indicate whether the two disturbances, i.e., feed and
outlet flow rate, has the same directional effect on the process output, i.e. pressure.

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Relief valve Pressure Gauge

Recorder

Air inlet
Front panel
station

Pneumatic control valve


Hand operated
Drain valve Exhaust valve

Figure 3a: Schematic of experiment 3 (Pressure/ Flow system)

Selector switch Transfer switch Red pointer (PV)

valve MAN

50
Reg AUTO 100
B
Green pointer (SP)

A 50
0 0 100

0
Gauge

Thumbwheel

Figure 3b: Front panel switch and scale

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment #4
Determination of PID Settings for Level Control System

Experiment
The objective of the experiment is to determine the PID Controller settings, i.e., kc, I, d,
using:
Open-loop testing (Reaction curve method) based on the Coon and Cohen method.
Closed-loop testing (Ultimate gain method) based on the Ziegler and Nichols method.

Procedure
Equipment:
The experiment set up is shown in figure 4. The apparatus consists of a transparent
vessel of 60 cm in length and 11.4 cm in diameter supplied with water from a reservoir by a
centrifugal pump. The water reaches the vessel through a control valve (CV) and drains back
through a manual drain valve. The pump has a hand-operated (manual) bypass valve to enable
disturbances to be given to the flow. The apparatus is provided with a chart recorder and
scale. A control keypad is also provided for controller configuration and process operation.
Detailed description of the control keypad is given in the apparatus supplement. An example
of how to set up the function for steps 1 to 3 (part B) of this experiment is also given in the
supplement.

Preparation:
1. Connect the regulator airline to the air source. Open the air source valves to activate
the pressure transmitter (not shown in the figure).
2. Turn on the power switch.
3. Set the bypass valve fully open and the drain valve fully closed.
4. Turn on the pump switch.
5. Using the control keypad set the operation to MAN, i.e. manual operation.
6. Using the (up and down keys) of the control keypad adjust the controller output (i.e.,
control valve opening) to 50%.
7. Close the bypass valve fully.
8. Gradually open the drain valve till a steady state level in the vessel is established.
9. The steady state level (hss) is normally between 20 and 30 cm. Record this value.

Experiment steps:
(A) Open-loop test
1. With the controller is on MAN and controller output at 50%;
2. Using the control keypad, change the controller output from 50% to 60%.
3. Record the value of the level every 10 sec, till the level becomes steady.
4. Reset the controller output to 50% and wait till the system restabilize.

(B) Closed-loop test using P mode only


1. Using the keypad set the algorithm function to PD+MR. This set the controller to
proportional mode only.

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2. With the controller is on MAN and controller output at 50%, Using the tuning
function, set:

100
PB = 20% Rate d < 0.08
kc
Rset I = 0 SP = PV h ss

1. Using (the up and down keys) of the control keypad increase the set point (SP) to 30
cm
2. Using the control keypad, change the operation from MAN to AUTO.
3. Record the value of the level every 10 sec till the level becomes steady.
4. Reset the controller to MAN and the controller output to 50% and wait till the
conditions becomes steady again.
5. Repeat steps 1 through 5 increasing, each time, the value of kc, i.e., decreasing PB until
steady oscillatory level behavior is obtained. Specifically take PB=10%, 1% and 0.1%.
6. Denote the value of kc that gives the steady oscillatory response as kcu.

Note:
Try always to use the same set point value for all runs.
To capture the steady oscillation at PB=0.1%, use smaller sampling frequency as soon
as the process reaches the set point for the first time.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the fluid level in the tank.
2. Derive the closed-loop response for the system using Proportional controller.
3. Plot the level open-loop response versus time. Denote it as the open-loop curve.
4. Using the open-loop curve, compute the process time constant, dead time, and
steady state gain from which compute the controller settings using the Coon and
Cohen method.
5. Plot the closed-loop responses and compute the overshoot and offset in each
case.
6. Using the closed-loop curve that correspond to the ultimate gain, compute the
ultimate period of oscillation and thus compute the PI controller settings using
the Ziegler and Nichols method.

Note: If the dead time can not be computed easily from the open-loop curve, refer to
Principles and Practice of Automatic Control; by S. Corripio, for a way to compute it.

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Chart recorder
Power switch Pump switch

H 0:0
Out 0:0
Func L D Man
Set

Control keypad
Socket

overflow pipe

Jack Plug

Drain valve

Control valve
S

Bypass valve

Reservoir
Pump

Figure 4: Schematic of Experiment 4 (Level control system)

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King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment #5
Pressure control using pneumatic Proportional controller

Experiment
The objectives of the experiment are to
Determine the response of the pipe pressure to change in the set point for different
values of the controller gain setting.
Determine the closed-loop response characteristics for the different values of the
controller gain setting.

Procedure
Equipment:
The experiment set up is shown in figure 5a. The tank is supplied with constant air
flow rate through air inlet nozzle. Regulation of the pipe pressure is obtained through
pneumatically operated control valve or hand operated exhaust valve. Controller
configuration can be achieved by adjustment of the internal controller dial mounted in the
back of the apparatus. The front panel contains the control switches and scale as detailed in
figure 5b.

Preparation:
1. Connect the receiver and the regulator air lines to the air source. Open the air source
valves to start filling the tank with air and to activate the pneumatic controller.
2. Open the hand-operated exhaust valve fully.
3. Using the front panel transfer switch, set the operation to MAN. This enables manual
operation of the process.
4. Adjust the thumb wheel in the front panel switch until red pointer B indicating a set
point of 100%. Wait till the pressure (PV) reaches final steady state.
5. Set the red pointer B again to 50%, and wait till the system reaches this value as
indicated by the black pointer A. Denote this as the initial steady state of PV.
6. Set the transfer switch to Auto. This enables the automatic regulation of the process.

Experiment steps:
1. Using the internal regulator dial, set the Proportional band (PB) to 2% and set the
integral and derivative action to minimum.
2. Increase the set point by small amount corresponding to 60% on the gauge by
adjusting the set point thumb wheel.
3. Record the pressure changes in the test pipe every 10 sec until new steady state
conditions are obtained. Pressure changes are indicated by the green pointer in the
scale or by the black pointer A in the gauge.
4. Adjust the set point back to its original value of 50% and allow the system to re-
stabilize.
5. Repeat steps 2 to 4 for PB = 10, 50, 100 and 200%.

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Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the pressure inside the tank.
2. Derive the closed-loop response for the system using Proportional controller.
3. Plot the pressure response versus time for the different values of PB.
4. Compute the decay ratio, rise time, overshoot, and steady state offset for each
case.
5. Identify a first-order system from the closed-loop test for the case of PB=10%.

Relief valve Pressure Gauge

Recorder

Air inlet
Front panel
station

Pneumatic control valve


Hand operated
Drain valve Exhaust valve

Figure 5a: Schematic of experiment 5 (Pressure/ Flow system)

Selector switch Transfer switch Red pointer (PV)

valve MAN

50
Reg AUTO 100
B
Green pointer (SP)

A 50
0 0 100

0
Gauge

Thumbwheel

Figure 5b: Front panel switch and scale

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 24


Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment #6
Level automatic control with outflow

Experiment
The objectives of the experiment are to
Determine the closed-loop response of the fluid level to change in the set point
using PID controller with optimum controller settings.
Determine the closed-loop response of the fluid level to step disturbance using PID
controller with optimum controller settings.

Procedure
Equipment:
The experiment set up is shown in figure 6. The apparatus consists of a transparent
vessel of 60 cm in length and 11.4 cm in diameter supplied with water from a reservoir by a
centrifugal pump. The water reaches the vessel through a control valve (CV) and drains back
through a manual drain valve. The pump has a hand-operated (manual) bypass valve to enable
disturbances to be given to the flow. The apparatus is provided with a chart recorder and
scale. A control keypad is also provided for controller configuration and process operation.
Detailed description of the control keypad is given in the apparatus supplement.

Preparation:
1. Connect the regulator air line to the air source. Open the air source valves to activate the
pressure transmitter (not shown in the figure).
2. Turn ON the power switch.
3. Set the bypass valve fully open and the drain valve fully closed.
4. Turn ON the pump switch.
5. Using the control keypad set the operation to MAN, i.e. manual operation.
6. Using the (up and down keys) of the control keypad adjust the controller output (i.e.,
control valve opening) to 50%.
7. Close the bypass valve fully.
8. Gradually open the drain valve till a steady state level in the vessel is established.
9. The steady state level (hss) is normally between 20 and 30 cm. Record this value.

Experiment steps:
1. With the controller is on MAN and controller output at 50%, set:

100
PB = 100% Rate d = 0.2
kc
Rset I = 0.5 SP = PV h ss

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2. Using (the up and down keys) of the control keypad increase the set point (SP) by some
amount say, 12 cm.
3. Configure the set point ramp using the control keypad by setting SP Ramp to ENABLE ,
Time MIN to 5, and Final SP to SP plus 40%.
4. Using the control keypad, change the controller from MAN to AUTO and press the
RUN/HOLD key.
5. Record the value of the level with time till the level becomes steady.
6. Reset the controller to MAN and the controller output to 50% and wait till the conditions
becomes steady again.
7. With the system at the initial steady state, i.e., controller output = 50%, set controller to
AUTO and introduce a step change in one the following:

Pump speed
bypass valve opening
drain valve opening

8. Record the level response with time till the level returns back to the initial steady state.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the fluid level in the tank.
2. Derive the closed-loop response for the system using PID controller.
3. Plot the level closed-loop response versus time using PID for set point change.
4. Plot the level closed-loop response versus time using PID for step disturbance.

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Chart recorder
Power switch Pump switch

H 0:0
Out 0:0
Func L D Man
Set

Control keypad
Socket

overflow pipe

Jack Plug

Drain valve

Control valve
S

Bypass valve

Reservoir
Pump

Figure 6: Schematic of Experiment 6 (Level control system)

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 27


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King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment # 7
Temperature Control System (Test I)

Experiment
The main objectives of the experiment are to:
Demonstrate the control of process fluid temperature (TC4) through manipulating the
electrical heater via on/off relay.
Demonstrate the effect of instrumentation hysteresis on control performance.

Procedure
Equipment:
The apparatus consists of an Electrical console (PCT10) shown in figure TS1 in the
attached supplement and a Temperature control module (PCT13) shown in figure 7. The
process consists of a heating fluid reservoir with a built-in electrical heater. The heating fluid
(water) circulates between the reservoir and plate heat exchanger through circulating pump.
At the heat exchanger, the heating fluid exchange heat with cold water supplied from an
external source. The cold water flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V1), while the hot
fluid flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V2) or motorized valve. Four thermocouples are
installed in different locations to measure the fluid temperature; TC1 & TC2 measures the
inlet and outlet temperature of the heating fluid, TC3 & TC4 measure the inlet and outlet
temperature of the cold fluid. Either the motor valve or the electrical heater can be
manipulated to regulate TC1 or TC4. Full details on the process module and the electrical
console can be found in the instruction manuals provided by the manufacturer.

Preparation:
1. Fill the reservoir with approximately 4 liters of water. Close drain valve (V3).
2. Connect a cold water supply to the process fluid inlet.
3. Make sure hat a proper drain connection is installed/
4. Connect the main power plug to a 110VAC outlet.
5. Switch on the PCT10.
6. Connect the pump plug to the 240VAC outlets on the side of PCT10.
7. Open the manual valves V1 and V2 to let the fluid circulate in the process.
8. Make sure that the motor valve is fully open.

Experiment steps:
1. Adjust V1 to give 150 cm3/min on F1 and V2 to give 280 cm3/min on F2.
2. Connect PCT13 with PCT10 as shown in figure 7a.

Run 1:
3. Record the initial values of TC4 and TC1. They should be at room temperature.

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4. Initiate the controller with the settings given in table 7a. Full details on how to set and
operate the controller are given in the Temperature control supplement.
5. Connect the heater plug immediately and start the timer.
6. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required settings (40
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum. Allow at least 45 minutes to reach the steady
state.
Run 2: .7
8. Using the Lower and Raise keys of the controller, reset the set point to 45 oC, and restart
the timer.
9. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required settings (45
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum. Allow at least 45 minutes to reach the steady
state.
Run 3: .10
11. Reset the set point to 40 oC and wait till system goes back to the required temperature. This
may take 30-60 minutes.
12. Reset the set point to 45 oC and Hysts to 0.1% and restart the timer.
13. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required settings (45 oC)
and oscillates around the new datum. Allow for at least 45 minutes to reach the steady
state.

Notes:
It is advisable to unplug wiring sockets from the controller during controller
configuration.
Data should be recorded every 30 seconds.
Continuously adjust V2 to give 280 cm3/min on F2 as the flow rate may change
due to heating effect.

Further Experiments:
Set TC1 as the controlled variable.
Effect of different values for cycle time (Cyct).

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the system.
2. Plot the collected data.
3. Discuss your results.

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Controller Settings Code Value


Set Point (no code) 40 (%)

Proportional Band ProP 0 (%)

Integral Time Int 0 min

Derivative Time dEr 0 sec

Cycle Time CY-t 1 sec

Not Used CL-G Any

Not Used HC-O Any

Not Used UP-t Any

Hysteresis HYSt 1 (%)


(deadband)

Power Limit Pr-L 100 (%)

Set Point Limit SP-L 100 (%)

Range CS-1 - 0 5 8

Reverse Action CS-2 - r L F

Not used CS-3 A H A H

Auto Tune (off) CS-4 n C U 0

Address CS-5 - - 0 0

Baud rate CS-6 - - - 3

CTRL/VDU CS-7 - - - 0

Table 7a: Controller settings for Experiment 7

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Figure 7: Schematic of Temperature control module

TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2 Heat
Exchanger

TC1

F2
F1
PUMP

V1 V2

T/STAT

Hot fluid
V3

cold fluid

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Voltmeter

Process Controller
Siganl Conditioning CH1
V
0-1V output 4-20mA output

Siganl Conditioning CH2

0-1V output 4-20mA output

TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2
Heat
Exchanger

TC1

PUMP F2
F1

PCT10 Right Side


V1 V2

240V ~ 240V ~
T/STAT

V3

Figure 7a: Equipment set-up diagram for experiment 7

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 32


Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment # 8
Temperature Control System (Test II)

Experiment
The main objectives of the experiment are to:
Demonstrate the control of process fluid temperature (TC4) through manipulating
the motorized valve (heating fluid flow) via PID controller.
Demonstrate the effect of disturbance in cold fluid flow on control performance.

Procedure
Equipment:
The apparatus consists of an Electrical console (PCT10) shown in figure TS1 in the
attached supplement and a Temperature control module (PCT13) shown in figure 8. The
process consists of a heating fluid reservoir with built-in electrical heater. The heating fluid
(water) circulates between the reservoir and plate heat exchanger through circulating pump.
At the heat exchanger, the heating fluid exchange heat with cold water supplied from an
external source. The cold water flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V1), while the hot
fluid flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V2) or motorized valve. Four thermocouples
are installed in different locations to measure the fluid temperature; TC1 & TC2 measures the
inlet and outlet temperature of the heating fluid, TC3 & TC4 measure the inlet and outlet
temperature of the cold fluid. Either the motor valve or the electrical heater can be
manipulated to regulate TC1 or TC4. Full details on the process module and the electrical
console can be found in the instruction manuals provided by the manufacturer.

Preparation:
1. Fill the reservoir with approximately 4 liters of water. Close drain valve (V3).
2. Connect a cold water supply to the process fluid inlet.
3. Make sure a proper drain connection is installed.
4. Connect the main power plug to a 110VAC outlet.
5. Switch on the PCT10 by depressing the power button.
6. Connect the pump plug to the 240VAC outlets on the side of PCT10.
7. Open the manual valves V1 and V2 to let the fluid circulate in the process.
8. Make sure that the motor valve is fully open.

Experiment steps:
1. Adjust V1 to give 150 cm3/min on F1 and V2 to give 280 cm3/min on F2.
2. Connect PCT13 with PCT10 as shown in figure 8a.
Run 1:
3. Record the initial temperature readings for TC1 and TC4.
4. Connect the heater plug as shown in figure 8a. Start the timer.
5. Set the controller on manual operation and let the process heats up in an open-loop
fashion.

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6. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC1 reaches the maximum
allowable settings (around 80 oC) and oscillates around the new datum. Allow for at
least 45 minute to reach this setting.
Run 2:
1. Set the controller on auto operation, reset the set point for TC4 to 55 oC, and configure
the controller according to Table 8a. Restart the timer.
2. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required settings (55
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum. Allow for at least 45 minute to reach this
setting.
Run 3:
1. While TC4 is around 55 oC, adjust V1 to reduce the cold fluid flow to 70 cm3/min.
2. Restart the timer.
3. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required settings (55
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum. Allow for at least 45 minute to reach this
setting.

Notes:
It is advisable to unplug wiring sockets from the controller during
controller configuration.
Data should be recorded every 30 seconds.

Further Experiments:
Effect of different disturbance values for V1.
Effect of different values for Prop, Int, Der.
Effect of different value for Cyct.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the system.
2. Plot the collected data.
3. Discuss your results.

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Controller Settings Code Value


Set Point (no code) (%)

Proportional Band ProP (%)

Integral Time Int min

Derivative Time dEr 6 sec

Cycle Time CY-t 20 sec

Not Used CL-G Any

Not Used HC-O Any

Not Used UP-t Any

Hysteresis HYSt 0.1 (%)


(deadband)

Power Limit Pr-L 100 (%)

Set Point Limit SP-L 100 (%)

Range CS-1 - 0 5 8

Reverse Action CS-2 - r L F

Not used CS-3 A H A H

Auto Tune (off) CS-4 n C U 0

Address CS-5 - - 0 0

Baud rate CS-6 - - - 3

CTRL/VDU CS-7 - - - 0

Table 8a: Controller settings for Experiment 8.

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TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2 Heat
Exchanger

TC1

F1 F2

PUMP

V1 V2

T/STAT

V3 Hot fluid

cold fluid

Figure 8: Schematic of Temperature control module

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Voltmeter

Process Controller
Siganl Conditioning CH1
V
0-1V output 4-20mA output

Siganl Conditioning CH2

0-1V output 4-20mA output

TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2
Heat
Exchanger

TC1

Motor Positioner
PUMP F2
F1

PCT10 Right Side


V1 V2

240V ~ 240V ~
T/STAT

V3

Figure 8a: Equipment set-up diagram for experiment 8

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 37


Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment # 9
Temperature Control System (Test III)

Experiment
The main objectives of the experiment are to:
Demonstrate the control of heating fluid temperature (TC1) through manipulating the
electrical heater.
Demonstrate the effect of (P) Proportional only, (P+I) Proportional plus Integral,
(P+D) Proportional plus derivative modes on control performance.

Procedure
Equipment:
The apparatus consists of an Electrical console (PCT10) shown in figure TS1 in the
attached supplement and a Temperature control module (PCT13) shown in figure 7. The
process consists of a heating fluid reservoir with built-in electrical heater. The heating fluid
(water) circulates between the reservoir and plate heat exchanger through circulating pump.
At the heat exchanger, the heating fluid exchange heat with cold water supplied from an
external source. The cold water flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V1), while the hot
fluid flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V2) or motorized valve. Four thermocouples are
installed in different locations to measure the fluid temperature; TC1 & TC2 measures the
inlet and outlet temperature of the heating fluid, TC3 & TC4 measure the inlet and outlet
temperature of the cold fluid. Either the motor valve or the electrical heater can be
manipulated to regulate TC1 or TC4. Full details on the process module and the electrical
console can be found in the instruction manuals provided by the manufacturer.

Preparation:
1. Fill the reservoir with approximately 4 liters of water. Close drain valve (V3).
2. Connect a cold water supply to the process fluid inlet.
3. Make sure a proper drain connection is installed.
4. Connect the main power plug to a 110VAC outlet.
5. Switch on the PCT10 by depressing the power button.
6. Connect the pump plug to the 240VAC outlets on the side of PCT10.
7. Open the manual valves V1 and V2 to let the fluid circulate in the process.
8. Make sure that the motor valve is fully open.

Experiment steps:
1. Adjust V1 to give 150 cm3/min on F1 and V2 to give 280 cm3/min on F2.
2. Connect PCT13 with PCT10 as shown in figure 7a.
3. Record the initial readings for TC4 and TC1.
4. Initiate the controller with the settings given in table 9a. Full details on how to set and
operate the controller are given in the Temperature control supplement. Start the timer
and record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time.

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Run 1: (P only)
1. As soon as TC1 reaches 29 oC, reset Proportional band to 5% and restart the timer.
2. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC1 reaches the required settings (35
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum.
Run 2: (P+I)
1. Unplug the heater power cord from the PCT10. Set the controller to manual operation.
2. Leave the process to cool down to 30 oC. This takes 40-60 minutes.
3. Set the controller to auto operation.
4. Reset Int=1 min, plug the heater cord as in figure 9a and restart the timer.
5. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC1 reaches the required settings (35
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum.
Run 3: (P+D)
1. Unplug the heater power cord from the PCT10. Set the controller to manual operation.
2. Leave the process to cool down to30 oC. This takes 40-60 minutes.
3. Set the controller to auto operation.
4. Reset Int=0 min and dEr=6 sec, plug the heater cord as in figure 9a.
5. Restart the timer and record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC1 reaches the
required settings (35 oC) and oscillates around the new datum.

Notes:
It is advisable to unplug wiring sockets from the controller during controller
configuration.
Data should be recorded every 30 seconds.
Continuously adjust V2 to give 280 cm3/min on F2 as the flow changes due to
heating effect.
Omit run3 if time does not allow.

Further Experiments:
Set TC4 as the controlled variable instead of TC1
Effect of different constant value for V1.
Effect of different values of Prop with Int=0 and dEr=0.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the system.
2. Plot the collected data.
3. Discuss your results.

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Controller Settings Code Value


Set Point (no code) 35 (%)

Proportional Band ProP 0 (%)

Integral Time Int 0


min
Derivative Time dEr 0
sec
Cycle Time CY-t 20
sec
Not Used CL-G Any

Not Used HC-O Any

Not Used UP-t Any

Hysteresis (deadband) HYSt 0.1


(%)
Power Limit Pr-L 100
(%)
Set Point Limit SP-L 100
(%)
Range CS-1 - 0 5 8

Reverse Action CS-2 - r L F

Not used CS-3 A H A H

Auto Tune (off) CS-4 n C U 0

Address CS-5 - - 0 0

Baud rate CS-6 - - - 3

CTRL/VDU CS-7 - - - 0

Table 9a: Controller settings for Experiment 9.

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TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2 Heat
Exchanger

TC1

F2
F1
PUMP

V1 V2

T/STAT

Hot fluid
V3

cold fluid

Figure 9: Schematic of Temperature control module

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Voltmeter

Process Controller
Siganl Conditioning CH1
V
0-1V output 4-20mA output

Siganl Conditioning CH2

0-1V output 4-20mA output

TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2
Heat
Exchanger

TC1

PUMP F2
F1

PCT10 Right Side


V1 V2

240V ~ 240V ~
T/STAT

V3

Figure 9a: Equipment set-up diagram for experiment 9

Chemical Engineering Department/KSU 1.0 42


Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

King Saud University


Chemical Engineering Department

CHE405 Chemical Process Control Lab


Experiment # 10
Temperature Control System (Test IV)

Experiment
The main objective of the experiment is to:
Demonstrate typical procedures for optimizing the settings of PID controller as
follows:
Ultimate period (Ziegler-Nichols) method. (closed-loop)
Reaction curve method. (open-loop).

Procedure
Equipment:
The apparatus consists of an Electrical console (PCT10) shown in figure TS1 in the
attached supplement and a Temperature control module (PCT13) shown in figure 10. The
process consists of a heating fluid reservoir with built-in electrical heater. The heating fluid
(water) circulates between the reservoir and plate heat exchanger through circulating pump.
At the heat exchanger, the heating fluid exchange heat with cold water supplied from an
external source. The cold water flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V1), while the hot
fluid flow can be adjusted via manual valve (V2) or motorized valve. Four thermocouples
are installed in different locations to measure the fluid temperature; TC1 & TC2 measures the
inlet and outlet temperature of the heating fluid, TC3 & TC4 measure the inlet and outlet
temperature of the cold fluid. Either the motor valve or the electrical heater can be
manipulated to regulate TC1 or TC4. Full detail on the process module and electrical console
can be found in the instruction manuals provided by the manufacturer.

Preparation:
1. Fill the reservoir with approximately 4 liters of water. Close drain valve (V3).
2. Connect a cold water supply to the process fluid inlet.
3. Make sure that a proper drain connection is installed.
4. Connect the main power plug to a 110VAC outlet.
5. Switch the PCT10 on by depressing the power button.
6. Connect the pump plug to the 240VAC outlets on the side of PCT10.
7. Open the manual valves V1 and V2 to let the fluid circulate in the process.
8. Make sure that the motor vale is fully open.

Experiment steps:
1. Adjust V1 to give 150 cm3/min and V2 to give 280 cm3/min.
2. Connect PCT13 with PCT10 as shown in figure 10a.
Run 1:
1. Record the initial readings for TC4 and TC1.

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2. Initiate the controller settings as given in Table 10a, plug the heater cord and start the
timer.
3. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required set point. (40
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum. Allow for at least 45 minute to reach this
setting and to ensure that TC1 has reached the maximum value (around 80 oC).
Run 2: (Ultimate period method)
1. While TC4 is around its set point, decrease the proportional band and introduce step
change in the process fluid flow (by 20 cm3/min). Restart the timer.
2. Record the value of TC4 and TC1 with time till TC4 reaches the required settings (40
o
C) and oscillates around the new datum.
3. Repeat steps 5 and 6 till the process variable continually oscillates. The step change
should alternate between positive and negative change.
4. Record the setting of the proportional band PBc at which continual cycling occurs.
From the trace obtained on the recorded measure the period of oscillation Pc in
minutes.
Run 3: (Reaction curve method)
1. Set the controller to manual operation. Record the readings of F2 & TC4.
2. Adjust the output from the controller to give a process variable reading of 50%.
3. Leave the controller on manual operation. Note the applied step change M%.
4. Restart the timer.
5. Record the value of TC4 with time till it reaches a new steady state value. The recorded
data is known as the open-loop response.

Notes:
It is advisable to unplug wiring sockets from the controller during controller
configuration.
Data should be recorded every 30 seconds. However for run 2, take record every 10
seconds. For Run 3 take record every 10 for the first 2 minutes then switch to 30
seconds.
The controlled variable may not reach its set point exactly since the controller is on P
only mode.

Results
1. Derive the dynamic model for the system.
2. Plot the closed-loop response data and determine the PID settings
3. Plot the open-loop response data and determine the PID settings.

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Controller Settings Code Value


Set Point (no code) 40 (%)

Proportional Band ProP 10 (%)

Integral Time Int 0


min
Derivative Time dEr 0 sec

Cycle Time CY-t 20 sec

Not Used CL-G Any

Not Used HC-O Any

Not Used UP-t Any

Hysteresis HYSt 0.1 (%)

Power Limit Pr-L 100 (%)

Set Point Limit SP-L 100 (%)

Range CS-1 - 0 5 8

Reverse Action CS-2 - r L F

Not used CS-3 A H A H

Auto Tune (off) CS-4 n C U 0

Address CS-5 - - 0 0

Baud rate CS-6 - - - 3

CTRL/VDU CS-7 - - - 0

Table 10a: Controller settings for Experiment 10.

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TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2 Heat
Exchanger

TC1

F1 F2

PUMP

V1 V2

T/STAT

Hot fluid
V3

cold fluid

Figure 10: Schematic of Temperature control module


46

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Chemical Process Dynamics and Control Lab 25/10/07

Voltmeter

Process Controller
Siganl Conditioning CH1
V
0-1V output 4-20mA output

Siganl Conditioning CH2

0-1V output 4-20mA output

TC3 TC4
Motor
Valve

TC2
Heat
Exchanger

TC1

Motor Positioner
PUMP F2
F1

PCT10 Right Side


V1 V2

240V ~ 240V ~
T/STAT

V3

Figure 10a: Equipment set-up diagram for experiment 10


47

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Appendix A
Process Identification form plant data

This section illustrates how to identify a linear model in the form of transfer function from
plant data. The plant data can be generated by simple step change or pulse change. Here, only
first-order or second-order transfer function can be estimated. For more complicated models,
the student is advised to consult specialized books.

(1) First-order system

From step change:


1.1 without dead time: Gp(s) = kp/(s+1)
can be identified from a step change as shown in figure 1A part(b). Note that kp=x/u
and is estimated directly from the figure.
1.2 with dead time: Gp(s) = kp/(s+1)e-s
can be identified from a step change as shown in figure 1A part(a). Note that kp=x/u
and & are estimated directly from the figure.

From pulse change:


Using figure 2A we can determine the following:

Static gain: kp = (area under output response curve)/ (area of input pulse)
Time constant: = tm / ln(xmax/a)
Dead time: estimate directly from the figure.

(2) Second order system

From step change:


Using figure 3A we can determine the following:
x x (0)
Static gain: k p = ss
u

Damping ratio: solve A = exp( 2 ) for .


B
T
Natural period of oscillation: = 2

2
Where = 1

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u(t)

t
t=0

x (t)
xss

(a)
x

xss
x (t)
0.632 xss
(b)
x

Figure A1: Output response to input step change

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u(t)

t
t=0 t=tm

x(t)

xmax

t=0
t
ts

Figure A2: Output response to input pulse change

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u (t)

t
t=0
T
x (t)
xss

A B

t=0
t

Figure A3: Output response to a step change for underdamped system

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Level Control system


Digital controller keypad supplement

The level control system is provided with digital controller display and keypad (set of
buttons) as shown by figure LS1. The keypad is used mainly for configuring the controller
and operating the system. The purpose of this supplement is to give the user a simple brief
introduction to the keypad function and manipulation. Detailed information can be found in
the product manual.

Honeywell

ALM

PV
3000
RSP

OUT
SP 3000
Lower MAN Auto
FUNC
Disp Auto tune

Run
Set Up
Hold

Figure LS1: Digital controller keypad

As shown by the figure, the keypad consists of a display screen and 8 key buttons. The
function of these buttons are as follows:

Function keys:

SET UP Set Up key: is used to select 12 different controller configuration


groups. Scrolling through these groups can be achieved by simply
pressing the SET UP key.

Function key: is used in conjunction with [SET UP] to select different


FUNC
sub-groups or individual functions. Scrolling through these functions
can be achieved by simply pressing the FUNC key

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Lower Lower display key: Select which process parameter to be displayed on the
Disp lower part of the display screen. The available process parameters to be shown
is mentioned later.

Man Manual/Automatic key: Alternately select manual or automatic control mode.


Auto

Raise (UP) key: increase the parameter or configuration function values



Lower (Down) key: decrease the parameter or configuration function values.

Auto Auto tune key: starts the auto tune procedure.
tune

Run Run/Hold key: To run or hold the set point ramp or program
Hold

Among these keys, the last two keys are for advance operation and hence shall not be utilized
in our experiments. The main configuration groups and their corresponding individual
functions are listed in figure LS2. To select a specific configuration function, one simply
press the SET UP key (button) repeatedly till the required configuration group appears on the
lower part of the display screen, then press the FUNC key repeatedly till the specific function
appears on the lower part of the display screen. Altering the corresponding value or status of
the configuration function can be simply achieved by pressing the up or down keys. The
default settings for all the controller configuration functions are listed in table LS1.

Among all the configuration function, we will be interested mainly in the Algorithm and
Tuning functions. The Algorithm function will be used to select the type of controller mode,
i.e., P, PI, PID, etc. The Tuning function will be used to appoint the numerical value of the
controller settings, i.e. PB, reset time, rate time, etc.

Display screen:
The display consists of lower and upper parts. Each part display different items under two
modes: normal mode, and configuration mode, i.e., when the controller is being configured by
the set up key

The upper display:


Normal mode: shows the numerical value of the process variable, i.e., the fluid
level in this case.
Configuration mode: shows either the numerical value or the status of the selected
individual function

The lower display:

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Normal operation: shows the numerical values of different process parameters.


Part of which are:
OUT: controller output
SP: set point
DEV: deviation of process variable from set point
Configuration mode: shows the option of the configuration groups or the
individual functions.

Example: Steps 1 to 3 part (B) of Exp4


Step 1:
1. Press the Set Up key till the prompt Algorithm appears on the lower part of the
display screen. Press the FUNC key till the Cont. Alg. Prompt appears on the lower
part of the screen.
2. Now press the Up and/or Down key till PD+MR prompt appears on the upper part of
the screen. Exit configuration by pressing the lower display key.
Step 2:
1. Press the Set Up key again till the Tuning prompt appears. Press the Func key till
the PB prompt appears on the screen.
2. Now alter the PB value by pressing the Up & Down buttons.
3. Repeat the last two steps to adjust the value of reset and rate times. Exit
configuration by pressing the lower display button.
Step 3:
1. Press the lower display key till the SP prompt appears on the bottom of the
screen.
2. Using the Up & Down buttons alter the SP value.

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Key lets you move from one configuration group to another


Set up
Key lets you call up the specific function prompts within each group
FUNC Keys lets you make selection or change the value

PB or PB2 or Rate2
Tuning Gain
Rate min Reset
Gain2 min
Reset2

Lockout Cyc2 sec Cyc sec

SP Ramp SP Ramp Time min Final SP SP Prog

Autotune At Enabl Out Step At Error

4-20
Algorthm Cont Alg Input2 Out Alg
RNG

Input 1 Decimal Units In1 Type Xmitter In1 Hi In1 Lo

PWR
Emissiv Burnout Filter1 Bias In1
Freq

Input 2 Xmitter In2 Hi In2 Lo Filter2

SW

Figure LS2: Ktypad functions


Control PID sets
Value
SPsource Ratio Bias SP Track

Out Out SP
Action SP HILim Power Up
LoLim HILim LOLim

DeadBan PB or Min or
Dropoff Out Hyst FailSafe
d Gain RPM

20mA
Options Aux Out 4mA Val
Val
Rem SW

|Com
COM comStat
ADDR
ShedTime Parity Buad Loopback

Uints Shed SP ShedMod

A1S1 A1S2
Alarm A1S1 Val A1S2 Val A2S1 Val A2S2 Val
Type Type

A2S2 A2S1
A2S2 HL A2S1 HL A1S2 HL A1S1 HL
Type Type

AL Hyst

Status Version FailSafe Ram Test ConfTest Cal Test Fact CRC

Calib Used For Field Calibration

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Tuning SP Ramp Autotune Algorithm Input 1 Control Options ComRS422 Alarms


PB 100 SP enabl At A Cont PIDA Decimal xx.x PID set 1 Aux disab Stat * A1S1 Val ?
Ramp Enabl step Alg Out
Rate 0 Time ? Outstep 10 Input 2 Disabl Units Non Sw Val ? Com Addr * A1S2 Val ?
min min
Reset 50 Final ? At Non Out curr In1 Type 420mA SP 1 local Shedtime * A2S1 Val ?
min SP Error Alg source
PB2 100 Xmitter Linear Ratio 1 Parity * A2S2 Val ?
Rate2 0 In1 Hi 600 Bias 0 Buad * A1S1 Type Non
min
Cyc ? In1 Lo 0 SP Non Shedmode * A1S1 Type Non
sec Track
Cyc2 ? Bias In1 0 PWr Man Shed SP * A1S2 Type Non
sec UP
Lock Calib Burnout Non SP 100 Units * A2S1 Type Non
out HiLim
PWR 60Hz SP 0 A2S2 Type Non
Freq LoLim
Action Revr A1S1 HL ?
Out HiLim 100 A1S2 HL ?
Out 0 A2S1 HL ?
LoLim
Drop 0 A2S2 HL ?
off
Dead 0 ALhyst 0
band
Out 0
Hyst
Failsafe 50
PB or PB
Gain
Min or min
RPM

Table LS1: Default setting for the digital controller parameters

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Supplement for the Temperature Control Apparatus


(armfield: PCT10/PCT13)

This supplement introduces the PCT10 Electrical Console, which is part of the Temperature
control experiment developed by the arm-field company. The bench-mounted Electrical
Console incorporates all the instrumentation necessary to basic demonstration of control
techniques. The console provides the necessary electrical supplies for pumps, valve motors,
solenoids, electric heater, etc. Typical demonstration of the PCT10 electrical console is shown
in figure TS1.

The console major parts are; Process controller, Voltmeter, Ammeter, Electrical Supply and
protection, Two channel signal conditioner, Switched output, Motor valve positioner,
Manually operated 4-20ma supply and Power supply.

Description of those major parts is given in the instruction manual provided by armfield co. In
the following, brief definition of the signal conditioner and process controller is given.

Signal conditioner channel:


Two thermocouple signal conditioning modules and two connecting leads are supplied with
PCT13. The function of these modules is to convert the thermocouple output to 0-1V and 4-
20mA signals for control and monitoring purposes. These modules should be calibrated to
give an operating range of 0-100 oC. Instruction on how to calibrate them is give in the
instruction manual.

Process Controller:
The heart of the PCT10 Console is the process controller, which is the main interface between
the user and the console. The controller display is shown in figure TS2. The front panel
controls of the controller can be used to configure the controller to suit the nature of the
demonstration. The built-in controller is a typical industrial model, which utilizes a
microprocessor and allows re-configuration from the front panel controls. This means that all
normal operating and commissioning settings can be adjusted without removing the controller
from the console.

The front panel screen consists of two parts. The upper part display, in the normal mode, the
value of the process variable (controller input) continuously. The lower part displays
continuously the set point value. In the configuration mode, the upper part displays the
variable code (function) and the lower part display its corresponding value. The procedure for
changing the controller settings follows. Note that the default operation of the front panel of
the controller is the normal mode.

Configuring the controller:


To display the controller output (power output: Pr) value, one can simply press the
(F)unction key. The prompt Pr will appear in the upper part and its value in the
lower part.
Switching from the normal mode to the configuration mode can by done by pressing
the CLR key followed by the F key.
Scrolling the different available functions (variable codes) can be achieved by
pressing the F key repeatedly. A list of the function sequence is shown in figure
TS3. The following should be noted:

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The codes CS-4 to CS-7 do not appear in figure TS3 while they do in reality.
The codes Span and Zero, which appear in figure TS3 do not appear in
reality. They require special procedure to display them.
To change the settings (value) of a specific function, one can simply use the raise (
) and lower ( ) keys.
The (D)igit key can be used to select the desired digit to be changed as the each
function setting consists of 3-4 digits.
Remember to press the Enter key after each setting adjustment to ensure that it has
been enabled.
Note that, if you are in the configuration mode, the normal operating mode will
resume automatically after idle time of 15 seconds. Alternatively, one can exit the
configuration mode by pressing the F key after the last code (CS-7).

Switching from automatic to manual:


Press (F)unction key
When the prompt Pr appears press auto/manual key
The light will turn on to indicate manual operation

Switching from manual to automatic:


Press Enter key
Press auto/manual key
The light will turn off indicating automatic operation.

Auto-tune procedure
Press CRL key followed by (F)unction key.
When the prompt Prop appears press the auto/manual key.
The light will blink indicating controller auto-tuning.

Calibration of Span and Zero


This is not required because it factory programmed.
Default is 0 for 4mA and 100 for 20mA.

Implementation issues:

Measured variables:
The process has four measured variables;
TC1 (Hot fluid temperature entering heat exchanger)
TC2 (Hot fluid temperature existing heat exchanger)
TC3 (Cooling water temperature entering heat exchanger)
TC4 (Cooling water temperature exiting heat exchanger)

Controlled variables:
Only two of the four measurements can be controlled:
TC4 (Primary controlled variable)
TC1 (Secondary controlled variable)

Manipulated variables:
The process has two possible manipulated variables;
Electrical heater (via on/off thermostat)

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The hot fluid flow rate (via motorized valve)

Modes of controller:
Manual (not recommended)
On/Off Relay
Classical PID

Control structure:
TC4 can be controlled by either electrical heater or motorized valve.
TC1 can only be controlled by electrical heater.

Note: when TC4 is being controlled by the motorized valve, to reach steady state it should be
ensured that the reservoir temperature indicated by TC1 has reached it maximum value of 80
o
C. Practically, TC1 will fluctuate around some temperature slightly less than 80 oC. The
reason is discussed in the next section.

Practical problem with the heater


For safety reasons, the experiment is equipped with built-in thermostat. The
thermostat will automatically regulate the heater to bring the reservoir temperature to about
80 oC (maximum). Because the thermostat operates in on/off fashion, the reservoir
temperature will fluctuate around the maximum temperature. It should be noted that the
output power is reduced (by hardware adjustment) to eliminated an encountered problem of
frequent sudden shut down. This power reduction in turn reduced the heater capacity, which
limited the maximum temperature to some value less than 80 oC. The above limitation affects
the closed-loop performance as the temperature fluctuation causes internal disturbances to the
overall system.

Special controller parameters:


Hyst: Hysteresis sets the threshold value for the controlled variable. For example if the set
point is 50 and the Hyst is 1%, the controller will regulate the manipulated variable when the
measured variable exceeds 50 1.

Cyct: Cycling time sets the sampling time for updating the control action. It does not affect
the on/off relay controller mode. It only affects the PID controller mode. The following
example explains the Cyct function:

Example:
Let Cyct be 10 sec. Consider when the motorized valve is used as MV and the controller
issues a value of 20% for Pr (controller output), this means the valve will set 20% open over
the entire sampling time period (i.e., Cyct) of 10 sec. Consider the heater is used as MV and
the controller issues a value of 20% for Pr, this means the heater will be ON for 0.2X10= 2
sec and OFF for the rest of 8 sec.

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Voltmeter Ammeter Supply


Process Controller

V A

Signal Conditioning CH1 Signal Conditioning CH2

0-1V output 4-20mA output 0-1V output 4-20mA output

4-20mA Input

Switched Output Motor Positioner 4-20mA Manual Output


4-20mA Output N/O
Zero Span
N/C
A B C

Output 4-20mA Input


24V~ output 240V~ output
4-20mA output
24V~ output 240V~ output

Figure TS1: Electrical Console (PCT10) Front Panel Layout

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50
Process variable
Relay output display
indicator O/P
Set point
display 50 CRL Configuration key

Digital key
D F Function key

ENTER

Manual
indicator
Raise key Enter key Auto/manual Lower key
key

Figure TS2: Front Panel Controls on the process controller

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NORMAL OPERATING MODE


Set Point Display Process Variable Display Operation

Set Point Value (%) Process Variable (%)


Press F
Power Output (%) Pr
Press F

CONFIGURATION MODE
Set Point Display Process Variable Display Operation

Set Point Value (%) Process Variable (%)


Press CRL
Set Point Value (%) Process Variable (%)
Press F
Power Output (%) Pr
Press F
Proportional Band (%) Prop
Press F
Integral Time (min) Int
Press F
Derivative Time (secs) dEr
Press F
Cycle Time (secs) CY-t
Press F
Not Used CL-G
Press F
Not used HC-O
Press F
Not used UP-t
Press F
Hysteresis HYSt
Press F
Power Limit Pr-L
Press F
Set Point Limit SP-L
Press F
Range (058 linear) CS-1
Press F
Control Action (r or d) CS-2
Press F
Not used CS-3
Press F
Calibrate Span (%) SPAn
Press F
Calibrate Zero (%) Zero
Press F

Figure TS3: Layout of the controller functions

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