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International Ayurvedic Medical Journal, (ISSN: 2320 5091) (July, 2017) 5(7)


Amit Bhatt1, Nisha Bajaj2, C. P. Kashyap3

MD Scholar, 2MD Scholar, 3Reader and Head
P.G. Department of Ras Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana
Rajiv Gandhi Govt. P.G. Ayurvedic College, Paprola, Distt. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India


Vang Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasma. It is widely used by clinicians in
Prameha, Medoroga, Shukra Vikara and many other ailments. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Pu-
ta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vang using a variety of levigation media. The
number of Puta to be given also varies in relation to type of Puta and levigation media to be used. In
this study, three samples S1, S2 and S3 of Vang Bhasma were prepared by using Aloevera pulp as le-
vigation media at 600-8000C temperature using Electric Muffle Furnace. They were given 10, 15 and
20 Puta respectively. All the three samples were analyzed at a Govt. approved laboratory by HELOS
Particle Size Analyzer. The Volumetric Mean Diameter of the three samples S1, S2 and S3 was
found to be 7.63 m, 6.07 m and 4.86 m respectively. It was found that number of Puta given to
Vang Bhasma directly affects on its particle size. More number of Puta results in finer Bhasma. So,
20 Puta is more convenient for Marana in reference to particle size of Vang Bhasma.

Keywords: Bhasma, Puta, Marana, Particle size, Volumetric Mean Diameter

Ayurveda is the science made up of Ayush ing the physical, mental and spiritual functions
(life) and Veda (knowledge) i.e. knowledge of of the human body. Rasa Shastra (Vedic alc-
life1. It is believed that Ayurveda had its origin hemy) is a branch of Ayurveda, which deals
in Atharvaveda which consists of many with herbo-mineral/metalic/non-metalic prepa-
hymns, narrating information on various sub- rations called Bhasma3. Rasayana (Immuno-
jects including human health, engineering and modulation and Anti-aging quality) and Yoga-
astrology2. An Ayurvedic system adopts a ho- vahi (ability to target drugs to the site) are cha-
listic approach towards health care by balanc- racteristics of a properly made herbo-
Amit Bhatt Et Al: Effect Of Number Of Puta On Particle Size Of Vang Bhasma

mineral/metalic/non-metalic preparation, tion while the spent liquid was rejected.

which is also non-toxic, gently absorbable, This procedure was repeated seven times
adaptable and digestible in the body4. Concept by using fresh treating liquids each time.
of reduction of particle size of metals is pre- The treating liquids used were Til (Sesa-
vailing since Charak Samhita (1500 BC) for a mum indicum L.) oil, Takra (butter milk),
metallic preparation i.e. Lauhadi Rasayan. For Go-mutra (cow urine), Kanji (rice gruel)
purification, a mineral/metal is heated upto and decoction of Kulattha (Dolichos biflo-
when it becomes red hot and quenched in rus L.).
some liquid media immediately until flakes of 2. Vishesha Shodhana7: The solid material
metal become fine powder5. It is then treated obtained after Samanya Shodhana was sub-
with herbal juices or decoction and exposed jected to Special purification by similar
for certain quantum of heat as per Puta to heat treatment in Churnodaka (lime water)
make its Bhasma. for seven times.
3. Jarana8: The solid material obtained after
Aims and Objectives Vishesha Shodhana was subjected to Jara-
To observe the effect of number of Puta on the na process, in which it was heated in an
particle size of Vang Bhasma iron pan along with the addition of Apa-
marga (Achyranthes aspera Linn). Conti-
Materials nuous stirring of this mixture was done us-
The raw material Vang (Tin) was procured ing iron spatula for about three hours. After
from Govt. approved laboratory. Other herbs that, it was heated upto 4000 C for about 4-
like Aloevera, Apamarga and materials used 6 hours followed by cooling, which facili-
during Shodhana (Purification) were procured tates solidification.
from Govt. Herbal Garden. The samples of 4. Marana9: The material obtained after Ja-
these materials were authenticated and identi- rana stage is expected to be soft enabling
fied from accredited institutes. mixing by levigation with Aloevera juice.
A paste was obtained after levigation with
Methods Aloevera, which was then made into thin
Preparation of Vang Bhasma flat discs called Chakrikas. These were
Preparation of Vang Bhasma involves three dried under sunlight and taken in an earthen
stages: bowl, covered with another earthen bowl
1. Samanya Shodhana6: For Samanya Shod- with interface between them sealed with a
hana, the raw material was subjected to clay-smeared cloth. This arrangement is re-
heat treatment in different treating liquids. ferred to as Sarava samputa in Ayurveda.
This procedure is called Dhalana (Quench- Putapaka (calcination) was carried out in
ing). In this, the raw material was heated Electric Muffle Furnace by placing Sarava
upto its melting point and poured in suffi- samputa into it. It was heated at tempera-
cient quantity of treating liquid. The solid ture ranging from 6000 C to 8000 C for 1
particles formed were recovered by filtra-

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Amit Bhatt Et Al: Effect Of Number Of Puta On Particle Size Of Vang Bhasma

hour10. Then it was allowed to self cooling. In this way, 3 different samples of Vang
The material was recovered by breaking Bhasma were prepared by using 10, 15 and 20
Sarava samputa. The temperature profile Puta respectively.
during Puta was monitored using a K-type
thermocouple connected to a digital tem-
perature indicator.
Flow Chart of Preparation of Vang Bhasma

Raw material (Tin)

Seven-stage heat treatment with sesame oil

Seven-stage heat treatment with Takra

Seven -stage heat treatment with Go-mutra

Seven-stage heat treatment with Kanji

Seven-stage heat treatment with Kulattha kwath

Purified Tin after normal purification

Seven-stage heat treatment with Churnodaka

Purified Tin after special purification

Jarana of Purified Tin with Apamarga

Levigation of Jarit Tin with Aloevera Pulp

Putapaka in EMF at 600-8000C temprature

Vang Bhasma

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Amit Bhatt Et Al: Effect Of Number Of Puta On Particle Size Of Vang Bhasma

Characterization of Bhasma11 HELOS (H1004) & SUCELL Particle Size

Description, Colour, Odour, Identification Analyzer (Sympatec Gmbh, Germany).
(chemical), Particle size or mesh size, Loss on
drying at 1050C, Total ash, Acid insoluble ash, Observations and Results
Water soluble ash, Assay of element, Ayurved- The observations and results of Vang Shodha-
ic specifications, Lustreless (Nishchandrica), na (Table- 1), Jarana of Shuddha Vang and
Fine enough to enter the crevices of finger Marana of Jarit Vang (Table- 2) for all the
(Rekha purnatva), Floats on water (Varitara), three samples were documented. Maximum
Smokeless (Nirdhoom), Tasteless (Niswadu) temperature given to all the three samples of
and Irreversible (Apunarbhav). Vang Bhasma was also recorded and is shown
in Tables- 3. Result of particle size analysis
Particle Size Analysis of Vang Bhasma for all the three samples is shown in Tables- 4.
The particle size analysis of Vang Bhasma was
done at a Govt. approved laboratory using

Table 1: Observations during Shodhana of Vang

Sample S1 Sample S2 Sample S3
Media for Shod- Weight before Weight after Weight before Weight after Weight before Weight after
hana Shodhana Shodhana Shodhana Shodhana Shodhana Shodhana
Til oil 588 g 583 g 400 g 395 g 380 g 374 g
Takra 583 g 576 g 395 g 389 g 374 g 366 g
Go-mutra 576 g 570 g 389 g 384 g 366 g 351 g
Kanji 570 g 564 g 384 g 379 g 351 g 345 g
Kulattha kwatha 564 g 548 g 379 g 370 g 345 g 336 g
Churnodaka 548 g 534 g 370 g 364 g 336 g 328 g

Table 2: Observations during Jarana and Marana of Vang

Sample S1 Sample S2 Sample S3
Name of process Weight before Weight after Weight be- Weight after Weight be- Weight after
process process fore process process fore process process
Jarana 534 g 575 g 364 g 404 g 328 g 360 g
Marana 575 g 538 g 404g 371 g 360 g 326 g

Table 3: Maximum temperature given to Vang Bhasma during Puta

No. of Puta Maximum temperature given during Puta
Sample- S1 Sample- S2 Sample- S3
1st 600 0C 600 0C 600 0C
2nd 0
600 C 600 0C 600 0C
3rd 600 0C 600 0C 600 0C
4th 0
700 C 600 0C 600 0C
5th 700 0C 600 0C 600 0C

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Amit Bhatt Et Al: Effect Of Number Of Puta On Particle Size Of Vang Bhasma

6th 700 0C 700 0C 600 0C

7th 800 0C 700 0C 600 0C
8th 800 0C 700 0C 700 0C
9th 800 0C 700 0C 700 0C
10th 800 0C 700 0C 700 0C
11th - 800 0C 700 0C
12th - 800 0C 800 0C
13th - 800 0C 800 0C
14th - 800 0C 800 0C
15th - 800 0C 800 0C
16th - - 800 0C
17th - - 800 0C
18th - - 800 0C
19th - - 800 0C
20th - - 800 0C

Table 4: Particle Size of Vang Bhasma

Parameter Particle Size
Sample S1 Sample S2 Sample S3
X10 1.45 m 0.75 m 1.21 m
X16 2.02 m 0.90 m 1.64 m
X50 5.46 m 2.60 m 4.07 m
X84 12.94 m 11.03 m 8.18 m
X90 16.39 m 16.41 m 9.71 m
X99 35.12 m 41.18 m 15.41 m
SMD 4.26 m 1.85 m 3.94 m
VMD 7.63 m 6.07 m 4.86 m

DISCUSSION the solid, these interactions are promoted

The purified Vang (Tin) obtained after Sa- through increase in surface area by the pres-
manya and Vishesh shodhana was subjected to ence of particles of smaller sizes. Increased
Jarana process using Apamarga. Then it was number of Puta also leads to increase in the
levigated with fresh Aloevera pulp for about 8 property and potency of Bhasma. It reaches to
hours. Aloevera contains useful compounds higher molecular level and shows quicker ac-
like polymannans, anthraquinones and lectins. tion on the body12.
Anthraquinones are well-known metal-
chelators capable of coordinating with nickel, CONCLUSION
cobalt, tin etc. The tirturation of Jarit Vang in The temperature pattern observed over differ-
Aloevera juice results in the reduction in its ent Puta cycles indicate a consistent pattern,
particle size, accompanied by an increase in of certain degree of heating and cooling, es-
surface area. Since most of the solid-fluid inte- sential for the formation of particles of well-
ractions take place at the external surface of defined morphology and crystallinity, which

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Amit Bhatt Et Al: Effect Of Number Of Puta On Particle Size Of Vang Bhasma

were confirmed through scanning electron mi- 7. Ras Tarangini: Sadanand Sharma. Hindi
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Particle Size. English Translation by Dr. Damodar Joshi
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