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The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet).

It has 14
digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16
MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button.
It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer
with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial
driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed
as a USB-to-serial converter.

Revision 2 of the Uno board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it
easier to put into DFU mode.

Revision 3 of the board has the following new features:


1.0 pinout: added SDA and SCL pins that are near to the AREF pin and two other new
pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the
voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible with both the
board that uses the AVR, which operates with 5V and with the Arduino Due that
operates with 3.3V. The second one is a not connected pin, that is reserved for future
purposes.
Stronger RESET circuit.
Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2.

"Uno" means one in Italian and is named to mark the upcoming release of Arduino 1.0. The
Uno and version 1.0 will be the reference versions of Arduino, moving forward. The Uno is
the latest in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the reference model for the Arduino
platform.

ARDUINO MICROCONTROLLER

Microcontroller ATmega328

Architecture AVR

Operating Voltage 5V

32 KB of which 0.5 KB used


Flash memory
by bootloader

SRAM 2 KB

Clock Speed 16 MHz

Analog I/O Pins 6


EEPROM 1 KB

DC Current per I/O 40 mA on I/O Pins; 50 mA on


Pins 3,3 V Pin

GENERAL

Input Voltage 7-12 V

20 (of wich 6 provide PWM


Digital I/O Pins
output)

PWM Output 6

PCB Size 53.4 x 68.6 mm

Weight 25 g

A000066 (TH); A000073


Product Code
(SMD)
What is an RTC?

by Tyler Cooper
A real time clock is basically just like a watch - it runs on a battery and keeps time for you
even when there is a power outage! Using an RTC, you can keep track of long timelines,
even if you reprogram your microcontroller or disconnect it from USB or a power plug.
Most microcontrollers, including the Arduino, have a built-in timekeeper called millis() and
there are also timers built into the chip that can keep track of longer time periods like minutes
or days. So why would you want to have a separate RTC chip? Well, the biggest reason is
that millis() only keeps track of time since the Arduino was last powered - . That means that
when the power is turned on, the millisecond timer is set back to 0. The Arduino doesn't
know that it's 'Tuesday' or 'March 8th', all it can tell is 'It's been 14,000 milliseconds since I
was last turned on'.
OK so what if you wanted to set the time on the Arduino? You'd have to program in the date
and time and you could have it count from that point on. But if it lost power, you'd have to
reset the time. Much like very cheap alarm clocks: every time they lose power they
blink 12:00
While this sort of basic timekeeping is OK for some projects, some projects such as data-
loggers, clocks, etc will need to have consistent timekeeping that doesn't reset when the
Arduino battery dies or is reprogrammed. Thus, we include a separate RTC! The RTC
chip is a specialized chip that just keeps track of time. It can count leap-years and knows how
many days are in a month, but it doesn't take care of Daylight Savings Time (because it
changes from place to place)
The image above shows a computer motherboard with a Real Time Clock called the DS1387.
There's a lithium battery in there which is why it's so big.
The RTC we'll be using is the DS1307. It's low cost, easy to solder, and can run for years on a
very small coin cell.
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