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So far we only discussed geographic phenomena, in de following sections we

discuss computer representations

Computer representations can be divided in two main groups: tessellations also
called ...

Tesselation (Raster Representation)

- A tessellation is a partition of space into mutually exclusive cells that
together make up the complete study area
- There are two groups of tesselations :
Regular tessellations, the cells are the same shape and size
Irregular tessellations, the cells vary in shape and size
- They provide a georeference of the lower left corner and the resolution
(pixel size).

Reguler Tessellation
- All regular tessellations have in common that the cells are of the same
shape and size, and the field attribute value assigned to a cell is associated
with the entire area occupied by the cell
- The size of the area that single raster cell represents is called the rasters
- Some convention is needed to state which value prevails on cell
- When we represent a continuous field, values are changing constantly.
- In a reguler tessela...
- Two ways to improve on this continuity issue :
Make the cell size smaller, to make the continuity gaps.....

- Vector representation :
Explicity associate coordinate pairs (2D) or triplets (3D) with the
geographic phenomena
1 coordinate.....

Points :
Point Representations :
Points are defined as single coordinate pairs (x, y) when when we work
in 2D or coordinate triplets (x, y, z) when we work in 3D.
Points are best userd to represent objects, that are shape- and sizeless
single features (zero-dimensional).

Line :
Line Representations :
Used to represent one dimensiional objects (roads, railroads, canals,
Line is defined by 2 end nodes and 0-n internal nodes
An internal nodes or vertex is like a point that only serves to define the

Polygon by polygon :
A simple representation of area features. Area features are represented
by polygons.
The same line makes up the boundary from the two polygons is stored
twice (data redundancy).
In spite of the data duplication, the model is used in many GIS systems.
It is easy to assign attributes to polygons.
Searching for adjacent polygons is rather complicated (comparing the
vertex lists of all polygons).

Boundary Model (Topological Model)

The boundary model (or topological data model) is an imporved
representation of the polygon-by-polygon model.
It stores parts of a polygons boundary

3D vector model solids :

Raster & Vector :

Raster Representation
Advantages :
- Simple data structure
- simple implementation of overlays
- efficient for image processing
Disadvantages :
- less compact data structure
- difficulties in representing topology
- cell boundaries independent of feature boundaries

Vector Representation
Advantages :
- efficent representation of topology
- adapts well to scale changes
- allows representing networks
- allows easy association with attribute data
Disadvantages :
- complex data structure
- overlay more difficult to implement
- inefficient for image processingg
- more update-intensive

Irregullar Tessellation (Quadtree)

Spatial Data Model
Traingular Irregular Network
- A TIN is built from a set of measurements for example points of height.
- These points can be scattered unevenly over the study area, with areas of
more change having more points.
- Triangles are fifted through three points fo .....
- In a TIN the amount of data sotred is less compared to a regular tessellation.
- The quality of a TIN depends on the choice of anchor points, as well as the
triangulation, and the number of points.
- Anchor points on elevations ridges area guarantee for correct peaks and
mountain slope faces.
- Each plane fitted through three anchor points has a fixed aspect. An aspect
is the orientations of the slope, for example Northwest or Southeast.
Vector or Raster ?
Is TIN a vector representation ?
- Yes, each anchor point has a stored georeferences.
- No, as the chosen triangulation provides a tiling of the entire study space.
Is TIN a raster representation ?
- No, the cells of the tilling do not have an associated sotred value as is
typical of tessellation
- Yes, the chosen triangulation provides a tilling of the entire study space.

We have looked at the ...
Continuous Fields
- There is not only one suitable computer representation per type of
geographic phenomenon.
- Continuous fields are well suited for raster representation when the
phenomenon :
Is characterized by a smooth surface (such a pollutant dispersion or
flood zones).
Does not need to be characterized exactly.
Discrete Fields
- Discrete fields (like land use or soil type) can be represented as :
Tessellation (raster)
- Discrete raster ....
- Objects are more naturally represented in vector
- Line and point objects are more awkward to represent using rasters, as
raster are area-based.

Data Types and Values

- Different types of values that we can use to represent Phneomena. Four
different data types :
Interval ration
- Nominal and ordinal data together are often refereed to as qualitative
- Interval and ratio are known as quantitative data.

Nominal data values, are values that provide a name or identifier (names
of geological units). This types of data is also called categorical.
Ordinal data values, are values that can be put in natural sequence but
do not allow any other type or computation (low, medium, high).
Interval data values, are quantitative, allow simple forms of
computation like addition and subtraction, however, interval data has
no arithmetic zero value (temperature).
Ratio data values, allow most, if not all, forms of arithmetic
computation and have a natural zero value (distance).

Perbedaan tingkat warna pada peta dinamakan value karena bukan perbedaan
warna hanya antara warna yang lebih muda dan lebih tua.

Kinds of data values :

- Nominal values
E.g. valley, deciduous forest, Paris.
- Ordinal values
E.g. low-medium-high
- Interval values
No true zero value like in temperature
- Ratio Values
Absolute zero values like in distance, weight.
Used for Editing
1. Specification of topology rules for polygon clean-up operaions
2. Validation of opology rules.
Spatial Relationship
Land Administration
Development Planning
Water Management
Urban planning
Future development of the city of Enschede :
Suitable areas for expansion
Expected population growth (birth, death, migrations rates).