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X.

25
Recommended as the desired protocol(1976) by the International
Consultative Committee for Telegraphy and Telephony
(CCITT) called the International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) since 1993.
Standard for WAN that defines how a packet-mode terminal can be
interfaced to a packet network for data communication

connections between user devices and network devices are


established and maintained.
Designed to operate effectively regardless of the type of systems
connected to the network.
It is typically used in the packet-switched networks (PSNs) of
common carriers, such as the telephone companies.
Subscribers are charged based on their use of the network

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 devices
Data terminal equipment (DTE)
End systems that communicate across the X.25 network.
Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE)
communications devices, such as modems and packet switches that
provide the interface between DTE devices and a PSE
Packet-switching exchange (PSE)
switches that compose the bulk of the carrier's network.
transfer data from one DTE device to another through the X.25 PSN.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Protocol suite

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Protocol suite
Physical layer:
Deals with the physical interface between an attached
station(DTE) and the link that attaches that station to the
packet-switching node(DCE).
X.21 is the most commonly used physical layer standard.(RS-
232C)
Frame/Link layer:
Facilitates reliable transfer of data across the physical link by
transmitting the data as a sequence of frames.
Uses a subset of HDLC known as Link Access Protocol Balanced
(LAPB), bit oriented protocol.
Transfer of data in an efficient and timely fashion.
Synchronization of the link to ensure that the receiver is in step
with the transmitter.
Detection of transmission errors and recovery from such errors
Identification and reporting of procedural errors to higher levels,
for recovery.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


LAPB
Bit-oriented protocol that ensures that frames are correctly ordered
and error-free.
There are three kinds of frames:
Information
actual information being transferred and some control information. The
control field in these frames contains the frame sequence number.
Supervisory
RECEIVE READY-Acknowledgment frame indicating the next frame
expected.
REJECT-Negative acknowledgment frame used to indicate transmission
error detection.
RECEIVE NOT READY (RNR)-Just as RECEIVE READY but tells the sender to
stop sending due to temporary problems.
Unnumbered
link setup and disconnection, as well as error reporting.
carry no sequence numbers.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Link(FRAME LAYER)
Data link controls using bit oriented protocol
called LAPD
Link Access Protocol Balanced (LAPB)
Communication between DTE and DCE
LAPB is a data link layer protocol that manages
communication and packet framing between
DTE and DCE devices. LAPB is a bit-oriented
protocol that ensures that frames are correctly
ordered and error-free.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 interface

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Levels
User data passes to X.25 level 3
X.25 appends control information
Header
Identifies virtual circuit
Provides sequence numbers for flow and error control
X.25 packet passed down to LAPB entity
LAPB appends further control information
Each X.25 data packet includes
send sequence number-P(S),
used to number sequentially all outgoing data
receive sequence number-P(R)
An acknowledgment of packets received on that virtual circuit.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Frame Format

Address: As communication is pt to pt,only 2 addrs


00000001:Command issued by DTE and response
00000011:Command issues by DCE and response
By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University
X.25 - Packet
Frame layer:DTE-DCE
Packet layer:DTE-DTE
External virtual circuits
Logical connections (virtual circuits) between
subscribers
PACKET LAYER PROTOCOL (PLP)

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


Packet layer
Packet layer:
Responsible for end-to-end connection between two DTEs.
Functions performed are:
Establishing connection
Transferring data
Terminating a connection
Error and flow control
Data are transmitted in packets over external virtual circuits.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


Packet layer-Three phases -Link
setup,Transferring the data,Link
disconnect
Link setup:
link between the DTE and DCE must be setup before
packets from the packet layer can be transferred.
DTE OR DCE can setup the link by sending
SABM(set asynchronous balanced mode)frame;the
responding party sends UA(unnumbered ack) frame
to show that the link is actually set
Transfering the data:
two parties can send and receive network layer
packet.
Link disconnect:
it issues a DISC FRAME to request the disconnection

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Use of Virtual Circuits

Virtual-cicuits are created at the packet layer


VCI is known as Logical Channel Number(LCN).
Several VC through the same link using in-band
signaling.
By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University
Types of Virtual Circuits
PVC:It is fixed,similar to leased line, established
by the network provider.
Data transfer occurs as with virtual calls.
No call setup or termination is required.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


Types of Virtual Circuits.
SVC: SVCs are estatblished in each session.
Sequence to be followed:
Links are set up between the local DTE-DCE and also
the remote DCE-DTE.
A Virtual Circuit is set between the local and remote
DTEs
Data transfer are performed between the DTEs
The Virtual circuit is released.
The link is disconnected.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


PLP packets

Flow control and error control -> control packet


In-band signalling->other packets.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Packet
User data are broken into blocks of some
maximum size, and a 24bit or 32 bit header is
appended to each block to form a data packet.
uses sliding window protocol with piggybacking for
flowcontrol.
Go-back-N for error control.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Packet
X.25 also transmits control packets related to
the establishment,maintenance and termination
of VC.
Each control packet includes:
The Virtual circuit number.
The packet type(call request,call accepted,call
confirm,interrupt,reset,restart, etc.)
Additional control information specific to the type of the
packet.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University


X.25 Multiplexing
One of the most important services provided by
x.25.
A DTE is allowed to establish up to 4095
simultaneous VC with other DTEs over a single DTE-
DCE link.
Each packet contains a 12-bit virtual circuit number.
Expressed as a 4-bit logical group number plus an 8-bit
logical channel number.
Individual VC could correspond to
applications,processes,terminals etc.
The DTE-DCE link provides full-duplex multiplexing.

By R VIJAYAN,Assistant Professor(SG),SITE,VIT University