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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Temperature

## 1. Heat refers to thermal energy, while temperature is the degree of hotness.

This sentence means that thermal energy (heat) will flow from a hotter region to a colder region.

## 2. (a) Volume of a fixed mass of liquid

(b) Electrical voltage or electromotive force (e.m.f.)

3. The volume of mercury varies with temperature. In a mercury column with a uniform cross-
sectional area, an increase in volume results in an increase in the length of the mercury column.

## Test Yourself 8.2 (page 150)

1. (a) A fixed point refers to a standard degree of hotness or coldness that is easily obtainable and
reproducible.
(b) The upper fixed point for the Celsius scale is the temperature of steam from water boiling at
one atmosphere, and is assigned a value of 100C. The lower fixed point for the Celsius
scale is the temperature of pure melting ice at one atmosphere, and is assigned a value of
0C.

2. X! ! X 0
C = 100C
X 100 ! X 0
where
X is the value of the thermometric property at temperature ,
X0 is the value of the thermometric property at ice point 0C, and
X100 is the value of the thermometric property at steam point 100C.

3. (a) A thermocouple thermometer consists of two types of wires made of different metals, such
as copper and iron. The ends of the wires are joined to form two junctions.
(b) The two junctions of a thermocouple thermometer produce a small e.m.f. whenever there is
a temperature difference between them. This e.m.f. varies continuously with the
temperature difference between the two junctions. Therefore, the temperature can be
calculated using the readings of a voltmeter.

## Get It Right (page 151)

(a) True
(b) True
(c) False
To construct a temperature scale for a liquid-in-glass thermometer, we need to select an
appropriate thermometric substance, determine the fixed points and mark out a scale between
the fixed points.
(d) True

## 2013 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 8

## Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions

1. B
The two fixed points are the only tested points during calibration. The accuracy of the rest of the
points depends on the linearity of the thermometric substance used.

2. A
Based on the linear relationship, C mV

is constant. 4.1
100
0 C 100 C 0 C
=
11.6 mV 4.1 mV
100 C 0 0
= (11.6 mV)
4.1 mV
= 283C

11.6

3. C
l0 = 5.0 cm
l100 = 15.0 cm

l l0
= 100C
l100 l0
3.0 cm 5.0 cm
= 100C
15.0 cm 5.0 cm
= 20C

## 1. (a) Volume of a fixed mass of mercury

(b) Electrical resistance of a piece of platinum
(c) Electromotive force (e.m.f.)

2. (a) On the Celsius scale, the temperatures of melting ice and boiling water represent the lower
fixed point and the upper fixed point respectively. The value of the lower fixed point is 0C
and that of the upper fixed point is 100C.
(b) R0 = 2.2 k
R100 = 1.0 k
= 116.7C

## Let the unknown resistance at be R.

R R0
Using = 100C,
R100 R0
R 2.2 k
116.7C = 100C
1.0 k 2.2 k
R = 3.6 k
(c) The assumption is that resistance varies linearly with temperature.

## 2013 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 8

## Section C: Free-Response Questions

1. (a) Step 1: Choose two fixed points that are easy to obtain and easily reproducible.
Step 2: Record the values of the length of the mercury thread at these two fixed points.
Step 3: Divide the interval between the two fixed points into a certain number of equal parts to
obtain an assumed linear scale.

## (b) To determine the ice point:

Immerse the bulb and the lower part of
the thermometer stem in a funnel
containing pure melting ice.
To ensure good contact between the
bulb and the ice, crushed ice should be
used. The mercury level in the stem
melting ice funnel
should be just above the surface of the
ice.
When the mercury level in the stem
level on the stem. This mark corresponds
to the ice point and is assigned a value of
0C.

## To determine the steam point:

Insert the thermometer into the
apparatus. The bulb of the thermometer
should be just above the boiling water.
The stem of the thermometer should
protrude above the top of the apparatus.
A manometer is included to check that
the pressure inside the apparatus is the outlet for steam
same as the atmospheric pressure to escape
outside. If the pressure is not equal,
adjust the flame accordingly to increase manometer
steam
or decrease the pressure inside.
When the mercury level in the stem
level on the stem. This mark corresponds boiling water
to the steam point and is assigned a
value of 100C.

## 2013 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited

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Physics Matters for GCE O Level (4 Edition): Full Solutions to Textbook Questions Chapter 8

## *2. (a) A thermocouple thermometer consists of two

types of wires made from different metals
such as copper and iron. The ends of the
wires are joined together to form two
junctions.

## When the junctions are at different

temperatures, a small voltage or e.m.f. is
produced and this can be measured using a
millivoltmeter. The greater the difference in
temperature, the greater the voltage
produced across the ends of the two
junctions.

(b) (i) The thermocouple thermometer has small junctions (small heat capacity) made of good
conductors. Thus, it can respond quickly to measure rapidly changing temperatures.
(ii) The size of each junction is so small that it can be used to measure temperature at a
point.

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