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# 1. __________ is the progressive decrease of signal 9.

## Which causes multipath or frequency-selective

strength with increasing distance. fading?
A. Radiation A. Small reflector
B. Attenuation B. Nearer reflector
C. Modulation C. Further reflector
D. Propagation D. Large reflector
2. Calculate the effective earths radius if the surface 10. In microwave transmission using digital radio,
refractivity is 301. what causes most intersymbol interference?
A. 8493 km A. Delayed spreading
B. 8493 mmi B. Rayleigh fading
C. 6370 km C. Random Doppler shift
D. 6370 mi D. Slow fading
3. If k-factor is greater than 1, the array beam is bent 11. A shipboard equipment which measures the
A. Away from the earth distance between the ships bottom and the ocean
B. towards the ionosphere, floor.
C. towards the earth A. Fathometer
D. towards the outer space B. Echosounder
4. the antenna separations (in meters) required for C. LORAN
optimum operation of a space diversity system can be D. SONAR
calculated from: 12. The cavity resonator
A. S = 2R/L A. Is equivalent to an LC resonant circuit
B. S = 3R/L B. In a reflect klystron has its output taken
C. S = R/RL from the reflector plate
D. S = R/L C. Produces a frequency which is independent
where R = effective earth radius (m) and L = path of the cavity size.
length (m) D. Has a low Q factor for narrow operation.
5. Rainfall is an important factor for fading of radio 13. At what position is the input signal inserted into a
waves at frequencies above traveling-wave tube?
A. 10 GHz A. At the cathode end of the helix
B. 100 GHz B. At the collector
C. 1 GHz C. At the collector end of the helix
D. 100 MHz D. At the control grid of the electron gun
6. Theoretically electromagnetic radiation field 14. Coupling into and out of a traveling-wave tube can
strength varies in inverse proportion to the square of be accompanied by a
the distance, but when atmospheric attenuation effects A. Waveguide match
and the absorption of the terrain are taken into account B. Cavity match
the attenuation can be as high as the inverse _______ C. Direct coax-helix match
power of the distance. D. All of the above
A. Third 15. a high-power microwave pulse of the order of
B. Fourth megawatts can be generated by a
C. Fifth A. traveling-wave tube
D. Sixth B. magnetron
7. What do you call an attenuation that occurs over C. reflex klystron
many different wavelengths of the carrier? D. Gunn diode
A. Rayleigh fading 16. A traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifies by virtue
B. Rician fading of
C. Wavelength fading A. The absorption of energy by the signal
D. Slow fading from an electron stream
8. Which of the reception problems below that is not B. The effect of an external magnetic field
due to multipath? C. The energy contained the cavity resonators
A. Delayed spreading D. The energy liberated form the collector
B. Rayleigh fading 17. What is the purpose of the electromagnetic field
C. Random Doppler shift which surrounds a traveling-wave tube?
D. Slow fading A. To accelerate the electron
B. To velocity modulate the electron beam C. Operates over a positive resistance
C. To keep the electrons from spreading out characteristic
D. To slow down the signal on the helix D. Depends on the formation of charge
18. Which of the following is used as an oscillator domain
device in the SHF band? 25. What ferrite device can be used instead of
A. Thyratron tube duplexer of isolate microwave transmitter and receiver
B. Tunnel diode when both are connected to the same antenna?
C. Klystron tube A. Isolator
D. Both B and C B. Magnetron
19. Microwave frequencies are normally regarded as C. Simplex
those in the range of D. Circulator
A. 1 to 500 MHz 26. To achieve good bearing resolution when using a
B. 1000 to 10,000 GHz pulsed-radar set, an important requirement is
C. 1 to 100 GHz A. A narrow, antenna-beam width in the
D. 10 to 1000 GHz vertical plane
20. The highest frequency which a conventional B. A narrow, antenna-beam width in the
vacuum-tube oscillator can generate is not limited by horizontal plane
the C. A low repetition rate
A. Electron transit time D. A high duty cycle
B. Distributed lead inductance 27. When used in conjunction with a radar set, the
C. Inter-electrode capacitance purpose of an echo box is to provide an artificial
D. Degree of emission from the cathode target.
21. As the electron beam moves through a klystrons A. Which may be used to tune the radar
intercavity drift space synchronizer
A. Frequency modulation at the input cavity B. Which may be used to tune the radar
creates velocity modulation at the output receiver
cavity C. To the tone of the pulse repetition
B. Velocity modulation at the input cavity D. Tune the magnetron to the correct
creates density modulation at the output cavity frequency
C. Density modulation at the input cavity 28. In a radar-set receiver, the usual mixer stage is
creates velocity modulation at the output A. And FET
cavity B. A tunnel diode
D. Phase modulation at the input cavity C. A silicon crystal
creates velocity modulation at the output D. A Rochelle salts crystal
cavity. 29. Klystron oscillators are most often used in the
22. The frequency of the oscillation generated by a frequency range of
magnetron, is mainly determined by A. 300 to 3000 MHz
A. The flux density of the external magnet B. 3000 to 30000 MHz
B. The ratio of the dc cathode voltage to the C. 30 to 30000 MHz
magnetic flux density D. 10 to 10000 MHz
C. The number of the cavity resonators 30. Oscillators of a klystron tube are maintained
D. The dimension of each cavity resonator A. By bunches of electrons passing the cavity
23. If the instantaneous RF potentials on the two sides grids
of a magnetron cavity are of opposite polarity, the B. By plate-to-cathode feedback
operation is in the C. By feedback between the accelerating grid
A. mode and the repeller
B. /2 mode D. By circulating bunches of electrons within
C. 2 mode the cavities.
D. /4 mode 31. What allow microwave to pass in only one
24. The Gunn diode oscillator direction?
A. Is capable of generating continuous A. RF emitter
microwave power of the order of kilowatt B. Capacitor
B. Generates frequencies which are below 100 C. Varactor-triac
MHz D. Ferrite emitter
32. In an SHF pulsed radar set, a reflex klystron can D. Reduce interference from the effects of sea
be used as a return
A. Single mixer stage 40. In a pulsed radar set, the function of the duplexer
B. Local oscillator is to
C. Transmitter oscillator A. Aid in calibrating the display unit
D. Duplexer stage B. Prevent frequency drift in the klystron
33. A Class-S Emergency Position-Indicating Radio C. Allow the transmitter and the receiver to
Beacon (E.P.I.R.B) operate from a common antenna
A. Must be capable of floating or being D. All of these
secured to a survival 41. A magnetron is operated at a duty cycle of 0.001.
B. Must have its battery replaced after It has a peak power output of 100 kilowatts. Its
emergency use average power is
C. May be tested during the first five minutes A. 10,000 watts
of any hour B. 100 watts
D. All of these C. 1,000 watts
34. A PPI cathode-ray tube as used on a radar set D. 1,000,000 watts
A. Is used to check the percentage of 42. The aquadag coating on the inside of PPI tube is
modulation used
B. Indicates both the range and azimuth of a A. To focus the beam of primary electrons
target B. To shield the electron beam from
C. Indicates only the range of a target unidirectional magnetic
D. Is used for receiver alignment C. As a second anode and to prevent the build-
35. The resonant frequency of a cavity resonator up of secondary field
depends upon D. All of these
A. The mode of operation 43. If the duration of the radar transmitted pulse, on a
B. Its electrical dimensions particular range of operation, is increased, the required
C. Its physical dimensions bandwidth of the receivers IF amplifiers
D. The capacitor which tunes it A. Must remain as before
36. The maximum usable range of the usual radar set B. Must be increased
(on any particular range setting) is determined by C. May be decreased
A. The width of the transmitted pulses D. Must be doubled
B. The interval between transmitted pulses 44. The main frequency determining element of a
C. The bandwidth of the receiver IF stages klystron is
D. The duty cycle A. The repeller voltage
37. A reflex klystron is oscillating at the frequency of B. The accelerating voltage
its resonant cavity. If the reflector voltage is made C. Its resonant cavity
slightly less negative, the D. Its mode of operation
A. Oscillation will cease 45. A thin layer of dirt and grime coverts the
B. Output power would increase reflecting surface of the parabolic dish of a radar set.
C. The frequency will decrease The particular effect on the performance of the radar
D. Bunching would occur earlier in time will be
38. The coarse frequency adjustment of a reflex A. A decrease in range
klystron is accomplished by B. A reduction in horizontal resolution
A. The AFC system C. No noticeable effect
B. Adjusting the flexible wall of the resonant D. A decrease in gain
cavity 46. Which of the following permits a microwave
C. An adjustment in the synchronizer signal to travel in one direction with virtually no loss,
D. Varying the repeller voltage but severely attenuates any signal attempting to travel
39. In a pulsed radar set, the STC circuit is used to in the reverse direction?
A. Improve the target bearing resolution A. Isolator
B. Increases receiver sensitivity for echoes B. Wave trap
from targets C. Tunnel diode
C. Vary the pulse frequency in order to control D. Circulator
the maximum target
47. It is possible to increase the maximum range of a C. isolator
radar equipment by D. gyrator
A. Lowering the pulse frequency 56. Which of the following frequencies are used by a
B. Raising the peak power of the transmitter class-C Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon
C. Narrowing the beam width and increasing (E.P.I.R.B)?
the pulse duration A. 156.65 MHz
D. All of these B. 121.5 MHz
48. When it is desired that short-range targets be C. 156.76 MHz and 156.8 MHz
D. All of these
clearly seen on a pulsed-radar set, it is important that
57. The repetition rate of a pulsed radar system indicates
the receiver and display system have
the
A. A long time constant
A. Frequency of the range-marker oscillator
B. Low-pass filters
B. Reciprocal of the duty cycle
C. The shortest possible time
C. Number of target echoes received on one
D. The restricted high-frequency response second
49. Which of the following is used as a high power D. Frequencies of the duty cycle
microwave oscillator? 58. The radar set, sensitivity-time control circuit
A. Thyratron A. Controls the width of the magnetron pulse
B. Magnetron B. Is used to increase sea return
C. Klystron C. Can reduce sea-return response
D. Reflex-klystron D. Discriminates between targets that are very
50. Which of the following operating frequencies is close together.
used for the modern loran navigational system? 59. Which of the following is the ferrite device that
A. Loran C: 100 kHz buffers a microwave source from the effects of a varying
B. Loran D: 10.2 kHz load, and thereby prevents the formation of standing
C. Loran A: 1950 kHz waves?
D. Loran B: 900 kHz A. Circulator
B. Duplexer
51. Which ferrite device can be used instead of a C. Isolator
duplexer to isolate a microwave transmitter and receiver D. Diplexer
when both are connected to the same antenna? 60. Pulsed radar sets are primarily used to find the
A. Isolator A. Targets range and bearing
B. Magnetron B. Size and speed of a target
C. Simplex C. Speed and course of a target
D. Circulator D. Targets range of speed
52. The pulse frequency is equal to 61. Which of the following factors is mainly concerned
A. Duty cycle/pulse width in the design of an antenna system for pulsed radar set?
B. The reciprocal of the pulse repetition rate A. Duty cycle
C. Pulse width x peak power/average power B. Radio frequency
D. All of these C. Pulse frequency
53. In a radar set, a blocking oscillator can be used to D. Pulse length
A. Act as the local oscillator converter stage 62. In a radar set receivers, an ac AFC system may be
B. Provide the sweep voltage for the PPI tube used to
C. Produce a trigger pulse for the transmitter A. Automatically maintain the correct magnetron
D. As a single local oscillator converter stage frequency
54. The intensity of the echoes (target definition) on a B. Keep the IF stages on frequency
PPI display is determined by the C. Maintain the desired klystron frequency
A. Radio frequency D. Provide automatic control of receiver gain
B. Pulse frequency and antenna rotation rate 63. The input signal is introduced into the traveling-
C. Duty cycle wave tube at the
D. Average power A. Cathode
55. A duplexer circuit allows a transmitter and a receiver B. Anode
to operate from the same antenna with virtually no C. Cathode end of the helix
interaction. This circuit may be replaced by a (an) D. Collector end of the helix
A. loss waveguide 64. The display on the PPI scope of a radar set will have
B. circulator greater intensity under the following conditions
A. Higher antenna rotation speeds 74. Stripline and microstrip transmission lines are
B. Lower pulse repetition rate usually made with
C. Lower antenna rotation speeds A. Coax
D. Both lower antenna rotation speeds and higher B. Parallel wires
pulse repetition C. Twisted pair
65. The operating frequency of loran C lies within the D. PCBs
A. LF band 75. The most common cross section of a waveguide is a
B. VLF band A. Square
C. MF band B. Circle
D. HF band C. Triangle
66. The PPI tubes have an aquadag coating on the inside D. Rectangle
of the tube. The purpose of this coating is 76. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1 inch and a
A. To act as the second anode height of 0.6 in. Its cutoff frequency is
B. To shield the tube magnetically A. 2.54 GHz
C. To decelerate the electron beam B. 3.0 GHz
D. To deflect the electron beam C. 5.9 GHz
67. A traveling-wave tube Is used at frequencies in the D. 11.8 GHz
order of 77. A waveguide has a cutoff frequency of 17 GHz.
A. 30 MHz Which of the following signals will not be passed by the
B. 300 MHz waveguide?
C. 8000 MHz A. 15 GHz
D. 100 MHz B. 18 GHz
68. The main benefit of using microwaves is C. 22 GHz
A. Lower-cost equipment D. 255 GHz
B. Simpler equipment 78. Signal propagation in a waveguide is by
C. Greater transmission distances A. Electrons
D. More spectrum space for signals B. Holes
69. Radio communication are regulated in the C. Electric and magnetic fields
Philippines by the D. Air pressure
A. DOTC 79. When the electric field in a waveguide is
B. KBP perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, the
C. NTC mode is said to be
D. Department of Defense A. Vertical polarization
70. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of B. Horizontal polarization
microwaves? C. Transverse electric
A. Higher-cost equipment D. Transverse magnetic
B. Line-of-sight transmission 80. The dominant mode in most rectangular waveguide
C. Conventional components are not usable is
D. Circuits are more difficult to analyze A. TE 1.0
71. Which of the following is a microwave frequency? B. TE 1.2
A. 1.7 MHz C. TM 0.1
B. 750 MHz D. TM 1.1
C. 0.98 GHz 81. A magnetic field is introduced into waveguide by a
D. 22 GHz A. Probe
72. Which of the following is not a common microwave B. Dipole
application? C. Stripline
A. Radar D. Capacitor
B. Mobile radio 82. A half-wavelength, close section of a waveguide that
C. Telephone acts as a parallel resonant circuit is known as a(n)
D. Satellite communications A. Half-wave section
73. Coaxial cable is not widely used for long microwave B. Cavity resonator
transmission lines because of its C. LCR circuit
A. High loss D. Directional coupler
B. High cost 83. Decreasing the volume of a cavity causes its resonant
C. Large size frequency to
D. Excessive radiation A. Increase
B. Decrease C. Input signal frequency
C. Remain the same D. Number of cavities
D. Drop to zero 94. A magnetron is used only as a/an
84. __________ is a popular microwave mixer diode. A. Amplifier
A. Gunn B. Oscillator
B. Varactor C. Mixer
C. Hot carrier D. Frequency multiplier
D. IMPATT 95. A common application for magnetron is in
85. Varactor and step-recovery diodes are widely used in A. Radar
what type of circuit? B. Satellites
A. Amplifier C. Two-way radio
B. Oscillator D. TV sets
C. Frequency multiplier 96. In a TWT, the electron beam is density-modulated
D. Mixer by a
86. Which diode is a popular microwave oscillator? A. Permanent magnet
A. IMPATT B. Modulation transformer
B. Gunn C. Helix
C. Varactor D. Cavity resonator
D. Schottky 97. The main advantage of a TWT over a klystron for
87. Which type of diodes does not ordinarily operate microwave amplification is
with reverse bias? A. Lower cost
A. Varactor B. Smaller size
B. IMPATT C. Higher power
C. Snap-off D. Wider bandwidth
D. Tunnel 98. High-power TWTs are replacing what in microwave
88. Low-power Gunn diodes are replacing amplifiers?
A. Reflex klystrons A. MESFETs
B. TWTs B. Magnetrons
C. Magnetrons C. Klystrons
D. Varactor diodes D. IMPATT diodes
89. Which of the following is not a microwave tube? 99. The most widely used microwave antenna
A. Traveling-wave tube A. Half-wave dipole
B. Cathode-ray tube B. Parabolic
C. Klystron C. Hyperbolic
D. Magnetron D. Horn
90. In a klystron amplifier, velocity modulation of the 100. ______________ is a measure of reliability
electron beam is produced by the expressed as the average number of hours between
A. Collector successive failures.
B. Catcher cavity A. MTBF
C. Cathode B. MTTR
D. Buncher cavity C. Downtime
91. A reflex klystron is used as a(n) D. Outage time
A. Amplifier 101. The free space attenuation between two microwave
B. Oscillator antennas 40 km apart operating at 8 GHz is
C. Mixer A. 146.7 dB
D. Frequency multiplier B. 142.55 dB
92. For proper operation, a magnetron must be C. 82.5 dB
accompanied by a D. 86.7 dB
A. Cavity resonator 102. An active microwave radio repeater that can
B. Strong electric field provide drops and inserts.
C. Permanent magnet A. Broadband repeater
D. High dc voltage B. Baseband repeater
93. The operating frequency of klystrons and C. IF repeater
magnetrons is set by the D. RF repeater
A. Cavity resonators
B. DC supply voltage
103. If the correction factor k equals 4/3 of the earths C. TWT
curvature, the microwave beam would have a curvature D. Power transistor
that is ___________ than that of the earth. 112. Low-power radar transmitters and receivers use
A. More which component?
B. Less A. GaAs FET
C. Equal B. Magnetron
D. Not related C. Gunn diode
104. The optimum clearance from an obstacle in an D. Klystron
microwave system is accepted as __________ of the first 113. What component in a duplexer protects the receiver
fresnel zone radius. from the higher transmitter output?
A. 0.6 A. Waveguide
B. 0.5 B. Bandpass filter
C. 0.9 C. Notch filter
D. 1.5 D. Spark gap
105. The microwave beam curves the same than that of 114. Most radar antennas use a
the earth when the value of the correction factor k equals A. Dipole
A. 0 B. Broadside array
B. 4/3 C. Horn and parabolic reflector
C. 2/3 D. Collinear array
D. Infinity 115. The most common radar display is the
106. The time from the transmission of a radar pulse to A. A scan
its reception is 0.12 ms. The distance to the target is how B. Color CRT
many nautical miles? C. LCD
A. 4.85 nmi D. PPI
B. 9.7 nmi 116. A radar antenna using multiple diploes or slot
C. 11.2 nmi antennas in a matrix with variable phase shifters is called
D. 18.4 nmi a/an
107. The ability of a radar to determine the bearing to a A. A scan
target depends upon the B. Phased array
A. Antenna directivity C. Broadside
B. Speed of light D. Circulator polarized array
C. Speed of the target 117. Which of the following is a typical radar operating
D. Frequency of the signal frequency?
108. The pulse duration of a radar signal is 699ns. The A. 60 MHz
PRF is 185 pulses per second. The duty cycle is B. 450 MHz
A. 0.216 % C. 900 MHz
B. 0.130 % D. 10 GHz
C. 0.013 % 118. A microwave system requires the use of repeaters
D. 0.407 % when
109. The Doppler effect allows which characteristics of a A. The intervening terrain is favorable
target to be measured? B. The distances involve are grater
A. Distance C. The required reliability is meet
B. Azimuth D. The radio fading is unacceptable
C. Altitude 119. Are transmission lines which convey
D. Speed electromagnetic waves in highest frequencies
110. The Doppler effect is a change in what signal A. Twister pair of telephone wires
characteristics produced by relative motion between the B. Waveguides
radar set and a target? C. Power lines
A. Amplitude D. Coaxial cables
B. Phase 120. A microwave band of 10.9 to 36. GHz is considered
C. Frequency as
D. Duty cycle A. C-band
111. The most widely used radar transmitter component B. X-band
is a C. Q-band
A. Klystron D. K-band
B. Magnetron
121. A microwave communications system space loss B. The lowest frequency the waveguide operates
calculation formula. C. The same as the operating frequency
A. 94.2 + 20 log f + 20 log d D. The only frequency the waveguide operates.
B. 92.4 + 20 log f + 20 log d 131. When the clearance above the obstruction is equal
C. 94.2 + 10 log f + 20 log d to the radii of even fresnel zones at the point of
D. 92.3 + 10 log f + 20 log d reflection. The RSL is
122. A waveguide is also a A. Increased
A. Low pass filter B. Decreased
B. High pass filter C. Constant
C. Band pass filter D. Above threshold
D. Band stop filter 132. What is the wavelength of a wave in a waveguide?
123. A method of diversity reception where the signal is A. Greater than in free space
transmitted on two difference frequencies over the same B. Depends only on the waveguide dimensions
path and the free-space wavelength
A. Space diversity C. Inversely proportional to the phase velocity
B. Frequency diversity D. Inversely proportional to the group velocity
C. Polarization diversity 133. The CCIR hypothetical reference circuit covering a
D. Wavelength diversity distance of 25000 km consists of a total of how many
124. A wire used to reduce the skin effect hops?
A. AWG # 14 A. 5
B. AWG # 15 B. 10
C. Copper wire C. 24
D. Litz wire D. 54
125. Space diversity transmission means transmitting 134. Water causes more attenuation particularly on what
and receiving on two or more. frequency?
A. Different frequencies A. 20 GHz
B. Antennas operating on two different B. 63 GHz
frequencies C. 183 GHz
C. Antennas operating on the same frequencies D. 202 GHz
D. Identical frequencies 135. At what frequency does oxygen cause excessive
126. The best system configuration to overcome attenuation?
multipath fading of microwave system over the water A. 60 GHz
A. Space diversity B. 50 GHz
B. Frequency diversity C. 40 GHz
C. Polarization diversity D. 30 GHz
D. Wavelength diversity 136. Which of the following is an atmospheric
127. When the value of k increases, the effective result is attenuation?
_______ of the equivalent curvature A. Attenuation due to water vapor and oxygen
A. Flattening B. Attenuation due to mist and fog
B. Bulging C. Attenuation due to other gases
C. Sharp curvature D. Attenuation due to rain.
D. All of these 137. A microwave system operating at the 6 GHz band
128. A traveling wave tube consists of is carrying 600 voice channels. What is the noise loading
A. Electron gun, helix and repeller power in dBmO?
B. Electron gun, helix and collector A. 12.78
C. Electron gun, repeller and collector B. 26.78
D. Buncher cavity and catcher cavity C. 27.78
129. Advantage of periscope antenna in microwave D. 10.25
A. Reduce tower height 138. _________ is a microwave link between the down-
B. Minimize interference to and from other town terminal and another out of town terminal.
neighboring stations A. STL
C. Shorten waveguide length B. Uplink
D. Easy to install C. Downlink
130. What is the cut-off frequency of a waveguide? D. Terrestrial
A. The highest frequency the waveguide 139. Attenuator is used in the traveling wave tube to
operates A. Prevent oscillation
B. Increase gain 149. Which of the following is considered as the major
C. Prevent saturation advantage of using a helix traveling wave tube?
D. All of these A. Cheaper
140. Is a method of diversity reception applied to B. Less noise
reflective path to reduce fading. C. High power
A. Frequency diversity D. Wide bandwidth
B. Space diversity 150. RADAR stands for
C. Polarization diversity A. Radio Distance and Ranging
D. Wavelength diversity B. Radio Detection and Ranging
141. What is the effective earths radius used in C. Radio Direction and Ranging
communications design? D. Radio Distance and Range
A. 4000 miles 151. Attenuator is used in the travelling wave tube to
B. K x 4000 miles a. Help bunching
C. 5000 miles b. Prevent oscillations
D. K x 5280 miles c. Prevent saturation
142. IF bandwidth of a radar system is inversely d. Increase gain
proportional to 152. The multicavity klystron
A. Pulse width a. Is not a good low-level amplifier because of
B. Pulse interval noise
C. Peak transmit power b. Has a high repeller voltage to ensure a rapid
D. All of these transmit time
143. EADI stands for c. Is not suitable for pulsed operation
A. Electronic Air Data Indicator d. Needs a long transit time through the buncher
B. Electronic Altitude and Distance Indicator cavity to ensure current modulation
C. Electronic Altitude and Director Indicator 153. What is the effective radiated power of a repeater
D. Electronic Air and Distance Indicator with 450 W transmitting power output, 4 dB feedline
144. Which aircraft navigational system determines the loss, 6dB duplexer loss, and 7 dB circulator and feedline
time to station (TTS) or time to go (TTG)? loss and antenna gain of 25 dB?
A. ADF a. 2893.31 W
B. DME b. 2523.83 W
C. Timer c. 2839.31 W
D. ATC d. 2425.38 W
145. What frequency does a radio altimeter operate? 154. Magnetron oscillator are used for
A. 33500 kHz a. Generating SHF signals
B. 43000 kHz b. Multiplexing
C. 33500 MHz c. Generating rich harmonics
D. 43500 MHz d. FM demodulation
146. What inflight system allows passengers to make 155. A microwave tube which has the advantage of
telephone calls, send faxes, and computer data shop and having a high efficiency
play computer games, etc.? a. Cross-field amplifier
A. Inflight Satellite System b. Helix traveling wave tube
B. Terrestrial Flight Telephone System c. Klystron
C. World Airline Entertainment System d. Gridded tube
D. Satellite Phone 156. What term is used to describe the variation in a
147. ADF stands for microwave oscillator frequency caused by power supply
A. Audio Direction Findings voltage or current changes?
B. Automatic Direction Finder a. Frequency pulling
C. Alternate Direction Finder b. Frequency pushing
D. Automatic Distance Finder c. Post-tuning drift
148. RF carrier of the middle marker is modulated at d. Tuning sensitivity
____ Hz. 157. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1.2 in and a
A. 1300 height of 0.7 in. the waveguide will pass all signals
B. 1400 above __ GHz.
C. 1500 a. 4 GHz
D. 1600 b. 8.44 GHz
c. 10 GHz
d. 4.92 GHz c. -60 dBm
158. Waveguides are d. -100 dBm
a. A hollow tube that carries HF 167. A component that combines microwave signals
b. Solid conductors of RF from separate transmission lines into one common
c. Coaxial cables transmission line and allows no coupling between the
d. Copper wire separate lines
159. A TWT is sometimes preferred to the multi-cavity a. Isolator
klystron amplifier because the former b. Circulator
a. Is more efficient c. Directional coupler
b. Has a greater bandwidth d. Combiner
c. Has a higher number of modes 168. Telemetry is a microwave communications system
d. Produces a higher output power which operates at
160. Variation in oscillator frequency with changes in a. 600 MHz
load SWR b. 3.9 GHz
a. Frequency pulling c. 4 GHz
b. Frequency pushing d. 2 GHz
c. Post-tuning drift 169. What is the maximum power that can be obtained
d. Tuning sensitivity from a microwave semiconductor?
161. It is the frequency change of an electronically tuned a. 1 W
oscillator at a specified time after it has reached its b. 500 mW
desired frequency c. 10 W
a. Frequency pulling d. 4 W
b. Frequency pushing 170. The cavity magnetron uses strapping to
c. Post-tuning drift a. Prevent mode-jumping
d. Tuning sensitivity b. Prevent cathode back-heating
162. What is the power level of the smallest signal that c. Ensure bunching
can be detected above the noise by a Schottky diode? d. Improve the phase-focusing effect
a. -20 dBm 171. As a result of reflections from a plane conducting
b. 0 dBm wall, electromagnetic waves acquire an apparent velocity
c. -60 dBm greater that the velocity of light in space. This is called
d. -100 dBm the
163. A line-of-sight radio link operating at a frequency a. Velocity of propagation
of 6GHz has a separation of \$0 km between antennas. b. Normal velocity
An obstacle in the path is located 10 km from the c. Group velocity
transmitting antenna. By how much must the beam clear d. Phase velocity
the obstacle? 172. Which of the following is a method of modulating
a. 11.6 m digital signals onto a microwave carrier?
b. 13.4 m a. FSK
c. 19.34 m b. Biphase
d. 22.33 m c. Quadraphase
164. AM isolator d. All of the above
a. Acts a buffer between microwave oscillators 173. Suppose that the transmitter and receiver towers
coupled to a waveguide have equal height. How high would they have to be to
b. Acts as a buffer to protect a microwave communicate over a distance of 34 km?
oscillator form variations in the load changes a. 23.5 m
c. Shields UHF circuits from RF transmitter b. 28.47 m
d. Both a and b c. 17 m
165. What is the effective earths radius when Ns = 300? d. 8.47 m
a. 8500 km 174. In microwave communications system, for a carrier
b. 9320 km frequency of 6 GHz and a distance of 40 km, determine
c. 5600 km the free-space path loss in dB.
d. 4850 km a. 80 dB
166. What is the power level of the largest signal that b. 84.2 dB
will still be in the square-law range of a Schottky diode? c. 140 dB
a. -20 dBm d. 144.2 dB
b. 0 dBm
175. A microwave relay repeater that receives the b. Allows two or more antennas to feed one
modulated microwave carrier and obtains the baseband transmitter
signal from it, and them modulates the baseband signal c. Allows one antenna to feed two separate
onto another carries and retransmit the new carrier with microwave transmitters and receivers at the same time
the baseband modulated onto it d. Insulates UHF frequencies on transmission
a. Heterodyne repeater lines
b. Baseband repeater 184. What is the free-space loss in dB between two
c. RF repeater microwave parabolic antennas 38 km apart operating at
d. Regenerative repeater 7 GHz?
176. Which is the frequency range of the most common a. 85.10 dB
industrial microwave relay band? b. 80.90 dB
a. 6.575-6.875 GHz c. 140.90 dB
b. 3.7-4.2 GHz d. 145.10 dB
c. 5.925-6.425 GHz 185. A ruby maser amplifier must be cooled
d. 10.7-11.7 GHz\ a. Because the maser amplification generates a lot
177. When a particular mode is excited in a waveguide, of heat
there appears an extra electric component, in the b. To increase bandwidth
direction of propagation. The resulting mode is c. Because it cannot operate at room temperature
a. Transverse-electric d. To improve the noise performance
b. Transverse-magnetic 186. The glass tube of a TWT may be coated with
c. Longitudinal aquadag to
d. Transverse-electromagnetic a. Help focusing
178. Waveguide construction b. Provide attenuation
a. Should not use silver plating c. Improve bunching
b. Should not use copper d. Increase gain
c. Should not have short vertical runs 187. An antenna covering that the transmitted or receives
d. Should not have long horizontal runs microwave power can pass through, used to protect the
179. In a microwave system, the antenna sees a sky antenna and the antenna feed from weather
temperature of 120 K, and the antenna feedline has a loss a. Shroud
of 3 dB. Calculate the noise temperature of the b. Sub-reflector
antenna/feedline system, referenced to the receiver input. c. Radome
a. 205 K d. Offset antenna
b. 233.33 K 188. Waveguide are
c. 182 K a. Used exclusively in high frequency power
d. 210 K supplies
180. A choke flange may be used to couple two b. Ceramic couplers attached to the antenna
waveguides terminals
a. To help in the alignment of the waveguides c. High-pass filters used at low radio frequencies
b. Because it is simpler than any other join d. Hollow metal conductors used to carry high-
c. To compensate for discontinuities at the join frequency current
d. To increase the bandwidth of the system 189. A microwave device which is unlikely to be used a
181. A PIN diode is pulsed device. It is based on the principle of operation of
a. A metal semiconductor point-contact diode a traveling wave tube.
b. A microwave mixer diode a. Multicavity klyston
c. Often used a microwave detector b. Cross-field amplifier (CFA)
d. Suitable for use as a microwave switch c. Backward wave oscillator (BWO)
182. For some applications, circular waveguides may be d. Coaxial magnetron
used preferred to rectangular ones because 190. A magnetic field is used in the cavity magnetron to
a. The smaller cross section needed at any a. Prevent anode current in the absence of
frequency oscillations
b. Lower attenuation b. Ensure that the oscillations are pulsed
c. Freedom from spurious modes c. Help in focusing the electron beam thus
d. Rotation of polarization preventing spreading
183. A circulator d. Ensure that the electors will orbit around the
a. Cools dc motors during heavy loads cathode
191. In a micro wave communications system, if the 199. A parametric amplifier must be cooled
minimum carrier-to-noise (C/N) requirements for a a. Because parametric amplification generates a
receiver with a 10MHz bandwidth is 22 dB, the lot of heat
minimum receive carrier power is b. To increase bandwidth
a. -82 dB c. Because it cannot operate at room temperature
b. 76 dBm d. To improve the noise performance
c. 84 dB 200. For low attenuation, the best transmission medium
d. -82 dBm is
192. A rectangular waveguide used for microwave a. Flexible waveguide
transmission has a width of 1.4 inches and a height of b. Ridged waveguide
0.8 inches. All signals above __ GHz will be passed by c. Rectangular waveguide
the waveguide. d. Coaxial line
a. 4.3 GHz 201. IF repeaters are also called
b. 2 GHz a) heterodyne receiver
c. 4.2 GHz b) mixer/receiver
193. A pyramidal horn has an aperture (opening) of 58 d) FM receiver
mm in the E plane and 78 mm in the H plane. It operates 202. It is the difference between the nominal output
at 14 GHz. Calculate the gain in dBi. power of a transmitter and the minimum input power
a. 19.29 required by a receiver
b. 24.14 a) RSL
c. 15.8 b) IRL
d. 19.31 c) system gain
194. A magnetron whose oscillating frequency is d) FSL
electronically adjustable over a wide range is called a 203. A phenomenon whereby the frequency of a
a. Coaxial magnetron reflected of a reflected signal is shifted if there is relative
b. Dither-tuned magnetron motion between the source and reflecting object.
c. Frequency agile magnetron a) Doppler effect
d. VTM b) Hall effect
195. Conductance takes place in a waveguide c) Marconi effect
a. By inter-electron delay d) Maxwell effect
b. Through electrostatic field reluctance 204. A ferrite is
c. In the same manner as a transmission line a) a nonconductor with magnetic properties
d. Through electromagnetic and electrostatic b) an intermetallic compound with particularly
fields in the walls of the waveguide good conductivity
196. Indicate the false statement. Klystron amplifiers c) an insulator which heavily attenuates magnetic
may use intermediate cavities to fields
a. Prevent the oscillations that occurs in two- d) a microwave semiconductor invented by
b. Increase the bandwidth of the device 205. The primary purpose of the helix in a traveling-
c. Improve power gain wave tube is to
d. Increase the efficiency of the klystron a) prevent the electron beam from spreading in
197. The primary purpose of the helix in a traveling the long tube
wave tube is to b) reduce the axial velocity of the RF field
a. Prevent the electron beam from spreading in c) ensure the broadband operation
the long tube d) reduce the noise figure
b. Reduce the axial velocity of the RF field 206. The attenuator is used in the travelling-wave tube to
c. Ensure broadband operation a) help bunching
d. Reduce the noise figure b) prevent oscillations
198. A microwave device which allows RF energy to c) prevent saturation
pass through in one direction with very little loss, but d) increase the gain
absorbs RF power in the opposite direction 207. A magnetron is used only as
a. Circulator a) amplifier
b. Wave trap b) oscillator
c. Multiplexer c) mixer
d. Isolator d) frequency multiplier
208. A backward-wave oscillator is based on the 217. Refers to more than one transmission path or
a) rising-sun magnetron method of transmission available between transmitter
b) crossed-field amplifier and a receiver.
c) coaxial magnetron a) diversity
d) traveling-wave tube b) polarization
209. Stripline and microstrip transmission lines are c) efficiency
usually made with d) accuracy
a) coax 218. A solution to the blind speed problem is to
b) parallel lines a) change the Doppler frequency
c) twisted pair b) vary the RF
d) PCBs c) use monopulse
210. Which of the following is not a microwave tube? d) use MTI
a) Traveling-wave tube 219. A direct path that exist between the transmit and
b) Cathode-ray tube receive antennas
c) Klystron a) LOS
d) Magnetron b) direct waves
211. Indicate which is not true. Compared with other c) space waves
types of radar, phased array radar has the following d) terrestrial waves
advantages 220. The function of the quartz delay line in an MTI
a) very fast scanning radar is to
b) ability to track and scan simultaneously a) help in subtracting a complete scan from the
c) circuit simplicity previous scan
d) ability to track many targets simultaneously b) match the phase of the coho and the stalo
212. Given the frequency and dimensions of 5 GHz and c) match the phase of the coho and the output
7 cm by 9 cm respectively, the beam of the pyramidal oscillator
horn is about ______. d) delay a sweep so that the next sweep can be
a) 27 degrees subtracted from it
b) 53 degrees 221. Type of diversity where it modulates two different
c) 60 degrees RF carrier frequencies with the same IF intelligence,
d) 80 degrees then transmitting both RF signals to a given destination.
213. The diameter of a parabolic reflector should be at a) polarization diversity
least how many wavelengths at the operating frequency? b) quad diversity
a) 1 c) space diversity
b) 2 d) frequency diversity
c) 5 222. The coho in MTI radar operates at the
d) 10 a) intermediate frequency
214. A type of microwave repeater where the received b) transmitted frequency
RF carrier is down-converted to an IF frequency, c) received-frequency
amplified filtered and further demodulated to baseband. d) pulse operation frequency
a) RF repeater 223. Which type of diode does not ordinarily operate
b) IF repeater with reverse bias?
c) baseband repeater a) Varactor
d) radio repeater b) IMPATT
215. In order to reduce cross-sectional dimensions, the c) Snapp-off
waveguide to use is d) Tunnel
a) circular 224. What happens when a horn antenna is made longer?
b) ridged a) gain increases
c) rectangular b) beam width decreases
d) flexible c) bandwidth increases
216. Indicate which one of the following applications or d) bandwidth decreases
advantages of radar beacons is false: 225. A pyramidal horn used at 5 GHz has an aperture
a) target identification that is 7 cm by 9 cm. The gain is about
b) navigation a) 10.5 dB
c) very significant extension of the maximum b) 11.1 dB
range c) 22.6 dB
d) more accurate tracking enemy targets d) 35.8 dB
226. Type of diversity where the output of the b) sequential lobing
transmitter is fed to two or more antennas that are c) conical switching
physically separated by an appreciable wavelengths d) monopulse
a) quad diversity 235. The multicavity klystron
b) wavelength diversity a) is not good low-level amplifier because of
c) space diversity noise
d) hybrid diversity b) has a high repeller voltage to ensure a rapid
227. The Doppler effect is used in (indicate the false transmit time
statement) c) is not suitable for pulse operation
a) moving-target plotting on the PPI d) needs a long transmit time through the buncher
b) the MTI system cavity to ensure current modulation
c) FM radar 236. An arrangement that avoids a service interruption
d) CW radar during periods of deep fades or equipment failures.
228. A type of diversity where a single RF carrier is a) service switching arrangement
propagated with two different electromagnetic b) protection switching arrangement
polarization. c) interruption switching arrangement
a) space diversity d) equipment switching arrangement
b) wavelength diversity 237. A type of attenuator where attenuation is
c) polarization diversity accomplished by insertion of a thin card of resistive
d) hybrid diversity material through a slot in the top of a waveguide
229. The A scope displays a) flap attenuator
a) the target position and range b) vane attenuator
b) the target range, but not position c) slot attenuator
c) the target position, but not range d) directional coupler
d) neither range nor position, but only velocity 238. After a target has been acquired, the best scanning
230. The glass tube of a TWT may be coated with system for tracking is
aquadag to a) nodding
a) help focusing b) spiral
b) provide attenuation c) conical
c) improve bunching d) helical
d) increase gain 239. A duplexer is used
231. Type of diversity which consists of a standard a) to couple two different antennas to a
frequency diversity path where the two transmitter without mutual interference
transmitter/receiver pair at one end of the path are b) to allow the one antenna to be used for
separated from each other and connected to different reception or transmission without mutual interference
antennas that are vertically separated as in space c) to prevent interference between two antennas
diversity when they are connected to a receiver
a) quad diversity d) to increase the speed of pulses in pulsed radar
b) wavelength diversity 240. Type of protection switching arrangement where
c) space diversity each working radio channel has a dedicated backup or
d) hybrid diversity spare channel
232. The biggest disadvantage of CW Doppler radar is a) hot swap
that b) hot backup
a) it does not give the target velocity c) hot standby
b) it does not give the target range d) hot diversity
c) a transponder is required at the target 241. If a return echo arrives after the allocated pulse
d) it does not give the target position interval,
233. The combination of the frequency, space, a) it will interfere with the operation of the
polarization and receiver diversity into one system transmitter
a) hybrid diversity b) the receiver might be overloaded
b) quad diversity c) it will not be received
c) space diversity d) the target will appear closer than it really is
d) wavelength diversity 242. Points in the microwave system baseband signals
234. If the target cross section is changing, the best either originate or terminate
system for accurate tracking in a) terminator
a) lobe switching b) terminal stations
c) terminating equipment 251. Which of the following is not true: The radar cross
d) terminal equipment section of a target
243. A half wavelength, closed section of a waveguide a) depends on the frequency used
that acts as a parallel resonant circuit is known as _____. b) may be reduced by special coating of the target
a) half-wave section c) depends on the aspect of a target, if this non-
b) cavity resonator spherical
c) LCR circuit d) is equal to the actual cross-sectional area for
d) directional couple small targets
244. Decreasing the volume of a cavity causes its 252. It is a general term applied to the reduction in signal
resonant frequency to strength at the input to a receiver
a) increase a) fading
b) decrease b) attenuation
c) remains the same c) absorption
d) drop to zero d) ghosting
245. The IF bandwidth of a radar receiver is inversely 253. Indicate which of the following cannot be followed
proportional to the by the word waveguide
a) pulse width a) elliptical
b) pulse repetition frequency b) flexible
c) pulse interval c) coaxial
d) the target will appear closer than it really is d) ridged
246. Which of the following devices are not being used 254. If the ratio of the antenna diameter to the
in microwave power amplifier? wavelength in a radar system is high, this will result in
a) klystron tubes (indicate the false statement)
b) traveling wave tubes a) large maximum range
c) IMPATT b) good target discrimination
d) magnetron c) difficult target acquisition
247. Which is not true? A high PRF will d) increased capture area
a) make the returned echoes easier to distinguish 255. High-power TWTs are replacing what in
from noise microwave amplifiers?
b) make the target tracking easier with conical a) MESFETs
scanning b) Magnetrons
c) increase the maximum range c) Klystrons
d) have no effect on the range resolution d) IMPATT diodes
248. It is a unidirectional device often made up of ferrite 256. The most widely used microwave antenna is a
material used in conjunction with a channel-combining a) half-wave dipole
network to prevent the output from interfering with the b) quarter-wave probe
output of another transmitter c) single loop
a) circulator d) horn
b) magic tee 257. Applies to propagation variables in the physical
c) isolator radio path which affect changes in path loss between the
d) rat race transmitter at one station and its normal receiver at the
249. Which is not true about the following: Flat-topped other station.
rectangular pulses must be transmitted in radar to a) ghosting
a) allow a good minimum range b) absorption
b) make the returned echoes easier to distinguish c) attenuation
from the noise d) fading
c) prevent frequency changes in the magnetron 258. If the antenna diameter in a radar system is
d) allow accurate range measurements increased by a factor of 4, the maximum range will be
250. The power that leaks out of the back and sides of increased by a factor of
the transmit antenna interfering with the signal entering a) square root of 2
with the signal entering the input of a nearby receive b) 2
antenna. c) 4
a) ringaround d) 8
b) ringabout 259. If the peak transmitted power in a radar system is
c) roundabout increased by a factor of 15, the maximum range will be
d) turnaround increased by a factor of
a) 2 c) carrier to noise ratio
b) 4 d) dynamic range
c) 8 268. What is the peak power of a radar pulse if the pulse
d) 16 width is 1s, the pulse repetition rate is 900, and the
260. Varactor and step-recovery diodes are widely used average power is 18 W?
in what type of circuit? a) 10 kW
a) amplifier b) 15 kW
b) oscillator c) 20 kW
c) frequency multiplier d) 30 kW
d) mixer 269. The point where the antenna is mounted with
261. It is defined as line loss incurred by an respect to the parabolic reflector is called the
electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line a) focal point
through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of b) center
energy from nearby objects. c) locus
a) IRL d) tangent
b) FSL 270. The operating frequency of klystron and
c) RSL magnetrons is set by the
d) Eb/No a) cavity resonators
262. For proper operation, a magnetron must be b) DC supply voltage
accompanied by a c) input signal frequency
a) cavity resonator d) Number of cavities
b) strong electric field 271. Using a small reflector to beam waves to the larger
c) permanent magnet parabolic reflector is known as
d) high dc voltage a) focal feed
263. A police radar speed trap functions at a frequency b) horn feed
of 1.024 GHz in direct line with your car. The reflected c) cassegrain feed
energy from your car is shifted 275 Hz in frequency. d) coax feed
Calculate the speed in miles per hour? 272. If the noise figures and gains of each of the
a) 60 mph amplifiers in cascade is 3 dB and 10 dB respectively.
b) 70 mph What is the total noise figure?
c) 80 mph a) 2.12 dB
d) 90 mph b) 3.24 dB
264. It is the ratio of the wideband carrier to the c) 1.24 dB
wideband noise power d) 4.23 dB
a) carrier to noise ratio 273. One of the following is unlikely to be used as a
b) signal to noise ratio pulsed device
c) energy per bit per noise density ratio a) multicavity klystron
d) noise figure b) BWO
265. What is the duty cycle of a radar pulse if the pulse c) CFA
width is 1s, the pulse repetition rate is 900, and the d) TWT
average power is 18 W? 274. Calculate the maximum ambiguous range for a
a) 0.09 % radar system with PRT equal to 400s.
b) 0.99 % a) 13.8 mi
c) 0.90 % b) 43.5 mi
d) 1.00 % c) 16.4 mi
266. A microwave tube amplifier uses an axial magnetic d) 32.8 mi
field and a radial electric field. This is the 275. When electromagnetic waves are propagated in a
a) reflex klystron waveguide
b) coaxial magnetron a) they travel along the broader walls of the guide
c) traveling-wave magnetron b) they are reflected from the walls but do not
d) CFA travel along them
267. Figure of merit used to indicate how much the c) they travel through the dielectric without the
signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates as a signal passes walls
through a circuit or series of circuits d) they travel along all four walls of the
a) noise factor waveguide
b) signal to noise ratio
276. What is the distance in nautical miles to a target if it c) second return echoes
takes 123 s for a radar pulse to travel from the radar d) second time around echoes
antenna to the target, back to the antenna, and be 284. Indicate the false statement. Compared with
displayed on the PPI scope? equivalent transmission lines, 3 GHz waveguides
a) 10 nmi a) are less lossy
b) 5 nmi b) can carry higher powers
c) 20 nmi c) are less bulky
d) 15 nmi d) have lower attenuation
277. Waveguides are used mainly for microwave signals 285. The range beyond which targets appear as second
because return echoes is called
a) they depend on straight-line propagation which a) maximum range
applies to microwaves only b) maximum unambiguous range
b) losses would be too heavy at lower frequencies c) maximum usable range
c) there are no generators powerful enough to d) any of these
excite them at lower frequencies 286. When a particular mode is excited in a waveguide,
d) they would be too bulky at lower frequencies there appears an extra electric component, in the
278. Calculate the coupling of a directional coupler that direction of propagation. The resulting mode is
has 70 mW into the main guide and 0.35 mW out the a) transverse electric
secondary guide. b) transverse magnetic
a) 13 dB c) longitudinal
b) 23 dB d) transverse-electromagnetic
c) 33 dB 287. In radars, echoes that arrive after the transmission
d) 10 dB of the next pulse are called _____.
279. The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide a) second return echoes
a) is greater than in free space b) second time around echoes
b) depends only on the waveguide dimensions c) multiple time around echoes
and the free space wavelength d) any of these
c) is inversely proportional to the phase velocity 288. When electromagnetic waves are reflected at an
d) is directly proportional to the group velocity angle from a wall, their wavelength along the wall is
280. A rectangular waveguide is 1 cm by 2 cm. a) the same as the free space
Calculate the cutoff frequency b) the same as the wavelength perpendicular to
a) 3.5 GHz the wall
b) 15 GHz c) shortened because of the Doppler effect
c) 7.5 GHz d) greater than in the actual direction of
d) 4 GHz propagation
281. The main difference between the operation of 289. A radar mile is equivalent to
transmission liners and waveguides is that a) 2000 mi
a) the latter is not distributed, like transmission b) 2000 m
lines c) 2000 yd
b) the former can use stubs and quarter-wave d) 2000 km
transformers, unlike the latter 290. As a result of reflections from a plane conducting
c) transmission lines use the principal mode of wall, electromagnetic waves acquire an apparent velocity
propagation, and therefore do not suffer from low- of light in space
frequency cut-off a) velocity of propagation
d) terms such as impedance matching and b) normal velocity
standing-wave ratio cannot be applied to waveguides c) group velocity
282. The useful power of the transmitter that is d) phase velocity
contained in the radiated pulses is termed as ______. 291. In radars, the time between pulses is called ______.
a) rms power a) rest time
b) rated power b) duration time
c) peak power c) delay time
d) average power d) propagation time
283. In radars, echoes that are produced when the 292. Indicate the false statement. When the free-space
reflected beam is strong enough to make a second trip wavelength of a signal equals the cutoff wavelength of
a) double range echoes the guide
b) double frequencies echoes a) the group velocity of the signal becomes zero
b) the phase velocity of the signal becomes b) E-plane T
infinite c) hybrid ring
c) the characteristic impedance of the guide d) magic T
becomes infinite 301. A type of tee so-named because of the side arms
d) the wavelength within the waveguide becomes shunting the E field for the TE modes, which is
infinite analogous to voltage in the transmission lines
293. In radars, the duration of the pulse is a) magic tee
a) duty cycle b) rat tee
b) pulse width c) series tee
c) pulse amplitude d) shunt tee
d) pulse cycle 302. Which one of the following waveguide tuning
294. A signal propagated in a waveguide has a full wave components is not easily adjustable?
electric intensity change between two further walls, and a) screw
no component of the electric field in the direction of b) stub
propagation. The mode is c) iris
a) TE11 d) plunger
b) TE10 303. What type of waveguide is widely used?
c) TM22 a) circular
d) TE20 b) ridged
295. In radars, the number of the pulses transmitted per c) flexible
second is called d) rectangular
a) pulse repetition frequency 304. A piston attenuator is a
b) pulse repetition time a) vane attenuator
c) pulse repetition phase b) waveguide below cutoff
d) pulse number of repetition c) mode filter
296. Which of the following is incorrect? The dominant d) flap attenuator
mode of propagation is preferred with rectangular 305. Waveguides act as _____.
waveguides because a) low-pass filter
a) it leads to the smallest waveguide dimensions b) bandpass filter
b) the resulting impedance can be matched c) high-pass filter
directly to coaxial lines d) band-stop filter
c) it is easier to excite than other modes 306. Cylindrical cavity resonators are not used with
d) propagation of it without any spurious klystron because they have
generation can be ensured a) a Q that is too low
297. It is a mean of employing radio waves to detect and b) a shape whose resonant frequency is too
locate objects such as aircraft, ships and land masses. difficult to calculate
a) detectors c) harmonically related resonant frequencies
b) radars d) too heavy losses
c) repeaters 307. In waveguides, if no component of the E field is in
d) beacons the direction of propagation the mode is said to be
298. A choke flange may be used to couple two a) TE
waveguides b) TM
a) to help the alignment of the waveguides c) TEM
b) because it is simpler than any other join d) TME
c) to compensate for discontinuities at the join 308. A directional coupler with three or more holes is
d) to increase the bandwidth of the system sometimes used in preference to the two-hole coupler
299. The resonant frequency of a cavity may be varied a) because it is more efficient
by changing any of these parameters except: b) to increase coupling of the signal
a) cavity volume c) to reduce spurious mode generation
b) cavity inductance d) to increase the bandwidth of the system
c) cavity capacitance 309. The smallest free-space wavelength that is just
d) cavity resistance unable to propagate in the waveguide
300. In order to couple two generators to a waveguide a) cutoff wavelength
system without coupling them to each other, which b) cutoff frequency
could not be use? c) cutoff waveguide length
a) rat-race d) cutoff phase
310. It is the minimum frequency of waves that can d) horn
propagate through the waveguide 320. In a klystron amplifier, velocity modulation of the
a) cutoff frequency electron beam is produced by the
b) cutoff wavelength a) collector
c) cutoff phase b) catcher cavity
d) cutoff waveguide length c) cathode
311. A common application of magnetrons is in d) buncher cavity
a) Radar 321. Increasing the diameter of a parabolic reflector
b) Satellites causes which of the following:
c) Two-way radio a) decreased beamwidth
d) TV sets b) increased gain
312. In waveguides, it is the velocity at which the wave c) none of the above
changes phase d) decreased beamwidth and increased gain
a) waveguide velocity 322. For low attenuation, the best transmission medium
b) group velocity is
c) phase velocity a) flexible waveguide
d) total velocity b) ridged waveguide
313. The maximum power that may be handled by a c) rectangular waveguide
ferrite component is limited by the d) coaxial line
a) curie temperature 323. Low-power Gunn diodes are replacing
b) saturation magnetization a) Reflex klystron
c) line width b) TWTs
d) gyromagnetic resonance c) Magnetrons
314. In waveguides, it is the velocity at which the wave d) Varactor diodes
propagates 324. One of the reasons why vacuum tubes eventually
a) phase velocity fail at microwave frequencies is that their
b) group velocity a) noise figure increases
c) total velocity b) transmit time becomes too short
d) waveguide velocity c) shunt capacitive reactances becomes too large
315. A PIN diode is d) series inductance reactances becomes too
a) a metal semiconductor point-contact diode small
b) a microwave mixer diode 325. A rectangular waveguide has a width of 1 inch and
c) often used as a microwave detector a height of 0.6 inch. Its cutoff frequency is
d) suitable for use as a microwave switch a) 2.54 GHz
316. A common omnidirectional microwave antenna is b) 3.0 GHz
the c) 5.9 GHz
a) horn d) 11.8 GHz
b) parabolic reflector 326. The TWT is sometimes preferred to the multicavity
c) helical klystron amplifier, because the former
d) bicone a) is more efficient
317. The output of a helical antenna is b) has a greater bandwidth
a) vertically polarized c) has a higher number of modes
b) horizontally polarized d) produces higher output power
c) circularly polarized 327. The most common cross section of a waveguide is a
d) linearly polarized a) square
318. For some applications, circular waveguides may be b) circle
preferred to rectangular ones because of c) triangle
a) the smaller the cross section needed at any d) rectangle
frequency 328. The cavity magnetron uses strapping to
b) lower attenuation a) prevent mode jumping
c) freedom from spurious modes b) prevent cathode back-heating
d) rotation of polarization c) ensure bunching
319. A helical antenna is made up of a coil and a d) improve the phase-focusing effect
a) director 329. Signal propagation in a waveguide is by
b) reflector a) electrons
c) dipole b) electric and magnetic fields
c) holes c) telephone
d) air pressure d) spacecraft communications
330. The dominant mode in most waveguides is 340. Indicate the false statement. Transit time in
a) TE 0,1 microwave tubes will be reduced if
b) TE 1,2 a) the electrodes are brought closer together
c) TM 0,1 b) a higher node current is used
d) TM 1,1 c) multiple or coaxial loads are used
331. Periodic permanent-magnet focusing is used with d) the anode voltage is made larger
TWTs to 341. Coaxial cable is not widely used for long
a) allow pulsed operation microwave transmission lines because of its
b) improve electron bunching a) high loss
c) avoid the bulk of electromagnet b) high lost
d) allow coupled-cavity operation at the highest c) large size
frequencies d) excessive radiation
332. A popular microwave mixer diode is the 342. The main advantage of the TWT over a klystron for
a) Gunn microwave amplification is
b) Varactor a) lower cost
c) Hot carrier b) smaller size
d) IMPATT c) higher power
333. A magnetron whose oscillating frequency is d) wider bandwidth
electronically adjustable over a wide range is called a 343. A magnetic field is used in the cavity magnetron to
a) coaxial magnetron a) prevent anode current in the absence of
b) dither-tune magnetron oscillations
c) frequency-agile magnetron b) ensure that the oscillations are pulsed
d) VTM c) help in focusing the electron beam, thus
334. The main benefit of using microwave is preventing spreading
a) lower-cost equipment d) ensure that the electrons will orbit around the
b) sampler equipment cathode
c) greater transmission distances 344. A waveguide has a cutoff frequency of 17 GHz.
d) more spectrum space for signals Which of the signals will not be passed by the
335. Which diode is a popular microwave oscillator? waveguide?
a) IMPATT a) 15 GHz
b) Gunn b) 18 GHz
c) Varactor c) 22 GHz
d) Schottly d) 25 GHz
336. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of 345. When the electric field in a waveguide is
microwave? perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, the
a) higher cost equipment mode is said to be
b) line-of-sight transmission a) vertical polarization
c) conventional components are not usable b) transverse electric
d) circuits are more difficult to analyze c) horizontal polarization
337. Which of the following is a microwave frequency? d) transverse magnetic
a) 1.7 MHz 346. The TWT is sometimes preferred to the magnetron
b) 750 MHz as a radar transmitter output tube because it is
c) 0.98 MHz a) capable of longer duty cycle
d) 22 GHz b) a more efficient amplifier
338. In a TWT, the electron beam, is density-modulated c) more broadband
by a d) less noisy
a) Permanent magnet 347. A magnetic field is introduced into a waveguide by
b) Modulation transformer a
c) Helix a) probe
d) Cavity resonator b) dipole
339. Which of the following is not a common c) stripline
microwave application? d) capacitor
a) radar 348. A reflex klystron is used as a/n
b) mobile radio a) amplifier
b) oscillator a) microstrip
c) mixer b) coax
d) frequency multiplier c) twin lead
349. Indicate the false statement: Manganese ferrite may d) twisted pair
be used as a 359. Where is the resistive load placed in a directional
a) circulator coupler?
b) isolator a) front end of the primary
c) garnet b) front end of the secondary
d) phase shifter c) back end of the primary
350. Indicate the false statement. Klystron amplifiers d) back end of the secondary
may use intermediate cavities to 360. One of the following is a type of bolometer
a) prevent oscillations that occur in two-cavity a) calorimeter
klystron b) thermocouple
b) increase the bandwidth of the device c) barreter
c) improve the power gain d) carreter
d) increase the efficiency of the klystron 361. Why are bolometers not used to detect modulation?
351. What are limits of microwaves? a) thermal sluggishness
a) 1 25,000 GHz b) inefficiency
b) 1 50,000 GHz c) less accurate
c) 1 75,000 GHz d) less precise
d) 1 100,000 GHz 362. The advantage of a resonant cavity over a hairpin
352. The following transmission lines are used for tank?
microwave frequencies, except: a) lesser Q
a) waveguide b) wider bandwidth
b) twin lead c) higher Q
c) coax d) efficiency
d) stripline 363. What type of coupling is used between a waveguide
353. How much must a waveguide be? and a waveguide wavemeter?
a) over a half-wave a) loop antenna
b) over a quarterwave b) quarterwave antenna
c) over a wavelength c) hole
d) over three-fourths of a wavelength d) E probe
354. How high must a waveguide be? 364. Which microwave tube has a repeller?
a) over a wavelength a) TWT
b) over a quarter wave b) Klystron
c) over a half wave c) Magnetron
d) over two wavelengths d) BWO
355. What is the designation of the lowest-frequency 365. Which microwave tube has a series of cavities?
microwave band? a) magnetron
a) V band b) klystron
b) X band c) TWT
c) Ku band d) BWO
d) L band 366. Which microwave tube has a helix
356. What is the designation of the highest-frequency a) klystron
microwave band? b) magnetron
a) R band c) multicavity klystron
b) Ka band d) BWO
c) V band 367. Which microwave tube has a horseshoe magnet?
d) L band a) magnetron
357. What is reduced by using choke flanges? b) klystron
a) refraction c) TWT
b) reflection d) BWA
c) absorption 368. What is the advantage of a gridless klystron
d) cancellation a) power input
358. What is the name of the microwave transmission b) gain
line that is used in printed circuits? c) attenuator
d) power output a) not a gun
369. Which vacuum tube do you think oscillate at the b) not a semiconductor
highest frequency c) not a diode
a) Magnetron d) should be spelled with single n
b) Gunn 380. What is important property do ferrites have which
c) Klystron is used as a switch?
d) BWO a) faraday rotation
370. How would a balun be used to change 200 ohms to b) resonance absorption
50 ohms? c) magnetic properties
a) use a higher turns ratio d) high curie temperature
b) use a higher frequency 381. Which is used in circulators?
c) reverse it a) resonance absorption
d) use low frequency b) magnetic properties
371. How could a balun change 100 ohms to 900 ohms c) ion resonance
a) use 3:1 turns ratio d) faraday rotation
b) use 1:3 turns ratio 382. What is the advantage of using a circulator with
c) use 9:1 turns ratio two transmitter and two receivers?
d) use 1:9 turns ratio a) many antennas
372. How high a frequency can transistor generate? b) less interference
a) above 10 GHz c) easy coupling
b) above 5 GHz d) one antenna only
c) above 2 GHz 383. To what must the fourth port be connected in a
d) above 7.8 GHz tunnel diode amplifier?
373. What is the microwave application of a varactor? a) resistor
a) mixer b) inductor
b) frequency multiplier c) capacitor
c) demodulator d) impedance
d) demultiplexer 384. To what must the third port be connected in a
374. What diode does better than varactor in microwave multiplexer circulator
frequencies? a) reflecting short circuit
a) step recovery b) absorbing short circuit
b) tunnel c) reflecting open circuit
c) PIN d) absorbing open circuit
d) Gunn 385. What does radar mean?
375. The following diodes can generate microwave AC a) radio detection and range
a) Tunnel c) radio direction and range
b) LSA d) range direction radiation
c) IMPATT 386. In what distance unit are marine radars calibrated?
d) Magnetron a) statute miles
376. For what are PIN diodes used in microwave? b) kilometers
a) mixers c) nautical miles
b) modulators d) feet
c) oscillators 387. What time unit is the equivalent of a radar mile?
d) amplifier a) 12.3 microseconds
377. What is the other name for LSA diodes? b) 6.8 microseconds
a) negative resistance c) 4.5 microseconds
b) bulk-effect d) 7.1 microseconds
c) tunneling effect 388. In what frequency band does marine radar operate?
d) time-space a) 9.5 GHz S band
378. What is the advantage of LSA over a Gunn Diode? b) 3 GHz X band
a) more efficient c) 9.5 GHz Ku band
b) higher power d) 3 GHz S band
c) less noise 389. To what two circuits would a radar timer circuit
d) higher frequency feed signals?
379. What is wrong with the term Gunn Diode? a) modulator and mixer
b) amplifier and circulator d) capacitive circuits
c) modulator and circulator 400. What determines the PRR in odd-time radar sets?
d) amplifier and modulator a) tuned circuit frequency
390. What is the target display on a CRT called? b) oscillator frequency
a) crosshair c) spark gap speed
b) blip d) MOPA transmitter time
c) center spot 401. What is used to carry RF energy from magnetron
d) round to antenna in a radar set?
391. What is the main bang on a PPI radar set? a) helix
a) blip b) parallel wireline
b) center spot c) coax
c) bearing d) waveguide
d) round 402. What is the method of illuminating a parabolic
392. What is the ability to separate adjacent equidistant reflector with RF?
targets called? a) horn
a) bearing resolution b) cassegrain
b) narrow bandwidth c) helix
c) high frequency d) coax
d) shorter wavelength 403. How would a radar reflector be parabolic-shaped
393. What is the approximate rotational rate of a radar a) circularly
antenna? b) vertically
a) 20 rpm c) horizontally
b) 5 rpm d) none of these
c) 25 rpm 404. In what way are radar emissions similar to
d) 10 rpm microwave ovens?
394. How is radar CRTs differ from TV? a) can transmit
a) square b) can receive
b) round c) can cook
c) rectangular d) can transceiver
d) trapezoidal 405. To what tube is a dc keep-alive voltage applied?
395. What circuits make up the radar transmitter? a) Oscillator
a) multivibrator b) Transmit-Receive Mixer
b) trapezoidal oscillator c) Circulator
c) sine wave generator d) Isolator
d) blocking oscillator 406. In radar, if the mixer diode burns out, what are
396. What type of oscillator determines the PRR? replaced?
a) blocking a) tube
b) pulse b) mixer
c) square c) antenna
d) blocking or pulse d) diode
397. What other circuit might be used as an oscillator 407. What is the cavity between magnetron and mixer
that determines the PRR? cavity called?
a) trapezoidal generator a) ATR
b) unbalanced multivibrator b) TR
c) bistable multivibrator c) Transmit
d) sinewave generator d) Receive
398. Why are hydrogen-gas thyratrons used in radar? 408. Radar receivers use what Ifs
a) fast-ionize a) 20 MHz and lower
b) cheaper b) 10 MHz and higher
c) accurate c) 30 MHz or higher
d) efficient d) 10 MHz and lower
399. What is the other name for a pulse-forming network 409. What kind of local oscillators does a radar
a) tuned circuit a) klystron
b) oscillators b) magnetron
c) delay line c) LSA
d) TWT c) AC signal
410. What solid-state types might be used as a radar d) Carrier signal
receiver? 420. Why is a selsyn pair not too successful for radar
a) Gunn diode antenna synchronization?
b) Tunnel diode a) constant lead angle
c) Hot carrier diode b) variable lag angle
d) Step recovery diode c) constant lag angle
411. What does an ATR tube aid? d) variable lead angle
a) transmitting 421. What is fed to the rotor of a selsyn motor?
b) receiving a) power-line AC
c) both transmitting and receiving b) DC source
d) neither transmitting and receiving c) A pulsating DC
412. To what is the AFC voltage applied in a d) None
klystron? 422. What is fed to the rotor selsyn generator?
a) cathode a) none
b) grid b) power-line AC
c) plate c) DC source
d) any of these d) A pulsating DC
413. Sea return is the control that desentisizes a radar 423. What is fed to a control transformer rotor?
receiver for _____ a) A pulsating DC
a) 5 10 microseconds b) power-line AC
b) 15 20 microseconds c) DC source
c) 10 15 microseconds d) none
d) 20 25 microseconds 424. What is used to indicate the bow of the ship on
414. In radars, how is blooming prevented? the CRT?
a) limit modulation a) tail flash
b) video signal b) body flash
c) limit the carrier signal c) heading flash
d) limit the audio signal d) none
415. How is brilliance controlled in radars? 425. When is an echo box used on ships?
a) audio gain a) testing only
b) IF gain b) direction finding
c) RF gain c) auto alarm
d) video gain d) ship detection
416. How is sensitivity limited in radars? 426. What qualification must a person have before he
a) RF gain is eligible to make repairs to a radar set?
b) video gain a) NTC endorsement
c) audio gain b) repair license
d) IF gain c) repair endorsement
417. How much intensifying pulse is used in radars? d) radar endorsement
a) Just enough to produce light flicker on screen 427. What is the advantage of using Doppler radar?
b) should be high to produce light flicker on a) shows only moving target
screen b) shows stationary target
c) should be low to produce light flicker on c) shows both moving and stationary target
screen d) produce blips with stationary targets
d) any amount of intensifying pulse will do 428. How would Doppler radar give speed indications?
418. If echo signals are developed as negative pulses, a) adjust output burst
to what part of the CRT would they be fed in radar? b) correct RF carrier output
a) anode c) switch amplitude detector
b) grid d) calibrate discriminator output
c) cathode 429. What is another application of Doppler radar?
d) 2nd grid a) distance between radar and stationary target
419. What starts the range-marker circuit ringing in b) ground speed indicator
radars? c) ground missile indicator
a) intensifying pulse d) enemy base station
b) IF gain
430. Why are signal nulls used in Radio Direction c) ground plus sky waves
Finders work? d) ground wave alone
a) sharper than maximums 440. At what time of the day is direction finder
b) sharper than minimums bearings least accurate
c) duller than maximums a) sunset
d) duller than minimums b) sunrise
431. How many are signal nulls in one loop rotation c) mid-day
Radio Direction Finders? d) sunset and sunrise
a) 3 441. At what angles are quadrantal errors maximum in
b) 4 direction finding
c) 5 a) 45 degrees
d) 2 b) 90 degrees
432. Under what conditions do the horizontal portions c) 180 degrees
of a loop pick up difference currents in RDF? d) 270 degrees
a) ground waves 442. How are quadrantal errors corrected?
b) sky waves a) 330 degrees
c) space waves b) 360 degrees
d) direct waves c) 315 degrees
433. The method of balancing a loop used in RDF? d) 215 degrees
a) Capacitor to ground 443. How is it that none of the 120-550 kHz ADF
b) Capacitor to sense antenna circuits are tuned to the desired station?
c) Sense antenna to one side of loop a) narrowband amplifiers
d) Any of these b) broadband amplifiers
434. For what are unidirectional readings used in loops c) IF amplifiers
for RDF? d) Mixers
a) resolve a 180 degrees ambiguity 444. What is the only hand-tuned circuit in the ADF?
b) resolve a 90 degrees ambiguity a) 3125-kHz signal local oscillator
c) resolve a 360 degrees ambiguity b) 4125-kHz signal local oscillator
d) resolve a 270 degrees ambiguity c) 2182-kHz signal local oscillator
435. What kind of antenna is a sense antenna used in d) 2230-kHz signal local oscillator
RDF? 445. What forms the error signal that actuates the ADF
a) circular servo-motor?
b) vertical a) 75-Hz carrier
c) horizontal b) 114-Hz carrier
d) any of these c) 114-Hz sideband
436. In RDF, what happens to a radio wave path as it d) 75-Hz sideband
moves outward across a coastline as less than 90 446. Which ADF antenna is used for manual
degrees? operation?
a) bends away from the shore a) parabolic antenna
b) travels along the shore b) loop antenna
c) bends towards shore c) half-wave dipole
d) travels across the shore d) helical antenna
437. What is the result of antenna effect in RDF? 447. Which ADF antenna is used for simple receive
a) rotated 90 degrees operation?
b) nulls shift a) loop antenna
c) decreases land effect b) sense antenna
d) coastline refraction c) quarterwave antenna
438. What is the result of re-radiation of signals in d) parabolic antenna
RDF? 448. What is heard by earphones in the ADF?
a) great circle error a) 3 kHz beat
b) non-opposite minimums b) 1 kHz beat
c) polarization errors c) 2 kHz beat
d) nulls shifted d) 5 kHz beat
439. What causes night effect in direction finding? 449. If two bearing are determined from a radio beacon
a) ground plus space wave or station over a period of a few minutes, what else
b) sky plus space wave must be known to determine the ships position?
a) speed dielectric substrate, with a similar thin-film ground
b) elapses time plane conductor on the other side of the substrate.
c) ships course a. Strip line
d) any of these b. Lecher wire
450. What important point regarding-loop RDF system c. Microstrip
maintenance? d. Stub
a) insulation at top of loop 459. Waveguide is a
b) clean moving contacts a. Device used to determine the wavelength of a
c) oil bearing of loop signal
d) any of these b. Hollow metal tube used for transmission of
451. Indicate which of the following frequencies microwave energy
cannot be used for reliable beyond-the-horizon c. Plastic tubular transmission line for high RF
terrestrial communications without repeaters: network
a. 20 kHz d. Braided wire used for transmission of HF
b. 15 MHz 460. Transmission lines which can convey
c. 900 MHz electromagnetic waves only in higher order modes are
d. 12 GHz usually called
452. A ship-to-ship communications system is plagued a. Coaxial cable
by fading. The best solution seems to be the use of b. Twisted pair
a. A more directional antenna c. Power lines
b. A broadband antenna d. Waveguides
c. Frequency diversity 461. In order to reduce cross-sectional dimensions, the
d. Space diversity waveguide to use is
453. A range of microwave frequencies more easily a. Circular
passed by the atmosphere than are the others is called a b. Ridge
a. Window c. Rectangular
b. Critical frequency d. Elliptical
c. Gyro frequency range 462. A signal propagated in a waveguide has a full
d. Resonance in the atmosphere wave of electric intensity change between the two
454. Frequencies in the UHF range propagate by farther walls, and no component of the electric field in
means of the direction of propagation. The mode is
a. Ground waves a. TE1,1
b. Sky waves b. TE1,0
c. Surface waves c. TM2,2
d. Space waves d. TE2,0
455. Tropospheric scatter is used with frequencies in 463. When a particular mode is excited in a
the following range: waveguide, there appears an extra electric component,
a. HF in the direction of propagation. The resulting mode is
b. VHF a. Transverse electric
c. UHF b. Transverse magnetic
d. VLF c. Longitudinal
456. When microwave signals follow the curvature of d. Transverse electromagnetic
the earth, this is known as 464. The wavelength of a wave in a waveguide
a. The Faraday effect a. Is greater than in free space
b. Ducting b. Depends on waveguide dimensions and free
c. Tropospheric scatter space wavelength
d. Iosnospheric reflection c. Is inversely proportional to the phase velocity
457. Helical antennas are often used for satellite d. Is directly proportional to the group velocity
tracking at VHF because of 465. When electromagnetic waves are propagated in a
a. Troposcatter waveguide, they
b. Superrefraction a. Travel along the broader walls of the guide
c. Ionospheric refraction b. Are reflected from walls but not travel along
d. The Faraday effect them
458. _______________ consists basically of a thin c. Travel through the dielectric without touching
film strip in intimate contact with one side of a flat the walls
d. Travel along the 4 walls of the waveguides
466. When microwave signals follow the curvature of first Fresnel radius clears a path obstruction in
the earth, this is known as microwave systems.
a. Faraday Effect a. 45%
b. Deducting b. 60%
c. Tropospheric Scatter c. 75%
d. Ionospheric Reflection d. 85%
467. A waveguide mode in which there is no 475. ____________ are concentric circular zones about
component of electric field in the direction of a direct path of a microwave signal called Huygens
propagation given in the British European standards. radiation center, forming an imaginary solid called an
a. H-mode ellipsoid __________.
b. E-mode a. Temperature zone
c. TE mode b. Skip zone
d. M-mode c. Fresnel zone
468. The extra strength needed in order to assure that d. Fraunhoffer zone
enough signal reaches the receiving antenna and must 476. Waveguides are used mainly for microwave
be made available to compensate for fades; computed transmission because
as the difference between the received signal strength a. They depend on straight line propagation
and the threshold level b. Losses are heavy at lower frequencies
a. Fade Margin c. They are bulky at lower frequencies
b. Threshold Level d. No generator is powerful enough to excite
c. Noise Figure them
d. RSL 477. A waveguide assembly that lets the radar
469. The use of redundant system to reduce the effects transmitter and receiver share an antenna is called
of multipath fading is a. Translator
a. Combining b. Diplexer
b. Modulation c. Flip-flop
c. Multiplexing d. duplexer
d. Diversity 478. ________________ is a graph wherein the terrain
470. A profile graph of the microwave energy path in which the microwave beam should traverse.
a. Shows the cross section of the earths surface a. Topograph
b. Determines LOS or site technical feasibility b. Radio path profile
c. Determines the actual clearance, antenna c. Fresnel graph
heights and system reliability d. Net path graph
d. All of the preceding 479. The Fresnel zone is the circular zone about the
471. In locating microwave relay stations, the systems _______ path.
designer must consider a. Reflected
a. Terrain obstructions and reflection points b. Direct
b. Site security and navigational hazards c. Diffracted
c. Availability of power, water source and d. Refracted
accessible roads 480. The radius in the circular zone is in the first
d. All of the above Fresnel zone when the reflected path is _______ longer
472. A microwave path over which radio waves barely than the direct path.
touches the obstruction is called a. /2
a. Line of Sight b.
b. Obstructed Path c. /4
c. Grazing Path d. /8
d. Crooked Path 481. At __________ of the first Fresnel zone is a
473. What is the function of regenerative repeater? condition where there is no gain and no loss.
a. To eliminate bias distortion a. 0.5
b. To help in the loading of the telegraphs lines b. 0.6
c. To reduce required signal levels c. 0.7
d. To reshape the pulses after they have become d. 0.8
distorted 482. The weakest signal the receiver could accept to be
474. A situation when there is no change in attenuation considered satisfactory.
or no gain, no loss occurs when ________ % of the a. Threshold
c. RSL a. H
d. NPL b. E
483. The frequency band from 8 to 12 GHz is known c. Z
as the band. d. TEM
a. C 493. The smallest free space wavelength that is just
b. Ku unable to propagate in the waveguide under given
c. X conditions.
d. Ka a. Guide
484. The difference between the Received Signal Level b. Phase
and the FM Improvement Threshold c. Cut-off
a. System Gain d. Group
b. Noise Threshold 494. The characteristic wave impedance of a
c. Fade Margin waveguide in the TE mode is _______ that of the TM
d. Reliability mode.
485. A Fade Margin of 28 dB has a reliability of a. Equal to
a. 99% b. Higher than
b. 99.9% c. Lower than
c. 99.99% d. NOTA
d. 99.999% 495. The following are methods of exciting
486. Topographical maps are used for microwave waveguides except
communications systems design because _________ a. Slot coupling
are shown, thereby elevations are known. b. Antennas
a. Latitudes c. Flanges
b. Longitudes d. Direct coupling
c. Contour lines 496. Higher order mode-waveguides are not used in
d. Scales practice because they have ______ cut-off frequencies.
487. The dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide. a. Low
a. TEM b. High
b. TE1,1 c. Indeterminate
c. TE1,0 d. Fixed
d. TM1,1 497. Indicate which of the following cannot be
488. The velocity of a resultant wave as it travels followed by the word waveguide
through the waveguide. a. Elliptical
a. Speed of light b. Flexible
b. Group velocity c. Coaxial
c. Phase velocity d. Ridged
d. Incident velocity 498. A piston attenuator is a
489. The principal mode for a circular waveguide. a. Vane attenuator
a. TE1,0 b. Waveguide below cut-off
b. TM2,0 c. Mode filter
c. TE1,1 d. Flap attenuator
d. TEM 499. Which of the following waveguide tuning
490. A type of waveguide that reduces the cutoff components is not easily adjustable?
wavelength, increases bandwidth and allows for a a. Screw
variation of the characteristics impedance. b. Stub
a. Ridge c. Iris
b. Rectangular d. Plunger
c. Tee 500. Which of the following is not a waveguide
d. Twisted termination component?
491. The subscript which indicates the number of /2 a. Tapered pyramid
s along the waveguide height. b. Post
a. m c. Tapered resistance card
b. n d. Stepped resistance card
c. a
d. b
492. The international equivalent of the TE mode