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EV and HEV

Hongwei Gao Yimin Gao Mehrdad Ehsani

College Station, TX 77843-3128, USA

Phone: 979-845-7562lFax: 979-845- 1976

SYSTEM

AND OPERATING

CHARACTERISTICS

EV and HEV are analyzed in this paper. A neural network

based SRM drive control strategy is developed for satisfying Reference [ 11 indicates that parallel-hybridized braking

the requirements of regenerative braking in EV and HEV system with a fur relationship between electrical regenerative

when SRM is chosen as the power source of EV and HEV.

braking force and mechanical friction braking force for an EV

The energy recovery efficiency of the proposed control

strategy is also evaluated. and HEV has a simple construction and control strategy. It is

also effective to absorb most of the braking energy in typical

I. INTRODUCTION urban driving. The configuration of the braking system is

shown in Fig.1. The regenerative braking only exists in the

Regenerative braking is an effective approach to extend front wheels. The braking torque on the front wheels is the

the operating rang of an electric vehicle (EV) and improve combination of regenerative braking torque produced by the

the fuel economy of a self-sustained hybrid electric vehicle electric braking system and the frictional braking torque

(HEV),especially for the vehicle that mainly runs in urban produced by the mechanical braking system. The relationship

areas. For example, a 1500 kg passenger car, running at a of the regenerative and frictional braking forces on the front

speed of 7 0 k d h (44mph), stores about 300k.J (0.083 wheels is shown in Fig.2 for a 1500kg passenger car. In Fig. 2,

KW.h) kinetic energy. If all the kinetic energy can be Fbh, Fbrrand j represents the mechanical braking force on

recovered and reused to propel the vehicle, the recovered the front wheels, the electrical braking force on the front

energy can support the vehicle to run about 1.8 km (1.1 wheels, the braking force on the rear wheels, and the

miles). However, without regenerative braking, most of the deceleration, respectively. Curve A, B, and C shows the ideal

kinetic energy is converted into heat during fictional braking force distribution between the front wheels and the

braking. rear wheels, the practical braking force distribution between

Braking power in an emergent braking is huge. For the front wheels and the rear wheels in case without

example, a 1500 kg passenger car with a deceleration of regenerative braking system, and the practical braking force

0.6g (6m/s2) at a initial speed of lOOkm/h (60 mph), the distribution between the front wheels and the rear wheels in

braking power is about 250 KW. It is obvious that the case with regenerative braking system, respectively. When the

electric regenerative braking system cannot handle such deceleration of the vehicle is less than O.lg, only regenerative

large braking power. Therefore, a mechanical friction braking is invoked; otherwise both the regenerative and

braking system must be attached with the electric frictional braking system produce braking torque on the front

regenerative brake system for the safety reason. wheels. The regenerative braking force at various

Due to its low-cost and rugged construction, reliable decelerations is shown in Fig.3.

inverter topology, simple control strategy, and high

Master

efficiency at wide speed range, switched reluctance motor

Force

drive is considered promising as the propulsion power

source of EV and HEV. However, development of the

SRM drive control strategy for satisfying the requirement

of regenerative braking in EV and HEV remains a research

problem.

In this paper, the distribution of the braking force of the

vehicle is briefly explained in section 11. The distributionof

the braking power and energy at different vehicle speed for

a typical urban driving cycle is reviewed in section 111. An

artificial neural network based SRM drive control strategy

for satisfying the requirement of regenerative braking in

EV and HEV is presented in section IV.Energy recovery

efficiency of the proposed SRM drive control strategy is

Fig.1 Configurationof the braking system

also evaluated. Section V concludes the paper.

0-7803-7091 IEEE

-0/01/$10@2001 571

(25mph), the braking force is almost constant. This speed-

braking force characteristic well matches that of the electric

motor.

Fig.5 shows the distribution of braking energy along with

the vehicle speed. It indicates that about 85% of recoverable

braking energy is distributed in the speed range of higher than

15km/h (9.4mph). This fact implies that at very low speed, the

energy recovery efficiency is not a concern for the electric

braking system. At high speed, the electric motor should

produce the required braking torque with high energy recovery

efficiency. In fact, all the urban driving cycles share the same

braking power (force) and energy distribution characteristics

as mentioned above. Table 1 lists some key numbers for

typical urban driving cycles.

Braking force on the front wheels, kN, w.CONTROL STRATEGY OF SRM DRIVEFOR REGENERATIVE

BRAKING

Fig.2 Braking forces on the front and rear wheels along

on the braking pedal, which represents the desired

deceleration. After receiving this braking signal from the force

sensor on the pedal, the SRM drive system should produce

corresponding braking torque according to the designed

braking force distribution shown in Fig. 2.

6 2

111. CHARACTERISTICS OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING POWER ::

2 1.5

AND ENERGY

IN A TYPICAL

URBAN DRIVING

CYCLE 2 1

e4

2 0.5

During regenerative braking, the electric motor should be n

"0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

able to provide the required braking torque at any speed

with high energy recovery efficiency. This implies that the Vehicle speed, km/h

operating characteristics of the electric motor should match Fig.4.Brakingpower and braking force along with vehicle speed in FTP75

uhan dnving cycle

the braking force, power, and energy requirement of the

vehicle. The maximum braking power at different vehicle

speed and the braking energy distribution along with

vehicle speed are two most important characteristics for Max. speed 8 6 . 4 M h (54mph)

studying the regenerative braking. The maximum braking V,: 1 5 M h (9.4mph)

regenerative braking system. The braking energy

distiibution along with vehicle speed indicates the speed

range in which the energy recovery efficiency should be

emphasized.

Fig.4 shows the regenerative braking power and force of

a 1500kg passenger car with a braking system as described

in section 11, driven in FTP75 urban driving cycle. It

indicates that the maximum braking power is about 16kW Vehicle speed, k m h

in the speed range of 35 to 50 km/h (22 to 32mph). The

braking energy

maximum braking force is about 2kN at near zero speed. It

should be noticed that at the speed less than 40 km/h Fig.5 Braking energy distribution along with vehicle speed

572

Table 1.Key parameters in typical urban dnving cycles

Braking Below Base Speed

Braking Below Base Speed

Speedai Max. 37 45 45 35 34

Brakingpawer,

(23) (28) (28) (22) (21.3)

kwh (mph) Electric Torque during Regenerative

Braking Below Base Speed

V,(refer to Fig. 5), 15 25 45 16 IO Fig. 6 Regenerative braking of SRh4 below base speed

(mph) (9.4) (15.6) (28) (10) (6.25)

I I I I I I I

braking at low speed, the kinetic energy of the vehicle is

little and energy recovery efficiency is not a concern for the

SRM drive system. The main objective of the SRM drive

system in this case is to provide the desired braking torque. 0 50 I M 1 % 0 3 ) J u a

While the vehicle is braking at high speed, the SRM drive Rotor Position(Mechanica1 Degree)

system should be able to provide the desired braking torque

with high energy-recovery efficiency.

The variation of SRM phase inductance along with the

rotor position is shown in Fig. 6. In order to achieve

regenerative braking, the SRM phase should be excited

while the phase inductance is decreasing as rotor position.

Below the base speed, since the absolute value of the back- Rotor Position(Mechanica1 Degree)

emf is lower than that of the dc-bus voltage, the phase Fig. 7 Variation of the regenerative braking torque with that of phase current

current can be regulated through hysteresis or PWM amplitude below base speed

control. Hence, the braking torque can be adjusted from

zero to the rated torque of the SRM by fixing the &on and

&off at the aligned position and the end of the negative

inductance slope and adjustingthe phase current amplitude

fkom zero to the rated value via hysteresis or PWM control.

The waveforms of the phase voltage, current and torque

during hysteresis control are shown in Fig. 6. The key issue

of this control strategy is how to determine the phase

current amplitude according to the required regenerative

braking torque.

As shown in Fig. 7, below the base speed, if 0-on and

t o f f are fuced at aligned position and the end of the 2d I 1 I I I

0 50 100 IS0 200 250 300 350 400

negative inductance slope, respectively, the average SRh4

Average Braking Torque(NM)

braking torque has a one-to-one relation with the phase Fig. 8 Phase current amplitude derived from the ANN according to the

current amplitude. This one-to-one relation between the required regenerative braking torque

braking torque and phase current amplitude is memorized

with a feedforward artificial neural network (ANN-I). This The variations of SRM phase voltage, current, and torque

ANN has 3 layers, with one input (the required along with the rotor position during regenerative braking

regenerative braking torque) on the input layer, 5 neurons above the base speed are shown in Fig. 9. Above the base

on the hidden layer, and one output (the required phase speed, if the absolute value of the back-emf is higher than that

current amplitude) on the output layer. This ANN is trained of the dc-bus voltage, the phase current can still increase even

with back propagation learning algorithm. The data used to when the phase is turned off. Therefore, the hysteresis or

train this ANN is obtained from extensive numerical PWM logic can not regulate the phase current. In this case, the

simulation on a 3-phase, 300v, 22.5KW, 500rpm(base phase current, hence the regenerative braking torque, can be

speed) SRM. The required phase current amplitude can be controlled by fixing 8-on at the aligned position and adjusting

derived from this ANN according to the required the 0-off from the aligned position toward the end of the

regenerative braking torque. The result is shown in Fig. 8. negative inductance slope. In this case the energy recovery

573

efficiency is expected to be hlgher because the iron loss of

the SRM and switching loss of the inverter due to the phase

voltage exertion associated with hysteresis or PWM control

do not exist.

As shown in Fig. 10, above the base speed, at a certain

dc-bus voltage and rotor speed, the phase current, hence the Rotor Position(Mechan1cal Degree)

braking torque, monotonically increases as )-off. The

mapping from the vector ( v , w, T) to &off is

characterized with a 4-layer feedforward artificial neural

network (ANN-HI), Where v, w, T represents dc-bus

voltage, rotor speed, and the regenerative braking torque,

respectively. This ANN has 3 inputs (v, w, and T) on the 0 10 100 110 2"O ?ID

Rotor Position(Mechanica1Degree)

1w 111) IW

input layer, 6 neurons one the first hidden layer, 6 neurons Fig. 1 0 Variation of the phase current and regenerative braking torque with

on the second hidden layer, and one output (O-ofl) on the that of Koff above base speed (dc-bus=30Ov, m2500rpm)

output layer. The ANN is trained with back propagation

algorithm using the data obtained from numerical

simulation on the same SRM. At 300v dc-bus voltage but

different rotor speed, the )-off derived from the ANN

according to the required braking torque is shown in Fig.

11.

Above the base speed, the phase current may still

increase even though the phase has been turned off because

of the huge back-emf. Hence, the maximum )-off should

be limited to prevent the phase current from exceeding the

rated value. Therefore, the maximum brakmg torque at

certain dc-bus voltage and rotor speed is limited by this 0 20 40 60 So 100 I20 140 160 180 200

Average Braking Torque(NM)

maximum )-off limitation. In order to find the maximum Fig. 1 1 &off derived from the ANN at various speed and braking torque (dc-

braking torque available at a certain dc-bus voltage and bus=300v)

rotor speed, the mapping from the vector (v, w) to the

maximum braking torque available at (v, w) is memorized I I I

with a 3-layer, feedforward artificial neural network (ANN-

11). This ANN has two inputs on the input layer (v, w), 10

neurons on the hidden layer, one output (maximum braking

torque available at (v, a))on the output layer. This ANN is

also trained with back propagation algorithm using data

obtained from numerical simulation. The maximum

braking torque available at 300v dc-bus voltage and

different rotor speed derived using ANN is shown in Fig.

I

12. ImO

I

lyxl

I

2mO m

The overall control strategy of the SRM drive for Rotor Speed(Rpm)

generating the required regenerative braking torque is Fig. 12 Maximum braking torque available at different rotor speed (dc-

bus=300v)

depicted in Fig. 13.

Phase Inductance Profile

According to the control strategy presented above, the

maximum braking torque and braking power available at

different rotor speed is calculated and shown in Fig. 14. It can

Phase Voltage during Regenerative be seen from Fig. 4 and Fig. 14 that the presented control

Braking above Base Speed strategy can satisfy the braking torque and braking power

requirement of the vehicle.

Phase Current during Regenerative According to the presented control strategy, the energy

Braking above Base Speed recovery efficiency of the SRM drive above the base speed is

I calculated and shown in Fig. 15. It can be seen that above base

speed, the energy recovery efficiency is relatively low in case

Braking above Base Speed of low braking torque. This is because of the relatively high

iron loss resulting from the high rotor speed. In case of high

braking torque, the energy recovery efficiency can be as high

Fig. 9 Regenerative braking of SRM above base speed as 0.91.

574

S R M drive shows the validity of the proposed control strategy

Read the cmml SRM specd hom Ihc speed =<or 1 and value of the SRM drive as the power source of the EV and

c

HEV from energy recoveq point of view.

VI REFERENCE

Regenerative Braking for EV and HEV,'SAE SP-1466

K. M. Rahman, B. Fahimi, G. Suresh, A. V. Rajarathnam, M. Ehsani,

Advantages of switched reluctance motor applications to EV and HEV

design and control issues:' IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol.

36,No. 1,pp. 111-121,2000

K. M. Rahman, M. Ehsani, Performance analysis of electric motor

drives for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications:' Power

Electronics in Transportation, 1996, pp. 49-56

K. M. Rahman, A. V. Rajarathnam, M. Ehsani, Optimized

Control SRM aeeordmg 10 lm ,B.an. 0.oN Se1 Bm-0 (all@ pmlion)

instantaneous torque control of switched reluctance motor by neural

c networeIEEE IAS Annual Meeting, 1997

Comol SRM zcordlng l o 0-on, K. M. Rahman, B. Fahimi, G. Suresh, A. V. Rajarathnam, M. Ehsani,

Fig. 13 Flow chart of the overall control strategy of the SRM drive for Optimized torque control of switched reluctance motor at all

generating the required regenerative braking torque operational regimes using neural networe IEEE IAS Annual Meeting,

1998

Y. Gao, K. M. Rahman, M. Ehsani, The Energy Management and

Battery Energy Capacity Determination for the Drive Train of

Electrically Peaking Hybrid Vehicle:'SAE 972647

M. Ehsani, Y. Gao, K. Butler, Application of Electrically Peaking

Hybrid (ELPH) Propulsion System to a Full Size Passenger Car with

Simulated Design Verification:' IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology,

Vol. 48,No. 6, pp. 1779-1787, 1999

00

S. R. Cikanek, K. E. Bailey, Energy Recovery Comparison Between

Series and Parallel Braking System for Electric Vehicles Using Various

h v i n g Cycles:' DSC-Vol. 56 / DE-Vol. 86, Advanced Automotive

Technologies SAME 1995, pp. 17-31

Wong, Jo Yung, Theory of Ground Vehicles:' John Wiley & Sons, Inc,

1978

[IO] E. Mew, Y. Sozer, J. M. Kokemak, D. A. Tomy, Optimal excitation of

a high speed switched reluctance generatofIEEE APEC 2000

IWO IS00 2000 zsoo

[ 1 I ] S. R. MacMinn, W. D. Jones, A very high speed switched-reluctance

Rotor Speed(Rpm) starter-generator for aircraft engine applications:' Aerospace and

Fig. 14 Maximum braking torque and braking power at different rotor Electronics Conference. 1989

speed (dc-bus=3OOv)

Braking Torque(NM)

Fig. 15 Energy recovery efficiency Venus braking torque (dc-bus=300v)

V CONCLUSION

HEV for saving energy is studied in this paper. The

characteristics of the regenerative braking are briefly

explained. A neural network based SRM drive control

strategy is developed for achieving regenerative braking in

EV &d HEV. The high energy recovery efficiency ofthe

575

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