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JANUARY 2013

Official Publication of:

ALGAE ACTION
ADvancing Biogas in North America

WMW Special
BIOWASTE

World first Hybrid RCVs Trash talking


Autoclaving AD plant The next generation A WEEE debate
An facility in Plymouth, UK is set to be the first NTM and Volvo Trucks have developed a new Industry leaders discuss the options open to
worlds first full scale autoclaving AD plant generation of hybrid refuse collection vehicle increase critical material recycling from e-waste

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Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out For navigation instructions please click here Search Issue | Next Page

JANUARY 2013

Official Publication of:

ALGAE ACTION
ADvancing Biogas in North America

WMW Special
BIOWASTE

World first Hybrid RCVs Trash talking


Autoclaving AD plant The next generation A WEEE debate
An facility in Plymouth, UK is set to be the first NTM and Volvo Trucks have developed a new Industry leaders discuss the options open to
worlds first full scale autoclaving AD plant generation of hybrid refuse collection vehicle increase critical material recycling from e-waste

Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out For navigation instructions please click here Search Issue | Next Page
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____ THE WORLDS NEWSSTAND

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CONTENTS
JANUARY 2013

12

34 50
REGULARS FEATURES
5 From The Editor
29 Another New Hybrid and More
7 ISWA Comments A new generation of hybrid powered refuse collection
vehicle has been developed in Finland by NTM and Volvo
8 News Truck Corporation. But this newcomer is significantly
27 Product News different - especially when it comes to size.

54 ISWA Information
56 Diary & Index To Advertisers 34 Getting on Down!
Italian manufacturer, Tabarelli's latest 360 wheeled materials
handler for the waste and recycling industry is the first to
WMW SPECIAL: BIOWASTE FOCUS feature a hydraulically operated 'SkyCab', which can be both
raised and lowered.

12 Algae: Refining AD 39 Trash Talking: WEEE Debate


Could the use of algae to refine biogas from anaerobic
Globally, a combination of economic and environmental
digestion facilities, while producing valuable products such
drivers are making it increasingly important to maximise
as Omega-3, open up the North American biogas market?
the recovery of critical materials for electronic waste. WMW
asked a number of industry experts for their views on how
18 World First: Autoclaving AD the industry can meet this challenge.
A waste treatment facility near Plymouth in the south west
of England is set to become the first in the world to apply
46 Energy Recovery on Remote Islands
full scale autoclave processing to wet advanced anaerobic
Often isolated from end markets for recyclates, the issue of
digestion.
how to manage waste on remote islands can be difficult.
However, the use of thermal treatment technology with
23 Composting in Uganda energy recovery has been successfully deployed on a
A project in the Ugandan town of Busia has been using number of island communities.
action research to develop a proper waste collection and
composting system.
50 Carbon Finance for LFG to Grid
In Canada new regulations aimed at reducing the country's
ANALYSIS greenhouse gas emissions will soon require landfill sites
generating over 1000 tonnes of methane per year to install
gas management systems. With its new LFG to grid system,
8 Waste Not Want Not the community of Salmon Arm is one step ahead.
A recent report by the UK's Institution of Mechanical
Engineers found as much as 50% of global food production
going to waste each year.

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Waste-to-Resources 2013
5th International
Symposium MBT & MRF
Mechanical-biological waste treatment (MBT / AWT)
and material recovery facilities (MRF)
Conference Exhibition Site Visits
11th 14th of June 2013 in Hanover, Germany
additional training course 6th - 7th of June

Conference in 4 languages with simultaneous translation


English French Spanish German

Waste management strategies, new waste treatment technologies


Targets, legal aspects, boundary values
Practical experience, optimisation and new plants
New developments in machine and system engineering
Emissions and their treatment
Conditioning, use and sale of MBT & MRF output fractions
Process control and analytics

Programme and more information at www.waste-to-resources.com

Organisers:

www.wasteconsult.de

www.asa-ev.de
For more information, enter 3 at WMW.hotims.com

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Published by PennWell International Publications Ltd


The Water Tower, Gunpowder Mill, Powdermill Lane,
Waltham Abbey, Essex, EN9 1BN, UK.
Tel: +44 1992 656 600
Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: wmw@pennwell.com
web: www.waste-management-world.com

SR. VP & Group Publisher: Tom Fowler


President/CEO: Robert F. Biolchini Advertising: for information, please see page 56
Chairman: Frank T. Lauinger
Chief Financial Officer: Mark C. Wilmoth
Group Publisher: Timm Dower Editorial/News Contact: benm@pennwell.com
Chief Editor: Tom Freyberg Editorial Correspondence/Press Releases:
Managing Editor: Ben Messenger Please send to Waste Management World at wmw@pennwell.com
ISWA Editor: David Newman
Collection & Transport Correspondent: Malcolm Bates Member, BPA Worldwide
Design: Ross Tucker
Production Coordinator: Kimberlee Smith
Marketing Manager: Tim Chambers

Published for the International Solid Waste Association: Auerspergstrasse 15, Top 41, 1080 Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43 1 25 36 001. Fax: +43 1 59 999 700. E-mail: iswa@iswa.org web: www.iswa.org
2011 International Solid Waste Association. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, whether electronic, mechanical or otherwise including
photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written consent of the Publishers. While every attempt is made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in
this magazine, neither the Publishers, Editors nor the authors accept any liability for errors or omissions. Opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the Publishers or Editor.
Subscriptions: Waste Management World is circulated free to professionals in the waste management industry. To start a free subscription visit www.wmw-subscribe.com
Professionals outside the waste management industry may start a paid subscription. For pricing information visit www.omeda.com/wmw or call +1 847-559-7330.
Waste Management World is published 6 times a year by PennWell Publications Ltd, The Water Tower, Gunpowder Mill, Powdermill Lane, Waltham Abbey, Essex, EN9 1BN, UK, and distributed in
the USA SPP at 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA.
Postmaster: Send address changes to Waste Management World, c/o P.O. Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318.
Reprints: If you would like to have a recent article reprinted for an upcoming conference or for use as a marketing tool, contact Jill Kaletha, E-mail: pennwellreprints@fosterprinting.com
Tel: +1-866-879-9144, ext. 168
Printed in the UK by Williams Press Ltd on elemental chlorine-free paper from sustainable forests.

THE SHREDDER FOR BIG TASKS!


Rips through anything wood, waste, metal
Patented T-blade cutting geometry
Mobile and stationary versions

ARJES GmbH Werksplatz 1 D-36433 Leimbach


Fon: +49 (0) 3695 / 85 855-0 Fax: +49 (0) 3695 / 85 855-14
Web: www.arjes.de E-Mail: info@arjes.de
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4 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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FROM THE EDITOR

WEEE CHALLENGE
BIG OPPORTUNITY
For all of the health and environmental challenges it
poses, e-waste is also a huge opportunity for recyclers.

W
ith waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) being one of
the fastest growing waste streams in the EU, and indeed globally, the
importance of properly recycling it has never been of greater importance.
Just this week I read a report co-authored by Oregon State University, which
gave a stark warning over the increased risk of lung cancer being posed to residents living
near a site actively burning e-waste in China.
According to the researchers, the increased risk of developing lung cancer is due to
the primitive incineration techniques being used to recover metals, but which release a
range of toxic substances, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
And it is not just the threats posed to health and the environment that should focus
our attention on the growing global e-waste mountain. As Andreas Manhart, a researcher
at Germanys ko Institut explains in our Trash Talking feature on page 39, electronics such
as laptops contain cobalt, neodymium, tantalum, gold, silver and other critical metals.
These materials may only be present in very small quantities per device, but with
millions of tonnes of e-waste being produced annually, the environmental, political and
economic imperative to find ways to effectively recover them is growing.
But the waste and recycling industry is just one side of the coin. A key issue being
Ben Messenger Managing Editor repeatedly raised is that the manufacturers of these products are often making recycling
more difficult. For example, in many cases batteries cannot be easily removed from mobile
phones, tablet PCs and even some laptop computers.
While the companies which make such products are all to keen to tout their green
credentials, is it not time that there was a little more thought put into how those products
are ultimately going to be unmade, and the precious resources embodied in them
recovered? With supplies of many virgin materials already approaching breaking point,
if we are to continue to enjoy our gadgets we will surely have to move to more circular
material flows.
The increased risk of Maximising the recovery of both energy and materials is a common theme across the
developing lung cancer waste industry. When it comes to organic waste treatment there is an increasing buzz in
the industry surrounding technologies which can extract high value compounds from
is due to the primitive wastes for use in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
incineration techniques On page 12 we take a look at one such technology that uses algae to clean up
biogas from an anaerobic digester. In doing so it not only reduces odours from hydrogen
being used to recover sulphide, but it also provides additional revenue with the production of Omega-3.
metals Elsewhere in the issue on page 18 Stephen Barnes takes a look at the worlds first wet
anaerobic digestion plant to have incorporated autoclave pre-treatment, and on page
29 Malcolm Bates explains the finer points of a new hybrid refuse collection vehicle from
NTM and Volvo Trucks.

Ben Messenger
Managing Editor

Follow WMW magazine on Twitter: www.twitter.com/WMW_Magazine

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 5

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ISWA BEACON
2nd International Conference
on Final Sinks
Sinks a Vital Element of Modern Waste Management

The conference will focus on the following topics:


 

      
 



     


   
 
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" 



1618 May 2013


Espoo, Finland

For more information, enter 5 at WMW.hotims.com

Sponsors For further information and


regular updates, please go to
 
#
#
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ISWA COMMENT

REPORTING
FOR DUTY
ISWA and its members have published a number of
outstanding new reports lately. Dont miss out.

I
SWA continues to produce a considerable volume of technical papers which are of
interest to the waste community, but often, in the myriad of communications that
are sent out, do not get the attention they deserve. So I want to use this editorial to
bring your attention to the numerous papers ISWA has published recently and to
suggest you consult them.
The Working Group on Landfill, under the leadership of Derek Greedy, has produced a
series of reports on the State of the Art of Landfills in various nations, beginning with an
overview and then looking in detail at six different countries. The texts examine both the
regulatory framework and the local practices in landfill management. In addition, coming
soon is a Key Issue Paper on Landfill Mining that the Working Group has just drafted.
Under the leadership of Bettina Kamuk the Waste to Energy Working Group has
published its 6th State of the Art report, essential reading to those wanting to know
about trends, technologies, investments, in this leading sector of waste treatment. That
this report is the 6th edition illustrates the rapid development of the sector and the ability
of our Working Group to monitor and interpret these changes. The Working Group is
also working on two additional papers that will be available shortly: WtE Guidelines for
Transitional Economies and a Position Paper on How to Gain Benefits from WtE in Europe.
David Newman President, ISWA Other interesting studies and reports have been published by ISWA using external
sources funded under our Grant system. I take this opportunity of reminding readers that
during 2013 we will finish the projects financed under the 2011 Grant package and will
be examining proposals for the following two year period, so look for the updates on this
in future ISWA communications.
Jakob Lederer, Paul Brunner, Amosiah Ongatai, Medrine Nabassa, Simon Otim and
others have produced a very readable guide for waste managers in Uganda - A user-
focused knowledge base for goal oriented solid waste management in Uganda (see p24).
On this note, a further study called An analytical framework and tool (InteRa) for
Please take the time to go integrating the informal recycling sector in waste and resource management systems
in developing countries, studies the complex question of informal sector waste workers.
to the ISWA Knowledge Wherever I speak to people in developing countries this question arises, as it did in
Base and download Doha last December. The concern is that if we modernise waste systems in developing
countries, informal workers risk losing their livelihoods. The study tackles this and
the reports. They make proposes a framework for overcoming it. As such it provides an important instrument to
a contribution to our help overcome the concerns many governments and NGOs have for developing nations.
This study is part of the series of reports initiated by ISWA within the Globalisation
understanding of our sector and Waste Management report (part 1) launched in Florence last September and which
I hope can be completed in Vienna this October. The Task Force is working hard on this
right now. I cannot emphasise too strongly how this report changes the perception
of our industry among international governmental organisations (IGOs), NGOs and in
developing countries too. The narrative in the report describes situations worldwide
which were evident to everyone yet not codified.
Some future ISWA publications to watch out for include papers and reports on Food
Waste, Digestate and Sewage Sludge, Global Recycling Markets, Landfill Guidelines - in
tropical conditions, and Guidelines on Product Chain Management. Please take the time
to go to the ISWA Knowledge Base and download the reports. They make a contribution
to our understanding of our sector and help it progress.
I sincerely thank all the authors for their contributions and dedicated work.

David Newman
President, ISWA

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 7

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NEWS

NEWS
SEND YOUR NEWS TO WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD
e-mail: benm@pennwell.com

unnecessary waste of the land. have a crucial role to play in pre-


It also leads to a waste of water venting food loss and waste by
FOOD: and energy resources that were developing more efficient ways of

WASTE NOT WANT NOT


used in the production, process- growing, transporting and storing
ing and distribution of food which foods.
ends up in the bin. By improv- The report cited the examples
ing processes and infrastructure, of India, where 21 million tonnes of
as well as changing consumer wheat is wasted each year due to
mindsets, 60% to 100% more food inadequate storage and distribu-
could be produced, according to tion systems, and South East Asian
the report. countries where losses of rice can
range from 37% to 80% of the en-
Key Findings tire production.
Between 30% and 50% or 1.2 to The authors added that in ma-
2 billion tonnes of food produced ture, developed economies such
around the world each year never as the UK and USA, the purchasing
reaches a human stomach policies for fresh produce operated
As much as 30% of UK vegeta- by the major supermarkets actively
ble crops are not harvested due encourage waste in the field.
to them failing to meet exacting
standards based on their physical Recomendations
appearance, while up to half of In order to help prevent a future
the food thats bought in Europe global food crisis IMechE made three
and the U.S. is thrown away by the key recommendations. Firstly, the UN
consumer Food and Agriculture Organisation
Around 550 billion m3 of water is (FAO) works with the international
wasted globally in growing crops engineering community to ensure
that never reach the consumer governments of developed nations
It takes 20 to 50 times the amount put in place programmes that trans-
of water to produce 1 kg of meat as fer engineering knowledge, design

T he UKs Institution of Mechani-


cal Engineers (IMechE) has
published a report - Global Food,
would mean an additional three
billion mouths to feed by the end
of the century, a period in which
1 kg of vegetables
The demand for water in food
production could reach 10 to 13
know-how, and suitable technology
to newly developing countries
Secondly, governments in rapidly
Waste Not, Want Not - which found the report said substantial changes trillion m3 a year by 2050. This is up developing countries should incor-
that as much as half of the four bil- are anticipated in the wealth, calo- to 3.5 times greater than the total porate waste minimisation think-
lion tonnes of food produced glob- rific intake and dietary preferences human use of fresh water today ing into the transport infrastructure
ally each year ends up as waste. of people in developing countries and could lead to more dangerous and storage facilities currently being
According to Dr Tim Fox, head across the world. water shortages around the world planned, engineered and built.
of Energy and Environment at the The report cited inadequate There is the potential to provide Finally, governments in devel-
Institution, the amount of food infrastructure and storage facilities, 60% - 100% more food by eliminat- oped nations should devise and
which could be used to feed the overly strict sell-by dates, buy-one- ing losses and waste while at the implement policies which change-
worlds growing population as get-one free offers and consumers same time freeing up land, energy consumer expectations and discour-
well as those in hunger today demanding cosmetically perfect and water resources. age retailers from wasteful practices
that is being wasted is staggering. food as being among the causes that lead to the rejection of food on
By 2075 the United Nations for the excessive waste. Engineered Solution the basis of cosmetic characteristics.
mid-range projection for global In light of the situation IMechE According to Dr Fox, as water, land The report also recommended that
population growth forecasts called for urgent action to be tak- and energy resources come under losses in the home caused by exces-
the worlds population to peak en to address the problem, which increasing pressure from compet- sive purchasing also need to be ad-
at about 9.5 billion people. That has knock on effects such as an ing human demands, engineers dressed.

8 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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NEWS

TOUGHER RECYCLING TARGETS AND LANDFILL


BANS TO IMPACT WASTE UTILISATION
A considerable quantity of valuable tion and sorting more efficient, and
raw materials is lost in waste utili- by improving processing and sort-
sation and processing chains, ac- ing methods to maximise recovery
cording to research conducted by of resources, said VTTs principal
VTT Technical Research Centre of scientist, Ulla-Maija Mroueh. (see
Finland, Aalto University, the Finn- p39 for Ulla-Maija Mrouehs contri-
ish Environment Institute (SYKE) bution to WMWs Trash Talking fea-
and Lappeenranta University of ture on e-waste).
Technology. According to Mroueh product
VTT said that with waste be- recyclability should be taken into
ing turned into a global trading account as early as the products
commodity, there should be bet- design stage.
ter recovery of the valuable met-
als contained in waste electronic Waste processing chains in
equipment. need of development
According to the report, Direc- The researchers said that during efits of raw material recycling and

IN BRIEF
tions of future developments in the research a new approach to to improve profitability, observed
waste recycling, stricter recycling analysing waste value chains was senior researcher, Helena Dahlbo of
targets and the rise in raw material developed. Based on the analyses the Finnish Environment Institute.
prices are expected to promote the performed, waste utilisation occur- Aalto University project re- Racketeering Charges in New
birth of new innovations for reduc- ring in the chains, whether in the searcher, Maria Trn added: Sig- York Waste industry
ing material loss. form of material or energy, is en- nificant development areas were Twelve members of three New
VTT explained that because vironmentally and often also eco- found to include improving the ef- York crime families have been
only certain materials can currently nomically beneficial. New, more fectiveness of collection and sort- charged with a racketeering
be sorted, a number of waste ma- cost-effective solutions are none- ing of material prior to crushing, conspiracy in the waste industry
terials are mixed at the collection theless required for certain kinds of optimising the recycling process, following an extensive investi-
phase. However, the researchers waste materials. monitoring in real time, and analy- gation.
added that recycling processes One of the key problems was sis of materials throughout the In total, charges have been
based on crushing are manifestly found to be a lack of good quality value chain. made against 32 individuals as
unsuited to the separation of raw information regarding waste com- The researchers also noted part of an investigation into or-
materials contained in ever more position and behaviour during the that more demanding targets for ganised crimes alleged control
complex products. treatment and utilisation process- recycling, coupled with a ban on of large aspects of the com-
Material recycling can be in- es. The information is necessary in landfilling organic waste, will have mercial waste-hauling industry
creased by making waste collec- assessing the environmental ben- a major impact on waste utilisation. in greater New York City and in
parts of New Jersey.

LANDFILL GAS FUELLED TURBINE Australian Waste Gasification


Plant Nears Completion
PASSES INDEPENDENT TESTING A waste gasification facility is in
the final stages of construction
Irvine, California based energy and produced has near-zero emissions 2013 allowable limit for NOx. in Carisbrook, Australia, accord-
environmental technology devel- of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and will The CARB 2013 standard is con- ing to a report by the Bendigo
oper, Flex Power Generation has reduce the Armys carbon footprint sidered to be among the strictest in Advertiser.
completed successful independ- and bottom line. the world, and the Flex NOx emis- Managing director of the
ent emissions tests of its Flex Pow- The independent tests, con- sion results are unprecedented for project, R ay Gattisnce of Aus-
erstation FP250 system at the De- ducted by Southern Research were a turbine or reciprocating engine tralian Renewable Energy Parks,
partment of Defenses (DoD) Fort carried out in October last year. As running waste gas, commented explained that once complete
Benning, GA Army post. part of the process, three, one-hour Boris Maslov, president and CEO of the AU$6 million plant will con-
The company claimed that the sampling runs were completed Flex Power Generation. vert waste timber into Syngas.
Flex Powerstation is the only landfill per standard reference methods of Meanwhile, Tim Hansen, direc- He added that the plant will
gas fuelled turbine to offer energy the U.S. Environmental Protection tor of Advanced Energy & Trans- also have the potential to use
generation and pollution control Agency. portation Technology at Southern waste from Bendigo or Ballarat,
for previously wasted landfill gas. Among the results, which the Research said: The Flex Power- or even Melbourne.
The system can generate 250 kW company said it will publish formal- station has demonstrated signifi- The facility is expected to
of electricity, enough to power 250 ly in coming months, the Flex Pow- cantly lower emissions of NOx and be operational in around six to
around homes. erstation emitted less than 5% of non-methane organic carbon than eight weeks.
According to Flex, the energy the California Air Resources Boards many waste to energy solutions.

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 9

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NEWS

IN BRIEF BACKING FOR UK WASTE PLASTICS


PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPER
ISRI Scrap Yearbook 2012
The U.S. Institute of Scrap Recy- Swindon, UK based Recycling Tech- In the first phase of the pyrolysis The concept of a machine that can
cling Industries (ISRI) has pub- nologies - a University of Warwick process, the WarwickFBR system be installed into existing recycling
lished its Scrap Yearbook 2012. spin out company - has completed shreds and dries the MPW. It then facilities to turn what most people
The organisation said that an equity financing deal with the injects blended product into a still regard as waste plastic into
the yearbook not only includes Wroxall Investors Group (WIG), a fluidised bed, where in an oxygen electricity and heat in a CHP plant
useful information about the Midlands-based business angel depleted environment the long hy- is timely given the increasing costs
economic and environmental syndicate. drocarbon chains form an energy of landfill and energy prices, com-
benefits associated with scrap re- According to Recycling Tech- rich gas. mented Adrian Griffiths, managing
cycling, but also provides readers nologies it was formed to commer- The company said that this director at Recycling Technologies.
with commodity specific over- cialise a pyrolysis process devel- gas is then filtered to remove con- According to Griffiths the com-
views of how scrap is generated, oped at the University of Warwick tamination and cooled to provide panys first machine is due to go
processed, traded and used. which can transform mixed plastic a type of heavy fuel oil. This fuel into production in 2014. He added
In addition, the yearbook waste (MPW) into heat and elec- can be used to create steam or to that the WIG investment will allow
contains practical examples of tricity. The company was spun out power an engine driven generator. the companys infrastructure to be
the life cycles and material flows in 2011, with assistance from War- Each installation is tailored to the expanded at its Swindon base, en-
of key recycled goods and com- wick Ventures, the Universitys re- material to be processed and the suring that the commercial oppor-
modities. search commercialisation arm. facility in which it is installed. tunity is fully exploited.

Annual Bristish Plastics Recy-


cling Survey Published
The British Plastics Federations
BIR: BEWARE OFFERS OF CHEAP SCRAP
Recycling Group (BPFRG) has
released the results of its 2011
METAL SHIPMENTS
Annual Return Survey, which The Bureau of International Recy- These deals were accompanied by This is said to suggest that either
showed that its members recy- cling (BIR) has issued a warning to a set of documents confirming the the same individuals were behind
cled a total of 517,000 tonnes of recyclers in light of an on-going quality of the goods on offer. the offers, or that the documents
plastics - breaking the half million spate of spurious business offers The Bureau said that following were available in the public domain
tonne barrier for the first time. involving non-existent cargoes of verification through the ICC Inter- for use by fraudulent individuals.
The organisation said that its scrap metal. national Maritime Bureau (IMB), it BIR also cautioned that fur-
annual survey obtains informa- According to BIR, over recent became clear that the documents ther analysis of these offers by the
tion and statistics on the total weeks it has received several re- were not authentic. In several cases IMB revealed that they were quite
tonnage of plastics recovered ports of cases were cargoes of scrap the same documents had been frequently made in the name of
by its members and is a critical metal were offered to member presented on multiple occasions real traders, whose identities were
instrument to better understand companies at knock-down prices. with different company names. cloned for fraudulent purposes.
the dynamics of the plastics recy-
cling sector.

Annual Bristish Plastics Recy-


CHINESE RESIDENTS AT RISK OF LUNG
cling Survey Published
The cumulative installed capac-
CANCER FROM E-WASTE PLANT
ity of the global biogas power A recent study, co-authored by was PAHs, many of which are rec- cancer than their urban peers.
market has grown from 2388 Oregon State University (OSU) re- ognised as carcinogenic and linked In the village, people were re-
MW in 2001 to 8377 MW in 2011, searchers, has found that residents to lung cancer when inhaled. Over cycling waste in their yards and
at a compound annual growth near an e-waste site in China face the course of a year, the researchers homes, using utensils and pots
rate of 13.4%, according to a new elevated risks of lung cancer. said that they collected air samples to melt down circuit boards and
report by market research com- According to the researchers from two rooftops in two areas. reclaim metals, explained Staci Si-
pany Global Information. e-waste is often collected at dump One was in a rural village in the monich, a co-author of the study
The report added that cu- sites in developing countries and southern province of Guangdong, and a professor of environmental
mulative installed capacity is crudely incinerated to recover pre- less than a mile from an active e- and molecular toxicology at OSU.
projected to register moderate cious metals, including silver, gold, waste burning site and not sur- Furthermore, the researchers
growth over the forecast period, palladium and copper. The process rounded by any industry. The other estimated that of each million peo-
with cumulative installed capac- is often primitive, releasing fumes was Guangzhou, a city heavily ple in the e-waste area, between 15
ity expected to reach 22,040 MW with a range of toxic substances, polluted by industry, vehicles and to 1200 would develop lung cancer
by 2025. including polycyclic aromatic hy- power plants but not e-waste. on account of PAHs over their life-
drocarbons (PAH), a group of more The scientists concluded that times, while the likelihood in the
than 100 chemicals. those living in the e-waste village city is slightly lower at nine to 737
The main focus of the study are 1.6 times more likely to develop per million.

10 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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BIOWASTE FOCUS

Credit: Shanks

CAN AUTOCLAVING UNLOCK


ADS FULL POTENTIAL?
12 Algae: Advanced AD in North America 18 World First: Autoclaving AD Plant
A lack of government funding, combined with tight planning An organic waste treatment facility in Devon, UK is set to
and permitting conditions regulating odour control from become the first in the world to apply full scale autoclave
anaerobic digestion facilities, has hampered investment in processing to wet advanced anaerobic digestion.
biogas plants across North America. Now however, by utilising
algae to clean the biogas and capture valuable compounds
such as Omega-3, one Canadian company claims to have the 23 Composting in Uganda
solution both problems. A project in the Ugandan town of Busia has been using
action research to develop a proper waste collection and
composting system.

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BIOWASTEFOCUS REFINING BIOGAS

With strict permitting conditions regulating odour


emissions from anaerobic digestion facilities, and
little government funding, the technology has been
slow to take off in North America. Now however, by
utilising algae to clean the biogas and capture valuable
compounds such as Omega-3, one Canadian company
claims to have the solution both problems.
by Ben Messenger

12 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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REFINING BIOGAS BIOWASTEFOCUS

I
n many countries in Europe the use of
anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities to
produce biogas and fertiliser from
agricultural, municipal and commercial
organic wastes is well established. Backed
by government subsidies and feed-in tariffs,
anaerobic digestion has flourished in Germany,
which has well over 6000 operating plants 70%
of them located on farms. Indeed so successful
has the German biogas industry been that
there have even been warnings of over-capacity
and questions raised about the availability and
suitability of feedstocks.
Other markets however have not been so
quick on the uptake. Notably, North America,
where with little government funding the
entire continent currently has less than 200
AD facilities. Further hampering developers has
been the lack of landfill diversion regulations for
organic wastes, and often strict environmental
regulations for air and water quality particularly
those relating to the release of odorous
hydrogen sulphide which has made obtaining
permits lengthy and costly. Furthermore, as has
been the case for other renewable technologies,
the arrival of cheap and plentiful shale gas has
done little to help the economics.
Due to these factors AD developers in
North America rely heavily on tipping fees,
with paybacks typically in the five to seven year
range. With all the talk of the fiscal cliff, the
prospect of North American countries providing
the level of government funding which helped
build Germanys biogas industry seems unlikely.
If AD is to become a more attractive prospect
to investors in the region it will be necessary to
increase the revenue generating potential for
such facilities.
One company with a technology which
it claims can do just that is Toronto, Canada
based Solutions4CO2, which has developed
what it calls the Integrated Biogas RefineryTM
(IBR) platform. According to the company the
system can reduce the payback for AD projects
to less than three years with the production of
high value Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical
co-products such as Omega-3 and Astaxanthin.

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 13

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BIOWASTEFOCUS REFINING BIOGAS

According to the EPA biogas systems, such as the 100,000 TPA Fremont Community Digester pictured,
are feasabile at 8000 swine and dairy farms in the U.S.

HOW IT WORKS which operate under pressure with very small ECONOMICS
According to Dil Vashi, manager of corporate bubbles, by displacing other molecules present In addition to allowing the cultivation of
development at Solutions4CO2, at the heart of in the water such as oxygen and nitrogen. algae, another major advantage of purifying
the system lays the companys own proprietary Infusing the CO2 and H2S at a molecular level the methane is that it allows lower capital
Biogas Purifier and Infusion SystemTM (BPIS). results in a bubble-less solution, which makes expenditure and maintenance costs for the
What the BPIS does, is it essentially infuses it considerably easier for the algae to consume generator set, as well as higher air quality
and completely dissolves CO2 and Hydrogen the infused gases. standards for H2S particularly significant in the
Sulphide (H2S) into water because they are Cultivated in an Algae Cultivation System North American market.
soluble gases. The methane (CH4), which isnt (ACS) that is comprised of an LED lit tank, In terms of the extra running costs
soluble, passes through the water and flashes or photo bioreactor, the algae consumes the associated with the additional equipment at
off. So what you end up with is the CO2 and H2S CO2 and H2S as a nutrient, and essentially a facility with an installed IBR, Vashi cites the
being captured in the water and the methane processes them into high value compounds example of a typical AD plant producing around
stream off gassing. You go from a biogas stream such as Omega-3 and other long chain carbon 300 cubic feet (8.5 cubic metres) of biogas per
which is typically 60% methane, 39% CO2 and compounds. To harvest the algae, every couple minute and generating around 6 million kWh of
less than 1% H2S, to a biogas that is over 90% of days around 50% of it is scooped from the top electricity each year. The power consumption
methane and the CO2 and H2S being reduced of the photo bioreactor by the Harvesting and of the IBR - the BPIS, the ACS and the HES - in
by 85% 95%, explains Vashi. Extraction System (HES), which dewaters and total consume around 1 million kWh per year
The significance of our system is that when dries it, and then extracts the high value oil. The with the ADs parasitic load consuming around
you grow algae in that CO2 and H2S infused remaining 50% remains in the bioreactor as an another 1 million kWh per year, leaving 4 million
water, it gives you an increase in your algae inoculum to get the next batch of algae started. kWh per year for export to the grid.
growth yield of over two to three times. What According to the company its IBR is a But the real money spinner for the system is in
we do then, is we take that algae and we harvest closed loop system which utilises all of the the sale of the recovered high value co-products.
it, dewater it, dry the biomass and then extract outputs of the AD system as inputs to the According to food industry market research
certain high value oils primarily Omega-3 co-product platform. Power, CO2, H2S, clean company, Packaged Facts, consumer spending
and Astaxanthin and then sell them into the methane, water and digestate from the AD are on products fortified with Docosahexaenoic
nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries, he utilised as inputs to the co-product platform, Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
continues. with all residual co-products sold to generate from Omega-3 will grow from $25.4 billion in
To infuse the CO2 and H2S into the water, additional revenue. The resulting revenue 2011 to $34.7 billion by 2016. Meanwhile the
Vashi says that the companys BPIS differs from enhancement effectively reduces project market for Astaxanthin - a natural nutritional
more common fine bubble sparging techniques, paybacks to less than three years. component which can also be used as a food

14 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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Eggersmann Group

BACKHUS LTC - The innovative system


for composting in closed lanes.

For more information, enter 6 at WMW.hotims.com

www.backhus.com

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BIOWASTEFOCUS REFINING BIOGAS

The modular system can operate with as few as one or as many as 200 ACS units The BPIS displaces other molecules in the water

supplement and is considered an E number in The company is currently completing its first Vashi adds that the IBR is modular and linearly
the European Union - is currently estimated at commercial IBR facility in Canada at an existing scalable and can be built in scale from one to 20
a more modest $60 million, but is expected to AD installation which processes a mixture of or right up to 200 ACS units depending on the
grow rapidly to $200 million by 2015. dairy waste and commercial food waste into size of the AD and biogas production, and capital
While traditionally Omega-3 oil has been biogas for power generation. available to invest in a project.
sourced from fish oil, interestingly, the fish The IBR will be integrated with the AD and
themselves dont actually produce Omega-3, its will process live biogas from the AD as an input HUGE POTENTIAL
the algae they eat which produce it and it builds for the IBR to produce algae biomass containing In making its case that the time has come for
up in the bodies of the fish that typically cannot high value nutraceutical and pharmaceutical AD to flourish in North America, the company
process it which ours can. co-products. points to the 60,000+ dairy farms in the U.S.

______________________

For more information, enter 7 at WMW.hotims.com

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REFINING BIOGAS BIOWASTEFOCUS

alone - 2000 of which exceed 1500 heads in Affairs, (Defra) Anaerobic Digestion
size. At 1500 heads a dairy farm can sustain Strategy and Action Plan, by April 2011
a digester capable of producing 300 cubic there were a total of 54 AD plants
feet (8.5 cubic metres) of biogas per minute. (excluding wastewater facilities) in
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection the UK 32 on-farm and 22 off-farm.
Agency (EPA) biogas recovery systems are While these facilities have a combined
technically feasible at more than 8000 U.S. dairy capacity of over 1 million tonnes per
and swine operations, and could generate some year, the UK landfills around 7 million The Algae Cultivation System is comprised of an LED lit
13 million MWh of electricity each year. tonnes of food waste each year and tank, also known as a photo bioreactor
In addition to agricultural wastes, other produces approximately 90 million
organic waste streams also present a significant tonnes of agricultural slurry and manure. With to attract the investment required to really take
opportunity. EPA figures show that in 2010 over government backing now in place the UK is off. The main reason is quite simply the lack of
34 million tons (31 million tonnes) of food waste rapidly expanding its AD capacity, and has subsidies. Power purchase agreements and so
was generated in the U.S. from all sources less plenty of available feedstock. forth, explains Vashi. What our system does is
than 3% was recovered. Other EU countries with previously under make it not dependent on subsidies.
Of the remaining 33 million tons the majority developed AD capacity are also now starting to If hes right, and by reducing payback times
was directed primarily to landfills and incinerators. ramp up development. For example, in Poland a and easing permitting difficulties with reduced
According to Solutions4CO2, redirecting these number of new AD projects have recently been odorous H2S emissions, the IBR system could
food waste streams into IBR projects presents an launched. well hold the key to unlocking the potentially
enhanced revenue opportunity for AD developers. Unsurprisingly all this activity has not gone huge North American market. And no doubt AD
And its not just in North America where the unnoticed by Solutions4CO2 and according developers further afield will be keeping an eye
infrastructure to treat organic wastes is somewhat to Vashi the company is looking to work on the technology.
lacking. The UK has traditionally relied on landfill with overseas partners to incorporate its IBR
to dispose of wastes and has been slow to technology into AD facilities. Ben Messenger is the managing editor of
jump aboard the AD bandwagon. However, with WMW magazine
landfill space rapidly running out and the need GAME CHANGER? e-mail: benm@pennwell.com
to meet the countrys obligations under the EU While there has been some government backing
Landfill Directive - that is changing fast. through loan guarantees and Renewable This article is on-line.
According to the UK Governments Energy Certificates in the U.S., for years the Please visit www.waste-management-world.com
Department for Environment, Farming and Rural biogas market in North America has struggled

________

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JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 17

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BIOWASTEFOCUS AUTOCLAVING AD

The environmental impact assessment for the prepared as part of the planning application
considered a number of aspects, including the sites visual impact on the landscape

WORLD FIRST
Autoclaving for ADvanced Digestion

S
A sustainable waste ited on a former china clay refinery Handling up to 75,000 tonnes of municipal,
treatment facility near owned by mineral extraction and commercial and industrial waste per year,
processing giant, Imerys Minerals, the state-of-the-art technology at the facility
Plymouth in the south the 15 million Lee Moor advanced is expected to make the AD process up to
west of England is set to Anaerobic Digestion (AD) facility is set to become four times faster than conventional systems.
the first of its type in the world. The autoclave Biogas production rates are also expected to be
become the first in the processing technology being installed upstream significantly enhanced, enabling the facility to
world to apply full scale of the AD plant will employ temperatures generate up to 3.2 MW of renewable electricity
of 160C and high pressures to break down and to export around 26,000 MWh per year to
autoclave processing to lignin and cellulose structures within paper, the national grid. Up to 20,000 tonnes of CO2
wet advanced anaerobic packaging, cardboard and woody plant wastes, emissions will be saved annually, while nutrient-
making them suitable for digestion. rich digestate will also be produced for use as a
digestion. The facility is being developed by AAD (South soil conditioner in restoration works at a china
by Stephen Barnes West) part of the Dorset based AeroThermal clay works on the same site.
Group of small specialist companies which One of the big advantages of the autoclave
provide turnkey engineering solutions. The firm technology being used at the Lee Moor site
has also developed the autoclaving technology is that totally unsorted municipal black bag
being used on the project. wastes and high organic fraction supermarket

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AUTOCLAVING AD BIOWASTEFOCUS

For the first decade of its operation digestate from the plant is likely to be delivered to the
Imerys Minerals controlled sites in the locality for restoration of their china clay workings

and kitchen food waste can be processed carbon monoxide, particulates, ammonia and
simultaneously at the site, at a faster rate than odour were included.
normal and with more renewable energy being The modelling was reviewed in detail by
produced from a given amount of waste. In the local authority, the Environment Agency
addition, materials removed at the screening and Natural England - an executive non-
stage after autoclaving, such as metals, plastics, departmental public body responsible to the
glass and textiles, will have been effectively secretary of state for environment, food and
cleaned and sterilised - improving the quality of rural affairs. The model showed that emissions
the recyclates. will easily meet all statutory air quality standards,
and that the projected deposition rates on
MODEL PLANNING nature sites of less than 1% of target levels will
The facility will incorporate a high level of site have no significant impact on the environment.
controls, process technology and abatement The noise assessment included continuous
equipment to ensure that both the public and surveys over four days to assess the existing
the environment are protected. These played background noise levels in the vicinity of the
a key part in the planning application and site, both during the day and at night time.
supporting environmental impact assessment Computer modelling using SoundPLAN was
which was prepared by engineering and then undertaken to predict the noise levels at
environmental consultancy Wardell Armstrong, local residential dwellings which would likely
and helped to secure planning permission from to be generated by the operational activities
Devon County Council in late 2011. (including traffic movements) associated with
Areas assessed in detail included land the new facility.
use and soils, hydrology and hydrogeology, The modelling demonstrated that the
traffic and access, air quality, noise, ecology noise levels likely to be generated by the site
and wildlife, landscape and visual impacts, and during the daytime, night time, weekdays and
socio-economic effects. The consultancy also weekends are less than background. Noise
prepared the environmental permit application levels from the site at all residential dwellings
which is currently being determined by the will be very low and less than 35dB(A).
Environment Agency. Further to this, the water quality assessment
Detailed air dispersion modelling was studied the impact of potential water discharges
carried out to assess any potential impacts from from the site on the nearby watercourse of
Biogas production rates the site on residential dwellings, local businesses, Wotter Brook. Water is used in the AD process,
surrounding land and nature sites. Using but will largely be treated and reused. As any
are expected to be the latest version of AERMOD, a quantitative excess may need to be discharged to the
significantly enhanced, model based on the Gaussian theory of plume Wotter Brook, it will be treated in an advanced
enabling the facility to dispersion, the methodology took in a range dissolved air flotation and biomembrane
of input data including the characteristics of system to produce clean, high quality water
generate up to 3.2 MW of the release (rate, temperature, velocity, height, which is suitable for discharge to this surface
renewable electricity location), the terrain, meteorological data and watercourse.
the locations of buildings and tanks adjacent to Extensive air dispersion modelling, noise
the proposed emission points. calculations, water quality assessments and risk
It then predicted the concentration assessments have all combined to ensure that
of substances in the air, as well as the long the highest standards of waste management
term mean and short term peak ground level technology and strict controls will be used to
concentrations over the modelled area. Gases ensure that there is no harm to the public or the
such as oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, environment.

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 19

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BIOWASTEFOCUS AUTOCLAVING AD

AAD (South West) is using autoclaving technology developed by its parent company,
AeroThermal Group at the facility

SHANKS TO
WAKEFIELD
In a separate project Shanks Group has been
awarded a contract to develop a residual waste
treatment facility at South Kirkby, Yorkshire
which will also use autoclave technology as part
of an advanced anaerobic digestion system.
The Milton Keynes, UK based waste and
recycling company says that under the 25
year PFI contract the facility will process up
to 230,000 tonnes per annum of municipal
UNLOCKING POTENTIAL This will allow for better synchronisation with solid waste (MSW) from the Wakefield District,
The Lee Moor facility will be made up of two the demands of plants than is normally possible helping to increase the local authoritys landfill
autoclave plants, screening and separation with inorganic nutrient fertilisers. Applying diversion rate towards 90%.
equipment, anaerobic digestion plant with the digestate will also improve soil structure
associated buffer and digestate storage tanks, and water retention capacity, encouraging the TECHNOLOGY
dewatering plant and a combined heat and growth of grassland and other plants used in According to Shanks a variety of materials
power (CHP) plant. the restoration scheme. will be segregated from incoming wastes for
The two autoclaves will operate in parallel, The autoclaves and screening equipment recycling, at the residual waste treatment facility.
each treating mixed municipal wastes in ten will be located in enclosed buildings, fitted with It will also produce a refuse derived fuel (RDF)
tonne batches at temperatures of approximately fast action doors and surrounding air curtains for processing at a multi-fuel plant being built
160C for 45 minutes at a pressure of seven bar. to prevent any fugitive emissions of odour. Air at the Ferrybridge Power Station. A separate
After being autoclaved, the waste will then be within the buildings will be drawn by extraction onsite materials recycling facility (MRF) will sort
conveyed to screening equipment to separate fans through sealed pipes to odour control the clean mixed recyclate materials for use by
the organic and inorganic fractions. Metals and equipment consisting of a high tech scrubber specialist markets.
other inorganics will be removed for recycling, and a biofilter. The air will be cleaned and The remaining organic waste will be treated
while the organic fraction will be transferred discharged to atmosphere via a dedicated stack. using a state-of-the-art autoclave, which the
to the AD plant for biogas and digestate Waste will be tipped, stored and treated entirely company says has already been built and
production. in enclosed buildings and tanks. Emissions from rigorously tested. The autoclave process will
The biogas will be combusted in the CHP the odour control stacks and the CHP plant sterilise the remaining material before it is fed
plant to produce up to 3.2 MW of renewable will meet strict emission standards set and into a 65,000 tonnes per annum anaerobic
electricity and 3.8 MW of heat. The electricity regulated by the Environment Agency. digestion (AD) plant, where it will be converted
will be exported to the national grid, while the Once fully operational in April 2013, the into biogas for renewable energy generation. The
heat will be passed to a boiler to raise steam for Lee Moor facility will divert waste from landfill, energy generated will be used both to power the
use in the autoclaves and to provide heat for reduce greenhouse gas emissions, generate plant and for export to the grid. The company
the AD tanks. The technology enables the steam energy and produce a high quality soil improver. estimates that it will generate sufficient energy to
to be recycled between the two autoclaves, It will unlock both the energy and fertilising power approximately 3000 homes.
significantly reducing the amount of energy potential of municipal solid waste, explains For the design of the AD plant, Shanks has
needed by the system. Tristan Lloyd-Baker, managing director of AAD awarded a 10 million contract to a joint venture
The digestate will be dewatered in a centrifuge (South West). With enhanced recycling rates between equipment manufacturer Ros Roca
plant to approximately 25% dry solids. It will then and increased renewable electricity production and technical services provider, Imtech (RRIJV).
be used for a restoration scheme at the Lee Moor it will pioneer commercial scale autoclaving According to RRIJV it will complete the initial
china clay pits which are located nearby. This will to AD or advanced AD and launch it into the project design by March 2013, while the civil
reduce the need to import restoration materials 21st century. The local production of significant work will be undertaken by construction and
from other facilities which might be located quantities of compost will also significantly civil engineering firm, Kier Infrastructure and
significant distances away, further reducing costs speed up the restoration of Dartmoors china Overseas.
and environmental impact. clay quarries. The residue from the AD process will be
As a stabilised and sanitised organic rich used as a nutrient-rich soil conditioner. Leeds
soil conditioner and fertiliser, the digestate will Stephen Barnes is an associate director at based 4R Recycling, which specialises in the
contain nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium Wardell Armstrong recycling of by-products from industry and
and phosphorus that are essential for plant utility companies for use on agricultural land
growth. A large proportion of these nutrients will This article is on-line. and restoration sites has signed a 25 year
be held in organic form and released slowly over Please visit www.waste-management-world.com contract with Shanks to manage this residue.
a number of years as the material breaks down. This contract will see 4R handle up to 40,000

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AUTOCLAVING AD BIOWASTEFOCUS

USE AUTOCLAVE AT 230,000 TPA


PLANT

According to Shanks the autoclave technology has already been built and extensively tested and will
sterilise material prior to being fed into the anaerobic digestion system

tonnes of digestate annually when the facility positions created, making a significant subsequently postponed until late 2010. In
becomes operational. The digestate will be contribution to the local economy. October 2011 an agreement was signed for a
transported by 4R and used in land restoration The UK Green Investment Bank is contract completion date in February 2012.
across Wakefield and throughout the former committed to reducing the amount of waste However, the VT Group was acquired by
Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire coalfields. which goes to landfill, supporting the UK in Babcock Group plc in July 2010 and Babcock
Green waste delivered to the residual its transition to a low carbon economy, whilst became the lead partner.
waste treatment facility will be processed via an driving a commercial return for the bank, According to Wakefield Council, following
enclosed air controlled composting plant. comments Lord Smith of Kelvin, chair of the UK a review of the former VT Group business,
Green Investment Bank. Babcock strengthened its preferred bidder
FUNDING Each year the UK generates approximately consortium with the appointment of Shanks
The residual waste treatment facility has been 190 million tonnes of waste, which causes Group in February 2011 - with Shanks taking
funded by the UK Green Investment Bank (GIB) environmental damage and costs businesses the lead role.
and a group of international banks including the and consumers money, he added. It has been a long journey and at times
UKs Barclays, Germanys BayernLB and Japans challenging, but throughout the negotiations we
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation. A LONG TIME COMING have never lost sight of the need for additional
The GIB says that it will provide up to According to Peel Hunt, an independent full- finance to deliver a waste management system
30.4 million of senior debt to the project service broking and advisory house with an for the future, explains Joanne Roney OBE, chief
on commercial terms alongside the banking exclusive focus on UK mid and small caps, the executive of Wakefield Council.
syndicate, which together are providing a total contract has been a long time coming. This is a big step forward in how a key
of 121.7 million. The broker explains that VT Group had public service is delivered in the District. The
The contract will see approximately 250 previously been named as preferred bidder agreement means investment in household
people recruited to work on the construction back in November 2007 when financial close waste collection and recycling and more jobs
of the new facilities and a further 60 permanent had been hoped for summer 2008. It was for the District, she adds.

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 21

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COMPOSTING IN UGANDA BIOWASTEFOCUS

Action Research Tackles


COMPOSTING IN
UGANDA

Members of the local NGO Youth Environment Service collect data


by interviews and questionnaire survey

Across Africa the population is becoming increasingly urban.


With both consumption and waste production growing rapidly
many towns and cities are faced with the problem of managing
waste for the first time. One project in the Ugandan town of
Busia has been using action research to develop a proper
waste collection and composting system.
by Jakob Lederer

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 23

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BIOWASTEFOCUS COMPOSTING IN UGANDA

Y
ears ago, in the 1960s, solid waste waste in the streets and backyards as there were the knowledge which is generated will more
was not a big issue in Uganda. Only simply no vegetable gardens left on which to likely to benefit the stakeholders who may
4% of the seven million inhabitants make use of it. make use of it. Stakeholders are then not just
of the country lived in towns The town reacted, first by hiring a truck to considered as actors, but as users of knowledge.
which were mostly small and characterised collect the waste once it had accumulated to However, being a user does not mean to be
by smallholder farms and backyard farming. a certain extent and later by acquiring its own somebody who only receives knowledge. In fact
Solid waste usually contained biodegradable truck and collection containers. German donors, the users are at the same time carriers and thus
organics, and was either fed to animals or just the National Ministry of Works, and a local NGO, sources of knowledge.
disposed of on the farmland. 50 years later, the Youth Environment Service (YES), provided A methodological approach that includes
picture has changed dramatically. financial and institutional support. stakeholders to an extent so that they can
Uganda is now home to over 35 million Recently the town has been selected for the define the research problems, participate in the
people, with more than five million living second round of the Uganda Municipal Solid research and become carriers, sources and users
in ever growing cities. Simultaneously both Waste Composting CDM Program, which will of knowledge, is action research.
consumption patterns and the composition of deliver not only a composting plant, but also Stakeholders involved in the beginning
waste have changed and waste generation has new collection equipment. On one hand the of this project were the Municipal Council
increased. The main result of this development town will benefit through new infrastructure authorities and members of YES. They collected
is a new cognition of solid waste as an issue replacing old. On the other hand, the experience and processed data on waste management
of serious concern, not only by authorities and from Ugandan towns participating in the first practices and concerns by various other
policy makers, but also by members of the round of the CDM Program suggests some stakeholders. After presenting the results of
community. organisational and financial challenges for Busia. this part of the research to around 60 lower
Under these boundary conditions the Busia local government members from Busia the
THE TOWN OF BUSIA Municipal Council, YES, the Makerere University main concerns were summarised. Based on this
The emergence of this new problem and of Uganda and Austrias Vienna University of feedback work packages for the subsequent
the changing perception of it can at best Technology have formulated a small research research phases were formulated.
be explained by telling the story of the East- project which aims to establish the knowledge
Ugandan town of Busia. required to manage Busias solid waste in a ISSUES OF CONCERN
The town owes its existence to the border sound and goal oriented manner. Based on the results of the first phase, Busias
drawn between the former British colonies of authorities and the NGO partner decided
Kenya and Uganda after independence. Until ACTION RESEARCH to focus first on the improvement of waste
the mid 1990s it was only a line of small shops, From stakeholders to knowledge users, research collection and second the use of compost
hotels and petrol stations, hosting a population on waste management is often criticised for not by farmers in local agriculture. Collection was
of around 15,000. Changes came when Busia considering the demand of local stakeholders, chosen as it proved to be the main concern of
was declared to be the capital of the District of such as authorities, private operators, or local local communities, while the use of compost
Busia. The population tripled within 20 years, communities. The consideration of this demand was selected by the municipal authorities, as
buildings sprouted in every corner of the town must start even before the research takes off they had heard of other towns composting
and roads were constructed. One result of this - namely with the formulation of the specific waste that they dont find farmers willing to buy
development was the accumulation of solid research questions by local stakeholders. Then, the compost.

Members of the local NGO Youth Environment


Busia, the main land border entry point between Kenya and Uganda. Most of the 420,000 passers-by would Service collect data by interviews and question-
be surprised to hear about the 47,000 people living behind the straight line of one-storey buildings naire survey

24 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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COMPOSTING IN UGANDA BIOWASTEFOCUS

In accordance with the principles of action actions failed. It was concluded that at some
research, the circle of stakeholders involved level, communities themselves are lacking the
was then extended to local level politicians, required infrastructure and arbitration skills to
Waste collection it probably concerned community members, waste workers solve waste management problems. At this
the one field of basic and farmers. With them, the same procedure level, a better communication with authorities,
of problem formulation, investigation, action policy makers and service providers is required.
infrastructure with the formulation, implementation, reflection, and
highest contact between revised action plan was followed. Depending DEMAND FOR COMPOST
on the formulated problem the outcome was The experiences of other towns in Uganda
provider and customer quite divided. practising medium-size composting at around
70 tonnes of raw waste per day, shows that
CITIZENS INVOLVEMENT IN most of them face the problem of marketing
DESIGNING COLLECTION their product. Lack of awareness by local farmers
SYSTEMS is the common, but unproven explanation by
Waste collection is probably the one field of some stakeholders.
basic infrastructure provision with the highest Therefore, to really investigate some
contact between provider and customer. Thus, possible reasons, action research was carried
a waste collection system will only function if out with around 50 farmers from Busia.
the cooperation between the provider on one Focus group discussions, the setting-up of
side and the customer on the other side works demonstration fields and individual compost
effectively. application by farmers scientifically guided by
Therefore, it is required that the customers Makerere University researchers led to some
are involved to a certain extent in planning useful results, which were collected during a
waste collection. In Busia, this has been achieved final project workshop and questionnaire survey
through concerned community members with farmers.
forming committees aiming to improve waste The statement that compost and its value
collection. Investigations guided by the YES for soil fertility is quite unknown in Uganda can
led to several activities being suggested, from be confirmed. The use of other organic fertilisers,
self-management of a communal collection such as manure and raw solid waste is common.
centre to community sensitisation by door-to- This practice would be a good base for
door visits. compost marketing, as it suggests that farmers
The results were quite diverse. Although reservation from using a waste derived product
the sensitisation of the community showed is not too big. However, the price charged for
some positive results in waste management compost at Ugandas composting plants was
practice, and the community activists could found to be way too high.
manage some urgent problems such as the Not only in terms of the willingness of
management of a collection centre, other farmers to pay, but also in terms of fertilising

This waste collection centre in Busia


was amongst the biggest concerns
Presentation and discussion of results with the public of neighbouring residents

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 25

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BIOWASTEFOCUS COMPOSTING IN UGANDA

efficiency. Competing available organic budget. To do so, good relationships with knowledge expression. Local stakeholders as
fertilisers, such as poultry or goat manure is, per potential customers - farmers - are required in knowledge carriers which have been involved
unit of nutrient content, up to five teams less order to produce a marketable product. Besides in various steps of the processes of knowledge
expensive. acquiring a higher income, an eye should be generation will make better use of the
Though the farmers gave high marks to kept on expenditures. established knowledge. The case of this research
the compost after application, most suggested A comparison to other towns in Uganda is a good example and manifests in new project
to improve the compost quality. In farmers shows that there is still some space for ideas for improving solid waste management in
eyes, the compost was too dusty and rich improvement, meaning reducing the costs for Busia. An example is a follow-up project by YES
in extraneous materials, like broken glass and waste collection. and the Municipal Council.
even injection needles. Compost producers Initial suggestions for actions to solve
and wholesalers are well advised to take this APPLYING KNOWLEDGE current waste-related problems would have
feedback serious. U.S. sociologist, Kurt Lewin argued that led to the installation of parallel structures -
knowledge which just produces books will small-scale composting by local initiatives and a
SYSTEM ANALYSIS not suffice to solve the current problems of municipal composting project on the way.
The analysis of the waste management societies, such as solid waste management, as Contrary to that, the current proposal
system as a whole showed how important it often does not contribute to actual problem of actions avoids this double-structure, but
the recommendations of farmers are. Though solving. contains solely coordinated actions, such as
Busia will benefit from the CDM program by It is true that there is a trend of buying building-up decentralised door-to-door
receiving a composting plant and new waste knowledge through expertise, particularly in collection systems through the informal waste
collection equipment, the financial burdens for this field. Around the world many municipal collectors already operating in this field. A
the municipal budget might be challenging. governments are commissioning experts to do traditional research approach would very likely
New infrastructure means higher running research on waste management and the result not have led to these results.
costs. If the municipality does not want to is delivered in the form of reports which may
collect waste collection fees to cover these end up somewhere on a bookshelf along with Jakob Lederer is a research associate
costs, the revenues from the certified emission all of the valuable knowledge that it established. at Vienna University of Technologys
reduction (CER) and compost sales are the only Reports, articles and books are an important Institute for Water Quality, Resource, and
sources of income. backbone of scientific and institutional progress, Waste Management
As the CER-revenues will not flow but some discomfort about solely relying on e-mail: jakob.lederer@tuwien.ac.at
immediately, Busia will have to market and sell these modes of knowledge expression will
most of its compost, with the mutual benefit remain. This article is on-line.
of reducing the negative soil nutrient balance Action research is therefore an alternative Please visit www.waste-management-world.com
and relieving the municipal waste management to complement the aforementioned ways of

26 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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PRODUCT PROMOTION

PRODUCT NEWS
GICOM TUNNELS SUCCESSFULLY USED FOR
BIOLOGICAL DRYING OF MANURE
GICOM tunnels where introduced streams. So similar tunnels are also
to compost mushroom substrate. used for biologically drying munici-
The focus has therefor always been pal solid waste. This minimises the
on creating a product from waste. amount of waste and makes it safe
From there it was only a small step and efficient to sort out recyclable
to make a good quality compost materials within the MSW.
out of kitchen or green waste. Since 2011 GICOM has con-
It was soon proven that the structed several tunnels for the
tunnels are also capable of using biological drying of cow and chick-
the organic energy in these waste en manure in Western Europe. By
streams to dry material as far as is pasteurising the material it can be
biologically possible. The first tun- exported, which means that miner-
nels for bio-drying sludge from als within the manure can be sent
waste water treatment plants were to areas where such minerals are GICAOMs tunnels can minimise the volume of MSW making it easier to recycle
built in 1988 and are still operation- lacking, enclosed in organic matter. then further dried by thermal heat be safely transported from places
al. Bacteria in the sludge is activat- The organic matter improves to achieve less than 16% moisture. where there is a surplus to places
ed, causing the temperature to rise soil fertility. Once enough water This is dry enough to put the ma- where there is a shortage.
which takes care of pasteurisation, has evaporated from the manure, nure through a palletising press. For more info contact Luc Klun-
and allow for a highly effective and the biological stage starts to slow In order to feed all the months der of GICOM Composting Sys-
energy efficient drying process. down in the tunnels as the bacte- in the world, the distribution of tems. info@gicom.nl, tel +31 321
If it works for sludge, it also ria requires water. However within minerals is very important. These 332682.
works for other organic waste the enclosed tunnels the manure is tunnels enable organic minerals to www.arjes.de

CONTROLLING COMPOST THE BACKHUS LTC


The BACKHUS LTC is a specially which leads to hygenisation and turning cycle it is transported fur- roofing with rubber sealing. The in-
designed Lane Turner capable of a self drying process. During the ther to the end of the lane, while at put zone of each lane is equipped
transforming organic waste into second stage of the composting the same time maturing into stable with hinged and/or swivel mount-
valuable compost inside an en- process a further stabilisation as compost. As this happens new ma- ed doors or valves for easy access
closed system. Therefore not only well as maturation of the material terial can be inserted, making it a to the lane in case of filling or emp-
are emissions reduced, but inside is reached. continuous process with a finished tying by front loader.
an enclosed system important product coming of each lane. Transportation between the
factors influencing the Due to the water lanes is done by a transfer wagon
quality of the final prod- evaporation dur- the BACKHUS TW, so the BACKHUS
uct, such as temperature, ing step one a LTC is capable of turning every lane
moisture and oxygen, can volume reduction of the system. Every lane consists
be easily controlled. takes place which of an enclosed part in step one and
is compensated an open part for maturing in step
The process by the BACKHUS two.
Output material from the fer- LTC in step two. A ventilation system is installed
The Arjes Raptor XL is designed for easy maintenance
mentation process undergoes aer- The rotting between the lanes providing them
obic treatment within agitated and The BACKHUS LTC moves across lanes consist of two concrete walls, with a combination of fresh and
partially enclosed lanes. During the the lanes mixing and loosening equipped with piping installations exhaust air. The ratio depends on
first intensive composting stage the material inside, enabling fresh for the collection and transfer of the temperature, moisture and the
of the process micro organisms air, injected from the bottom of the exhaust air, as well as rain water oxygen level of the exhaust air and
cause a biological degradation of lanes, to circulate. collection, concrete flooring with can quickly and easily be changed
the organic matter. This causes a Organic matter is inserted at the fresh air supply and distribution to the ratio needed.
self heating of the input material beginning of each lane. With each system, floor heating and concrete www.gicom.nl

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 27

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___________________

For more information, enter 10 at WMW.hotims.com

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HYBRID RCV COLLECTION & TRANSPORT

This new Elhybrid refuse collection vehicle (RCV) is the result of a partnership between NTM of Finland and
Volvo Truck Corporation. It is currently on trial working with waste contractor Sita in Stockholm, Sweden

ANOTHER
NEW HYBRID
AND MORE
Following-on from the launch of the MAN Metropolis prototype
with Faun compaction equipment and Zoeller binlifters in 2012, NTM
has developed a new generation hybrid refuse collection vehicle in
co-operation with Volvo Truck Corporation. But this newcomer is
significantly different - especially when it comes to size.
by Malcolm Bates

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 29

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COLLECTION & TRANSPORT HYBRID RCV

This new NTM Hybrid is


based on an 18 tonne gross
chasses which should make
it better suited to operations
with narrow city streets

New Elhybrid outside Stockholm City Hall

30 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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HYBRID RCV COLLECTION & TRANSPORT

W
hen I first suggested that the city old quarter than a three axle 26 tonner. This theres you and me thinking that surely one is
initials of Narpes Tra and Metal could translate into big business for NTM. going to be expensive enough, right?
could just as easily stand for How else does it differ? Well, I know that EL There are very good technical and
Never Too Many (meaning stands for electricity (in that all the compaction operational reasons why this is so. To put it in
that the company always seems to have several functions are electrically-activated) to enable it simple terms, the electrical requirements for
exciting projects on the go at once), it raised to operate without the diesel engine running. the truck chassis differ considerably from the
little more than a polite chuckle over in Finland. Dont all hybrids do that? Well, yes they do - or output needed to power the body compaction
Where in Finland? Oh come on, try to keep up at least they claim to - but be patient as we and binlifter systems. The 600 volt DC chassis
- the NTM plant is in the neat northern Finnish havent even started on our journey through the pack delivers 340 volts for traction purposes
town of Narpes. Its the N in NTM, you see. The T specification of this new baby yet. Thats partly (the automotive electrical systems remain
and M? They relate to the key materials utilised because its still 8.30 in the morning and Ive only at 24 volts), while the body-mounted pack
when the company was founded in the late just seen it for the first time, but also because its provides 96 volts to power the compaction/
1940s - wood and metal. However, things have such a new concept that the full specification lifter systems - enabling it to be operated
moved-on a bit since then. has yet to be translated into English! without danger to life. It doesnt stop there -
But Im not in Narpes today. Im in the high torque 120 kW electric drive motor
Stockholm, Sweden. And Im waiting outside SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL boosts take-off from standstill, while the battery
City Hall, in temperatures of minus ten degrees But I also know that the second partner in this packs are new LiFePO4 units from European
for the arrival of the latest project from the project is Volvo. And that the chassis is only a Batteries of Finland. These are designed to offer
NTM research and development department. two axle, 3.7 metre wheelbase Volvo FE340/D7F. much-improved safety in the advent of serious
Any minute now, I hope to get my first look It is a smart hybrid, offering an ability to drive in accident damage.
at a compact, 7.5 cubic metre split body RCV battery-only mode for up to one kilometre at a Wait, theres more. Niclas (Nicholas) Pada,
mounted on a compact Volvo FE340 chassis. speed of up to 40 kph, without the diesel engine the recently appointed director and general
Here it comes. cutting-in to charge the battery pack. manager of NTMs RCV division (NTM also has
My first observation? While most hybrid For waste collection operations, the FE a transport and distribution truck bodywork
RCVs to date have been designed to fit within a comes with a 7 litre, 340 hp (250 kW) Euro-5 and trailer manufacturing division) has not
26 tonne gross weight bracket - the maximum diesel engine coupled to an I-Shift automated only agreed to let me go out with this new
legal in Europe - this new NTM Elhybrid is based transmission. And the hybrid element? After a prototype for the day, but has also agreed
on a more compact 18 tonne chassis which great deal of debate (and it must be said some to come over to Sweden in person to bring
should make it better suited to operations differing views), this latest hybrid RCV solution me up to speed on where NTM plans to go
within the narrow congested streets of an inner comes with two lithium-ion battery packs, when with this - and other - new projects in 2013.

_________

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JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 31

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COLLECTION & TRANSPORT HYBRID RCV

In addition to many new generation features such as electrically activated compaction


and binlifter functions, the Elhybrid is based on a compact, two-axle chassis of 18 tonnes
gross weight - making it ideal for tight turns in old quarter downtown districts

Team effort. Left to right: NTM director Niclas Why operate a hybrid RCV? In downtown areas, Going Down. At locations such as hospitals an
Pada, driver Michael Skoglund, Eric Lennolf from there is often a mix of residential, retail, and office electric hybrid can offer an enhanced service by
Volvo, Anders Hagglund NTM Sweden and fleet buildings. A quiet, electric RCV could make good operating at night, as the truck is free from delay
operations manager Sita Sweden, Bent Hansen operational sense and reduce fuel costs and CO2 by busy daytime traffic

blocks downtown, but to get into such areas underground loading bay. He has to get the rear
OUT ON THE ROUTE requires a short wheelbase and a good steering hopper up to a loading dock, but the another
Before we sit down for a detailed discussion, lock as well - as Michael is about to demonstrate. contractor has left a hooklift container a bit
I need to get out there on the round with This is the main city Eye Hospital, he out of line. Never mind - a deft four-point turn
driver Michael Skoglund. Making introductions announces, as we swing off a suburban street and hes on. This 9.15 metre long truck can turn
is Bert Hansen, eastern region manager at SITA and prepare to dive down a steep ramp to around in a space that many drivers of private
Sweden - who has come out of his nice warm basement level. It looks like the steel entrance cars would find difficult!
office, especially. And as Bert explains, SITA door only has enough headroom for a high-
Sweden is keen to see if the Elhybrid can meet roof Transit van. Why underground? Waste and DUAL MODE
the strict set of parameters to pass Stockholms recyclable containers are routinely located Why does the binlifter pick containers off a
environmental regulations relating to noise - the undercover in Sweden. It keeps them free of loading dock? We have to design our binlifter
advantages of a vehicle that can work in battery snow and ice. Were working on recyclable controls for dual mode operation, explains
electric-only mode without the diesel engine. materials today, so the loading is light, but Anders Hagglund, NTMs Swedish sales manager,
Firstly, it cannot be much over 3 metres Im already impressed by how easily the Volvo as lots of commercial premises run containers
high (the prototype is 3030 mm) otherwise it hybrid chassis stays with car traffic away from out on loading docks for collection, rather than
wont fit into the maze of service tunnels and the traffic lights. Michael Skoglund was keen to storing them at ground level. While Anders
underground loading bays in the downtown tell me how stress-free the Elhybrid is to drive in explains, driver Michael Skoglund operates the
area. Secondly, as there is a mix of small heavy urban traffic too, but now he is going to lifters from a higher set of controls, but a remote
businesses, retail premises and apartment impress me with how manoeuvrable it is in this control keypad option is also available. This

32 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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HYBRID RCV COLLECTION & TRANSPORT

The Elhybrid may be compact, but it is still equipped with a two compartment split compaction body
capable of collecting two waste factions. The rear hopper split can be specified as 50/50, 70/30 or 60/40

the computer automatically decides when its about to leave, Niclas Pada mentioned a further
best for the diesel engine to charge the battery new development. In addition to the Elhybrid
packs, but there is an electric-only override (which can be single or two compartment
should the vehicle be working in a sensitive split body), NTM has also designed a new
area - like a hospital - for some while. split-body, two compartment Uno for loading
Equally, the Elhybrid can be held in diesel recyclable containers by hydraulic crane. The
engine-only mode by the driver, thanks to single compartment Uno is already a favourite
another override. The Volvo-NTM Elhybrid is a amongst commercial contractors in Sweden. A
lovely little truck to drive and with regen braking version capable of loading wheeled containers
and that engine stop-start system, as well as of up to 1200 litre capacity (from the rear), has
the all-electric body/hopper/binlift, it really is also been produced, but the new split body unit
state-of-the-art. can collect more than one waste faction.
While this basic, rugged design might be at
MORE SURPRISES the opposite end of the technological spectrum
To help test all that technology in real life to the high-tech Elhybrid, the large loading
operations, Volvo is making the hybrid available hopper of the Uno could replace the traditional
on a favourable fixed rate (subsidised) five year skip truck on waste and recycling operations
lease with maintenance package. That equates because instead of taking just one loaded
to something like a 50,000 premium over container, it can take a greater cubic capacity of
the cost of a conventional 4x2 diesel RCV of two different recyclable factions per trip.
comparable capacity. The hybrid package is What will this new product be called? Uno-
also available on a 26 tonne 6x2 rearsteer as 2? Or Duo, perhaps? Its so new NTM doesnt
Smaller hopper has its own binlifter and well so this represents a considerable corporate even have a name for it yet, but based on what
compaction system commitment for Volvo - comparable to when I do know, we could call it the Skip Truck Killer!
Toyota introduced the Prius hybrid car. While its
negates any chance of him - or anyone - falling still too early to judge the real life fuel and CO2 Malcolm Bates is Waste Management
into the loading hopper. What a brilliant idea. savings - a 20% fuel saving is expected - so I plan Worlds collection and transport
Job done, he drives back up the steep ramp, to go back to Stockholm in six months to see correspondent
before merging back into the city traffic - still how the costs pan out. e-mail: malcolm@automotivespecialists.co.uk
with no sound coming from the diesel engine. The Elhybrid project is also a major
The compact FE Hybrid chassis is also packed corporate commitment to NTM as well. But This article is on-line.
with clever thinking features such as automatic to illustrate that my joke about the Never Too Please visit www.waste-management-world.com
stop-start when in diesel mode. If left alone, Many new projects at NTM rings true - as I was

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 33

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COLLECTION & TRANSPORT MATERIALS HANDLER

GETTING ON
DOWN

The Tabarelli brand isnt that well known outside of the Italian domestic market.
But as WMWs collection and transport correspondent explains, thanks to an
innovative new option on its specialist materials handlers, that could change.
by Malcolm Bates

First unveiled at Ecomondo, Rimini, the FlyCab option


is now available on the Tabarelli 712 materials handler
34 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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MATERIALS HANDLER COLLECTION & TRANSPORT

T
he hard-hit Italian economy looks your list of New Year resolutions. If you havent other Italian manufacturers that likewise dont
set for a significant boost - at least previously had Tabarelli on your list of potential build construction equipment, but do build
in the Verona region - as investment suppliers before, then I hope by the end of this specialised materials handlers - of which Fuchs,
in infrastructure will be needed to article you will. Because the first thing Roberto Sennebogen and Solmec are perhaps the
handle the increased number of visitors from Tabarelli will explain is that there is a considerable best known. He also acknowledges that other
all around the world. How so? A major sports difference between a purpose-built wheeled specialist brands (such as Liebherr) are active
event? A new International trade fair, perhaps? materials handler and a more common (and in the same operational sectors - in addition
Or a new theme park based on the rise and cheaper to buy) 360 degree excavator. to several of the larger international brands
fall of colourful ex-prime minister of Italy, Silvio which have, in recent years, upped their game
Berlusconi, even? NOT AN EXCAVATOR by manufacturing more waste and recycling
No. The answer is none of the above. But Just about every construction equipment brand sector-specific machine options. But this makes
even without a Bunga-Bunga World theme has a 360 excavator in its product line-up. Most a USP like the SkyCab all the more interesting.
park, I still predict a significant increase in traffic were originally designed as tracked machines Until now the Tabarelli range of materials
from the main A4 Autostrada at Verona, down and then converted to wheeled (wheely) handlers has comprised of four different skid
to the sleepy little town of Mozzecane, 30 configuration. Some are then converted again (chassis frame) sizes, starting with the 27 tonne
kilometres to the south. Why? The answer is (from excavators into materials handlers) by machine weight 510 and ending with the
quite simple - if you are in anyway involved adding different boom configurations and the top-of-the-range 916. In between is the best
with scrap metals, waste or recyclable materials addition of full scrap/waste handling guards, selling model - the 30 tonne 712. Specifications
handling, you should already be contacting the additional filters and up-rated cooling pack. tend to include a nicely-designed hydraulically-
modest headquarters of Tabarelli to make plans You could say the end result is therefore a raised cab giving a drivers eye-line of 5 to 6
for a visit. compromise. metres above ground level at full extension.
Your mission? Visitors to the Ecomondo The Tabarelli product line does not include The remaining specifications include top quality
event at Rimini Fiera, back in November last year construction equipment, Roberto Tabarelli components such as Cummins diesel engines
will already know the answer to that question, confirms. Here in Mozzecane, we only build and Rexroth hydraulic systems. Which brings us
because by my estimation the unveiling of the wheeled materials handlers for the scrap, waste to that USP.
FlyCab option on the Tabarelli 712 materials and recyclable sectors. He reminds me that
handler was one of the highlights of the whole excavators need massive breakout force to dig FIRST AMONG EQUALS
event. But in case you missed the significance into the ground by pulling the bucket back and While Roberto Tabarelli agrees that the concept
of this innovation, think of it as the next step in upwards - in many cases from below ground of a hydraulically-raised cab that can also deliver
the development of the hydraulically-raised cab level. Materials handlers dont. They reach out the machine operator right down to ground
wheeled materials handler. to the full extent of the pile, then lift and load - level is not a Tabarelli exclusive (it is already
If youre still operating fixed-cab 360 much like a crane in fact. available on several designs of large tracked
excavators on waste picking and materials Roberto Tabarelli is not suggesting up to machines used in the quarry and port handling
handling operations, a meeting with company this point that the range of machines carrying sectors) he does claim the availability of this
boss Roberto Tabarelli - or sales director his family name are in any way unique - there feature on a 360 wheeled materials handler as
Allessandro Vantini - should already be on are a couple of German brands and several a first.

Going up in the world. The operator of the 712 can get in and out of the cab at ground level,
then operate the machine from deck level or select any suitable eye-line up to six metres

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 35

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COLLECTION & TRANSPORT MATERIALS HANDLER

WE HAVE LIFT-OFF
In order to clear the deck of the skid (the
chassis), the machine has to be parked with the
superstructure slewed away from the centreline
to enable the SkyCab to be lowered right down
to ground level. The forward projection provides
suitable clearance. In normal situations, the
base of the cab doesnt touch the ground - it
floats above it. I step in and get seated. The
cab structure is the same as the cabs used by
standard hydraulically-raised units featured on
the rest of the Tabarelli range - the lift structure
is the difference. I take a minute to check where
everything is located - Ive got a double joystick
seat console with a collection of additional
coloured buttons for auxiliary services and a
deadman control grip on my left joystick. Ive
also got my automotive controls, controls for
the substantial dozer blade at end and for a pair
of hydraulically raised jackleg stabilisers at the
other - although these are not normally needed
when travelling and working.
With the cab lowered, the boom functions
are immobilised for safety reasons. Im in what
we might call the Green Zone - a light on
the main control console is glowing green. By
gripping the deadman and hitting the cab raise
button, Im soon going up in the world. The
action is smooth and amazingly rapid - I watch
the under-cab CCTV camera image on the
in-cab screen. It reminds me of those TV images
of the Lunar Module taking off from the Moons
surface. Remember?
The green light goes out once the cab
structure has cleared the deck of the skid, so I
can slew back onto the centreline and get the
boom into position to start work. In this case,
Im only in the Tabarelli factory yard, but I go
through some moves all the same. Im soon up
at six metres above ground level - enough for
me to see into any loading hopper or high-sided
refuse bulker, while also giving a panoramic
view of whats going on all around the machine.
Significantly, there is no concern about the
This is the view from the top, showing the reach of the orange peel grab.
Its enough to see into any loading hopper or high-sided refuse bulker stability of the machine - nor was there any
unnerving lateral movement when raising, or
lowering the cab. All the hydraulic controls work
But if the idea isnt new, how come the SkyCab the action of the cab. It all looks so easy. Roberto with a progressive fluid precision and while I
is patented? The unique feature of our design explains the basic parallelogram principal of the wouldnt call the cab interior luxurious, it has
is the parallelogram lifting system, Roberto cab lift arms - which enable the cab to both rise all the features Id expect - although some extra
Tabarelli explains. It enables the driver to go (and fall) while projecting further forward when storage space for personal items would be good
from ground level anywhere up to the full lowered - and explains how this is achieved by a and Im wondering if a reinforced glass window
working elevation of six metres in one operation single hydraulic ram. Now its my turn... in the cab floor - like a street sweeper - might
by engaging a single switch on the control This is a double first for me. Firstly, Ive also be useful? The cab glass roof panel was
panel. never operated a Tabarelli machine before. And certainly useful when keeping an eye on the
To prove his point, we walk out into the secondly, while Ive previously worked with boom and orange peel grab when raised above
factory yard where the prototype 712 FlyCab is several hydraulically-raised cab machines, Ive the screen rail.
waiting. First Roberto talks me through all the never tried a machine that enables me to step In some markets, there is likely to be
features of the basic machine. Then he starts the into the cab at ground level and go right up a requirement for the cab door to have an
engine, pulls the machine out of a line of new to a working eye-line level of six metres. Its an automatic interlock to prevent the door being
machines awaiting delivery and demonstrates exciting prospect. opened while the cab is raised. A Bleeper (like

36 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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MATERIALS HANDLER COLLECTION & TRANSPORT

the reversing aids fitted to most new cars and Malcolm pronounces the interior of the FlyCab
vans) would be also useful to warn the operator is a neat and attractive place to spend a shift
of obstructions under the point where the cab
is dropped and prevent damage - a simple
modification which is being looking into.
If were looking for downsides aside from
the added cost there is also an added weight
penalty. But on a 30 tonne machine, an extra
1.5 tonnes is no big deal. Tabarelli is also already
offering the SkyCab option on the larger 34
tonne machine weight 813 machine, but Roberto
Tabarelli confirms it will also soon be available on
the smaller 27 tonne 510 machine, as well.

CONCLUSION
The fluid raise and lower action, from ground
level up to six metres on a wheeled 360 machine
is unique, and should project the Tabarelli brand
from small (total production is currently under
300 units per annum) specialist manufacturer
competing within the hard-hit Italian market,
into one with a wider global customer base.
Thats a massive leap and as Roberto Tabarelli
confirms, it cannot be achieved without working Malcolm Bates, tries the SkyCab for size
with some new partners.
We are already known in wider global
markets for manufacturing heavy duty shears
and presses for the scrap metal sector, he
explains. For example, in the Americas, we work
with Sierra International and the Idromech (the
second manufacturing facility owned by the
Tabarelli family) range of shears and presses is
also well known in the wider European market,
but we acknowledge we will need to find and
work with new sales and service partners to take
the Tabarelli brand of materials handlers to the
next level, he adds.
The SkyCab feature is a major leap forwards
in operator and wider site safety. In developed
economies, Health & Safety legislation is
sometimes seen as adding to time and cost
by requiring more complex and expensive
modifications, while in developing economies,
it could be seen as a luxury. Being able to get
on down to ground level therefore takes on a
new significance, but if you share the view that
no machine is ever sold on safety, then Id argue
that even when leaving the added safety issues
aside, the FlyCab is still worth considering on
the grounds of increased productivity.
And that alone is a good enough reason to
visit Mozzecane.

Malcolm Bates is Waste Management


Worlds collection and transport
correspondent
e-mail: malcolm@automotivespecialists.co.uk

This article is on-line.


Please visit www.waste-management-world.com

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 37

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LETS GET DOWN TO


REAL BUSINESS

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FUEL

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a s h
Trtalking

A WEEE
DISCUSSION
Around the world a vast and increasing
quantity of e-waste is being produced
each year. As supplies of certain critical
materials tighten, and the price of
precious metals continues to rise, the
recovery of these materials from the waste
stream is of growing importance. WMW
asks a number of industry experts how
the challenge of recovering more of these
materials from e-waste can be met.

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 39

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TRASH TALKING

DESIGN TO OPTIMISE END OF LIFE OPPORTUNITIES

Figuring out how to specify products that are easier to reused components. Reuse focuses on extraction of
recycle is one of the most elusive environmental goals the highest value parts which have not reached EoL.
for sustainable electronics. Its a system problem the Design for recovery creates products which can be
two parts of the system, product design and End-of- disassembled into material streams that provide the
Life (EoL) processing, are separated by distance, time highest readily achievable resource value. Disassembly
and different actors. The admirable attempts through may be performed entirely manually or mechanically,
Producer Responsibility (EPR, IPR, etc.) to transfer or through some combination. However, the more
incentive from the back end to the front have not mixed the material types coming out of a treatment
yielded significant results. facility, the lower the achievable recovery.
Moreover, technology is changing rapidly. Products Design for recovery will make high-grading
are becoming smaller and design is driven by fashion, the embodied resources precious metals, critical
while EoL systems, handling greater and greater materials and volume materials economically
WAYNE RIFER volumes, are increasingly mechanised. practical. Moreover, these resource recovery objectives
IS DIRECTOR OF STANDARDS At the same time, the embodied resources in must be safely achievable by the full range of
AT EPEAT, OREGON, U.S.
products are also increasing as highly sophisticated recycling operations in the real world, from informal to
technologies demand more manufacturing energy technically sophisticated.
and critical materials. Sustainable technology that The bottom line is that product manufacturers must
delivers value to the entire human population calls be incentivised to design products for optimal EoL.
for optimal utilisation of the energy resources and Developers of standards and guidelines should adopt
effective recovery of the material resources. In other an approach that maximises opportunities, versus
words, optimal reuse and material recycling. That dictating a single EoL approach. Manufacturers should
necessitates product design with EoL in mind. have a number of possible options depending on their
The challenge is to know what to require of product. But Df4R options chosen by manufacturers
product designers. What will be most meaningful to should be intentional, should follow some common
EoL managers for products designed today when they principles shared by many products, should create
enter the waste stream (for reuse or recycling) in five viable opportunities for all EoL operations and should
or more years? The best we can do is to maximise the be made known to EoL managers.
opportunities for EoL managers. Stakeholders involved in the revision of the
I increasingly believe we must develop a Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool
multifaceted approach to product design that (EPEAT) standard for computer products, a project
facilitates a variety of management options despite long overdue and now rapidly approaching, must
different capacity in EoL management systems. Ill find practical ways to create incentives for such multi-
call this Df4R Design for restoration, refurbishment, faceted Df4R design.
reuse, and recovery. The objective is not to design products for the way
Design for restoration at end-of-first-use means to that recyclers now do their business, but to give them
repair products and to restore their original capabilities. the greatest set of opportunities. When the current
Refurbishment is a more substantial renovation batch of products emerge from use, new processing
of the product, where parts are swapped out and technologies and markets will have emerged. EoL
the refurbished product, though it may resemble managers will be aided by design decisions made
its predecessor, likely contains many new and/or today to realise the maximum value.

Precious metals recycling isnt


always about profits
In fact, its not even about
precious metals

Its about life.


www.preciousmetals.umicore.com
Contact: preciousmetals@umicore.com

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40 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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Like taking things to pieces?


Youll love our machine.

For more information, enter 14 at WMW.hotims.com www.aut-chemnitz.de

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TRASH TALKING

FROM SINGLE MEASURES TO SYSTEM THINKING

Finding economically viable measures for the recovery The volume of e-waste which is never collected is
of critical materials from e-waste is a challenging task. significant. Improvement of collection rates requires
It is difficult to find single measures or technical a combination of technical and non-technical
innovations which on their own are sufficient for measures which improve the user-friendliness of the
increasing the recycling rates of critical materials systems, minimise recycling triggers of consumers
from e-waste. The integration of suitable technical and improve the efficiency of the collection logistics.
and non-technical measures and a more systematic The introduction of tagging and tracing systems could
optimisation of the whole production and recycling contribute both to reduced materials losses, and
chain is required. One may also question whether increased use of automatic identification system in
the weight based recycling targets do advance the sorting products, components and materials.
recycling of critical materials from electronics. Another important step needed for enhancing
ULLA-MAIJA MROUEH A challenge identified in the analysis of waste recovery of critical materials is the pre-processing
IS PRINCIPAL SCIENTIST AT THE
VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH value chains, made by a group of four Finnish research stage. Those components containing valuable
CENTRE, FINLAND institutes was the lack of good quality data, which is materials should be separated as far as possible.
essential for modelling based assessment of economic Because of the difficulty of finding economically
viability of recycling. In the future, more and more feasible technological recycling solutions for valuable
electronics will be found in sources other than materials present in low concentrations in complex
consumer appliances, including end-of-life vehicles, products, the integration of better recyclability into
demolished buildings, infra networks, etc., which product design should be an integral part of the
makes data collection even more difficult. solution.
Modelling tools and methodologies are needed Theoretically, design for recycling is one of the best
for systematic analysis, integrating the technical, potential measures enhanced recycling. In practice, it
economic and environmental aspects of recycling seems that the drivers have not been strong enough
processes and concepts. The use of system dynamic for real progress, yet. One of the challenges is decision
modelling concepts enables an understanding of the making in product and recycling chains with multiple
viability of activities in changing business environment. stakeholders with different individual targets.

_________________________

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42 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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TRASH TALKING

PUTTING THEORY INTO PRACTICE

Exploring the opportunities for increasing the recovery Best available technologies leverage economies of
of critical metals from WEEE is a complex challenge. scale and operate in a global market place. At the
The recycling chain consists of a number of steps with other end of the spectrum is the informal sector
a wide range of actors. Optimisation potential lays not where only few metals are recovered, with low
only lie in the improvement of each step, but also in yields and detrimental impacts on environment and
the optimisation of interaction between steps. human health. Replacing this kind of low quality
Good collection is an essential first step as it feeds end-processing with the best available technology
the rest of the recycling chain. A particular challenge is offered on the world market would greatly increase
the collection of small devices such as mobile phones, the amount of scarce metals recovered.
MP3 players and USB sticks. These can easily be stored Besides e-waste recycling, there is future growth
but also contain interesting amounts of metals. potential in the recycling of new generation
By collecting the devices into groups based on rechargeable batteries. This is mainly driven by the
their metal content, they can be sent to the most electrification of vehicles and more stringent laws
THIERRY VAN KERCKHOVEN suitable pre-processing operation. Manual dismantling enforcing collection and recycling all over the world.
IS GLOBAL SALES MANAGER is very effective, while mechanical processes can lead However, important challenges still exist in the
FOR RECYCLABLES AT UMICORE, to high losses of precious metals when the shredding/ improvement of collection rates from portable
BELGIUM
separation intensity is too high. So, depending on the batteries and in the EHS risks in handling and treatment
chosen technology, over half of the precious metals of the end-of-life batteries. To address this opportunity,
can be lost. From a value perspective this is a big deal. Umicore started a 7000 tonne per year industrial pilot
Finally, metal recovery takes place. Processes that scale recycling plant for Li-Ion and NiMH rechargeable
use best available technology have high recovery batteries in Belgium. The recycling process recovers
efficiencies and recover a wide range of metals, valuable elements such as Nickel, Cobalt, Copper and
combined with excellent environmental performance. Rare earth elements from the batteries, putting these
Umicore Precious Metals Refining recovers 17 different metals back into the value chain.
metals including many critical metals from printed For a sustainable recycling chain transparency,
circuit boards and other e-waste. collaboration and trust is necessary.

Robert Moser
State of the LindnerART:
Production
Manager
Reduce to the max
We reduce everything. Almost everything. But never our know-how.
You can profit from this too, because you are in good company
among our numerous renowned customers worldwide.
More than 1.000 shredders and plants for processing refuse
derived fuels sold they speak for themselves.

______________

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JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 43

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TRASH TALKING

WEIGHT TARGETS HAMPERING CRITICAL MATERIAL RECOVER

Scarcity of metals and in particular of some of the Also the producers can and should play a role. The
rare earth metals are high ranking issues in the public days when everybody could easily take the battery
debate. And its true that waste electronic products out of a mobile phone are gone. Today recyclers have
provide a major potential for many of these materials. to struggle with new designs and many smartphones
A study by ko-Institut found out that in total, all of and tablets are built in a way that it takes just too much
the notebooks sold to private consumers in Germany effort to get out the cobalt-containing Li-ion batteries.
during 2010, contained 460 tonnes of cobalt, 16 tonnes We have to remember that more than 50% of the
of neodymium, 12 tonnes of tantalum, 3 tonnes of worlds primary cobalt supply is mined in the Congo,
silver and many other critical metals. Nevertheless, the mostly under terrible working conditions. In addition,
study also showed us that most of these metals are not cobalt is listed as critical metal in the EU and I cannot
recovered by current e-waste management systems in see a sound reason why we should continue to
Germany. In fact all that is recycled is less than 40% of tolerate product designs that clearly stand against the
ANDREAS MANHART
IS A RESEARCHER INTO the gold, silver, palladium and cobalt. idea of a circular economy.
SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTS & While there are good reasons for this, there are In addition, regulators need to learn their lesson:
MATERIAL FLOWS AT THE also many ways to improve. We know that the highly Both, the old and the new European WEEE Directive
KO-INSTITUT, GERMANY
mechanised pre-processing technologies installed in contain quantitative material recovery and recycling
the 1990s are mostly not ideal in terms of segregating targets . These targets can only be achieved if recycling
fractions with highest concentrations of critical metals. processes are optimised for mass-fractions such as
They might be good in reducing labour costs and to steel, glass, plastics and aluminium. With a strong focus
manage large quantities of e-waste according to all on critical metals, recyclers simply run the risk of being
environmental standards, but they do not help recover non-compliant.
critical resources. So, many players have to rethink their strategies.
However, we cannot only blame the recyclers. On Apart from isolated optimisations it will also be of
collection sites mixing various devices in one container crucial importance that all players are open to learn
is still common. We cannot expect recyclers to dig the from each other and to jointly work on better solutions
most resource-relevant pieces out of this mess. for the future.

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For more information, enter 17 at WMW.hotims.com

44 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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TRASH TALKING

THE FUTURE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE

Electronic waste has become a prevalent discussion of REEs and critical materials that are essential to
in the recycling industry. With new technologies the future of energy sustainability. As stated by
regularly emerging onto the market and the need for Assistant Secretary David Sandalow, The three pillars
individuals to obtain the newest gadgets, our society of research for critical materials include supply chain
is being forced to make ethical decisions in regards to diversification, substitute materials and recycling.
proper e-waste disposal and reuse.
Cell phones, laptops, computers, televisions and LEGISLATION
monitors all contain small amounts of critical materials According to the Environmental Protection Agency,
and rare earth elements (REEs), which are essential our national laws do not allow the EPA to establish
for the progress of future technologies and for the federal regulations on recycling. With this being
renewable energy industries. The opportunities for the case, mandated laws and regulations must start
increasing the recovery of critical materials from at a grass roots level in your city, county or state.
PATRICK FERRY
IS A SALES EXECUTIVE AT e-waste has prompted new industry standards, A slim majority of states have implemented laws,
DYNAMIC RECYCLING AND legislation and producer responsibility measures. but 24 states have not. That number is frightening
AUTHOR ON THE SUBJECT OF REEs and critical materials possess luminescent, as the reuse, refurbishing and recycling of
E-WASTE
WISCONSIN, U.S. magnetic and catalytic properties. The U.S. e-waste should be at the forefront of social issues.
Department of Energys (DoE) Critical Materials Implementation of federal recycling laws is not
Strategy report stated that supply challenges for completely out of the question, but at the present
five rare earth metals - dysprosium, neodymium, time, there is no federal mandate to recycle e-waste.
terbium, europium, and yttrium - could affect clean It is imperative that our government and business
energy technology deployment in the coming years. sector work closely together to implement and push
However, proper steps are being made to address for responsible recycling practices. Regulations in the
the shortages in REEs and critical materials. The recycling industry are in place, but the United States
DoE recently awarded the Ames Laboratory in Iowa still has a long road ahead to mandate laws that hold
$120 million over five years to create the Energy corporations, recycling companies and downstream
Innovation Hub, which will deal with the shortages vendors responsible for improper recycling practices.

For more information, enter 18 at WMW.hotims.com

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WASTE TO ENERGY REMOTE ISLANDS

THE ANSWER FOR


REMOTE ISLANDS?
While Islands can range in size from the smallest rock to the 2.1 million km2 of
Greenland, for those with a human population, the issue of waste management
can be problematic. Often isolated from end markets for recyclates, does waste to
energy technology offer these remote communities the ideal solution?
by Andrew Street

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REMOTE ISLANDS WASTE TO ENERGY

D
ue to their relatively small scale, The result is an open dump receiving over 300
the development and operation tonnes of rotting waste each day, and on an
of on-island waste treatment and island that is increasingly threatened by rising
disposal facilities which meet sea levels; this clearly means something has to
increasingly stringent legislative requirements be done.
is a challenge. Whilst many remote island The relatively small permanent population
communities are not usually subject to the and the potential impact of a transient tourist
same level of legislative control as larger population can place considerable pressure on
mainland states (for example, with regard to key local governments in terms of funding waste
EU Directives relating to waste management), management services. Most remote island
it is usual for an island authority to seek to communities can only afford the most basic of
adopt an approach, and to introduce facilities waste management systems without external
and technologies that at least go some way funding, simply because they do not have the
to reflecting the high standards set out in local tax raising capacity to fund the full range of
European or other similar legislation. infrastructure required to deal with issues such
Within EU legislation, including that relating as power generation and supply, water supply
to waste management, such as the Waste and wastewater treatment, let alone to manage
Framework Directive and Landfill Directive, solid waste in line with modern standards.
there is explicit recognition of the challenge of
seeking to apply the same strict standards to POPULATION CRITICAL
small islands, and in these cases exemptions or There are examples of larger islands having
derogations often apply. the capacity to develop modern facilities, and
This should not of course be seen as a to attract the investment required to do so.
licence for any local, island based authority to Two recent examples include the Isle of Man
adopt standards which give rise to wholesale (population of 85,000) and Jersey (population
environmental damage. Indeed given the of 98,000), both of which have state-of-the-
reliance many small islands have on maintaining art waste to energy facilities in place. A third
the environment either for the purposes of example is the Western Isles (population of
supporting tourism or local agriculture, that 26,000) off the north-western coast of Scotland,
would clearly be counter-productive. where a new integrated waste treatment facility
has fairly recently been commissioned.
LESSONS FROM HISTORY Islands with much smaller populations
In the past there have been plenty of examples simply could not support the development
of inappropriate waste management on small of this sort of facility without external funding
or remote islands, with very little attempt at from central government, or through grants.
adopting a sustainable approach that protects A current example of this is the Isles of Scilly
the local environment. On many small remote one of the most beautiful island archipelagos
islands across Europe and across the globe in Europe - but with a very small indigenous
indiscriminate dumping of waste was often population of just 2200 people. Without the
the norm, with open burning and sometimes current commitment from the UK government
SITAs waste to energy plant on the Isle of Man the tipping of the residue in a remote corner of to provide substantial funding it would simply
handles all of the islands waste and exports 5 the island. For example, for many years on the not be possible for the islands local council to
MW to the grid - around 10% of the islands needs Greek island of Santorini waste was tipped over address the urgent need to replace an existing
Image credit: SITA a high cliff. However this is no longer practiced but ageing incinerator with a modern waste to
and great strides have been made across many energy facility and at the same time remediate
of the Greek islands in addressing these issues. a site which has been impacted by waste
An extreme example of poor waste management over the last 50 years.
management described in the worldwide A parallel situation also arises for St Helena
press in 2012 as apocalyptic and a floating in the South Atlantic one of the most remote
toxic time bomb is the island of Thilafushi in islands in the world. St Helena, a British Overseas
the Maldives. With an indigenous population of Territory, has an indigenous population of
around 330,000 but with nearly 800,000 tourist around 6600, and currently a relatively small
visitors each year, the Maldives archipelago is number of tourists. That is due to change in
considered one of the most beautiful holiday the coming years with the development of a
destinations in the world. Of the 1200 islands 240 million airport, which will make the island
in the group, 200 are inhabited and half of far more accessible. Major improvements to
these are designated as resorts. Consequently, the Islands waste collection, treatment and
pressure on the environment is enormous, disposal system are currently underway, but
and waste management has simply not been largely reliant on funding provided by the UK
adequately planned for or invested in. government.

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WASTE TO ENERGY REMOTE ISLANDS

LIMITED MARKETS necessary importation of food and other goods. The Western Isles Integrated Waste Management
The size of the local economy and industrial/ These variations make it difficult to sustain both Facility was the first in the UK to use anaerobic
agricultural base often cannot sustain local and off-island commitment to resource digestion to treat source separated organic
waste to generate energy
consistently high levels of material reuse, efficient recycling and composting. Seasonal
limiting local markets for recycled materials variations are often related to tourist activity,
and for compost products. This is particularly which although valuable to the local economy,
pertinent for an extremely remote location, will always bring additional pressures to the
where the transfer of materials off-island would local environment, including the generation
be both expensive, and difficult to justify in and importation of waste
terms of sustainability. This is clearly less of an
issue for islands close to a mainland market, and VIABLE OPTIONS
in these cases recycling should be encouraged Experience indicates that there are normally just
and established transport routes utilised to a few viable approaches to waste management
transfer materials to mainland markets for that could be said to reflect good practice
recycling. (although not necessarily best practice) within
There will however always be some scope a western, mainland state subject to strict
for local reuse and recycling. Particularly in the legislative controls (such as would be the case
developing world the imagination of the local for European Member States).
population appears to have no limit when it As outlined, it would not be appropriate
comes to converting waste into something of to adopt the same approach to dealing with
real value. In most cases however, the market waste on a small remote island as one would
is limited by the size of the local economy, for a large European metropolitan authority
or impacted by the transient nature of any with access to local and central funding, a
tourist traffic to the island. Therefore a degree range of options for collection, treatment and
of realism is needed when it comes to the disposal, and an established and mature market
level of recycling and reprocessing that can be for a range of segregated materials and process
sustained. outputs.
Additionally, on many islands there are For a remote island community, or indeed
seasonal increases in waste generation, and any remote location, the range of realistic
high levels of packaging associated with the options for managing waste are inevitably

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REMOTE ISLANDS WASTE TO ENERGY

Existing landfill operation of St Helena in the South Atlantic soon to be upgraded with funding
from the UK government

treatment of residual waste to create RDF for


thermal processing (simply because it would
not make sense to introduce two expensive
treatment processes for such a small quantity
of waste), or the treatment of organic waste by
anaerobic digestion or composting.
Anaerobic digestion would normally be
inappropriate in a remote island situation due
to the relative complexity of the technology,
and also the challenges of disposing of the
digestate. There are often similar challenges in
disposing of organic waste derived composts,
simply because the local demand for such
materials on remote islands is often minimal,
and it could therefore end up being sent to
landfill which somewhat defeats the object
of investing in a relatively expensive treatment
process in the first place.
Jerseys recently commissioned waste to energy plant will process up to 105,000 tonnes of waste
per year and generate around 7% of the islands electricity Credit: Hopkins Architects Ltd
CONCLUSION
Developing and implementing a truly
much more limited. Experience across the to justify the investment, it is quite common sustainable waste strategy for small islands can
globe shows that the most likely options to be for the principal disposal route to be thermal be challenging, and this becomes all the more
adopted are: processing through incineration. The preferred difficult for those islands that are very remote.
Landfill: Reliance on landfill as the principal technology would be conventional incineration, However, with appropriate levels of realism and
disposal route, with some limited recycling and and it would be unusual for a plant to be smaller pragmatism it is possible to adopt an approach
reuse, but within the limits of local markets. than 10,000 15,000 tonnes/annum (although that provides adequate protection to the local
Efforts are typically focused on ensuring that there are a few examples of smaller sized environment. Funding is often a major issue, and
the landfill site (normally a single site, unless facilities on islands). Rarely is this on a combined external support is an inevitable requirement if
the island happens to cover a very large area, heat and power (CHP) basis, simply because modern standards of environmental protection
or is made up of an archipelago of islands) is typically there will be few opportunities for are to be met.
developed and operated on a sanitary basis and use of the heat, but almost without exception
is subject to appropriate levels of management power will be generated and exported to the Andrew Street is a director at SLR
and control so as to minimise the environmental local network. Any residual wastes that cannot Consulting Limited
impact. There are many islands across the world be incinerated would be sent to landfill, along Web: www.slrconsulting.com
where this approach remains the strategy, and is with incinerator residues.
the preferred approach going forward. What is notable is that it is very rare for other This article is on-line.
Thermal treatment: On some larger waste treatment technology to be introduced Please visit www.waste-management-world.com
islands, where the quantity of waste is sufficient on small remote islands whether that be the

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LANDFILL GAS TO GRID

CARBON FINANCE FOR


LFGTOGRID

With the implementation of the new Landfill Gas Management Regulation


imminent, small communities across Canada will soon need gas management
systems at landfill sites producing over 1000 tonnes of methane per year. With its
new LFG to grid system, the community of Salmon Arm is one step ahead.
by April Boehm

50 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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GAS TO GRID LANDFILL

Columbia Shuswap Regional Districts LFG capture System


Credit: www videonexus ca
________

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LANDFILL GAS TO GRID

If we hadnt had the ability to sell offsets, the


probability is extremely high that we wouldnt
have been able to move forward, says Mooney.
This innovative project can be a model
for other regional landfills across the province,
says Pacific Carbon Trust CEO Scott Macdonald.
Putting a price on carbon provides a strong
incentive for cutting-edge projects like this one
that reduce emissions, create local jobs, and
provide long-term economic benefits.
The first phase of the project capped the
landfill and captured the resultant methane,
preventing it from being released into the
atmosphere. The methane, which has 21 times
the global warming potential of carbon dioxide,
is now being converted into natural gas and
piped into FortisBCs local distribution network.
Mooney notes that the project will remove
approximately 150,000 tonnes of methane from
the atmosphere over the course of 15 years. The
cost of the project comes in at some $2 million,
with a large proportion of that coming back
from the sale of carbon credits.
Having the ability to repay the capital over
15 years is an important piece of the economic
model, adds Mooney. We were in a position to
say that the $2 million is not going to be needed
as a tax requisition.
Just as important, the deputy manager
points out, was that they were able to borrow
Methane flaring at the Salmon Arm Landfill money from municipal reserves knowing these
Credit: Columbia Shuswap Regional District
funds could be paid back without impacting

T
closure plans for other sites. Although everyone
he clock is ticking across small 2008, this talk had solidified into ambitious new was in this for the environmental efficiencies,
communities in British Columbia (BC) emissions reduction plans for the provinces the substantial return on investment makes it
to come up with plans to meet the public sector, which included the founding of more palatable politically, according to Mooney.
provinces Landfill Gas Management Pacific Carbon Trust.
Regulation. The regulation, which is part of BCs Pacific Carbon Trusts mandate was twofold. GRID INJECTION
commitment to reducing greenhouse gas levels Firstly to foster the growth of BCs low carbon While capping the Salmon Arm landfill prevents
by at least 33% below 2009 levels by 2020, economy. Secondly, help the province and harmful emissions from escaping into the
stipulates that from 2016 all landfills generating other clients meet their carbon neutrality goals atmosphere, having the option of feeding it into
1000 tonnes or more of methane annually must through the purchase of BC-based greenhouse the local grid means that 300 homes can be
install a landfill gas management system. gas offsets. In this way, the Province would provided with a clean, renewable energy source.
The community of Salmon Arm, part of the not only ensure access to high quality, verified When you think about it, it makes sense
Columbia Shuswap Regional District (CSRD) in offsets, but would support the provinces its almost a no-brainer, says Mooney of the
BCs central interior, is meeting the demands of emerging low-carbon economy by providing plans to transform the methane into gas that
this regulation well ahead of time through the expert knowledge and acting as a reliable offset can be used to heat homes in the community.
establishment of a landfill gas capture system. buyer. While the decision may be a no-brainer,
This award-winning grid injection system has Mooney says without the commitment of utility
been part of the CSRDs agenda for some time, CARBON FINANCE FortisBC, it would not have been possible. When
but it took the power of carbon finance and According to Mooney the establishment of the CSRD was exploring what it would take
the support of local utility FortisBC to make it Pacific Carbon Trust allowed the CSRD to to implement the landfill gas project, FortisBC
a reality. implement a landfill gas capture system before was looking for opportunities to expand their
regulation demanded. By acting ahead of renewable energy capabilities.
PLANNING schedule to voluntarily reduce emissions from We approached Fortis through an
It was back in 2007 that we started investigating the landfill, we gained the right to issue carbon expression of interest they had issued, and there
and doing pre-planning, explains Darcy Mooney, offsets, he explains. was an immediate and overwhelming response,
deputy manager, Environment & Engineering Knowing it would have the option to sell he remembers. Within weeks of us expressing
Services for the CSRD. That was also when we offsets after the project was up and running interest, we had teams of guys coming up from
started hearing talk from the provincial capital gave the CSRD the security needed to finance Vancouver to chat with us and find out how
of new regulations for emissions offsets. By the landfill gas capture system. serious we were.

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GAS TO GRID LANDFILL

The Landfill Gas Management Regulation is part of Canadas


commitment to reduce GHG levels Credit: Greg Patterson

Before the landfill gas could be used in FortisBCs development and instead took on the role of a
system, it first needed to be upgraded, as it has general contractor in order to provide as many
a much lower methane content and higher CO2 opportunities as possible to unemployed or
If we hadnt had the content than natural gas, which makes it less underemployed locals.
efficient as a heat source. In addition, it contains Over 80% of the project money remained
ability to sell offsets, contaminants such as hydrogen sulphide, in the community, comments Mooney.
the probablility is siloxanes and volatile organic compounds.
The upgrading process involves removing
This small community is winning accolades
for its readiness to positively impact climate
extremely high that water and contaminants before a compressor change by taking action at home. Their early
is used to push the gas into a device called a commitment to reducing landfill gases has
we wouldnt have pressure swing adsorber (PSA). At that stage, won the CSRD the recognition of its peers
been able to move biomethane is separated from carbon dioxide,
oxygen and nitrogen. Once separated, the
in the form of two awards: the Federation
of Canadian Municipalities Sustainable
forward biomethane passes through a final check by Community Award, and the Union of BC
FortisBC and it emerges ready for injection into Municipalities Community Excellence award in
the gas pipeline. the Climate Action category.

UTILITY BACKING CONCLUSIONS


Partnering with FortisBC brought some Looking ahead, the CSRD hopes to expand
technical challenges, as some of the parameters the uses for its converted landfill gas. Mooney
for the project were outside their normal range, points to ongoing discussions about the
but Fortis support was unfailing. They even feasibility of using the captured gas to run
invested their own money in system upgrades municipal vehicles. He also notes that the CSRD
in order to meet the landfills needs. There was has been in contact with other municipalities
a huge concerted effort in getting this project across Canada to share their experiences.
online, Mooney says. For us, it goes back to the philosophy weve
After months of close cooperation with developed in our overall management plan
FortisBC, the landfill will begin injecting gas into of looking at all waste as a potential resource,
the utilitys pipes in January this year. Mooney sums up.

KEEP IT IN THE COMMUNITY April Boehm is an environmental writer


While the community has not yet reaped all and former Wall Street Journal reporter.
the benefits of the project, the project has
already provided a significant boost to the local This article is on-line.
economy. The CSRD made it a priority to avoid Please visit www.waste-management-world.com
outsourcing the work involved with project

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PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLDWIDE

ISWA
INFORMATION
VISIT __________________
WWW.ISWA.ORG FOR MORE INFORMATION

GPWM BIENNIUM CONFERENCE ISWA AT COP 18


IN OSAKA, JAPAN IN DOHA, QATAR
between various international stakeholders, in
which all participants agree to work together to
coordinate activities on waste management in
a systematic way.
The conference brought together 180 waste
experts from over 40 countries to find answers to
the global challenge of waste management and
reap the economic and environmental benefits
through better coordination. The first session of
the conference was dedicated to charting the
future course of waste management, the second
one to strategic issues in waste management for
ISWA managing director, Hermann Koller, governments and business. After Cancun 2010 and Durban 2011 ISWA was
and the chair of the ISWA Working Group on Hermann Koller was invited to co-chair the represented for the third time with a delegation
Waste and Climate Change, Gary Crawford, conference. The lively discussions and inspiring at the United Nations Framework Convention
participated in the Global Partnership on Waste exchange of experiences made this conference a on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Summit. The 18th
Management (GPWM) Biennium Conference great success. Conference of the Parties (COP 18) took place in
which took place on November 5 6 in Osaka, For more detailed information please have Doha from November 26 to December 8, 2012.
Japan, hosted by UNEP. The GPWM is an open- a look at the report provided in the info section Members of the ISWA delegation - president
ended, voluntary and collaborative relationship at www.iswa.org. David Newman, managing director Hermann
Koller and former president Atilio Savino
- endeavoured to make sustainable waste

ISWA EUROPEAN GROUP


management and its positive impact on our
climate, an issue at the summit and in the

MEETING, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM


UNFCCC process.
The delegation talked to many people
including Richard Kinley, the deputy executive
The 2nd ISWA European Group Meeting for organisations Waste2Recycle and Profu general of the UNFCCC, but also UNEP, CCAP, banks
2012 was held on December 5 6 in Brussels, elaborated on how the potential of waste and various government officials. With CCAP, ISWA
Belgium, and attracted 48 delegates. In three recovery for fuel and energy is maximised, after will work on activities in Latin America and with
sessions the topics of energy recovery, EU waste as much as possible has been recycled. the Mozambique government on a landfill project.
hierarchy, recycling and waste to energy were ISWA also got the opportunity to hold a press
covered. conference titled Small outlay, large impact:
With presentations from members of DG Substantial Greenhouse Gas emission reductions
Environment such as the head of the Waste through sustainable waste management at
Management Unit, Julio Garcia Burgues, and the conference centre. Attendees were mainly
Keir MacAndrew as well as ISWA representatives developing country delegates wanting to know
from academia and industry, the relationship what can be done for their waste.
between energy recovery from waste and the The good message is, money is going into
recycling of waste was highlighted. waste projects from the Climate Change process
The sessions were complemented by a ISWA has to keep pushing this message and will
workshop where speakers from Scandinavian make itself available to help the process.

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ISWA CALENDAR 2013


JANUARY ISWA Beacon Conference The 2nd SEPTEMBER
STC Meeting International Conference on Final Sinks Working Group Meeting on
January 28 - Sinks a Vital Element of Modern Waste Communication
Vienna, Austria Management September 5-6
rwilliams@iswa.org May 16-18 Vienna, Austria
Espoo, Finland ghabenicht@iswa.org
Board Meeting jukka.heiskanen@aalto.fi
January 29 Working Group Meeting on Energy
Vienna, Austria ISWA Study Tour on Source Separation of Recovery
hkoller@iswa.org Bio Waste and Biogas Production September 12-13
May 20-24 Turin, Italy
FEBRUARY-MARCH Sweden aholzschuster@iswa.org
Working Group Meeting on kwinternitz@iswa.org
Communication OCTOBER
February 28 - March 1 MSW: Management Systems and Board Meeting
Lisbon, Portugal Technical Solutions October 5
ghabenicht@iswa.org May 28-29 Vienna, Austria
Moscow, Russia hkoller@iswa.org
Working Group Meeting on Collection konovalova@sibico.com
and Transportation Technology STC Meeting
March 6 South-East European Forum on Waste October 5
Jaipur, India Management, Recycling & Environment Vienna, Austria
aholzschuster@iswa.org Save the Planet rwilliams@iswa.org
May 29-31
APRIL Sofia, Bulgaria General Assembly
Working Group Meeting on Energy office@viaexpo.com October 6
Recovery Vienna, Austria
April 11-12 JUNE hkoller@iswa.org
Copenhagen, Denmark ISWA Study Tour Waste-to-Energy
aholzschuster@iswa.org June 24-28 ISWA World Congress 2013
Vienna, Austria October 7-11
MAY jschoenherr@iswa.org Vienna, Austria
Working Group Meeting on Legal Issues office@iswa2013.org
May 2-3 AUGUST
Brussels, Belgium ISWA cooperation conference: Working Group Meeting on Legal Issues
ghabenicht@iswa.org Landfill and Transfer Stations October 10-11
August 7-9 Vienna, Austria
STC Meeting Gold Coast, Australia ghabenicht@iswa.org
May 14 kwinternitz@iswa.org
Finland NOVEMBER
rwilliams@iswa.org 2nd ISWA Summer School ISWA Beacon Confrence on
August 12-23 Waste-to-Energy
Board Meeting Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia November 27-28
May 15 kwinternitz@iswa.org Malm, Sweden
Finland jakob.sahlen@avfallsverige.se
hkoller@iswa.org

JANUARY 2013 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD 55

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DIARY

DIARY OF
EVENTS
WASTE TO ENERGY+RECYCLING WASTE TO ENERGY+RECYCLING BIR SPRING CONVENTION RWM IN PARTNERSHIP WITH CIWM
Bremen, Germany Bremen, Germany Shanghai, China Birmingham, UK
19-20 February 2013 19-20 March 2013 27-29 May 2013 10-12 September 2013
T: +49 2802 9484 840 T: +49 2802 9484 840 T: +32 2 627 5770 T: +44 (0)20 8651 7088
E: info@wte-expo.de E: info@wte-expo.de E: bir@bir.org E: rwm.exhibition@emap.com
W: www.wte-expo.de W: www.wte-expo.de W: www.bir.org W: www.rwmexhibition.com

ENERGY FROM WASTE ISRI CONVENTION AND EXPO 2013 WASTE-TECH 2013 ECOMONDO
London, UK Orlando, U.S. Moscow, Russia Rimini, Italy
27-28 February 2013 9-13 April 2013 28-31 May 2013 06-09 November 2013
T: + 44 (0)1722 717024/33 T: +1 202 662 8500 T: +7 (495) 225 5986 T: +39 541/744 456
E: Julia@markallengroup.co.uk W: www.isri.org E: waste-tech@sibico.com W: www.ecomondo.com
W: www.efwlondon.eu W: www.waste-tech.ru
WASTE MANAGEMENT AND POLLUTEC HORIZONS
PV MODULE RECYCLING RECYCLING INDIA 2013 SWMT (SOLID WASTE Paris, France
CONFERENCE CONFERENCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY) 03-06 December 2013
Rome, Italy Delhi, India BRAZIL T: +33 (0) 1 47 56 21 12
28 February 2013 8-10 April 2013 Sau Paulo, Brazil E: ristiana.rabusin@reedexpo.fr
T: +32 2 400 1049 W: www.wmrindia.com 03-04 June 2013 W: www.pollutec.com
W: www.recycling-conference.org W: www.greenworldconferences.com
GULF ENVIRONMENT FORUM
13TH INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOBILE Riydah, Saudi Arabia END OF LIFE PLASTICS 2013
RECYCLING CONGRESS IARC 2013 14-16 April 2013 Cologne, Germany
Brussels, Belgium W: www.gulfenvironmentforum.com 4-6 June 2013
13-15 March 2013 T: +44 117 924 9442
T: +41 62 785 10 00 E: rmm@amiplastics.com
E: info@icm.ch W: www.amiconferences.com
W: www.icm.ch

ADVERTISERS INDEX ADVERTISING


NAME PAGE For information on advertising, Please contact:

ARJES GMBH ..................... .............................................................................................................................................................................4 Terry Ash


International
AUT ANLAGEN-UND UMWELTTECHNOLOGIE GMBH ........................................................................................................41 E: terrya@pennwell.com
BABCOCK & WILCOX VOLUND ......................................................................................................................................................... BC T: +44 1992 656 600
BMH TECHNOLOGY OY .........................................................................................................................................................................38 F: +44 1992 656 700

DOPPSTADT CALBE GMBH.................................................................................................................................................................IFC Roy Morris


EGGERSMAN ANLAGENBAU BACKHUS GMBH.......................................................................................................................15 International
E: rmorris@pennwell.com
ERG - METHANE EXPO 2013...............................................................................................................................................................16 T: +44 1992 656 613
FAVERSHAM HOUSE GROUP - EFW EXPO..................................................................................................................................22 F: +44 1992 656 700
GICOM BV ......................................................................................................................................................................................................17 Dottie LaFerney
HAMMEL RECYCLINGTECHNIK GMBH .........................................................................................................................................44 Regional Manager, Southeast
ISWA .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 E: dottiel@pennwell.com
T: (512) 858-7927
LINDNER RECYCLINGTECH ..................................................................................................................................................................43 F: (512) 858-1910
MACK BROOKS EXHIBITIONS LTD - WMR INDIA .......................................................................................................................1
Craig Wiggins
MACPRESSE EUROPA SRL.....................................................................................................................................................................42 Regional Manager, East
MESSE MUNCHEN GMBH - IE EXPO 2013..................................................................................................................................28 E: craigw@pennwell.com
T: (610) 430-8181
NTM AB ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................31 F: (610) 430-0910
PTF HAEUSSER GMBH............................................................................................................................................................................45
UMICORE PRECIOUS METALS REFINING.....................................................................................................................................40 Amy Bailie
Regional Manager, Central/West
WASTECONSULT INTERNATIONAL - WASTE-TO-RESOURCES 2013................................................................................3 E: amyb@pennwell.com
ZENROBOTICS LTD. ................................................................................................................................................................................ IBC T: (918) 832-9241

56 WASTE MANAGEMENT WORLD JANUARY 2013

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For more information, enter 19 at WMW.hotims.com

DECLARATION OF

WAR!
Be it enacted by the Esteemed Board of ZenRobotics Ltd.
That War be and is hereby declared to exist between
the TRADITIONAL, OLD FASHIONED WAYS OF PROCESSING
CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE, and ZenRobotics
Ltd. The President of ZenRobotics is hereby authorized to
use the whole Robotic Recycling force of ZenRobotics to
carry the same into effect, and to distribute ZENROBOTICS
RECYCLERS TO CUSTOMERS, in such form as he shall think
proper. Under the seal of ZenRobotics, he shall have the
right to ght against any such situation where a Construc-
tion and Demolition waste processing company is using
old fashioned technology and thus losing money in dispos-
al costs, losing prots due to less than pure fractions etc.

ZenRobotics Recycler is out now and sorts C&D waste efciently, with robots. Buy yours: www.zenrobotics.com

sales@zenrobotics.com
Tel. +358 50 4363 803

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O PTIMIZE
INVISIBLE PROCESSES?
WE DO IT EVERY DAY!

Our advanced CFD analysis helps trim waste-to-energy plants


for greater efficiency and lower emissions
Throughout the EU, emissions regulations are getting for different plant configurations, evaluate air-injection sys-
stricter and stricter. But can anything be done to help an tems, optimize flue-gas recycling, and diagnose a wide range
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pening within any plant. We can accurately predict the results Find out how at www.volund.dk

For more information, enter 20 at WMW.hotims.com

Fa lkevej 2 Te l : + 4 5 7 614 3 4 0 0 bw v@volund.dk


D K- 6705 Esbjerg F a x : + 4 5 7 614 3 6 0 0 w w w.vo lund.dk

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