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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1Introduction
School students usually carry their school bag from and around each school
day.Textbook, sports equipment, lunch, musical instruments, jacket and laptop
computer are the items that may be carried. these items can be represent a
substantial weight.

There has ben considerable concern from education and medical professionals
.parents,students regarding carriage of schoolbag. The weight of schoolbags
more specifically, greatest concern apprar the lack of availability of lockers.
musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD*),the students carrying heavy schoolbag
predispose the students.these type occurs in lower,middle and upper back and
neck regions.in school absence of lockers means student must carry their
materials for longer durations.that for the risk of the students developing
MSD..it was great relation between th back pain and school bags.

School bag carriage of backpack we concentration on children health and their


development of years in regards of holding the school bags on the backpacks
causing the backpack syndrome.

In school bag carriage of back back mainly concern for the junior students in
secondary schools,at this age student spine is at critical stage iat developing
the age between 12-14 years .in this age ratio is like bag weight to bady weight
ratio will be more.some student that ratio will be low load will be similar to
larger and oldr children.
Thre ara six areas of literature of the review and critique

1. Manual handling guidelines


2. Adult load carriage
3 .The physical capability of school children
4. Schoolbag carriage and reported MSD
5 .The physical demands of schoolbag carriage
Brief explanations of the relevance of each of the five literature review are as
follows:

1.1.1 Manual handling guidelines


There is scientific research for evidence guidelines of the school bag
carriage of backpack This is a reason of the school bag carriage has
become an issue.10%body weight of the upper schoolbag weight has long
been proposed. there is no limit of the evidence moreover, predominant
focus of both schoolbag carriage recommendations and research of the
school bag weight. and also effect of the factor is schoolbag design
adjustment and carriage duration and effect of the demands placed on the
user there is no evidence of the school carriage very little research of these
area. Current manual handling guidelines indicate that the physical
demands of manual handling depend not only on load weight that is the
movement,frequency and duration and posture.susset of manual handling
Is a school bag weight

1.1.2 Adult load carriage


The schoolbag carriage load carriage of adults for wealth of studies.there
are very few for the children for load carriage The studies of adult load
carriage will be reviewedmuch of the information derived from them will
help to predict how school students might respond to varying schoolbag
carriage conditions.there are many mthods used for thr study of the adults
rsponses of load carriage much of the information derived from them will
help to predict how school students might respond to varying schoolbag
carriage conditions.the study of school bag carriage applicable to use and
study of the adults.
1.1.2 The physical capability of school children

School student adults are carriage differ load .the physical capabilities schoolbag
carriage part of concern that differ size and shape.vary considerably growing
skeletons is the result of th different from adults.the physical capability of school
children will be addressed for this reason the literature .the appropriateness
applying the audult load carriage.

1.1.4 Schoolbag carriage and reported MSD

School bag carriage of adults that cause the MSD.more evidence of this link .a
number of epidemiological studies this include school bag carriage is possible and
determinant MSD this correct explain the MSD for link of the school bag carriage
of backpack.

1.1.5 Student responses to schoolbag carriage

The physiological postural and gait studies student are response the school
carriage this studies and have providing limited for evidence and estimating
weight of schoolbag.

1.2 Problem Definition

Back pack are used school student to carry school books,supplies,other and
equipment.student carry between the 3-5 kg books in backpack t school and
between classes.

In order to understand the health problems related to spine in children and we


need some basic spinal anatomy

The back is intricate structure of backbone muscles ,bone,and other tissus that
form the posterior part of the trunk from the neck the pelvis.they are three
components of the back.

Supporting structures (e.g. ligaments and muscles)


The spinal column (e.g bones and discs)
Neural elements (e.g the spinal cord and nerve roots).
Fig. 1.1 Spinal column diagram

1.3 Backpack syndrome

1.3.1 Characteristics of backpack syndrome:


Muscle spasms of shoulders.
Pain ,discomfort, or both in the shoulder and neck.
Fatigue, headache, or both.
Chronic is form by low back pain.
Posture is poor.
Blisters of the back or inappropriately packed objects.

1.4 Healthy Concerns

1.4.1 Adverse Effects


Effect of the long term health problems resulting from neck, shoulder and
back pain ,as well as fatigue.
Arm strain and shoulder from dragging backpack
Pain resulting and poor posture from learning forward with neck thrust
forward.

1.4.2 Schoolbag risk factors


o School bag that weighs more than 10 precinct of the childs
weight.
o An incorrectly fitted backpack
o An incorrectly packed backpack
o One hand by straps in holding the bag
o One shoulder carrying the bag over

1.5 Design and Portage of Backpack

Fig. 1.2 Design consideration of backpack

While examining the school bags design, we should have a look at three components as shown in
figure 1.2.

Adjustabl and strap should be padded


The sooth and comfortable for the handles with out any rough edges
The level of the back should be adjusted to the child back.