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Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics

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Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach,

5th ed., New York, McGraw-Hill: 2006.

1

Nomenclature

A area (m2) K Kelvin degrees

CP specific heat at constant k specific heat ratio, CP/CV

pressure (kJ/(kgK)) k 103

CV specific heat at constant volume kt thermal conductivity (W/(m-C))

(kJ/(kgK)) M molecular weight or molar mass

COP coefficient of performance (kg/kmol)

d exact differential M 106

E stored energy (kJ) m mass (kg)

e stored energy per unit mass N moles (kmol)

(kJ/kg) n polytropic exponent (isentropic

F force (N) process, ideal gas n = k)

g acceleration of gravity isentropic efficiency for turbines,

( 9.807 m/s2) compressors, nozzles

H enthalpy (H= U + PV) (kJ) th thermal efficiency (net work

h specific enthalpy (h= u + Pv) done/heat added)

(kJ/kg) P pressure (kPa, MPa, psia, psig)

h convective heat transfer Pa Pascal (N/m2)

coefficient (W/(m2K)

2

Nomenclature (cont)

Qnet net heat transfer (Qin - Qout) X distance (m)

(kJ) X exergy (kJ)

qnet Qnet /m, net heat transfer per x quality

unit mass (kJ/kg) Z elevation (m)

R particular gas constant Wnet net work done [(Wout -

(kJ/(kgK))

Ru universal gas constant wnet Wnet /m, net work done

(= 8.314 kJ/(kmolK) ) per unit mass (kJ/kg)

S entropy (kJ/K) Wt weight (N)

s specific entropy (kJ/(kgK)) inexact differential

T temperature ( C, K, F, R) regenerator effectiveness

U internal energy (kJ) relative humidity

u specific internal energy density (kg/m3)

(kJ/(kg K)) humidity ratio

V volume (m3 )

V volume flow rate (m3/s)

V velocity (m/s)

v specific volume (m3/kg)

v molar specific volume (m3/kmol)

3

Subscripts, superscripts

A actual P constant pressure

B boundary REF refrigerator

F saturated liquid state rev reversible

G saturated vapor state s isentropic or constant

fg saturated vapor value entropy or reversible,

minus saturated liquid adiabatic

value sat saturation value

gen generation v constant volume

H high temperature 1 initial state

HP heat pump 2 finial state

L low temperature i inlet state

net net heat added to system e exit state

or net work done by system per unit time

other work done by shaft and

electrical means

4

INTRODUCTION

The study of thermodynamics is concerned with the ways energy is stored within a

body and how energy transformations, which involve heat and work, may take place.

One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the conservation of energy principle.

It simply states that during an energy interaction, energy can change from one form

to another but the total amount of energy remains constant. That is, energy cannot

be created or destroyed.

number of particles, called molecules, make up the substance in question.

The macroscopic approach to thermodynamics does not require knowledge of the

behavior of individual particles and is called classical thermodynamics. It provides a

direct and easy way to obtain the solution of engineering problems without being

overly cumbersome. A more elaborate approach, based on the average behavior of

large groups of individual particles, is called statistical thermodynamics.

This microscopic approach is rather involved and is not reviewed here and leads to

the definition of the second law of thermodynamics. We will approach the second law

of thermodynamics from the classical point of view and will learn that the second law

of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual

processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy. 5

Closed, Open, and Isolated Systems

A thermodynamic system, or simply system, is defined as a quantity of matter or a

region in space chosen for study. The region outside the system is called the

surroundings. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its

surroundings is called the boundary. The boundary of a system may be fixed or

movable.

mass or a fixed volume in space is chosen for study.

6

A closed system consists of a fixed amount of mass and no mass may cross the

system boundary. The closed system boundary may move.

Examples of closed systems are sealed tanks and piston cylinder devices (note the

volume does not have to be fixed). However, energy in the form of heat and work

may cross the boundaries of a closed system.

7

An open system, or control volume, has mass as well as energy crossing

the boundary, called a control surface.

Examples of open systems are pumps, compressors, turbines, valves, and heat

exchangers.

8

An isolated system is a general system of fixed mass where no heat or work may

cross the boundaries. An isolated system is a closed system with no energy crossing

the boundaries and is normally a collection of a main system and its surroundings

that are exchanging mass and energy among themselves and no other system.

Heat = 0 Work

Work = 0 Surr 4

Mass = 0 Mass

System

Across Surr 3

Isolated Surr 1 Mass

Boundary Heat

Surr 2

9

Properties of a System

The property is independent of the path used to arrive at the system condition.

mass m.

Extensive properties are those that vary directly with size--or extent--of the system.

a. mass

b. volume

c. total energy

d. mass dependent property

10

Intensive properties are those that are independent of size.

a. temperature

b. pressure

c. age

d. color

e. any mass independent property

11

Extensive properties per unit mass are intensive properties.

For example, the specific volume v, defined as

Volume V m3

v

mass m kg

mass m kg

3

volume V m

12

Units

An important component to the solution of any engineering thermodynamic problem

requires the proper use of units. The unit check is the simplest of all engineering

checks that can be made for a given solution. Since units present a major hindrance

to the correct solution of thermodynamic problems, we must learn to use units

carefully and properly. The system of units selected for this course is the SI System,

also known as the International System (sometimes called the metric system). In SI,

the units of mass, length, and time are the kilogram (kg), meter (m), and second (s),

respectively. We consider force to be a derived unit from Newton's second law, i.e.,

Force (mass)(acceleration)

F ma

In SI, the force unit is the newton (N), and it is defined as the force required to

accelerate a mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1 m/s2. That is,

m

1N (1kg )(1 2 )

s

This definition of the newton is used as the basis of the conversion factor

to convert mass-acceleration units to force units. 13

The term weight is often misused to express mass. Unlike mass, weight Wt is a

force. Weight is the gravitational force applied to a body, and its magnitude is

determined from Newton's second law,

Wt = mg

where m is the mass of the body and g is the local gravitational acceleration

(g is 9.807 m/s2 at sea level and 45latitude). The weight of a unit volume of a

substance is called the specific weight w and is determined from w = g,

where is density.

14

Comparison of the United States Customary System (USCS), or English System.

Mass Kilogram (kg) Pound-mass (lbm)

Sometimes we use the mole number in place of the mass. In SI units the mole

number is in kilogram-moles, or kmol.

15

Newtons second law is often written as

ma

F =

gc

where gc is called the gravitational constant or unit conversion constant and is

obtained from the force definition.

m

(1kg )(1 2 )

ma s kg m

gc = 1

F 1N N s2

In the English system is that force required to accelerate 1 pound-mass 32.176 ft/s2.

ft

(1lbm)(32.2 )

ma s 32.2 lbm ft

2

gc =

F 1lbf lbf s2

16

Example 1-1

a) Find the weight of this object on earth.

b) Find the weight of this object on the moon where the local gravitational

acceleration is one-sixth that of earth.

(a)

Wt mg

m 1N

Wt (400kg)9.807 2

s kg m

2

s

3922.8N

Note the use of the conversion factor to convert mass-acceleration units into force

units.

17

(b)

Example 1-2

An object has a mass of 180 lbm. Find the weight of this object at a location where

the local gravitational acceleration is 30 ft/s2.

18

State, Equilibrium, Process, and Properties State

Consider a system that is not undergoing any change. The properties can be

measured or calculated throughout the entire system. This gives us a set of

properties that completely describe the condition or state of the system. At a given

state all of the properties are known; changing one property changes the state.

The thermodynamic state of a simple compressible system is completely specified

by two independent, intensive properties.

Equilibrium

temperature), mechanical (uniform pressure), phase (the mass of two phases, e.g.,

ice and liquid water, in equilibrium) and chemical equilibrium.

19

Process

Any change from one state to another is called a process. During a quasi-equilibrium

or quasi-static process the system remains practically in equilibrium at all times. We

study quasi-equilibrium processes because they are easy to analyze (equations of

state apply) and work-producing devices deliver the most work when they operate on

the quasi-equilibrium process.

In most of the processes that we will study, one thermodynamic property is held

constant. Some of these processes are

constant

isobaric pressure

isothermal temperature

isochoric volume

isentropic entropy (see

20

Chapter 7)

We can understand the concept of a constant pressure process by considering the

above figure. The force exerted by the water on the face of the piston has to equal

the force due to the combined weight of the piston and the bricks. If the combined

weight of the piston and bricks is constant, then F is constant and the pressure is

constant even when the water is heated.

System

Boundary

F

Water

21

Steady-Flow Process

Consider a fluid flowing through an open system or control volume such as a water

heater. The flow is often defined by the terms steady and uniform. The term steady

implies that there are no changes with time. The term uniform implies no change with

location over a specified region. Engineering flow devices that operate for long

periods of time under the same conditions are classified as steady-flow devices. The

processes for these devices is called the steady-flow process. The fluid properties

can change from point to point with in the control volume, but at any fixed point the

properties remain the same during the entire process.

22

Cycle

A process (or a series of connected processes) with identical end states is called a

cycle. Below is a cycle composed of two processes, A and B. Along process A, the

pressure and volume change from state 1 to state 2. Then to complete the cycle, the

pressure and volume change from state 2 back to the initial state 1 along process B.

Keep in mind that all other thermodynamic properties must also change so that the

pressure is a function of volume as described by these two processes.

2

P Process

B

1

Process

A

Pressure

Force per unit area is called pressure, and its unit is the pascal, N/m2, in the SI

system and psia, lbf/in2 absolute, in the English system.

23

Force F

P

Area A

N

1 kPa 103

m2

N

1 MPa 106 2 103 kPa

m

The pressure used in all calculations of state is the absolute pressure measured

relative to absolute zero pressure. However, pressures are often measured relative

to atmospheric pressure, called gage or vacuum pressures. In the English system

the absolute pressure and gage pressures are distinguished by their units, psia

(pounds force per square inch absolute) and psig (pounds force per square inch

gage), respectively; however, the SI system makes no distinction between absolute

and gage pressures.

24

These pressures are related by

Or these last two results may be written as

Where the +Pgage is used when Pabs > Patm and Pgage is used for a vacuum gage.

The relation among atmospheric, gage, and vacuum pressures is shown below.

25

26

Some values of 1 atm of pressure are 101.325 kPa, 0.101325 MPa, 14.696 psia, 760

mmHg, and 29.92 inches H2O.

differential fluid column of height h corresponds to a pressure difference between the

system and the surroundings of the manometer.

This pressure difference is determined from the manometer fluid displaced height as

P g h ( kPa)

27

Example 1-3

atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa. What is the absolute pressure in the tank?

28

Example 1-4

Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure. If

the pressure gage reads 80 kPa, determine the distance between the two fluid levels

of the manometer if the fluid is mercury, whose density is 13,600 kg/m3.

P

h

g

29

Example 1-5 Measuring Pressure with a Multi-Fluid Manometer

multi-fluid manometer. The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of

1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85.6 kPa. Determine the air

pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.1m, h2 = 0.2m, and h3 = 0.35m. Take the

densities of water, oil and mercury to be 1000, 850 and 13,600 kg/m3,

respectively.

30

Temperature

is not easy to give an exact definition of it. However, temperature is considered as a

thermodynamic property that is the measure of the energy content of a mass. When

heat energy is transferred to a body, the body's energy content increases and so

does its temperature. In fact it is the difference in temperature that causes energy,

called heat transfer, to flow from a hot body to a cold body. Two bodies are in thermal

equilibrium when they have reached the same temperature. If two bodies are in

thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each

other. This simple fact is known as the zeroth law of thermodynamics.

The temperature scales used in the SI and the English systems today are the Celsius

scale and Fahrenheit scale, respectively. These two scales are based on a specified

number of degrees between the freezing point of water ( 0C or 32F) and the boiling

point of water (100C or 212F) and are related by

9

T F = T C 32

5

32

Example 1-6

Water boils at 212 F at one atmosphere pressure. At what temperature does water

boil in C.

absolute units. The absolute scale in the SI system is the Kelvin scale, which is

related to the Celsius scale by

T K = T C + 273.15

In the English system, the absolute temperature scale is the Rankine scale, which is

related to the Fahrenheit scale by

T R = T F+ 459.67

Also, note that

T R = 1.8 T K

33

Below is a comparison of the temperature scales.

K F R

C

Boiling

99.975 373.125 211.955 671.625

point

of water

at 1 atm

point of

water

Absolute

-273.15 0 -459.67 0 zero

This figure shows that that according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990

(ITS-90) the reference state for the thermodynamic temperature scale is the triple

point of water, 0.01 C. The ice point is 0C, but the steam point is 99.975C at 1

atm and not 100C as was previously established. The magnitude of the kelvin, K, is

1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.

34

The magnitudes of each division of 1 K and 1C are identical, and so are the

magnitudes of each division of 1 R and 1F. That is,

T K = (T2 C + 273.15) - (T1 C + 273.15)

= T2 C - T1 C = T C

T R T F

35

Homework

1. A pressure gage connected to a gas tank reads 20 psig where the

atmospheric pressure is 14.6 psi. Determine the absolute pressure in the

tank.

atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa. Determine the absolute pressure in the

tank.

3. A pressure gage connected to a valve stem of a truck tire reads 240 kPa

at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa. What is the

absolute pressure in the tire, in kPa and in psia?

36

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