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Philosophers of Known Philosophies

Socrates
The end of life is knowledge. Knowledge is virtue. Know thyself.
Social and individual interests should be harmonized.
Mans self is rational and universal.

Plato
Each person should devote his life to that which he is best fitted to do.
The function of education is to determine what each individual is by nature fitted to do.
Social Justice (Give what is due to whom it is due)
Intellectual Aristocracy (The rule of intellectual elite)

Aristotle
Virtue is not possession of knowledge but state of the will.
The end of education is not knowledge alone, but the union of the intellect and the will, or knowledge
expressed in action.
Reality, not ideas but the performance, is the highest function.
Adaptation of education to the form of government.
Objective and scientific not introspective method of education.

Comenius, John Amos


Development of the whole man
Follow the order of nature.
Train for character.
Both sexes should be included in education.

Locke, John
Tabula rasa or blank paper theory A child is born with a blank mind (neither good nor bad).
Education can shape the pupil according to the will of the teacher.
Formal discipline (Training gained in one area can be applied in another area.)

Rousseau, Jean Jacques


Development of the child according to his nature.
A man should live a simple life.
The child, the important factor in education
Use of instinctive tendencies as the starting point of education.

Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich


Education as the process of organized growth.
All education should be founded upon the laws of natural development of the child. Education should
develop the powers of the Head, Heart and Hands.
Use of objects in teaching.
Emphasis on method and technique of teaching.

Herbart, Johann
Doctrine of apperception Education is the methods by which a society gets from one generation to the
next. This includes knowledge, culture, and values.
Education should be scientific
Mind is a unity, possessing but one power, that of entering into relation with its environment.

Froebel, Friedrich
Self-activity as the means of development
Play, spontaneous activity, manual and industrial development utilized to promote self-realization
Process of education determined by the nature of the child
Spencer, Herbert
Knowledge that is best for use in life is also best for the development of power.
Emphasis on physical education
Importance of science in the curriculum

James, William
Mental activity is functional.
Knowledge is instrumental.
It is the consequences that make the choice good or bad.

Dewey, John
Education is life.
Education is growth.
Education is a social process.
Education is a continuous reconstruction of experience.

Jesus Christ
Right relationship with God should precede all kinds and types of education.
Education should be used for service. Give thyself is the philosophy of service of Jesus.

Educational Philosophies of Filipino Educators

Rizal. Jose
The school is the book in which is written the future of the nations.
Show us the schools of a people and we will tell you what those people are.

Mabini, Apolinario
Thou shalt cultivate the special gifts which had been granted thee, working and studying according to thy
ability, never leaving the path of righteousness and justice in order to attain thine own perfection.

Pardo de Tavera, Trinidad Hermenigildo


Our education should instill love for work, spirit of tolerance, respect for law, love for peace, and practice
of thrift.

Bocobo, Jorge
To my humble way of thinking education (college) has for its supreme and overshadowing aim the
formulation of a sound and noble outlook of life.

Osias, Camilo
Education must secure freedom, efficiency, and happiness for all people.

Palma, Rafael
Education must produce individuals who are both useful to themselves and to society.

Benitez, Francisco
The qualities should distinguish the educated Filipinos of today are (1) power to do, (2) knowledge of the
past and current events, and (3) possession of the elements of conduct that are the accomplishments of
culture and morality.

Trinidad, Venancio
Education should aim to develop men and women who are as deeply concerned in the development and
uplift of our communities, particularly in the rural areas, as in the promotion of their own personal or
individual well-being.
PRINCIPLES OF HUMANISTIC TEACHING
1) Students learning should be self directed.
2) Schools should produce students who want and know how to learn.
3) The only form of meaningful evaluation is self-evaluation.
4) Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important in the learning process.
5) Students learn best in a nonthreatening environment.

PRINCIPLES OF GOOD TEACHING


1) Encourage contact between students and faculty
2) Develop reciprocity and cooperation among students.
3) Encourage active learning.
4) Give prompt feedback.
5) Emphasize time on task
6) Communicate high expectations.
7) Respect diverse talents and ways of learning.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TODAYS TEACHING


1) Educate the whole child.
2) Keep the program informal, flexible and democratic.
3) Capitalize upon present pupil interests.
4) Let motivation be intrinsic.
5) Make learning experiences vivid and direct.
6) Stress problem solving, the basis of functional learning.
7) Provide for the achievement of lasting pupil satisfactions.
8) Let the curriculum mirror the community.