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LINE CONSTANTS

Transmission line parameters are used in the voltage drop calculations, load flow,

stability analysis, short circuit study, line loading calculations, transient analysis and

the performance evaluation of the lines under various loading conditions. The line

parameters are evaluated based on the installed line and tower configuration data.

The basic theory of line parameter calculations is involved and is explained well in

Reference [2]. The line constant calculation procedures suitable for computer-aided

analysis are discussed in this section.

Series impedance - The general method is well suited for the calculation of the

overhead line parameters as described in [1]. This procedure is explained using a

three-phase, 4 wire system shown in Figure 2.1. The voltage drop along any

conductor is proportional to the current. In steady state, the relation between the

voltage drop, impedance and the current is given by:

dV

[] = [Z] [I] (2.1)

dx

dl

[] = jco[C] [V] (2.2)

dx

[Z] = Series impedance matrix

[V] = Vector of phasor voltages measured phase to ground

I iy

} NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR

\

2.8M

I

R Q

2.8M 4k

2.8M

4M

T 15. 9M

F I

C

18 4M

13. 4 M 1

r >r 1 1.

Figure 2.1 A Three-Phase, 4 Wire Overhead Transmission Line

where the self impedance (Zjj) and the mutual impedance (Z;k) are:

+ AXii) (2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

h = Average height of the conductor above the ground, m

dik = Distance between conductor i and k, m (see Figure 2.2)

Dik = Distance between conductor i and image conductor k, m

GMR = Geometric mean radius of conductor i, cm

x = Horizontal distance between conductors, m

(0 = Angular frequency, Radians/s

AR = Carson's correction term for resistance due to ground return effects

dik

p = Resistivity of the soil, Ohm-m

Uo = Permeability of free space, H/m

The earth affects the capacitance of the conductor since its presence alters the

electric field of the conductor. In charging a conductor above the earth, there is a

potential difference between the conductor and the earth. In order to calculate the

capacitance of the conductor to earth, a fictitious conductor is assumed below the

earth's surface at a distance equal to twice the distance of the conductor above the

ground. Now if the earth is removed, the midpoint provides an equi-potential

surface. The fictitious conductor has a charge equal in magnitude and opposite in

sign to that of the original conductor and is called the image conductor.

conductors, due to higher harmonic frequencies and higher earth resistivity values,

the effective resistance and the reactance increases. The increased values are

calculated using Carson's equations. Carson's correction terms AR and AX account

for the earth return effect and are functions of the angle cp (q> = 0 for self impedance

and (p = cpik in Figure 2.2 for mutual impedance) and of the parameter a:

a (2.6)

= 2 Dik in meter for mutual impedance

For a < 5, the correction factors are given in Reference [1]. For a > 5 the following

finite series is used:

(Cos</> VJ Cos 26 Cos3^ 3Cos5d 45Cos7<z5 V^IO" 7

AR = --- -, + - + - - - -- - ^ Q/km

a2 a

3

a

5

a

7 A/2 J

(2.7;

Cos^ Cos3^ t 3("os50 45Cos7^ 1 4fe>io" "l/Vrv! /I O\

-^3 -5 - ~7

v a a a y *v z

from the geometry of the tower-conductor configuration using the following

relations:

hj + hk . xik

Cos (p - - c Sin (p - (2.9)

Dik Dik

The above procedure can be extended for multi circuit lines. Carson's equations

for the homogeneous earth are normally accurate enough for power system studies.

Shunt capacitance - The capacitance between the phase conductor and the

ground can be calculated knowing Maxwell's potential coefficients. Maxwell's

potential coefficients [P] and the voltage [V] are given by:

where Q is the charge per unit length of the conductor. The diagonal elements PJJ

and the off-diagonal elements are calculated using the following equations:

1 2 hi

Pii= - In^ (2.11)

27tsO ri

(2.12)

dik

coefficients, the capacitance matrix can be calculated using the relation

[C] [P] '. In the capacitance matrix, the off-diagonal elements Cik CRJ.

Elimination of ground effects - The ground effects can be included in the phase

conductors. Assume equation (2.1) has the following form:

V Zll Z12 I

(2.13)

Vc Z21 Z22

where V and Vg are system voltage and ground conductor voltages respectively.

Since Vg = 0, then:

dV

(2.14)

dx

(2.15)

dV i

=(Z11 -Zl2Z 2 2 Z2l)I (2.16)

dx

For the capacitance calculations, the same type of approach can be used. The

impedance components calculated using the above approach accounts for the

ground conductor effects.

Effective self and mutual impedance - If the self (Zjj) and mutual impedances

(Zik) of the individual conductors are known, then the effective self and mutual

impedance of the phases can be expressed as:

Zs Zm Zm

Zeq Zm Zs Zm (2.17)

Zm Zm Zs

(2.18)

(2.19)

(2.20)

(2.21)

(Zm) of the phases are known, then the symmetrical components of the

impedances can be evaluated using the symmetrical component transformation:

1 1 1

s = ' a2 (2.22)

where a = e1 * and a2 = e"j27t 3. Using the above transformation, equation 2.1 can

be transformed to provide the symmetrical component relation given by:

dV

~ (2.23)

_1

Cpositive ~ Cnegative (Cs" Cm) (2.26)

Typical line parameters - The calculated line parameters can be verified with

the typical parameters available from the literature. Such parameters are available

from system analysts working on the line design and calculations. Some typical

parameters are listed in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Typical Line Parameters

Data for parameter calculations - The required data for the calculation of the

line parameters include the conductor details and tower configuration as listed

below.

Diameter for the phase and neutral conductors.

Horizontal position of the conductor in the tower.

Vertical position of the conductor in the tower.

Sag of the conductor in the mid span.

The necessary conductor data is usually available from the manufacturers and

typical values for the following types are presented in Tables A-l through A-8.

Table; Description

A-l High Strength (HS) steel conductor.

A-2 Extra High Strength (EHS) steel conductor.

A-3 Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR).

A-4 Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR).

A-5 Aluminum Weld Conductor (ALUMOWE).

A-6 All Aluminum Conductor (AAC).

A-7 All Aluminum Alloy Conductor (AAAC).

A-8 Copper Conductors.

The required tower configuration data has to be from the specific installation.

Typical tower configurations are available from various books and

manufacturer's catalog.

Example parameter calculations There are several programs available to

perform the line parameter calculations and the Electromagnetic Transients

Program (EMTP)-based overhead line parameters program is used [3] in the

example calculations. The typical input data and the calculated parameters are

discussed for the two-pole high voltage dc circuit, two phase traction circuit,

three-phase 230 kV ac circuit and three-phase 230 kV double circuit. The above

examples are chosen to demonstrate the different levels of complexities involved

in various line parameter calculations.

Example 2.1 - A typical two-pole high voltage dc circuit is shown in Figure 2.3.

The conductor and tower configurations are:

Type of conductor ACSR 500 kcmil 3/8 EHS

Resistance, Ohm/km 0.0249 1.9375

Diameter, cm 4.5771 1.2573

Conductor sag, m 10 9

The horizontal and vertical position of the conductor is shown in Figure 2.3. The

calculated line parameters are:

Cs = 8.0017 nF/km C0 - 7.0238 nF/km

Cm =0.9778 nF/km C, - 8.9795 nF/km

Rs -0.1139 Ohm/km R0 = 0.1995 Ohm/km

Xs = 0.7875 Ohm/km X0 = 1.0836 Ohm/km

Rm = 0.0856 Ohm/km R, = 0.0282 Ohm/km

Xm =0.2961 Ohm/km Xj = 0.4914 Ohm/km

Surge Impedances

ZZero -645 Ohm Zpositive =381 Ohm

shown in Figure 2.1. The conductor and tower configurations are:

Type of conductor 741 kcmil, AAAC 5/16 EHS

Resistance, Ohm/km 0.1010 9.32

Diameter, cm 2.5146 0.7925

Conductor sag, m 10 9

The input parameters for the calculation of the line constants using the

electromagnetic program are presented in List 2.1.

Neutral Conductor

6.1 M

I

B

41 M

21 M

List 2.1 Input Data for Line Constants Program (Edited Version)

(Courtesy of H. W. Dommel, Output from Overhead Line Parameters Program)

1 0.5 0.01 4 2.515 0 15.9 11.8

2 0.5 0.01 4 2.515 5.6 18.4 14.3

3 0.5 0.01 4 2.515 5.6 13.4 9.25

0 0.32 4 0.7925 2.82 23.4 19.4

(B) - Skin effect factor

(C) - Resistance, Ohms/km

(D) - Reactance factor

(E) - Diameter, Cm

(F) - Conductor X coordinate, m

(G) - Conductor Y coordinate, m

(H) - Conductor Y coordinate with sag, m

The program output listing contains the data for various types of line parameters

such as conductor impedance, conductor equivalent impedance, symmetrical

component parameters and surge impedance parameters. Also, the capacitance

components include the line capacitance, conductor equivalent capacitance and

symmetrical component parameters. An edited version of the program output is

presented in List 2.2.

List 2.2 Output of Line Constants Program (Edited Version)

(Courtesy of H. W. Dommel, Output from Overhead Line Parameters Program)

1 7.87E-09=Cs

2 1.14E-09 7.92E-09

0 5.56E-09=CO

O.OOE+00

1 4.281430E-1 2.13E-10

5.98E-11 3.78E-12

=C1

2 4.28E-11 9.15E-09 -2.13E-10

5.98E-11 1.31E-25 -3.78E-12

1 8.12E-02=Rs

7.28E-01 = X s

2 6.67E-02 8.51E-02

2.40E-01 7.11E-01

2.55E-01 2.62E-01 7.41E-01

0 2.12E-01 = R O

1.23E+00 = X O

1 1.287834E-0 3.53E-04

1.21E-03 1.04E-02

=R1

2 1.33E-02 1.65E-02 -2.69E-05

6.85E-03 4.75E-01 1.05E-02

The horizontal and vertical position of the conductor is shown in Figure 2.1. The

calculated line parameters are:

Self and Mutual Components Symmetrical Components

Cs = 7.8671 nF/km Co = 5.5593 nF/km

Cm = 1.1434 nF/km C, =9.1483 nF/km

Rs =0.0812 Ohm/km Ro =0.2117 Ohm/km

Xs = 0.7282 Ohm/km X0 =1.2907 Ohm/km

Rm = 0.0667 Ohm/km R, =0.0165 Ohm/km

Xm = 0.2395 Ohm/km X, = 0.4745 Ohm/km

Surge Impedances

ZZero = 882 Ohm Znositive =377 Ohm

conductors (three phase conductors and one ground conductor) per circuit as

shown in Figure 2.4. The conductor and tower configurations are:

Type of conductor 741kcmil, AAAC 5/16 EHS

Resistance, Ohm/km 0.1010 9.32

Diameter, mm 25.146 7.925

Conductor sag, m 10 9

The horizontal and vertical position of the conductor is shown in Figure 2.4.

3.85M

>k *

6

4.1M

_ A

| I

OO A k

5.3M

O'o B o'o-r-

4.4M A

o'o c 31 3M

36

-Jk'C I

26. 3M

I I

22 M

>f w w >f ^

Figure 2.4 Three-Phase Double Circuit, Tower Configuration for Example 2.3

The calculated line parameters are:

Cs = 7.9537 nF/km Co =5.9760 nF/km

Cm =1.1986 nF/km C, = 9.6687 nF/km

Coo -2.1204 nF/km

Rs =0.1721 Ohm/km Ro = 0.3447 Ohm/km

Xs = 0.8539 Ohm/km X0 = 1.4113 Ohm/km

Rm = 0.0699 Ohm/km Ri = 0.0767 Ohm/km

Xm = 0.3734 Ohm/km X, = 0.4592 Ohm/km

Roo =0.2717 Ohm/km

Xoo = 0.8649 Ohm/km

Surge Impedances

Z2ero = 803 Ohm 7

^positiv = 357 Ohm

transmission and distribution systems. Performance evaluations and fault

calculations for such circuits require the data of sequence parameters. Typically,

these cables are shielded type and are laid in triangular configuration (Figure 2.5) or

in a horizontal configuration (Figure 2.6). The triplexed three cables are similar to

the one shown in Figure 2.5. In order to derive the parameters of the cable circuits,

consider the three-phase cable circuit shown in Figure 2.6.

A2

(Al, A2 and A3 are distances between cables A, B and C)

A3

A1 A2

(Al, A2 and A3 are distances between cables A, B and C)

There are other configurations for laying the cables in the conduit or pipes. Each

configuration has advantages and disadvantages. However, the impedance

calculation procedure is the same. For discussions on the cable applications, see

Reference [4]. For a three-phase circuit with shielded cables, the symmetrical

component parameters can be calculated as follows.

GMRa

1.55 Jp~ x -I

Zab = 0.0181 + j0.0377[ 4.681 +0.6101oge(l (2.29)

* GMD J J

Rn

Rnn - [ - + 0.0181] (2.30)

5.24

Xnn = 0.0377 [4.681 + 0.610J loge (0.1 29<Jp~) + 0.6 10 log

1

GMRn Kn GMRC

Mutual impedance of the ground conductor (Zan) in Ohms/1000 feet:

1.55VP

V

= 0.0181 + j0.037?[ 4.68+ 0.6101oge{ } ] (2.33)

3 2

'GMR C GMD

Z2

Zj = [Zaa -Z ab -- JOhms/lOOOfeet (2.34)

->-> an

ZQ =[Z a a +2Z a b -- ] Ohms/1 000 feet (2.35)

Where

GMRs = Radius from the center of phase conductor to shield, inches

N = Number of shield neutral wires

Ra = Resistance of the phase conductor, Ohms/1000 feet

Rn = Resistance of the neutral conductor, Ohms/ 1000 feet

Al, A2, A3 - Distance between three phase cables, inches

GMD = ^/Al x A2 x A3 = Geometric mean distance, inches

Kn = Spacing factor of concentric neutral wires

p = Resistivity of earth, Ohm-m

Example 2.4 - Calculate the positive and zero sequence impedance of three 115

kV cables laid horizontally with a spacing of 8 inches. The sheaths are solidly

grounded at both ends of the cable. The cable is a 750 kcmil compact round

aluminum conductor with a 0.10 inch thick lead sheath. The resistance of the

conductor is 23 (a-Ohm/feet and the resistance of the sheath is 142 u-Ohm/feet.

The resistivity of earth is 100 Ohm-m. The thickness of the insulation is 0.85

inch. The geometric mean radius of the conductor is 0.445 inch. Also, calculate

the positive and zero sequence impedances using the EMTP program. Compare

the results. Calculate the charging capacitance values.

GMD = ^8 x 8 x 10 = 10.079 inch

Self impedance of the phase conductor (Zaa) per equation (2.28) is:

Mutual impedance of the phase conductor (Zab) per equation (2.29) is:

Self impedance of the neutral conductor (Znn) per equation (2.32) is:

Mutual impedance of the ground conductor (Zmg) per equation (2.33) is:

1. Consider the double circuit line shown in Example 2.3 (also see Figure 2.4).

The line is to be operated at 138 kV with the same conductor positions.

Calculate the line parameters of the 138 kV in Ohms and in P.U. The phase

conductor is 550 kcmil from Table A-6. The neutral conductor is 3/8 HS

from Table A-l. Compare the calculated values with the typical values.

single circuit line is similar to the one shown in Figure 2.1. The length of the

conductor arm is 8 feet. The vertical height of the phase conductors A, B and

C are 40 feet, 54 feet and 38 feet respectively. The height of the neutral

conductor is 62 feet. The phase conductor is 600 kcmil, ACSR. The neutral

conductor is 7.6 EHS. The span length between the towers is 200 feet.

Estimate the line parameters in the phase quantities and symmetrical

components both in Ohms and in P.U. Compare the values with the typical

values.

3. Why are EHS conductors used for the neutral circuit? Why are the ACSR,

AAAR, ACAR and copper conductors used for the neutral circuit? What are

the primary conductor materials for the overhead system? Which conductor

is used and what are the factors involved in the selection?

4. Compare the properties of the neutral conductor of the overhead system and

the sheath used in the underground cable system.

cable installed in a triangular configuration with a spacing of 10 inches

between the centers of the cables. The sheaths are solidly grounded at both

ends of the cable. The cable is a 1000 kcmil, compact round aluminum

conductor and the thickness of the sheath is 0.100 inch. The conductor

resistance is 0.225 micro-ohm/feet. The resistance of the sheath is 141

micro-ohm/feet. The thickness of the insulation is 0.84 inch. The diameter of

the conductor is 1.06 inch. Also, represent the cable conductors like

overhead conductors and calculate the symmetrical component parameters

using the electromagnetic transients program. Compare the values.

ZO = (0.699 +j 0.843) P.U.

Charging MVAR =0.2113 P.U. on 100 MVA base.

Calculate the self and mutual impedances in Ohms. Also, calculate the self

and mutual charging capacitance in microfarad.

REFERENCES

Administration, Portland, Oregon, 1986.

Book Companies, New York, 1994.

British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1980.

Power Distribution for Industrial Plants, IEEE Press, 1993 (Red Book).

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