( <
PREVENTION OF HARMFUL
VIBRATION IN SHIPS
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JULY 1983
i~'\
~
!l?>;,111;"1~~
VERITEC
'9ICas Oftlhore TedlncJloiY
and Servka A/S
BIBLIOTEKET
DETNORSKE
VERITAS VERITASVEIEN 1, 1322 H0VIK, NORWAY
TELEPHONES: +47 2 12 99 00 TELEX: 76192
INTRODUCTION
General.
e Guidelines are publications which give information and advice on technical and formal
matters related to the design, building, operating, maintenance and repair of vessels
and other objects, as well as services rendered by VERITAS in this connection. As
pects concerning classification may be included in the publication.
An updated List of Guidelines available is given in the latest edition of the Introduction
Booklet to the Rules for Classification of Steel Ships.
The present edition of these Guidelines supersedes the edition May 1980 of the same
guidelines.
Major Changes.
Sec. 3 Excitation Sources.
This section has been rewritten in order to simplify the calculation of the propeller ex
citation forces. Data for the free moments of main engines with 4 and 5 cylinders have
been included.
Sec. 5 Ship Structure Vibration.
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A diagram for estimation of the superstructure vibration level has been included, to
gether with an example investigation of local deck vibration.
Appendix B.
To illustrate the use of the Guidelines three complete worked examples have been pre
sented.
Corrections and Clarifications.
In addition to the above stated changes, some detected errors have been corrected and a
number of clarifying amendments of the wording have been made.
Page
1. GENERAL
1.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 5
1.2 Definitions ... ......... . . . ....... .. . . . . ...... . ... . ... . ... .. .... .. . . .. 6
1.3 Vibration principles ................................................... 8
3. EXCITATION SOURCES
3.1 General ............... ...... .. ...... ... .... ......... .............. 22
3 .2 Propeller ............... . .. ... . . .. . .......... .. ..... ............... 23
3 .3 Main propulsion engine .. . .... .. . ... . ....... . . .... . .. .... . .... ... . . .. 34
4. SHAFTING VIBRATION
4.1 General ................... ............................. . .......... 35
4.2 Longitudinal vibration ... . ....... . ... . ... . ... . ... .... . . . .. . ..... . ..... 36
4.3 Torsional vibration ..... ........ . .. ......... .. ..... ... . .. ........... . 39
4.4 Whirling vibration ........ . . .. .... . . .. . .. .. .......................... 40
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5. SHIP STRUCTURE VIBRATION
5 .1 General ...................... .... . ... ........ .. . .... ...... . . ...... 41
5.2 Hull girder vibration ............. .. ........ . ..... .. ... . .. ..... . ...... 41
5.3 Superstructure vibration ......... ................ . .......... . ......... 46
5 .4 Local structure vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 5 I
5.5 Forced vibration of afterbody .. . .. ......... : .. . .. .... .. .... .. . . . ....... 55
19 6. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
6 .1 General ....... . ................................ ......... . .. . ... . .. 57
6.2 Stiffness and support of afterbody and superstructure. .. . ... . ..... . . ... . .... 57
6 .3 Stiffness and support of superstructure in RoRo ships .................. .. .. 59
6.4 Local deck areas in the superstructure ................... . .. ....... . . .. . . 59
6.5 Design details in the after peak structure .. ............ ... . ..... . ......... 61
7. CRITERIA
7 .1 General ...... .. .......... . .. . ........ ......... .. .. ..... . . . . ....... 64
7 .2 Human exposure to vibration . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . ...... .. . .. .. .. .. ........ 64
7 .3 Fatigue of structure ........ . .... .. ... . .. . .. ... .. . .... . ............. .. 66
7 .4 Machinery vibration ....... ....... . . . .... ... .. . ... ...... . . ..... .. .... 67
7 .5 Shafting vibration ... . ...... ..... .... ... ...... . .... ... .. .. .. ...... ... 68
7 .6 Equipment vibration ................. .. . .... . ... . ........ ..... .... ... 68
APPENDIX A
Computer programs developed by VERIT AS . ......... . ........... ... .. .. ... . . 69
APPENDIX B
Numerical examples, application of the Guidelines .. . . .... . ...... . . ........ .. . . 7 3
5
1. GENERAL
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 In most cases, the ever existing vibration do not cause any adverse effects. When
vibration problems, however, occur in ships in service, these are primarily related to:
Corrective work to alleviate the vibratory effects in such cases are often costly and time
consuming.
1.1.2 The importance of obtaining reliable methods for the prediction of the dynamic be
haviour of ships at an early stage of planning is therefore strongly emphasized. Improve
ment in design may then often be feasible and substantial savings obtained.
Such a design stage controlprocedure entails a trial and error process involving a great
number of parameters, such as the magnitude and frequency of propeller and engine ex
citation and the vibratory characteristics of shafting systems and ship structures, etc. when
aiming at an integrated optimum solution for the engine/ propeller/ hull and superstructure
combination.
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1.1.3 The topics are chosen with reference to ships in service and includes the following
main types of problems:
1.1.4 The three important factors to be considered when dealing with vibration pheno
mena are:
Excitation forces
Structural response
Vibration criteria.
1.1.5 Efforts have been made to prepare a vibration checkprocedure for the various sta
ges of design, supplied by descriptions of how to do it by the use of simple equations and
empirical formulas. Reference is also made to computerized methods.
1.1.6 The guide primarily aims at controlling the vibration level in the structure, so as to
avoid the risk of structural damage and the exposure of crew to annoying vibration. The
main propulsion and auxiliary machinery systems are therefore treated primarily as sour
ces of structural vibration.
6
1.2 Definitions
t.2.1 When dealing with vibration phenomena, it is necessary to be aquainted with the
general terminology applied in the field. A list of terms is therefore here included, as fol
lows:
Vibratory system: Any system containing mass and elasticity  with or without
damping.
Natural frequency: A frequency of free vibrations of a system.
Excitation: Quasiperiodic or random varying forces/ moments applied to
a system.
Harmonic: Fundamental or integral multiples of the fundamental sinu
Resonance:
soid.
A state of coincidence between periodicity of applied excita
_.,
tion and system natural frequency.
Critical speed: A speed (of a machine, a shaft, etc.) at which resonance oc
curs.
Supercritical: Running above the critical speed, Fig. 1.1.
Subcritical: Running below the critical speed, Fig. 1.1.
Mode of vibration: Characteristic pattern related to number of nodes (e.g. 2node
mode, etcJ, Fig. 1.2 .
Mode shape: Relative amplitude curve.
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Node: Positions of vibratory rest, Fig. I .2.
Antinode: Positions of vibratory maxima, Fig. 1.2.
RESONANCE
w
0
~
....::::;
II...
:l:
<(
SUBCRITICAL
Fig. 1.1 Sub and supercritical excitation Fig. 1.2 Node and antinode
LU
c
:::>
1
PEAK ...J
IL
AMPLITUDE ~
<(
PERIOD
FREQUENCY
Fig. 1.3 Vibration amplitude Fig. 1.4 Frequency spectrum
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PERIOD= T
1.3.1 Sinusoidal vibratory motion, Fig. 1.7, may be expressed in the following inter
dependent quantities:
where
A = displacement amplitude in mm
w = angular frequency = 2 rrf in rad/s
f = frequency in Hz
thus
2
g value __ ( wgA )g
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1.3.2 Any system containing mass and elasticity constitutes a vibratory system. In prac
tice, all systems also contain some form of damping, usually considered as viscous in be
haviour.
m =mass
k = stiffness, (spring constant)
c = viscous damping
mass force
spring force = kx
dx
damping force = c dt
where
d 2x dx 
2 + c  + kx
m 
dt dt
= F y,,t 0
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A singledegreeoffreedom system has one natural frequency and one corresponding
mode of vibration. The system natural angular frequency is determined by solving the
equation of motion, putting the applied force equal to zero, giving damped natural angular
frequency:
For general considerations it is more convenient to operate with the undamped natural an
gular frequency
uJ
o
= VI mk
The system response to an applied excitation force is described by the system dynamic
magnifier (QM):
QM  ~
Xst
where
xd = dynamic amplitude
Iii_
X51 = static amplitude = k
=~= ~
Xsl Fjk 
10
where
g = damping ratio = c
Ccr
Ccr = critical damping = 2 y'km
~=O
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D:'.
~
~ 3
z  Wg
<.!) QM (RES.I  W1  W2
<( 0.1
:::;:
~
:::;:
<(
z 2
>
0
AMAX.
0 1~~~1~~.~~~.~~~,
f
o 2 3 .!!)__ 4
Wn
Q _ Wo _ _ 1_
M  ltJ1w2  2
Further it should be noted that there is a phase angle between the applied force and the sys
tem response function
phaselag = tan  1
11
This is illustrated in Fig. 1.11 , from which it is noted that the phase lag changes from zero,
through 90 at resonance and approaches 180 at applied frequencies well above the sys
tem natural frequency.
Systems with several lumped masses and springs constitutes multisystems. Such systems
will have vibrating modes with corresponding natural frequencies in the same number as
their degrees of freedom, Fig. 1.12 .
The natural frequencies are determined from the system equations of motions.
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Fig. 1.11 Phase angle between driving Fig. 1.12 Damped springmass
force and response when passing through system with two masses
resonance, for different values of damping
Systems with distributed mass and stiffness, Fig. 1.13 , have theoretically an infinite num
ber of natural frequencies. In practice only the modes with a low number of nodes are of
relevance.
,,,.. ,
.......
,,,,
v
2.1 General
2.1.1 Too often when vibration problems arise, the design stage most convenient for car
rying out alteration has already been passed, frequently resulting in expensive and time
consuming possibly compromise solutions.
In order to improve this situation, a procedure of doing the appropriate investigation in the
correct sequence relative to the stage of design is proposed, as outlined in Fig. 2 .1.
2.1.2 The overall planning procedure of this Design vibration controlled behaviour is
set up in Fig. 2. l , divided into three design stages. The sensitivity to vibration may be
checked at the very early stage based on simple and quick empirical methods founded on
full scale experience. Further, some criteria may be established to the next stage of the in
vestigation to be carried out, and can be given based on the results from stages I and II.
2.1.3 The evaluation process is based on the results of the following main investigated
items, which is necessary to obtain a controlled vibration behaviour of a ship:
Response:
Hull girder vertical vibration
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 Superstructure longitudinal vibration.
Excitation:
Propeller
Slow running diesel engine
Shafting longitudinal vibration.
2.1.4 The complete vibration mechanism on a ship is rather complex when taking into
account all excitation sources and responses. It is therefore more convenient in this case to
deal with each problem separately, although more than one problem may occur at the sa
me time.
The coupling between the above excitation and response items is illustrated in the follow
ing table:
~
Hull girder Superstructure Annoying forced
resonance longitudinal vibration
N resonanse in afterbody
 **
Propeller x x
Shafting longitudinal x x 
vibration (longitudinal)
I TYPE OF ITEM TO I
DESIGN PHASES 1 INVESTIGATION INVESTIGATE i CONTROL OF
rcoNC:iPT", I I
I
Lc.f~Gf:! ~
I PRE LIMINARY
INVESTIGA
I TlONS
I
I
I MAX . WAKE
I
PROPELLER
EXCITATION
I
I
I
I
LARGE BORE

w
I (!)
I ENGINE
I EJCClTATIOO
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I
,,_
I
J CJ)
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~iiruMiN'AAVI
&~~ . . IGlTIONS?
DETAILED
INVESTIGA
noNs

w
(!)
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rco"NTR'Acr,1
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t/)
<=.'
I DESIGN
I
r=~.....'
10E TAIL
LP~IGN__ _:
I
rrJi
CLAS.SIFICA TION
:qRAWl,NGS
~~Al..!,?~  
I

I
/t

~
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w

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K
PAC
The annoying vibration of the superstructure is the primary object to keep under control,
and the corresponding most important source of excitation is the propeller.
14
2.2.1 At an early design stage the descriptive information on a ship is normally no more
than approximate principle dimensions, payload and performance.
Available drawings are usually limited to a set of rough lines and a general arrangement
which delineates position of accommodation and propulsion machinery.
Given the above information, the dynamic behaviour of a projected design may be check
ed and relevant parameters evaluated before a decision is made on more extensive investi
gation.
In the following, empirical methods for the evaluation of propeller excitation and excita
tion caused by the main engine and shafting are described.
2.2.2 The proposed procedure is based on the results from a regression analysis on the
relation between pressure impulse level and vibratory response based on full scale measu
rements (described in 3 .2).
Other equivalent methods may also be used.
Based on a rough <or finer) set of hull lines and preliminary determination of a few other
parameters as:
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maximum wake
effective wake
propeller diameter
blade area
number of blades
propeller r/ min. and power output
The total integrated force and the vibration level vertically at aft perpendicular, A.P. and
longitudinally at superstructure nav. deck may also be evaluated. Recommended lines of
upper design pressure impulse based on 4 mm/ s peak vertical vibration velocity amplitude
at A.P., of blade frequency may also be established. The standard deviation of the method
is 30 % for the blade frequency pressure impulse component, and 40 % on the acceptable
pressure impulse /:),. Pc of blade frequency. This is of special concern to ships having the
accomodation in the aft l / 4 of the hull length.
The pressure impulse level obtained from the above method should also be viewed against
the probability of cracks in the after peak structure. This is of concern to all types of ships.
For extremely low propeller r/ min (as in case of a geared slow running diesel engine) and
a low number of propeller blades, the blade frequency will be very low. Thus, a possible
coincidence with any lower vertical hull girder natural frequency is to be investigated in
dependent on the propeller pressure impulse level. (See also Section 2 .2 .4
15
2.2.3 Based on the length and height of the superstructure an approximate zone for the
possible superstructure resonance may be taken from the diagram in Fig. 5 .8. If the pro
pel1er blade frequency is outside the given zone, further investigation of the superstructure
natural frequency may be omitted, provided that no shafting longitudinal resonance is clo
se to the given zone.
2.2.4 The main engine I st and 2nd order free external moments should be known, either
by inquiring the manufacturer or by using the approximate values given in 3 .3.
Should the moments exceed some recommended limit (500 kNm) the possible coincidence
with any lower vertical hull girder natural frequency (modes of 2  5 nodes) is to be in
vestigated. Such may roughly be taken from Fig. 5 .5 .
SUPPLY
COASTER
RO RO ,I_!_ _!j
TRAWLER IF ONE OF THE LOWER M ODES ARE
21
 IF BLADE RATE FREQUENCY IS LO
~
 IF COINC IDENCE WIT H SIGNI
or MAJN OIESEl
~~~~
EXCITED BY THE SLOW DIESEL ENGi WER THAN FREQUENCY OF THAT f"tCANT DA.DEA$
NE SITUATED IN AN ANTINOOE, AND VERTICAL HULL MODE WHERE DIS ENGINE. CASE A
FREE EXTERNAL MOMENTS ARE TANCE BETWEEN NODES IS LESS
HIGHER THAN 500 kNm. THAN 0 9 >1 BREADTH OF SHIP
1  IF LONGITUDINAL RESONANCE OF
POS ll lON OF MACHIHERV
SHAFTING COINCIDES , CASE IA)
~~......._, ]
FOR CASE 181 ANO ICI THIS Will
ONLY HAVE AN EFFECT WHEN AL 
SO COINCIDENCE WITH HULL
LONG RESONANCE OCCUR
CARGO, RORO, CONTAINER
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l!.  IF COINCIDENCE WITH BLADE RATE
FREQUENCY, EVEN IF THE EXCITA 
TION FORCES ARE SMALL
 IF THE PR E$SUR IS M A
PLITUOES ARE HIGHER
THAN RECOMMENDED
 IF COINCIDENCE W ITH. THE 1  3
HA RM ONICS Of THE PROPELLER
BLADE FREQUENCY
tn:J:T! I i fJ ! see 11
 IF LONGITUDINAL SHAFTING
RESONANCE COINCIDES
UPPER LIMIT
CARGO TANKER
BULKCARRIER RO RO
 IF THE SLOW DIESEL ENGINE FREE  OF THE AFT l / J OF THE  IF LOCAL STRUCTURE RESON 
EX TERN A L MOMfNTS .AR_E HIO H~ HULL. L.tHOfJt If' THE ANCE IN THE AFT 1/l OF THE
THAN 500 kNm PRESSURE AMPLITU HULL LENGTH COINCIDES WITH
DES ARE HIGHER THAN 1  3 HARMONICS OF THE PRO
RECOMMENDED UPPER PELLER BLADE FREQUENCY
LIMIT  IF COINCIDENCEW ITH s1GN 1o
FICANT ORDERS OF THE MAIN
PASSENGER SHIP CAR FERRY D1ESE\. ENGINE R./M IN
~
 IF COINCIDENCE WITH SIGNI
,8  IF THE PRESSURE AM
PLITUDES ARE HIGHER FICANT ORDE RS FR OM THE
iV~
THAN RECOMMENDED MAIN DIESEL ENGINE OR SH AFT 
UPPER LIMIT ING
 IF S IGNIFICANT RESDN
ANCE Of MAIN DIESEL
TUG ENGINE OR SHAFTING
~t_:V
OCCUR
FISHING VESSEL
1111111 MACHINERY
2.2.5 The position of the superstructure along the hull girder relative to the propeller and
engine room highly influences the probability of annoying vibration for the crew.
In Fig. 2.2 a summary of common general arrangements is given. Depending on the dy
namic behaviour of the structure and the magnitude of the excitation forces their possible
vibratory consequences for the crew are commented upon. This figure may be of some
help during evaluation.
16
The line drawings should be evaluated and the max. wake estimated based on statistics.
Based on statistics the pressure impulses, integrated forces and vibration levels should
be estimated. The results should be compared with relevant criteria.
Based on statistics and experience the natural frequency of the superstructure when
positioned in the aft l / 4 of the hull length should be estimated, and compared with
blade frequency for alternative number of propeller blades.
Based on statistics the lower vertical natural frequencies of the hull girder should be
estimated and compared with the relevant excitation from the slow running diesel en
gine.
The general arrangement should be viewed against the probability of annoying vibra
tion to the crew.
2.3.1 It is assumed that at the preliminary design stage more detailed information will be
available, such as final general arrangement, weight distribution, lines, structures, scantl
ings and machinery.
2.3.2 In case the Stage I investigation has revealed the necessity for a detailed study of
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the propeller excitation, finer modifications of the afterbody lines should be tested in a
model basin and the final wake used in an existing computer program. This for the deter
mination of the pressure impulses, thrust fluctuation, type. size and extent of the cavitation
(see 3 .2).
2.3.3 When details of the shafting are available, calculation of longitudinal, torsional and
whirling vibration may be carried out by the use of methods referred to in 4.24.4. Gene
rally, the occurrence of critical speeds in the full speed range is to be avoided. In case a cri
tical speed is close to full speed, experience has shown that the longitudinal shafting reson
ance may cause harmful vibration of the afterbody as far as human susceptibility to vibra
tion is concerned.
2.3.4 When found necessary hull girder vertical natural frequency of the 4 lowest modes
may be calculated using simple computer programs as referred to in 5. 2.
2.3.5 Review of the superstructure to ensure that there are sufficient numbers of vertical
continuous internal bulkheads parallel to the side bulkheads. The structure is to be rein
forced where necessary.
2.3.6 The supporting structure should provide a rigid boundary for the superstructure,
and main structural parts in the superstructure bulkheads should continue down into the
hull girder where possible. Reinforce where necessary.
Wake measurements may be carried out in a model basin and results should comply
with relevant criteria.
b
17
The pressure impulses and the integrated forces may be investigated by the use of com
puter programs or testing in a cavitation tunnel. Results to be compared with relevant
criteria.
The lowest vertical hull girder modes may be calculated using simple computer pro
grams. The results should be compared with the excitation from the slow running die
sel engine free forces and moments in the full speed range.
The two lowest longitudinal resonances of the shafting may be calculated, and be com
pared with the approx. longitudinal resonance of the superstructure.
The internal stiffness of the superstructure and the supporting structure to be reviewed.
~ 2.4.1 At this stage all steel drawings are available and advanced and detailed analysis
deemed necessary in stages I and II can now be performed.
2.4.2 Natural frequency calculation may now be carried out for the following items:
Local elements such as decks, bulkheads, girders etc. in superstructure, engine room
and after peak area.
Major structural parts such as superstructures funnel/ casing etc.
Coincidence with any relevant excitation frequency from the propeller and slow running
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diesel engine should be avoided in the full speed range.
2.4.3 When found recommendable, forced vibration calculation may be carried out to
check the actual vibration level in the hull, superstructure and decks caused by the actual
propeller forces and frequencies. The magnitude of the propeller forces and number of bla
des may be tested out as well as the fluctuating thrust. Main engine excitation in the full
speed range may also be accounted for. Reference to available methods is given in 5 .5.
2.5 Examples
Stage I investigation
Based on the general arrangement, main engine particulars, line drawings, estimated wake,
ship speed, power output, r/ minP and a standard propeller, the pressure impulses have
been estimated and the superstructure and hull girder natural frequency evaluated. Let the
results from this investigation be:
The propeller excitation level turns out to cause no risk for vibration problems (blade
frequency pressure amplitude is more than one standard deviation, SD, below the
Average level, see Fig. 3. I I) and minor risk for cracks exist.
The hull girder vibration excited by the slow diesel engine is insignificant in the full
speed range.
The general arrangement is ok.
18
Considering now the superstructure one may find that. according to Fig. 5 .8 :
a) The superstructure resonance is well away from the propeller blade frequency in the
full speed range.
b) The superstructure resonance may be excited by the blade frequency in the full speed
range.
With case a), no further investigation is necessary before choosing the number of propeller
blades, as far as propeller excitation is concerned.
For case b), the superstructure resonance should be calculated by methods referred to in
5 .3, before final no. of propeller blades is decided. Such calculation may be carried out un
der Stage III.
Stage II investigation
When sufficient data regarding the shafting arrangement is available it is adviceable to in
vestigate:
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a) The shafting longitudinal resonance is well away from the superstructure resonance
in the full speed range.
b) The shafting resonance may excite a superstructure resonance in the full speed range.
With case a), no further investigation is necessary before choosing the number of propeller
blades.
For case b), the superstructure resonance should be calculated by methods referred to in
5 .3, before final no. of propeller blades is decided upon. Such calculation may be carried
out under Stage III.
Stage III investigation
The results from Stage III may be the following :
a) The natural frequency of the superstructure is sufficiently remote from shafting longi
tudinal resonance and propeller blade frequency in the full speed range.
b) The superstructure resonance may be excited by the blade frequency in the full speed
range.
c) The superstructure may be excited at resonance by the shafting longitudinal vibration
in the full speed range .
EXAMPLE
STAGE I STA GE I STAGE ll STAGE U STAGE ][ ST AGE m ALTERNATIVE
INVESTIGATIONS RESUL l S INVESllGAT IONS RESUL 15 IHVESllGAlrJNS RE SUL 15 MEASURES
PROPELLER EXCITATION
MAX PRES.SURE. IMP OK
e MAX FORCE OK
VERTICAL RESP AP OK
e SUPERSTRUCl. RESON
ENGINE EXCITATION
MOMENT OK
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Change the superstructure internal stiffness and/ or the supporting structure.
Damper fitted on the shaft when the slow running diesel engine is the source of excita
tion.
Change the no. of propeller blades when the propeller is the source of excitation.
Phase the propeller and engine excitation vectors when these are of the same order of
vibration and of equal magnitude.
The ship is installed with a slow running diesel engine with a considerable 2nd order free
moment.
Stage I investigation
Let the results from the preliminary investigations be:
The slow running diesel engine rnay excite one of the 4 lowest vertical hull girder mod
es in the range 0.851.15 x r/ mine
Stage JI investigation
Based on the recommendation given in Stage I calculation of hull girder lower vertical na
tural frequencies may be carried out. Such investigation is recommended when:
The engine installed is located close to a node for the mode in question. and a consider
able free vertical moment excist.
The engine is installed near an antinode and considerable free forces excist.
a) Hull girder resonance in question is well away from the full speed range at the con
sidered load conditions.
b) Hull girder resonance in question is less than 5 r/ minP away from the relevant shaft
full speed range.
With case a), no further measures need be taken, as far as engine excitation of hull is con
cerned.
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For case b), a compensation of the engine excitation should be considered as described in
3 .3 .
STAGE I
INVESTIGATIONS
STAGE 1
RESULTS
EXAMPLE 2
STAGE II
INVES llGA T IONS
STAGE II
RESULTS
STAGE Ill I
INVESTIGATONS I
MEASURES
HULL LINE PROPOSAL
MAX WAKE
e EFF WAKE
OK
OK .
PROPELLER EXCITATION
MAX PRESSURE IMP. OK
e MA)(_ FORCE OK
VERTICAL RESP AP OK
e SUPERSTflUCT RESCH OK
C:OMPENSAlE THE
Jfl'.,..~~~~~~~~
MOMENT
Stage I investigation
The results from the preliminary investigation are as follows:
Stage II investigation
Based upon the results of Stage I the following investigations are recommended:
a) The blade frequency pressure amplitude is more than SD below Average level (See
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Fig. 3.11).
b) The blade frequency pressure amplitude is within one SD of the Average level.
c) The blade frequency pressure amplitude is more that one SD above the Average le
vel.
ct) The total blade frequency pressure amplitude is more than some 8000 NI m 2 .
Item a) c) are for ships with the accommodation in the aft 1I 4 of the hull length. whereas
ct) is for other ships as well.
For case b) and c) the propeller design and/ or wake should be improved in order to reduce
the pressure amplitude, or a forced vibration calculation of the afterbody should be per
formed. Such a calculation is to be carried out in Stage III.
As for case ct), the propeller design and/ or the wake should be improved.
EXAMPLE 3
REDESIGN
PROPEUER
PROPELLER EXCITATION
e MAX PRESSURE IMP. 1 __, oWU NO .Of
e MAX. FORCE
e VERllCAL RESP AP PROPEUER
SUPERSIRUCT RESON OK BL.ADES
ENGINE EXCITATION
MOMENT  OK
HULL GIRDER RESON OK ,
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As for b) this may be due to:
l) The overall vibration level is too high over a wide range around the full speed range.
Redesign of the propeller to reduce the excitation forces is recommended.
2) The vibration level is only too high close to the full speed caused by a resonance
condition for the superstructure and/ or the afterbody. A change in the no. of pro
peller blades to change the propeller blade frequency at full speed is required.
A numerical example is given in Appendix B.
3. EXCITATION SOURCES
3.1 General
3.1.1 The most common vibration excitation sources on board ship can be summarized
as:
Propeller
Slow diesel engine
Auxiliaries
Sea waves
The most important sources are the propeller and slow diesel engine.
23
3.2 Propeller
3.2.1 Experience from measurements has revealed that the propeller is the source which
most frequently is the cause of unpleasant vibration on board ship. It is therefore of great
importance at the design stage that particular attention is paid to keeping propeller excita
tion forces at a minimum.
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1 l:U
To Qo
0,15 0,1 5
0
t 0
0
0
1'
''
l
0,05 0, 05
4
;5
0
,'
6 z ' 5
'
6 z
Fig. 3.2 Normalized thrusf (F3) and horizontal bending moment (Ml) variations at
blade frequency. Mean values and standard deviations; 4, 5, and 6bladed propellers fitt
ed on conventional singlescrew ships
7
24
n Z r I min ( z)
f = =6=o 0  H
where
In principle there are two methods of changing the shaft forces; namely, changing the fluc
tuating loading on the blades or changing the number of blades. The fluctuating loading on t
the blades can be reduced by applying blades with skewback in such a way that a blade
will enter the wake peak progressively.
The magnitude of the forces and moments transferred to the shaft as normally experienced
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is indicated in Fig. 3 .2. The figures are derived from calculations for singlescrew ships
with conventional propellers.
It is generally considered that propellers with an odd number of blades induce smaller
thrust fluctuations but larger bending moments than propellers with an even number of
blades. It can be seen that the thrust variations are in accordance with these findings. The
bending moments, however, have a tendency to decrease with increasing number of pro
peller blades.
Normally, cavitation has no significant effect on the propeller forces transmitted through
the shaft.
3.2.3 Hull surface forces
Dominating propeller excitation may arise due to pressure impulses acting on the hull, in
duced by the growth and collapse of the cavities on the propeller blades, see Fig. 3.3.
25
N
0,30
E
.....u
c..
~
0,25 _j
a..
:l:
<
w
0,20 ....J
C)
~
C/I
I
w CAV ITATING
C/I
0'15 ....J PROPELLER
::::>
a..
:l:
0,10 ~
::::>
~
0, 05
w
a:::
a..
,,,o/ /
0 ,......~NON
o
CAVITATING
  PROPELLER
20 30 40 so 60 70 80 90 R/MIN.
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Wake data is presented in ISOwake maps where the lines are drawn through points of
equal wake. The Taylor wake (wT) is defined as:
where:
With wT = 0,8 say, the water velocity at a particular point is 20 % of the model velocity.
From an excitation point of view, the variation in Taylor wake should be as small as possi
ble. In the given example the wake variation is from 0.1 to 1. see Fig. 3.4 . This amount of
variation is by experience found to give rise to excessive propeller excitation. Improvement
of the afterbody lines gave a wake variation 0.1 to 0.7, which is assumed to give a consid
erably lower excitation level.
26
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180 180
ORIGINAL MODIFIED
Fig. 3.4 Axial wake distribution for original and modified body lines
For ship with high block coefficients dead water regions may occur where the flow is
very unstable. Typical lines for such a ship is given in Fig. 3 .5. They should be altered be
fore further tests are carried out. In order to obtain larger clearances between propeller and
the propeller aperture, this ship was designed with a very blunt waterline at the upper part
of the propeller aperture. The better solution is given in dotted lines, i.e. rather improve the
waterline angle than increase the clearances.
Note:
An increase of clearances may give a reduction of the excitation level only with equal wake field and under
otherwise equal conditions.
27
Fig. 3.5 Blunt waterlines for a ship with extreme full lines, with proposed alteration.
The fluctuating pressure field induced by the propeller originates mainly from the follow
ing: a noncavitating propeller  thickness of the propeller blades and hydrodynamic load
ing; or growth and collapse of cavitation on the propeller blades.
The effect of the wake distribution on the cavitation volume and hence also on the pressure
fluctuations is obvious, and our experience shows that the following propeller parameters
have a significant influence: radial blade loading distribution, skewed propeller blades, and
blade area.
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It should be noted that the number of propeller blades has, in general, no significant effect
on pressure impulses from the cavitation. Figure 3 .6 demonstrates what has been achieved
by changing the propeller on a ship. It was necessary to change from a 5 to a 4bladed
propeller due to excitation of the superstructure close to resonance. A significant reduction
of the pressure fluctuations was obtained with the new 4bladed propeller by reducing the
tip loading.
t PROPELLER 1 PROPELLER 2
z =5 z =4
AE/Ao = 0,81 AEiAo=0,76
Po, 7 10 = 0,80 Po,1/0 =
0,84
P1,0 i O = 0,80 P1,oi 0 =
0,57
4


~ ......
6
 0=
 
2
ui 0 vi vi ui vi ui
w ~
<t ....J <r <r <t <t <r
w <t w w <r w w
2 u 2 2 2 u 2 2
z 3Z z 2Z 3Z
2Z
ORDER ____. ORDER ...
Fig. 3.6 Pressure fluctuations on hull surface above propeller on a ship before and after
replacing original conventional propeller with a propeller of new design
28
It is important to note that the excitation force F 1 is not only a function of the pressure im
pulses but also of the exposed hull surface area. An effective area factor in loaded condi
tion is indicated in Fig. 3. 7. The area normalized with the mean thrust T 0 is
where ~p z is the pressure impulse (cavitating and noncavitating component) at the hull sur
face above the propeller tip.
It is observed that RO/RO ships have the highest exposed area and therefore in many cases
the highest excitation forces even if the pressure impulses above the propeller tip are mod
erate or relatively small.
There are significant differences between the pressure field induced by the noncavitating
propeller and that induced by transient cavitation, both with regard to phase angle changes
and in the manner in which the pressure impulses diminish with distance from the pro
peller. Thus, at the hull surface area close to the propeller, total pressure impulses consist
ing of the contribution from both noncavitating propeller and cavitation should be includ
ed. This may be of importance for consideration of fatigue problems in the after peak. For
hull girder and superstructure response calculations, however, only the total integrated hull
surface excitation forces are of importance. In that case the contribution from the noncavi
tation pressure impulses may be neglected.
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In the cases of a chemical tanker and RO/RO ship the pressure impulses contribute ap
proximately 87 and 96 per cent, respectively, to the sum of the superstructure response
from each excitation force. If the effect of cavitation is neglected, the response will change
completely since the noncavitating hull surface excitation force is only 10 and 5 percent,
respectively, of the total hull surface forces for the two ships.
Propeller forces transmitted through the shafting system are of no significance as long as
propeller cavitation is present and longitudinal and whirling resonances in the shafting sys
tem are avoided.
~@
10
MAX.
RORO

TANKER
LPG
CARGO
.
TWIN
SCREW
K
MIN . >

FERRY
 > 
LNG
LOW
RPM
n
CARGO
At the early stage of design the amount of propeller data are rather limited. It is generally
recommended therefore to start the investigations using a conventional propeller with
constant pitch and blade area according to Burrill's criteria. With these assumptions, the
calculation of the pressure impulse of blade frequency for the cavitating propeller, ~pc
may be simplified to the formula
~Pc=
[(r/minJ Df
140 (d:R t [N/m2)
where
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d = distance from r/R = 0,9 and to a position on the submerged hull when the blade
is in the top position, Fig. 3.9.
Kc = 1,7  0,7 (d/R); Kc = 1 when d/R ;;;i.1
WT max = maximum wake peak; when not measured, values given in Fig. 3 .8 may be us
ed.
We = effective wake; this may be found by application of various methods published
in the literature. One method is shown in Fig. 3 .10 for singlescrew ships. Note
that the values are model values and should be multiplied by 0,7 to obtain the
effective fullscale wake for use in the formula.
The preceding formula gives results for SD 30 % compared with measurements. This va
lue may be used for the evaluation of the vibratory response of the hull structure according
to Fig. 3 .11 . Specially designed propellers are not covered by this method.
When it comes to cracks in the after peak structure, the pressure impulses from both the
cavitating and noncavitating propeller are to be considered as commented upon later in
Section 6. For a conventional propeller, the pressure impulse of blade frequency from a
noncavitating propeller may be calculated by the simplified formula
where
The standard deviation is 3 0 % . The total pressure impulse acting on a local part of the
submerged hull surface may then be written:
This value is to be viewed against the probability of cracks in the after peak area (see later
Fig. 7 .2).
The final number of blades should be selected after the critical speeds of the shafting sys
tem and longitudinal resonance of the superstructure have been found. This is to be done
in order to avoid excitation by the propeller blade frequency of resonant conditions in the
fullspeed range. The propeller clearances should be selected according to the recom
mendations in the rules of the classification societies.
Fig. 3.8 Maximum wake peak values.
 Single screw: Uframe, bulb: Tendency towards lower limit
Vframe: Tendency towards upper limit
Tankers
OBO
WTmax = 0,6 to 0,8
Bulk
LPG/LNG
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Dry cargo
Container WTmax = 0,5 to 0,7
RoRo
Coasters
WTmax = 0,5 to 0,8
Trawlers
~
WITH BRACKETS SECTION AA
I
I
0,GO
W1
0,50
t
0,40
~
I I I
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PROPELLER DIAMETER CORRECTION
I
+ W' !'....
 
0
 ......_
0,20

r
0 ,10 +'1' +' 1'  +   L     1 0, 10
0,40 o,5o o,60 0,10 o,eo 6 0,90 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 O,OG DI L 0,07
Fig. 3.10 Wake coefficient for single screw ships: We = (w + w2 + w3) 0,7
t 1
TA)2,47
(
t.P =543 10~ fc!B/2)
c'
H (N/m 2 )
40
0 ~~ 0 ~Ir!
B = !B 1 t 82) 0, 5
20 3
4
5
10
7
7r~
5c===~~~=:i~~::J
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8000 5000 0,5 TA 1,0
t. Pc ( N /tn 2 ) H
For design purposes, an average peak velocity level of 4 mm/ s longitudinally on the navi
gation deck of the superstructure should be aimed at. This is chosen as a basis when work
ing out the diagram in Fig. 3 .11 . It is also assumed that the longitudinal vibration level of Q
blade frequency at the navigation deck level is equal to the vertical vibration level at the
A .P., which is approximately the case for all aft superstructures, as illustrated later in Fig.
5 .11.
I)
The following limits of pressure impulses are suggested for use in the evaluation process:
1. The pressure impulses of blade frequency due to cavitation are low, that is, L\P c <
(average  SD), where the average value is given in Fig. 3 .11 and 1 SD = 40 % . Mi
nor additional investigations of the propeller need to be carried out.
2. The pressure impulses of blade frequency are moderate, that is, (average  SD)<
LiP c <(average + SD). This level is considered to be of such magnitude that measu
res should be taken, either by reducing the propeller impulses or by calculating the
structural response for allaft installations.
3. The pressure impulses of blade frequency are high, that is, LiP c >(average + SD).
This level is considered to be of such a magnitude that the propeller should be redesign
ed and/ or lines modified.
4. The total pressure impulse of blade frequency LiP > 8000 N/m2. The propeller should
be redesigned and/ or lines modified.
33
Only a mean response level is assumed. Thus the effect of resonance is not taken into con
sideration.
To investigate the effect of resonance conditions on the vibration level, some exciter test
measurements were considered. The maximum mobility (velocityI force) in the longitudi
nal direction at the navigation deck and the mean mobility for the excitation frequency
range 5 to 10 Hz were applied. On average, the magnification due to resonant condition
was found to be 3 ,8. Hence, it is of importance both to reduce the excitation forces and to
avoid excitation of resonant frequencies; therefore the pressure impulse criteria discussed
in the foregoing should be applied with caution.
Recommended upper level for the blade tip peripherical velocity should be:
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ficiency.
Number of blades
Final selection of the number of blades should be taken after the critical speeds of the shaft
ing system and natural longitudinal frequency of the superstructure have been found, to
avoid excitation by the propeller blade frequency of resonant conditions in the full speed
range.
t C /ea ranees
Propeller clearances are selected according to the recommendations in the rules of the
classification societies.
3.3.1 The slowrunning 2stroke diesel engine may be a source of excessive structural vi
bration when the frequency of free moments from the engine coincides with some hull gir
der natural frequency.
This would chiefly occur in the case of ship size where the engine 2nd order free external
moments are in resonance with 2  5 node modes of vertical hull vibration in the normal
service speed range.
3.3.2 The excitation is due to the periodically varying gas and mass forces of the running
gear giving:
Present day slowrunning diesel engines are usually not producing free forces; and the re
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maining excitation is the 1st order moment in the transverse ( 1M H) and vertical direction
(lMv) and the 2nd order vertical moment. In the following table these moments are listed
for the two most commonly used engines. The 46cyl. engines produce the largest 2nd
order free vertical moments, and are also the most frequently reported source of engine
excited hull girder vertical resonances.
1 M\ 1 MH 2 M, l M\ l MH 21\h
It should be noted that some difference in the free vertical moments exist for the higher
number of cyl. due to different firing order.
Generally, when the 2nd order vertical moment exceed some 500 kNm special considera
tion should be given to the case where there is a risk of running into one of the 4 lowest
hull vertical resonances in the full speed range.
35
3.3.3 In cases where the engine free I st or 2nd order moments are too large, adjustments
on the engine may be carried out by:
adding rotating mass on the crankshaft for compensation of the l st order free mo
ments.
adding rotating mass operating at twice the engine revolution for compensation of the
2nd order free moment.
Reduction of vibration excited by the 2nd order free moment may also be obtained by fitt
ing a mechanical exciter aft in the ship. Such a device must be designed with appropriate
mass forces relative to the pertaining mode shape and must be operated exactly at twice the
engine speed. ref. Fig. 3 . I 2 .
______ ,
EXCITER !777t
IU..t...j
I
I
1
: :I
1
FREE FORCE
1...J
I
__ J
~~ 0
 .:.=....:
I
I
::j
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Fig. 3.12 Mechanical exciter fitted to compensate for slow diesel engine excitation of
the hull girder
4. SHAFTING VIBRATION
4.1 General
4.1.1 The dynamic response of the shafting may conveniently be divided into:
longitudinal vibration
torsional vibration
whirling vibration.
Their relative importance as sources of vibration problems for structure and machinery are
given schematically in the following table.
r~
Stern tube Shafting Thrust Hull Super Local
bearing vibration structure vibration
t vibration
Longitudinal
vibration   x x x x
Torsional vibration  x   x x
10
Whirling vibration x x    
>z
......
36
excite structural vibration of the engine room, double bottom and other local structures
in the engine room as well as local and global vibration of the superstructure through
the thrust bearing,
excite the propulsion machinery itself, i.e. engine, reduction gear, shafting components.
I
I I
I I
I I
,_/
Usually the 0node mode should be considered in connection with vibration problems.
This mode is a simple inphase vibration of the whole shafting about a fixed point in the
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thrust bearing foundation. The total mass and the thrust bearing stiffness are the major
parameters.
For conventional ships the 0node mode is in the range 816 Hz., and may either be ex
cited by thrust variation of the 46 bladed propeller, or in case of slow running diesel
engine the gas forces.
Number of engine cylinders and corresponding dominant orders of crankshaft radial forces
are given in the following table. For example, a shafting system with a natural frequency
of 12 Hz could be excited in resonance by a 6 cyl, 9 cyl or 12 cyl engine at 120 r/ mine. 1)
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 5
9 6
10 5
12 6
In general, the mass and longitudinal stiffness of the shaft itself may be established rather
accurately, whereas the overall thrust bearing stiffness is rather more cumbersome to de
termine. The thrust bearing design may be of type:
37
In the following, these constructions will be discussed with respect to simple and compu
terbased calculation of the 0node mode longitudinal resonance.
4.2.2 As most of the present day slowrunning diesel engines have the thrust bearing in
tegrated in the aft end of the engine, a given type of engine will have a rather constant
thrust bearing stiffness regardless of the design of the double bottom structure. Thus, the
0node mode is a function of type of engine, no. of cyl. and the length of the shafting from
the engine to the propeller. For conventional allaft installations, the 0node mode frequen
cy may be determined approximately for one type of engine and no. of cyl. as the shaft
length and thus the mass will be of comparable size for corresponding kW and r/ min., see
Fig. 4.2. Alternative number of propeller blades have negligible influence on the natural
frequency, as the mass is approx. the same. This procedure may also be extended to cover
amidship machinery installations, as indicated in Fig. 4.2 .
VIBR.
MIN.
Hz
900 15
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14
800
13
'\
.@QQL/\,
\
84EF \
12 K80GF
\
700 \
\
11 \
.,
\
600 10
9
D
\
\
\
508
8 RND 105 AFT INSTALLATION
7
x
400;~~.~..~~r~~,~~.~,.~~..~~~~~
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
NO. OF CYL .
Fig. 4.2 Longitudinal resonance of shafting of 0node mode, for allaft and semiaft
installations
38
For allaft installations this approximate natural frequency value for the 0node longitudi
nal mode is sl1pposed to be within l 0 % of the actual value and somewhat less accurate for
the midships installation, provided same type of engine.
Information about the 0node mode should be requested from the manufacturer when or
dering the engine.
4.2.3 For most medium speed installations the thrust bearing is integrated in the reduc
tion gear. In such cases both the gear housing and the supporting structure are of import
ance for the total longitudinal stiffness. Thus empirical values are difficult to use in a direct
assesment of the 0node mode, unless experience from similar installations are available.
For a comparative study of structural solution, see 4.2.4. However, a rough estimation of
the 0node mode may be obtained by using the simple formula in 4.2.5.
4.2.4 This design is commonly used in large turbine propulsion machinery, but is in
frequently used for slowrunning diesel installation.
The variation in the overall thrust bearing stiffness due to the individual design and di !
mensioning of the thrust bearing foundation and the double bottom structure may be sig
nificant and limit the use of empirical data. In cases where comparative studies are to be
carried out, the following structural parts should be considered:
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thickness. length and number of shearresisting plates in the support
vertical distance from tank top to shaft centerline
thickness of top plate of the support
dimensions of strengthening material at any abrupt termination of the supporting struc
ture near the thrust bearing
general profile of the support.
The 0node mode natural frequency may roughly be estimated by the formula in 4.2.5 .
I~
4.2.5 For the 0node mode. being a simple inphase vibration of the whole shaft and
propeller mass Gncluding virtual added mass of water) about a fixed point in the thrust
bearing foundation, an estimate of the natural frequency may be made using the formula
for a simple spring/ mass system:
where KT is the effective overall thrust bearing stiffness and M the total system mass.
The calculation of the effective mass of the system is effected by adding the masses of the
propeller (including virtual mass of water) and shafting in the case of a direct drive.
Fig. 4.3.
39
~
9 '6
~8 5
Fig. 4.3 Original, equivalent and simplified vibration system for the 0node mode
shafting longitudinal resonance calculation
In the case of a geared propulsion system, the mass (M) in the formula is taken as the mas
ses aft of the gear unit. Concerning the overall thrust bearing stiffness, VERIT AS has ex
perienced from own investigations the following:
Special arrangements may fall outside the stiffness ranges indicated. Also it should be
mentioned that the lower values are norn1ally associated with low powered ships and the
higher with high powered ships. Comparison of the 0node mode frequency using the
simple formula and the computer program NV 51 7, shows an overestimation of the fre
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quency by 5 15 % with an average of I 0 % when using the simple formula.
Using the given range of the thrust bearing stiffness the inaccuracy of the estimated natural
frequency can be expected to be within an accuracy of I 012 % , assuming an accurate
mass estimate.
4.2.6 In cases where the given approximate method of estimating the 0node mode fre
quency is considered to be of insufficient accuracy for use in the evaluation process, meth
ods as referred to in Appendix A should be considered. These are based on an equivalent
shafting system consisting of lumped masses including a branched spring simulating the
thrust block. The results give natural frequency, tables of relative deflections and inertia
The reliability of the calculation, however, still depends on a correct assessment of the
overall thrust bearing stiffness.
4.3.1 Foundation reaction fqrces from torsional shafting vibration, Fig. 4.4, do not nor
mally produce major excitation of the hull structure. Evaluation of torsional vibration of
the shafting system is subject to classification rule requirements. Resonance conditions are
to be avoided in the full speed range. In that respect, however, it should be pointed out that
for multibranched systems in particular, it is not satisfactory only to base judgement on
11
40
imple Holzer tabulation of undamped vibration. A realistic picture of the vibratory res
ponse may be obtained by a detailed forced response analysis, in most cases also com
plemented by synthesis calculations of all relevant harmonics. Suitable programs both for
natural frequency and forced vibration calculation are available, see Appendix A.
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additional dynamic stresses in the propeller shaft near to the propeller.
disturbance of the stern bearing as overheating or wear down.
dynamic magnification of bearing reactions, being the cause of structural vibration in
the afterbody.
ol
0 0,5 1,0 = xi l
PCS . OF AFT
BEARING SUPPORT
Fig. 4.5 Whirling vibration of shafting Fig. 4.6 Position of aft bearing support
41
The main vibratory effect of whirling occurs in the stern tube area, and is therefore more
difficult to recognize than longitudinal and torsional vibration. Among several cases of
wear down of aft stern tube bearing in later years, and also of loss of propeller, some have
been attributed to whirling vibration.
The position of the point support in the aftmost bearing is strongly influencing the natural
frequency as indicated in Fig. 4.6. Further, the next aftmost bearing should have a reasona
ble load in all running conditions.
4.4.2 Natural frequencies of counter and forward whirl are calculated by dividing the
shafting system into a number of elements, including the effect of rotary inertia and gyro
scopic precession of rotors and lateral and rotational stiffness of shafting, see Appendix A.
The difficulty in obtaining a high accuracy in the natural frequency calculations lies in the
determination of:
The accuracy of whirling calculations is therefore in general somewhat lower than those
for torsional vibration. However, the calculated natural frequencies are considered to be
sufficiently accurate for a practical judgement of the possibility of a whirling resonance to
occur in the full speed range.
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5. SHIP STRUCTURE VIBRATION
5.1 General
5.1.1 The pulsating forces from propeller and slow running diesel engine may either di
rectly on the hull surface or indirectly through the shafting, set up annoying vibration in
the ship structure. The resulting vibration level depends on:
Simple calculation methods for the investigation of natural frequencies of the hull girder,
substructures and local structures are presented in the following.
5.2.1 The form of the hull girder vibration may be one of the following or a combination
of them:
Normally the vertical and longitudinal modes are coupled. For ships with large hatch
openings in particular the coupling between horizontal and torsional modes is of import
ance.
There exist several semiempirical formulas which require relatively little work, involving t
only a few main parameters. These formulas predict the lowest natural frequency with
sufficient accuracy for general preliminary evaluations. Among others, the formula pre
sented by Kumai is:
Ll~LJ )
112
N2v = l,61 10 6 ( /Hz!
where
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Iv moment of inertia in m 4
b.. i ( 1,2 + j ~) Ll = displacement including virtual added mass of water (kg)
7~
Fig. 5 .1 H oil girder vertical vibration Fig. 5.2 Hull girder horizontal vibration
of 25 nodes, 1.4. mode of 25 nodes, 1.4. mode
43
When compared with the finite element method, this formula has an accuracy as indicated
in the following table:
where
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0.845 for cargo ships.
However, for higher modes, the accuracy of this formula is significantly reduced mainly
due to the fact that both mass and stiffness distribution (shear effects) is having an increas
ed importance in the vibrating system.
Unless backed up by experience from similar ships the estimated natural frequencies for
higher modes should be used with care. In such cases it may be useful to judge the higher
mode frequencies from the plots given in Fig. 5 .5.
For the same number of nodes, the natural frequencies of horizontal hull girder vibration
Fig. 5 .2 are normally higher than those of vertical hull girder modes; for conventional ship
in the order of 50 % . The occurrence of resonant condition in the full speed range is less li
kely to occur in single screw ships since no important excitation source, except the sea ex
cist. In twinscrew ships excitation of significant magnitude may arise depending upon
propeller phasing conditions.
Torsional vibration
Torsional vibration Fig. 5 .3 sometimes occur in container ships with large hatch openings.
The center of torsion for these ships is below the keel, and horizontal propeller forces may
generate large torsional moments.
44
Fig. 5.3 Hull girder torsional vibration Fig. 5.4 Hull girder longitudinal vibration
Longitudinal vibration
Longitudinal vibration of the hull girder may be set up by the propeller thrust variations,
and the longitudinal vibration of the shafting, Fig. 5.4. In cases where large thrust varia
tions or longitudinal shaft resonance occur in the full speed range, the severity o_f super
structure vibration depends on:
.~
Longitudinal hull girder resonance
Superstructure resonance.
The longitudinal hull girder natural frequencies may be estimated by the formula:
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l
Nn= n2 n::A IHz I
VTT
where
The accuracy is tested for two ships as indicated in the following table.
The formula has been used for calculation of the fundamental longitudinal mode for five
ships at different drafts, and the results are given in Fig. 5 .6.
45
\
\
6
'
+~~~1r~~..~"'<~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
REGRESSION ANALYSI 5. 1
VERTICAL HULL GIRDER VI BRAT ION FOR
GENERAL CARGO SHIPS
I STANDARD DEVIATION INCLUDES
5 . 67/. OF DATA
..._
s Noot:s   .. ..
.......
N
:c: 4 1~~~.'~,_...+~'4~"""l<..:.:....+.~~"'~k~~~="'..._, SD =0 , 38 Hz
>
u
z
w
::>
0
~ 3 +i~~~~~f"'.....,,.V"''w::i'f'"""'2<"l.:=~~~""~F::::~~~===1 x SO= 0,31 Hz
u..
SD= 0,20Hz
i:...:: _2_..tJODES
x ~~'!:,"_   x  
   x SO= 0,13Hz
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5
N
:c:
200 SD = 0,23 Hz
> I
u
z 3
w 0 = 0 2 5Hz
::>
0
w
'
u..
2
SD = 0, 12 Hz
SD = 0,08Hz
o +~~~+~1~++++1++~~~1~1~+41111+~~~+~~.._
400 .10 6
e:. ~ A 353 000
0 @ A 153800
350 A 66 800
x@ A 39 BOO
300
......
250 z
w
~
200 UJ
u
~
150 ~
a..
If)
100 0
50
x
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Hz
5 .2.3 Hull girder flexural vibration of 2 5 nodes may be calculated by simple computer
programs based on the lumped mass system. The accuracy is normally within 5 % for the
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fundamental mode and decreasing to 15 % with 5 nodes.
The hull girder modes of higher frequencies ( > 5 nodes) should be calculated using the fi
nite element technique or equivalent methods. The accuracy is normally in the range of
5% .
5.3.1 Superstructure vibration is excited by the flexural and longitudinal vibration of the
hull girder. The total vibration deflection is made up of:
The superstructure rigid body motion is mostly due to a hull girder vertical resonance of
vibration excited by the propeller.
47
SHEAR
DEFLECTION BENDING
DEFLECTION
r
I
I
I
I
5.3.2 At the early design stage, a natural frequency may be obtained from the reference
curve, Fig. 5.8, based upon the height (h) and length(/) of the superstructure. The proba
bility that the actual superstructure natural frequency is falling outside the given zone is
low, provided the support of the superstructure is within normal standard.
REGRESSION ANALYSl S
SUPERSTRUCTURE LONG. RESONANCE, f
35 SHIPS
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I S.D. = 1,0 Hz ( 67 '/, OF DATA )
15
4)
 J
2)
   
I 5  2 SD
lm 5~I ~
10
....~ t ....
...... ....... ~x
/.X:IC ...............
e
N
::i::
>
u
z
w
::>
/
..........
3)
MEASUREMENTS
x CALCULATION
0
w 1).
"'
u.
5
f = 10 xVJii. lHz)
I =IOm
1,0
NOTES:
1) 00000 dwt OBO : Internal longitudinal bulkheads : 0
Supporting longitudinal bulkheads : 2
Superstructure front and cofferdam
are out of line
2) 11000 dwt MULTIPURPOSE ship of unconventional design
3) 125000 m 3 LNG : Internal longitudinal bulkheads : 2
Supporting longitudinal bulkheads : O
4) 130000 dwt BULK : Internal longitudinal bulkheads : 4
Supporting longitudinal bulkheads : 2
Example
4 8 8.6
5 10 8.6
6 12 8.6
Thus the superstructure natural frequency can be expected to lie above the blade frequency
of the 4bladed propeller. t
In the case of a 5 or 6bladed propeller a more detailed investigation of the superstructure
natural frequency is required.
Simple calculations
There exists several simple methods for approximate calculation of the natural frequency
of the superstructure fundamental longitudinal mode.
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Such methods should, however, be treated with care, being generally based on an over
simplification of important parameters. In this chapter one typical method will be present
ed.
In this method the superstructure natural frequency is derived by a summation of the two
components according to the following formulas:
The fr is taken to include the flexibility of the elastic support and fs the stiffness of the shear
panels within the superstructure. See also Fig. 5 .9.
k = spring constant in NI m
I = length in m of superstructure
m = mass of superstructure in kg
r = radius of gyration in m
h = height of superstructure in m
GAS = shear rigidity in kg
b = breadth in m
As = n t l = shear area in m 2
t = thickness of longitudinal walls in m
n = number of longitudinal walls
G = shear stiffness in NI m2, for steel G = 8 ,14 . 1O10 N / m2
c = correction factor due to bending deformation 0.9
 49
The shear natural frequency (f) is a reasonable task to evaluate whereas the rotation natu
ral frequency (fr} totally depends on the estimation of the spring representing effective stiff
ness of the support of the superstructure (k).
In Fig. 5. I 0 an example is presented. The natural frequencies fn fs and the resulting fre
quency f are plotted as a function of the support spring stiffness k.
It is observed that the frequency f may be divided into three ranges depending on the sup
porting stiffness. In this example the elastic support is of major importance for k < I os
NI m. Fork> I 0 11 N/m only the effect of shear deformation is of importance. In the stiff
ness range between these two values both shear stiffness and elastic support stiffness are of
importance.
The method should be used with some caution. In cases where experience from similar
ships is at hand, however, the formula may be used to find the relative importance of the
shear rigidity and the supporting structure stiffness.
Say, for instance, that the measured natural frequency of the superstructure is 9 .O Hz and it
is desired to increase this frequency with I Hz due to coincidence with the blade frequency
at full speed. The shear frequency is calculated to be fs = 19 .7 Hz while the rotational fre
quency according to the formula (or Fig. 5. IO) must be fr = 10, I Hz. To obtain the in
creased frequency the support spring stiffness has to be increased with a factor of 1,32 or
the shear area with a factor 13 .1, which is nearly 10 times higher. Thus, in this case the
support stiffness should be increased.
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f ,Hz
20 f5 = 19,7 Hz
I
H = 13 m I
L = 17 m I
M = 510 5 kg
As= 0,6 m 2
I
k (N/m) I
I
15
r :::: 0,6 h = 7,8 m
I
I
1 r , r
f 5 = 19.7Hz
f, =4,9110 4 Jk
I
I
I
I
I a)
ROTATING
VIBRATION
10
1
f2=f2+f2
s r
1 1
, 5
, I
I
I
I
b)
I SHEAR
I I
VIBRATION
I I
o +~~~~~~~~r~~~~.~~~ ~
7 B 9 10 11
log 10 k
Fig. 5.9 Components included in a
simple calculation of superstructure Fig. 5.10 Example of simple calculation
longitudinal resonance. of superstructure longitudinal resonance.
50

RELATION BETWEEN PROPELLER EXCITED (BLADE FREQUENCY)
VERTICAL RESPONSE t:,,yv AT AP AND LONGITUDINAL RESPONSE
t:,,yH AT NAVIGATION BRIDGE.
REGRESSION BASED ON 57 SHIPS
BEST GUESS :
t.yH=0,768llyv+0,131 DH 0,033
H AP
/
0,2
/
/
/
/ t 10 /o 2 0 '/o
x
o, 1
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RANGE 10 '/, INCLUDES so;,
RANGE 20'/, INCLUDES 80'/,
0,02 0, 1 0,2
5.3.4 When more accurate investigation is required than described in 5 .3 .2, the super
structure longitudinal free vibration may be calculated using the finite element method re
ferred to in Appendix A. Normally the accuracy of the calculation is within 5 % for the
fundamental longitudinal mode.
51
5.4.1 Most vibration problems on board ship occur as local vibration, either as a result of
a relatively high vibration level of hull and/ or superstructure or because of resonance
condition in the local structure itself.
Local vibration in this context is concerned with deck area, bulkheads, panels, girders,
etc. In the following some formulas are given for the preliminary investigation of beams,
panels, bulkheads etc. including the effect of added mass of water, and reference is given to
computerbased methods.
It is recommended that panels and decks should have a natural frequency of vibration in
the fundamental mode which lies at least 15 % away from the most significant local ex
citation frequency arising from the propeller and main engine. In addition, the inaccuracy
of calculation has to be accounted for.
In most cases local vibration is excited by the propeller pressure impulses. Of secondary
t importance are the firing impulses from a slow running diesel engine and the longitudinal
forces set up in the line shafting.
For local structural elements in the after peak area, the significant excitation frequencies
are the 1.3. harmonic of the propeller blade frequency.
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In the engine room area the main orders from the main engine are most significant.
For local panels in the superstructure the 1.  2. and sometimes the 3. harmonic of the pro
peller blade frequency and main orders from the main engine are of significance.
Excessive global vibration will always lead to excessive local vibration. In these cases the
overall problem will not be rectified by trying to put the effort into reduction of the vibra
t tion locally.
5.4.2 The formulas below may be used for natural frequency calculation of panels with
regular shape, uniform loads or no loads and no spring supports.
The accuracy is normally within 20 % , and depends on the idealization. Generally the cal
culated frequency is somewhat lower than the measured one.
t = plate thickness in m .
s = stiffener spacing in m.
I = length of stiffeners between simple supports in m (e.g. between transverse frames,
bulkheads, brackets, etd.
52
L\ I = ;::==:::===:::==:::=::===
)1 +   c_s_ __
t
~
s.s
r I I
I I I
I I I
I I 2 I
v
I
I
v
I
vI
l
I I i I
~
I I
I I
y
L x:
I
,
I
I
... 5
I
.. r
I
s.s
l~ a
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S .S =SIMPLY SUPPORTED BOUNDARY
IHzl
n = number of stiffeners between simple supports.
1). 2 = ;=:============
)1 +   c_a_ __
te) l + (+)2
a = breadth of panel = s (n + 1) [m]
c = 0,08 with water on both sides
c = 0 ,04 with water on one side only
53
5.4.3 In the following, the use of simple formulas for the determination of natural fre
quencies of plates, stiffeners and girders is discussed with special emphasis on their appli
cations and limitations.
For illustration purposes a typical deck panel from the accommodation area of a ro/ ro ship
is considered. As shown in Fig. 5 .13 the deck area is limited by bulkheads and shortspan
heavy girders. Simply supported boundary conditions are applied. This is a conservative
assumption only if the panel is designed to have a resonant frequency higher than the ex
citation frequency. The deck area consists of (mm):
One transverse girder, web 300xl 1 and flange 150x20, length 10000
16 stiffeners (longitudinals), HP 120x6, spacing 600, length 6400
Plate thickness 6.
Considering the steel weight only, the following natural frequencies are calculated:
The ratio between the natural frequency of the girder (neglecting the stiffness of the stif
feners) and the natural frequency of the stiffeners (neglecting the stiffness of the girder) is
defined as
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(J f n;r,,~r
= ___,...,,.,.._
fstiffener
(J = ~:~ = 1.3
t In the case of both vibrating girder and vibrating stiffeners, the same total mass is put into
vibration and the mode shapes are similar. Thus, the girder and stiffeners may be consider
ed as two springs supporting the same mass, giving the resulting frequency:
This simple approach is close to the results of a finite element calculation giving 10 .8 Hz.
The simple assumption is, however, only a good approximation for symmetric arrange
ments of girder and boundary conditions and uniform mass distribution. It is observed that
the girder will act as a nodal' line for the stiffeners when (J = 4. For girder with high tor
sional rigidity this ratio may be even higher.
In the orthotropic plate theory which is often used, the stiffeners and girders are spread out
over the plate and obviously, therefore, the solution is valid only for a relatively high num
ber of stiffeners and girders. The absolute minimum is two stiffeners or girders in each
54
1:ialfwave of the vibration mode under consideration. Applied to the example with only
one girder, this theory gives f= 12.2 Hz, which is too high.
In Fig. 5 .14 the four calculation values for the example are summarized. In addition, cal
culations are carried out for accommodation weight uniformly distributed over the deck
area, 25, 50, and 100 kg/m 2. The most common range is from 25 to 50, but even 100
kg/ m2 is possible for some areas.
In this example the propeller blade frequency is 9 .5 Hz and C is the correct calculation
method. Thus, resonant vibration may occur if the accommodation weight in this area is
approximately 20 kg/ m2. In the actual deck the stiffeners and girders will not be simply
supported but partly fixed at the ends, giving a higher resonant frequency. As illustrated in
Fig. 5 .14, the effect of one girder end fixed in calcualtion method C is given a dotted line.
In many cases the estimation of reasonable boundary conditions is the most difficult task.
,
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  .     1
.

 + 
  "   
.
t
 1
1
...._   J_ _ _ _    1
.j==1==
y~~~d@
 r    i   
c
  
1!= = ==~=~ 
   .!...    i  
 I  
1   
c===
l._ ~~~~~
~
r 
47 51 Sli 58 62
BULKHEAD
   GIRDER
     LONGITUDINAL
~ BOUNDARY OF DECK PANEL
10m
~,
3,2mE .
3,2m '"
L...L..L....L..L.1...Llu....L.1...LIL...J....L.J..J..I
9,SHz 19Hz
100
50
25 E
.4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Hz
FREQUENCY
Fig. 5.14 Deck panel. Summary of calculated values: Steel weight 60 kg/m2. Total
weight = steel + accommodation. A = stiffener; B = girder; C = finite element
method; D =
orthotropic plate theory; E =
stiffener Oength 3.2 m)
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5.4.4 Panels having irregular shape, spring supports or nonuniform loads should be cal
culated by the Finite element method, or equivalent methods. Reference is given in Ap
pendix A. The accuracy is normally within 5  10 % , depending on the idealization.
5.5.1 Forced vibration calculation should be carried out when the pressure impulse level
is considered high with respect to the probability of annoying vibration of the superstruc
Forced vibration analysis based on finite element methods are necessarily comprehensive,
and adequate model representation and excitation data are required to perform:
Calculation of the hull girder and supersturcture in one finite element model, Fig. 5 .15.
Calculation of the pressure impulses from the propeller, and integration of the hull sur
face forces along the hull, Fig. 5 .16.
56
Fig. 5.15 Finite element model of hull superstructure for dynamic response calculation
KN/m
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.,,,,..,,,,."
/
\PHASE IN DEGREES
This calculation may also be carried out using the same force and for a number of fre
quencies below the full speed, thus obtaining a frequency I response characteristic as indi
cated in Fig. 5 .1 7. Below full speed the vibration level is reduced in accordance with the
propeller load curve. The exponent is normally in the range of 3 .5 depending on the cavi
tation behaviour.
\
57
~
REDUCTION : A 1 =A ( f) 3 5
'
w
>
w
~
z
2
I
<
0::
'>
BLADE RATE
r ..... _/
A' "
/"'
""" ""
fI F FREQUENCY (Hz)
'blade frequency
Several programs exist for carrying out such calculation, and among these is VERITAS'
SESAM 80 linked to the propeller program NV57 l, see Appendix A.
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There is an obvious advantage in carrying out the forced response calculation and the pro
peller forces by one commisionare, as the availability of correlation improve the accuracy
of the method.
6. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.1 General
Trouble shooting investigations have indicated that problems due to severe structural vi
bration could have been avoided in most cases, if the main and local structural parts from
the outset had been designed for vibration resistance. High vibration levels have been ex
perienced on board ship even far from the resonant condition of the superstructure, mainly
due to flexibility of the structure, combined with high excitation forces. The most signi
ficant vibration components transmitted from the hull girder into the hull structure are the
vertical and longitudinal ones. It is therefore important to consider the support and stiff
ness of the structure from a vibration point of view, as dealt with in the following, for dif
ferent types of ships and arrangements.
6.2.1 In order to keep the shear deflection of the superstructure at a minimum, it is re
commended that (Fig. 6.1):

58
 side and front bulkheads be witho.ut steps, and preferably also the aft bulkhead. In ca
ses where there are steps in the aft bulkhead, continuity of the supporting structure is
to be considered.
at least one pair of continuous longitudinal internal bulkheads be fitted. Separate su
perstructure in the afterbody higher than 4 tiers above the weather deck (excl. nav.
tier), should be designed with more than 2 internal continuous longitudinal bulkheads.
local steel bulkheads at different deck levels be inline wherever possible.
INTERNAL
LONGITUDINAL
BULKHEAD
f f
t I
I I
I
t .,I
l
'I l
I t
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Fig. 6.1 Proposed superstructure Fig. 6 .2 Proposed vertical support
internal stiffness. of the superstructure.
6.2.2 The supporting structure should from experience include (Fig. 6 .2):
a continuous transverse bulkhead inline with the superstructure front, and down to
the bottom.
superstructure aft bulkhead should be inline with a transverse bulkhead extending as
far down in the engine room as possible. Alternatively, a strong girder should be fitted,
supported by pillars.
at least one pair of the continuous longitudinal bulkheads should be inline with bulk
heads in the hull girder.
the side bulkheads and longitudinal internal bulkheads in the superstructure should be
supported by longitudinal girders where there is no support by longitudinal bulkheads.
In a number of ships the structure above the after peak is usually of limited height and oft
en without vertical longitudinal bulkheads thus giving a flexibility in part of the hull situat
ed just above the propeller. Some ships have been found to have extreme deflection ver
tically at the very aft end, often resulting in annoying vibration in the superstructure. Fig.
6 .3. In such cases the shear stiffness play an important role in keeping the vibration level
under control.
Recommended improvement will be longitudinal bulkheads through the after peak section,
well connected to the surrounding hull structure.
59
6.3.1 In general, the design of the superstructure should comply with the recommenda
tions in 6.2.l.
~
tf I
~'~     I
I
I LONGITUDINAL
(" DEFLECTION
..... ::~      1
1
VER IC AL
DEFLECTION
I
I I I I I I I I I
_.__._____. ___ T_T __ _
I
1T+
I
 1, :
 ,
I
1
I
1 I
 TiJ ___ II__ _
 I ! I
 
 G:J b
J
E;:J EJ
c )
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LON GI TUDINAL BULKHEAD
6.3.2 The difficulties associated with this type of ship are the limited possibility of provid
ing transverse bulkheads as supporting structure, especially in case of allaft arrangement.
Therefore, the longitudinal supporting of the superstructure side bulkheads and internal
bulkheads should be the best possible. As a minimum, one pair of continuous longitudinal
bulkheads should be inline with bulkheads in the hull girder.
The best solution is to keep the side bulkheads inline with the ship side and also keep the
casing bulkhead inline throughthe whole superstructure, Fig. 6 .4.
6.4.1 A superstructure being well supported and fitted with an adequate number of steel
bulkheads instead of light bulkheads is a good start to combate local vibration in the su
perstructure. Further improvements of the design may be achieved by using experience
gained in service. Some guidelines are given below.
In Fig. 6 .5 a cabin deck consisting of beams and longitudinal deck girders is shown. Such a
deck will be less prone to excessive vertical vibration if two of the deck beams (130160
mm deep) are replaced by webs (300 mm deep).
60
In Fig. 6.6 a part of a cabin deck is shown where acceptable vibration levels were obtained
after fitting of additional girders.
Vibration of instrument consoles, radars etc. on the navigating deck may be safeguarded
by replacing deck beams by heavier webs as shown in Fig. 6.7.
++ LIGHT
BULKHEAD
'
BU LKHE AD 'f. GIRDER
I. EXCESSIVE LOCAL
VIBRATION
.)
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Fig. 6.5 Additional stiffening of cabin cabin deck reduced by additional
deck by replacing beams by webs girders and pillars
1 I
r+
I I I I I :
I I I I I I ~_.:
+t t TTrTT
I I I I I I
T'+L1 r trrr
I I I I l I I I
I I I II I I I I t.
tt ...L +Lrl..+l.
I I
I I
+
I
D I I I I I I
I l I I
II I I
+t+t+r
II I I I 1
I
i++r+i
I I
I I
I I
WEBS
6.5. l The after peak tank is the area most exposed to excitation from the propeller. Seve
ral cases have beeen reported where plating, stiffeners, webs, panels or even bulkheads and
shell plating have cracked due to undefineable reasons. The following factors are found to
be of importance:
Coating
Maintenance
The effect of these factors are rather unknown as to their relative influence. However, a
study of where the cracks usually occur have led to proposals as to improved design of cer
tain details in the after peak tank area.
6.5.2 The location of cracks as experienced for various structures are given in the follow
ing.
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Some typical examples on locations given in Fig. 6.8, together with the better design pro
posal, are:
e) in hull or bulkhead plating just outside the welding to floor/ girder frame/ stiffener .
Concerning ct) and e) the cracks most frequently occur in the component most suffering
from vibration .
The insert plate, Fig. 6.9, give a favourable effect on the vibration level compared to the
original design provided:
s = 610
REPAIR 11 AND b
~ d :ft 9
Fig. 6.8 Some typical crack locations Fig. 6.9 Cracks in frame just above
in the after peak structure the weld to the hull plating
Floors
Cracks occurred as shown in Fig. 6 .10 caused by a combination of vibration of the floor
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and a hard point at the butt weld. A simple improvement of the design is illustrated in
Fig. 6.10, where additional longitudinal stiffeners are fitted on the span. The effect of such
stiffening depends on:
,, '
"''
Fig. 6.10 Cracks in butt weld in the after peak caused by vibration of floors
63
Bulkheads
In Fig. 6. I I the wash bulkhead is better supported by stiffeners close to the cutouts.
Brackets should be fitted in the junction horizontal stiffener/vertical girder.
The center bulkhead in Fig. 6. I 2 is less prone to vibration when intermediate stiffeners are
fitted.
CENTER BULKHEAD
CRACK
/ Pl. ... ~
"'" 8,5

1
Pl. , .>
9,5
", Pl.
12,0
..,::.
,_..
A
,_ ~)>..
:
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::,.
......

'"", 
I
ADDITIONAL
'~ ~
A
STIFFENER
ADDITIONAL
BRACKETS INTERMEDIATE
STIFFEN ER
SECTION AA
~
SECTION BB
~
Fig. 6.11 Cracks in wash bulkhead Fig. 6.12 Cracks in bulkhead
in the after peak in the after peak
64
6.5.2 The design of the after peak structure as discussed in this chapter should be carried
out with attention to:
7. CRITERIA
7.1 General
The three main reasons for performing designstage predictions or measurements, analysis,
and evaluation of shipboard vibration are:
1. Vibration may result in annoyance and discomfort to the crew and/ or may interfere
with the efficient performance of their duties.
2. Vibration may cause fatigue damage to important structural elements in the ship.
3. Vibration may seriously impair the proper functioning of essential machinery and
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equipment.
Generally speaking, shipboard vibration results in annoyance to the crew before it affects
the reliability of equipment or results in structural or mechanical failure of structural or
mechanical components.
Over the years a large number of proposals for criteria or guidelines on various aspects of
vibration have been put forward. Sometimes such proposals have been lacking in clearness
of concept regarding parameters entailed, range of application, and conditions catered for ('_:
in the guidelines. Occasionally, inexperienced individuals have seen a diagram used in a
particular context and have adopted it and used in in circumstances for which the criterion
was never intended, without having resorted to the actual criterion to check on its stated
area of applicability. Hence, the need for careful study of the scope and application of a cri ,
terion cannot be overemphasized.
Various guidelines exist in this field. In the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) guidelines (Fig. 7. l) both the vertical vibration and horizontal vibration for the over
all evaluation of vibration in merchant ships are rated equally severe. The ISO guidelines
are based upon data collected by a working group on hull vibration as measured on ships
throughout the world. These guidelines are intended to reflect the current state of the art
(what is representative of hull vibration performance of similar ship types), paying due re
gard to the ability of man to perform effectively in a shipboard environment. An alterna
tive is to base the criteria purely upon human reaction to wholebody vibration taken from
equal sensation curves as used in some guidelines.
65
>
I
u
0_J
LU
>
10 mm/s
Historic
FREQUENCY
Fig. 7 .1 ISO guidelines for vertical and horizontal vibration in merchant ships
(peak value) (Draft proposal no. 6954, September 1979)
66
1,0
 
p
/
o,s J
I
v
I
,
I
I
/ aopo
5000 10000 15000 20000 llPz IN /m 2 l
10000 20000 30000 40000l1Pror lN/m2)
Fig. 7 .2 Recommended upper limit for the single and total pressure impulse
with reference to probability of cracks in the afterpeak structure
The basis for VERIT AS' evaluation of shipboard vibration is now the ISO guidelines. Ac
cording to VERIT AS' own experience, however, complaints from the crew may be ex
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pected when exceeding an amplitude of 7 mm/ s vibration velocity, peak value, for long
time exposures. The ISO guidelines are applicable to both steam and dieseldriven mer
chant ships of 100 m or greater in length and may be used as reference for the evaluation
of:
7 .3 Fatigue of structure
The magnitude of the vibration level or stresses causing cracks is dependent mainly on the
following:
As mentioned earlier, the area of the ship most frequently suffering from fatigue damage is
the structure adjacent to the propeller, that is, the afterpeak. According to VERIT AS' ex
perience, almost 35 % of all ships have more or less serious cracks in this area.An investi
gation was carried out to find if there existed a certain value of pressure amplitude above
which the other parameters had only minor influence on the amount of cracks.
The results are given in Fig. 7 .2, which indicates the probability of cracks as a function of
the pressure impulse level. As can be seen, about 50 % of the ships will have fatigue dama
ges in the afterpeak area when the pressure impulse level of blade frequency exceeds some
9000 N/m 2 .
For design purposes the following two recommended upper limits are suggested:
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The recommended upper level based on LiP tot is more well defined than that based on the
pressure impulse of blade frequency, LiPz At the design stage, however, the pressure im
pulse of blade frequency is to be used, as normally only information about the blade fre
quency and 2 x blade frequency pressure impulses is available from model tests or calcula
tions.
7 .4 Machinery vibration
When applying guidelines, one should be aware that vibration of machinery I equipment
may be divided into two categories:
Malfunction of active machinery or equipment can occur either due to operation in an ex
ternally imposed vibration environment or as a result of excessive selfinduced vibratory
response.
A number of guidelines have been issued by ISO dealing with the measurement and eva
luation of rotating machinery. In general, however. these are concerned chiefly with the
selfinduced aspects of vibration and have been derived mainly from consideration of land
based installations. They can, in certain circumstances, be useful for assessing the severity
of onboard machinery vibration. but must be applied cautiously by experienced investiga
tors.
68
Malfunction of passive machinery or equipment occurs when the item in question is ex
posed to externally impressed vibrations above a certain level. This type of failure has al
ready been recognized for certain items of essential equipment, and corresponding vibra
tion requirements are specified by some classification societies. In most cases these require
ments comprise vibration endurance testing of equipment to stated levels derived from full
scale experience. This type of requirement indirectly implies a standard for onboard vi
bration at the locations of the respective items; that is, the vibration level should not exceed
that specified for the corresponding endurance test.
A warning: Machines fitted with ball or roller bearings are sensitive to the imposed vibra
tion environment at standstill!
7 .5 Shafting vibration
Shafting vibration comprises torsional, longitudinal, and whirling vibration in the shafting
system (see Section 4). Vibratory torsional stresses and torque are covered by classification
society requirements. The main critical torsional mode should normally be kept off the f i\'
fullspeed range, and requirements exist for the maximum permissible stresses in the crank
and propeller shaft.
Longitudinal vibration is excited either by dynamic propeller thrust or by the gas forces of
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the main engine (in the case of diesel engine propulsion). Longitudinal resonance in the
fullspeed range should be avoided unless satisfactory documentation proves that an ac
ceptable vibration level is expected in relevant structures and machinery.
Whirling vibration may cause excessive wearing of the stern tube bearing as well as high
stresses in the propeller shaft. Whirling resonance in the fullspeed range should be avoid
ed unless calculations show that the dynamic stresses in the propeller shaft are acceptable.
7 .6 Equipment vibration
The concept considered here is the environmental vibration to which equipment may be
subjected, that is, the vibration impressed on the equipment through its point of support
from sources external to the equipment. The tolerance of equipment to impressed vibration
may be tested on a shaker table. Fulfilling specified tests related to given environmental
conditions, the equipment may be termed vibration resistant equipment.
In their rules, the classification societies have given requirements as to the vibration resist
ance of essential equipment intended for automated system service.
69
The development of the method and the associated computer programs for the calculation
of propeller induced excitations have been closely followed up by extensive experiments
and measurements, both in the model tanks and on board ships, and the reliability of the
method has thus been proved.
Detailed drawing of propeller geometry (blade outline, pitch distribution and chord
wise thickness distribution at several radial stations).
Nominal wake field (axial and preferably tangential components in the propeller plane
to about 1.3 x propeller radius).
Working condition for the actual wake field with respect to ship speed, propeller
r/ min, shaft horsepower, draught and trim.
After body hull form.
Shafting arrangement.
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NV517  Axial Vibration in Shafting
t The results are presented as complete Holzer tabulations and vector sums with additional
information for calculation of stresses.
From the calculations the natural frequencies and critical orders for engine excitation and
for propellers with alternative number of blades may be determined.
70
The output of data and results are mainly selfexplanatory and should need no further
comments.
The necessary data depend on the programs involved, but for the more ordinary calcula
tion of torsional vibration the following will be needed:
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Estimated mass moments of inertia.
Torsional stiffnesses.
Damping data.
Engine data for consideration of excitation.
Data on reduction gear, if any.
Data on elastic couplings, if any.
From the calculation, natural frequencies, elastic modes, phasevector sums, vibratory tor
ques or stresses for all significant orders in the actual speed range will be given.
The program carries out the calculation of the natural frequencies of whirling vibration for
the two lower modes for specified orders of whirl, both forward and counter whirl, of
straight shaft systems with radial symmetry. The effect of rotary inertia, gyroscopic pre
cession, flexibility of supports and bending and shear stiffness of the shafts are considered.
The accuracy of the calculations depends on the accuracy with which some important par
ameters such as overall bearing stiffnesses, or virtual mass effect of propeller entrained wa
ter, etc. can be specified.
From the calculations the most favourable number of propeller blades may be determined.
This makes possible a calculation of the 2 5 lower vibration modes in vertical and hori
zontal direction.
The method is based on a transformation of the hull stiffness, mass and loads into a finite
element beam model, including the effect of added mass of vibrating water.
The main excitation source of the higher modes ( > 5 nodes) is the propeller with the blade
frequency, or higher orders of this. Within this frequency range the hull vibration modes
are complex and the distance between resonant frequencies is very small. For different
loading conditions hull resonance may therefore occur at service speed. The natural fre
quencies and mode shapes may be calculated with the finite element method, applying
beam models or two or threedimensional models, depending on the required accuracy.
The general purpose finite element program SESAM80 is applicable for the calculations of
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both free and forced vibration.
The necessary data to be submitted for calculations according to NV4 79 are as follows:
Body plan.
Bonjean curves.
Weight distribution for the specified loading conditions (diagrammatically).
Distribution of the second moment of area about a horizontal and vertical axis over the
'
length of the ship (diagrammatically).
Distribution of the shear area in the horizontal and vertical direce length of
the ship, (diagrammatically).
Particulars of propulsion machinery and number of propeller blades.
Simple rectangular panels and girders will be calculated by means of NV 451, using the
theory of bending of thin orthotropic plates.
SESAM is a general purpose structural analysis system based on the finite element method .
The notation 69 refers to the well known version, while SESAM 80 is the latest and most
efficient version.
The generation of element and nodal numbers, nodal coordinates. loads etc. is performed f ti
by automatic input data generators. Input and output may refer either to a Cartesian or a
cylindrical coordinate system.
The program may calculate natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes as well as ~
damped dynamic response caused by harmonic or arbitrary transient loading. The normal
mode method is used for forced vibration analyses (see Appendix A). The damping is spe
cified as a fraction of the critical damping, or as a stiffness proportional damping.
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The program may be used to assemble fluid superelements when calculating added mass in
dynamic analysis.
The program may be applied for calculation of the natural frequency of:
as well as the forced vibration level of same, caused by the propeller and/ or the main engi
ne.
Body plan
Bonjean curves
Steel drawings
Cargo and outfit weight distribution .
The output will be a number of natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes.
The calculation of forced vibration require information about the magnitude of the excita
tion forces. The propeller forces may be calculated based on a computer program such as
NV571 and the excitation from the main engine may be required from the manufacturer.
73
In the following, the three examples discussed in Section 2 are presented in some detail.
Numerical values are given for both input parameters and calculation results, and the eva
luation is included for each step in the check procedure. Finally, results from fullscale
measurements at the sea trial are presented for correlation with the calculation results.
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Block coefficient, loaded CB = 0.824
Main engine B&W 7K 80GF
18500 bhp at 126 r/ minP
Propeller diameter 6.4 m
No. of blades 4
Trial speed l 7 .5 knots (9 ml s)
Stage /: Investigation
 ....L J_ _  _.Lj :
I
I L  ~
h~I~~~
Fig. 1 Bulk carrier, 60,000 dwt Fig. 2 Threedimensional finite element model
74
Load Ballast
3800 N/m 2 4400 N/m 2
Stage!: Results
1. The average recommended upper limits for the pressure impulse level at Points 1 and 2,
see Fig. 3 .11, are found to be 5200 and 7000 NI m 2 , respectively, for the loaded and
ballast conditions. Thus the estimated pressure impulse from the standard propeller is fr;
approximately 25 % below the average value in the loaded condition and approximate
ly 1 SD (40 % ) in the ballast condition. This normally should lead to a calculation of the
propeller cavitation or testing in a cavitation tunnel. For some reason, such investiga
tions were neglected for this ship. ~
2. The superstructure may be excited at resonance by the 4 and the 5bladed propellers at
full speed:
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Blade frequency, 5 blades: 10 .5 Hz
Blade frequency, 6 blades: 12 .6 Hz
As the intention was to use a 4bladed propeller, the superstructure longitudinal reson
ance should be calculated.
3. The 2ndorder free moment was supposed to be too small to cause annoying hull girder
resonance excitation ( < 500 kN m).
l~\
v
0,2
4 ORDER
mm
0, 1
Subsequent measurements on board when the ship was loaded gave the following results:
The superstructure resonance was not found in the fullspeed range. However, the
measurements indicated that the resonance was in the range estimated; see Fig. 3. The
vibration levels in the superstructure were found to be within acceptable limits.
The pressure impulses of blade frequency above the propeller at 125 rl minp were
found to be 4000 NI m2.
No annoying hull girder resonance was found in the fullspeed range.
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Example 2 (see also Fig. 2.4)
2,0
E
E
+I
w"'
a
::::>

......
1, 5 _J
Q..
~
4C(
z
0
1,0
e
o,s
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0
10 5 106 107 10 B 109 110 111 112 113
r/min.
Fig. 4 Measured huJJ girder natural frequency response in the superstructure, 5node
mode
Stage/: Investigation
( l ) Lines: expected =
0.7 (Table. Section 3.2.4)
WT max
We =
0.36(Fig.3.JO)
(2) Propeller excitation: estimated pressure impulses (Formula. Section 3 .2.4).
Load Ballast
AtPointl,LlPc1= 4400 N/m 2 4900 NI m1
At Point 2, LlP c2: 4800 N/m 2 5300 N/m 1
Stage I: Results
1: The average recommended upper limits for pressure impulse levels are found to be
8500 and 9500 NI m 2 , respectively, for the loaded and ballast conditions. Thus the esti
mated pressure impulses for a standard propeller are more than 1 SD (40 % ) below the
recommended values, and only minor additional investigations of the propeller should
be necessary.
2. The superstructure may be excited at resonance by the 5bladed propeller:
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The four lowest hull girder modes were calculated for loaded and ballasted conditions, us
ing a beam model and the computer program NV480. Besides the hull girder resonances,
the 0node mode longitudinal resonances were to be investigated.
l . The hull girder natural frequency in the ballast condition were calculated to be 3 .5 Hz
or 210 vibrations per minute for the 4th mode, as illustrated in Fig. 5. This means that
the resonance condition will occur at l 05 r/ min, while the ship most probably will run
at 11 O r/ min at normal service speed. A heavier load condition results in lower fre
quency.
The situation was not satisfactory. It was decided therefore to allow space for a mo
ment compensator and leave the installation of this until after the vibration behavior
had been tested while operating the ship.
2. The fundamental shaft longitudinal resonance was estimated to be 13.75 Hz (Fig. 4.2)
and would occur at 118 r I min. This resonance is far above the superstructure reson
ance.
The 5noded hull resonance was found at 110 r/ min, Figs. 4 and 5.
Longitudinal vibration lev~l at superstructure navigation deck: 34 mm/ s (2ndorder) at
110 r/min.
Longitudinal vibration of same at 114 r I minp: 6 mm/ s (4th order).
Vertical response of A.P . at 114 r/minP: 2.9 mm/s(4thorder).
Pressure impulse above propeller at l 14 r/ minP: 5 200 NI m2 at Point 1.
.....
78
As the hull resonance close to full speed caused a vibration level five times what was ac
ceptable, the moment compensator was installed. Measurements later at the same ballast
condition showed no significant 2ndorder response at the hull girder resonance, 110
r/min.
I
3 150 I
I
Hz vi br. /min .
I
I
2 120 I
I
1. CALCULATED NV480 BALLAST
2. MEASURED, BALLAST
0 ESTIMATED FROM FIG. 5.5
1 60
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0 20 40 60 80 100 120
r /min.
1
      1
I
0 , 30
0,20
0,10
Heavy vibration was reported in the superstructure of this ship, in both the loaded and bal
last conditions, as illustrated in Fig. 6. It was concluded after measurements that the su
perstructure was excited close to resonance by the blade frequency of the 5bladed pro
peller at full service speed. In this case a change in the excitation frequency by the fitting of
a propeller with 4 or 6 blades was considered to be the only way of solving the problem.
It will be shown in the following how, by the use of the proposed vibration check pro
cedure, the necessary measures could have been taken at an early stage in the design pro
cess.
LNG carrier:
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Block coefficient, loaded CB
Superstructure l/h = 0.85
Main propulsion machinery 1 steam turbine propulsion plant
40 000 shp at l 05 propeller r/ minP
propeller diameter D = 7 .65 m
speed, trial, estimated 21 knots ( l 0 .8 ml s)
Stage!: Investigation
Loaded condition
At Point l, llP cl : 5900 N/m2
At Point 2, llP c2 = 6400 N/m2
Stage!: Results
I. In this case the estimated pressure impulses are higher than the average recommended
value of 3700 N/m 2 taken from Fig. 3.11 . Model wake measurements and cavitation
tests/ calculations should therefore be carried out during Stage II.
2. The superstructure resonance may be excited by the 5bladed propeller at full service
speed as:
80
Thus, at a very early stage of design, warnings are given that the number of propeller
blades is crucial and that the propeller design should be considered with respect to vi
bration.
Based on model wake measurements and the selected propeller, the pressure impulses of
blade frequency on the hull were calculated to be 6000 NI m 2. This value is more than 1 tJi
SD (40 % ) higher than the average recommended value, and the propeller design should be
improved before carrying out a forcedresponse calculation, Stage III.
The shafting longitudinal resonance is, according to formula, section 4.2.5, assumed to be
not lower than 11.7 Hz. With a 5bladed propeller this resonance will occur at 140 pro
peller r I minp, which is far above the full speed.
At this stage of the project the investigation of the original design was closed and the ship
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was built with a 5bladed conventional propeller. After the problems occurred it was deci
ded to investigate further, as outlined in Stage II. However, this started with the investiga
tion of the optimum number of propeller blades with respect to vibration.
A finite element model was made of the ship, Fig. 7, and the forced response was calculat
ed as for a conventional propeller with 4 to 6 blades by means of the SESAM 69 computer
program system. The results are given in Fig. 8, from which the propeller with 4 blades
was found to be the most favourable one.
It will be observed that the longitudinal resonance of the superstructure in the ballast con
dition was calculated to be 9 Hz, which corresponds very well with the high vibration level
recorded for the original 5bladed propeller. However, the calculated response at the navi
gation deck level for the 4bladed propeller exceeded the upper design limit. 4 mm/ s, re
commended by Det norske Veritas. Thus it was decided to go for an improved propeller
design. This new propeller delivered a pressure impulse calculated to be 3700
NI m2, compared with 5400 NI m2 for the conventional one.
The vibration level in ballast condition after fitting of the new 4bladed propeller is shown
in Fig. 9. Compared with the response caused by the original propeller with 5 blades, the
vibration level (mm/ s) was reduced by a factor of approximately I 0.
81
The costs involved in the changing of the propeller were tremendous compared with a de
signstage prediction .
The following are extracts from measured results before and after changing of the propel
ler:
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iL,
Fig. 7 Threedimensional finite element model
82
I I
I I
I I
I I
AMPLITUDE I I
I I
IN mm I I
I
1J0
'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I I
I
I I
I
I II
I I
0, 75 I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I FULL LOAD COND.
v I
I

0,50
I
I BALLAST COND.
I
\
I
\
\
'
\
\
\
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\
0,25
e'
' j \'
/ . ..o
>,. .
\ ;
I
'J
0,04
E 4th ORDER
E
0,02 z
w
0
:::>

I
_J
0....
~
<(
0
85 90 95 lOO r/min 105
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