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GUIDELINES

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PREVENTION OF HARMFUL
VIBRATION IN SHIPS

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JULY 1983

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~
!l?>;,111;"1~~

VERITEC
'9ICas Oftlhore TedlncJloiY
and Servka A/S
BIBLIOTEKET

DETNORSKE
VERITAS VERITASVEIEN 1, 1322 H0VIK, NORWAY
TELEPHONES: +47 2 12 99 00 TELEX: 76192
INTRODUCTION
General.
e Guidelines are publications which give information and advice on technical and formal
matters related to the design, building, operating, maintenance and repair of vessels
and other objects, as well as services rendered by VERITAS in this connection. As-
pects concerning classification may be included in the publication.

An updated List of Guidelines available is given in the latest edition of the Introduction
Booklet to the Rules for Classification of Steel Ships.

The present edition of these Guidelines supersedes the edition May 1980 of the same
guidelines.

Major Changes.
Sec. 3 Excitation Sources.
This section has been rewritten in order to simplify the calculation of the propeller ex-
citation forces. Data for the free moments of main engines with 4 and 5 cylinders have
been included.
Sec. 5 Ship Structure Vibration.

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A diagram for estimation of the superstructure vibration level has been included, to-
gether with an example investigation of local deck vibration.
Appendix B.
To illustrate the use of the Guidelines three complete worked examples have been pre-
sented.
Corrections and Clarifications.
In addition to the above stated changes, some detected errors have been corrected and a
number of clarifying amendments of the wording have been made.

Det norske Veritas 1983


Printed in Norway by Det norske Veritas
10.83 1500
CONTENTS

Page
1. GENERAL
1.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 5
1.2 Definitions ... ......... . . . ....... .. . . . . ...... . ... . ... . ... .. .... .. . . .. 6
1.3 Vibration principles ................................................... 8

2. VIBRATION CHECK PROCEDURE


2.1 General ........................................ . . . . . . .. . . ......... 12
2 .2 Design concept investigation (Stage I) ..... .... ... . ...... .. ..... ......... 14
2.3 Preliminary design investigation (Stage II) . . ..... . .......... . . . ... ...... .. 16
2 .4 Final design investigation (Stage III) .. .. .. ....... . .......... .. . . ......... 17
2.5 Examples ...................... .. ... ....... .. .... .................. 17

3. EXCITATION SOURCES
3.1 General ............... ...... .. ...... ... .... ......... .............. 22
3 .2 Propeller ............... . .. ... . . .. . .......... .. ..... ............... 23
3 .3 Main propulsion engine .. . .... .. . ... . ....... . . .... . .. .... . .... ... . . .. 34

4. SHAFTING VIBRATION
4.1 General ................... ............................. . .......... 35
4.2 Longitudinal vibration ... . ....... . ... . ... . ... . ... .... . . . .. . ..... . ..... 36
4.3 Torsional vibration ..... ........ . .. ......... .. ..... ... . .. ........... . 39
4.4 Whirling vibration ........ . . .. .... . . .. . .. .. .......................... 40

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5. SHIP STRUCTURE VIBRATION
5 .1 General ...................... .... . ... ........ .. . .... ...... . . ...... 41
5.2 Hull girder vibration ............. .. ........ . ..... .. ... . .. ..... . ...... 41
5.3 Superstructure vibration ......... ................ . .......... . ......... 46
5 .4 Local structure vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 5 I
5.5 Forced vibration of afterbody .. . .. ......... : .. . .. .... .. .... .. . . . ....... 55

19 6. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
6 .1 General ....... . ................................ ......... . .. . ... . .. 57
6.2 Stiffness and support of afterbody and superstructure. .. . ... . ..... . . ... . .... 57
6 .3 Stiffness and support of superstructure in Ro-Ro ships .................. .. .. 59
6.4 Local deck areas in the superstructure ................... . .. ....... . . .. . . 59
6.5 Design details in the after peak structure .. ............ ... . ..... . ......... 61

7. CRITERIA
7 .1 General ...... .. .......... . .. . ........ ......... .. .. ..... . . . . ....... 64
7 .2 Human exposure to vibration . . . .. . . . . .... . . . . ...... .. . .. .. .. .. ........ 64
7 .3 Fatigue of structure ........ . .... .. ... . .. . .. ... .. . .... . ............. .. 66
7 .4 Machinery vibration ....... ....... . . . .... ... .. . ... ...... . . ..... .. .... 67
7 .5 Shafting vibration ... . ...... ..... .... ... ...... . .... ... .. .. .. ...... ... 68
7 .6 Equipment vibration ................. .. . .... . ... . ........ ..... .... ... 68

APPENDIX A
Computer programs developed by VERIT AS . ......... . ........... ... .. .. ... . . 69

APPENDIX B
Numerical examples, application of the Guidelines .. . . .... . ...... . . ........ .. . . 7 3
5

1. GENERAL

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 In most cases, the ever existing vibration do not cause any adverse effects. When
vibration problems, however, occur in ships in service, these are primarily related to:

Crew annoyance and reduced comfort


Fatigue damage to structures and machinery parts
Malfunction and increased maintenance of machinery components and equipment.

Corrective work to alleviate the vibratory effects in such cases are often costly and time
consuming.

1.1.2 The importance of obtaining reliable methods for the prediction of the dynamic be-
haviour of ships at an early stage of planning is therefore strongly emphasized. Improve-
ment in design may then often be feasible and substantial savings obtained.

Such a design stage control-procedure entails a trial and error process involving a great
number of parameters, such as the magnitude and frequency of propeller and engine ex-
citation and the vibratory characteristics of shafting systems and ship structures, etc. when
aiming at an integrated optimum solution for the engine/ propeller/ hull and superstructure
combination.

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1.1.3 The topics are chosen with reference to ships in service and includes the following
main types of problems:

Vibration of hull, afterbody and superstructure


Vibration in the accommodation
Vibration in the aft peak tanks and in the cargo space
Malfunction of the machinery.

1.1.4 The three important factors to be considered when dealing with vibration pheno-
mena are:

Excitation forces
Structural response
Vibration criteria.

1.1.5 Efforts have been made to prepare a vibration check-procedure for the various sta-
ges of design, supplied by descriptions of how to do it by the use of simple equations and
empirical formulas. Reference is also made to computerized methods.

1.1.6 The guide primarily aims at controlling the vibration level in the structure, so as to
avoid the risk of structural damage and the exposure of crew to annoying vibration. The
main propulsion and auxiliary machinery systems are therefore treated primarily as sour-
ces of structural vibration.
6

1.2 Definitions

t.2.1 When dealing with vibration phenomena, it is necessary to be aquainted with the
general terminology applied in the field. A list of terms is therefore here included, as fol-
lows:

Vibratory system: Any system containing mass and elasticity - with or without
damping.
Natural frequency: A frequency of free vibrations of a system.
Excitation: Quasi-periodic or random varying forces/ moments applied to
a system.
Harmonic: Fundamental or integral multiples of the fundamental sinu-

Resonance:
soid.
A state of coincidence between periodicity of applied excita-
_.,
tion and system natural frequency.
Critical speed: A speed (of a machine, a shaft, etc.) at which resonance oc-
curs.
Supercritical: Running above the critical speed, Fig. 1.1.
Subcritical: Running below the critical speed, Fig. 1.1.
Mode of vibration: Characteristic pattern related to number of nodes (e.g. 2-node
mode, etcJ, Fig. 1.2 .
Mode shape: Relative amplitude curve.

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Node: Positions of vibratory rest, Fig. I .2.
Antinode: Positions of vibratory maxima, Fig. 1.2.

RESONANCE

w
0
~
....::::;
II...
:l:
<(
SUBCRITICAL

FREQUENCY ANTI NODE

Fig. 1.1 Sub- and supercritical excitation Fig. 1.2 Node and antinode

Vibration amplitude: Maximum value of a sinusoidal quantity (displaceme~t, veloci-


ty. acceleration), Fig. 1.3.
Frequency: Cycles per second, in Hz.
Period: Time to complete one cycle, Fig. 1.3 .
Spectrum: Description of quantity as a function of frequency, Fig. 1.4.
7

LU
c
:::>
1-

PEAK ...J
IL
AMPLITUDE ~
<(

PERIOD

FREQUENCY
Fig. 1.3 Vibration amplitude Fig. 1.4 Frequency spectrum

Steady state vibration: Continuing periodic vibration, Fig. 1.5.


Peak-to-peak value: Algebraic difference between extreme values of a quantity.
( = a = 2b in Fig. 1.6)
- RMS value: Root mean square value (I/ v'f peak value for sinusoid).
( = c in Fig. I .6)

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PERIOD= T

Fig. 1.5 Steady-state vibration Fig. 1.6 Amplitude definitions

r/mine: Engine shaft revolutions per minute.


r/minP: Propeller shaft revolutions per minute.
Order: Number of oscillations per shaft revolution.
Global vibration: Vibration of main parts of the ship as:
Hull girder
Superstructure.
- Local vibration: Vibration of minor parts of the ship as:
Girders
Panels
Decks.
A.P .: Aft perpendicular, abbreviation for the aftmost position on the
weather deck.
Pressure amplitude: Harmonic components of propeller-induced hull surface pre-
ssure (peak value) (also referred to as pressure impulse).
- Full speed range: 90- l 00 % of max. continuous service r I minP of the propul-
sion machinery.
8

1.3 Vibration principles

1.3.1 Sinusoidal vibratory motion, Fig. 1.7, may be expressed in the following inter-
dependent quantities:

Vibration displacement, x = AsinuA


Vibration velocity, v = wx = u;Acoswt
Vibration acceleration, a = w2x = - w 2AsinuA

where

A = displacement amplitude in mm
w = angular frequency = 2 rrf in rad/s
f = frequency in Hz

Vibration level is also often expressed as fractional g, where

g = acceleration due to gravity (9810 mm/ s2)

thus
2
g value __ ( wgA )g

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1.3.2 Any system containing mass and elasticity constitutes a vibratory system. In prac-
tice, all systems also contain some form of damping, usually considered as viscous in be-
haviour.

Consider a simple single-degree-of-freedom system consisting of lumped parameters,


Fig. 1.8:

m =mass
k = stiffness, (spring constant)
c = viscous damping

The system internal forces are

mass force

spring force = kx

dx
damping force = c dt

Let the system be exposed to an externally applied force,


9

Fig. 1. 7 Harmonic motion Fig. 1.8 Damped spring - mass system

Excitation force =F 0 ei1A

where

F0 = amplitude of applied force


uJ = angular frequency of applied force.
The system equation of motion is

d 2x dx -
2 + c - + kx
m --
dt dt
= F y,,t 0

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A single-degree-of-freedom system has one natural frequency and one corresponding
mode of vibration. The system natural angular frequency is determined by solving the
equation of motion, putting the applied force equal to zero, giving damped natural angular
frequency:

For general considerations it is more convenient to operate with the undamped natural an-
gular frequency

uJ
o
= VI mk

The system response to an applied excitation force is described by the system dynamic
magnifier (QM):

QM -- ~
Xst

where

xd = dynamic amplitude
Iii_
X51 = static amplitude = k

=~= ~
Xsl Fjk -
10

where

w = t"o ( forced) frequency


w0 ra 1 natural

g = damping ratio = c
Ccr
Ccr = critical damping = 2 y'km

Note that at resonance (w = wJ the dynamic magnifier becomes:

Also at resonance, QM can be approximately described by:

QM (res)= uJo (See Fig. 1.1 O)


(tJJ - W2

~=O

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D:'.
~
~ 3
z - Wg
<.!) QM (RES.I - W1 - W2
<( 0.1
:::;:
~
:::;:
<(
z 2
>-
0

AMAX.

0 -1-~~~1--~~-.~~~-.-~~~,---
f
o 2 3 .!!)__ 4
Wn

Fig. 1.9 Dynamic magnifier, QM, Fig. 1.10 Description of QM at resonance


single-degree-of-freedom-system for
different values of damping
t

Thus at resonance we have the following relationship:

Q _ Wo _ _ 1_
M - ltJ1-w2 - 2
Further it should be noted that there is a phase angle between the applied force and the sys-
tem response function

phaselag = tan - 1
11

This is illustrated in Fig. 1.11 , from which it is noted that the phase lag changes from zero,
through 90 at resonance and approaches 180 at applied frequencies well above the sys-
tem natural frequency.

Systems with several lumped masses and springs constitutes multi-systems. Such systems
will have vibrating modes with corresponding natural frequencies in the same number as
their degrees of freedom, Fig. 1.12 .

The natural frequencies are determined from the system equations of motions.

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Fig. 1.11 Phase angle between driving Fig. 1.12 Damped spring-mass
force and response when passing through system with two masses
resonance, for different values of damping

Systems with distributed mass and stiffness, Fig. 1.13 , have theoretically an infinite num-
ber of natural frequencies. In practice only the modes with a low number of nodes are of
relevance.

,,,..-- ,
.......

,,,,
v

Fig. 1.13 ~ystem with distributed mass and stiffness


,
12

2. VIBRATION CHECK PROCEDURE

2.1 General

2.1.1 Too often when vibration problems arise, the design stage most convenient for car-
rying out alteration has already been passed, frequently resulting in expensive and time-
consuming possibly compromise solutions.

In order to improve this situation, a procedure of doing the appropriate investigation in the
correct sequence relative to the stage of design is proposed, as outlined in Fig. 2 .1.

2.1.2 The overall planning procedure of this Design vibration controlled behaviour is
set up in Fig. 2. l , divided into three design stages. The sensitivity to vibration may be
checked at the very early stage based on simple and quick empirical methods founded on
full scale experience. Further, some criteria may be established to the next stage of the in-
vestigation to be carried out, and can be given based on the results from stages I and II.

2.1.3 The evaluation process is based on the results of the following main investigated
items, which is necessary to obtain a controlled vibration behaviour of a ship:

Response:

Hull girder vertical vibration

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- Superstructure longitudinal vibration.

Excitation:
Propeller
Slow running diesel engine
Shafting longitudinal vibration.

2.1.4 The complete vibration mechanism on a ship is rather complex when taking into
account all excitation sources and responses. It is therefore more convenient in this case to
deal with each problem separately, although more than one problem may occur at the sa-
me time.
The coupling between the above excitation and response items is illustrated in the follow-
ing table:

~
Hull girder Superstructure Annoying forced
resonance longitudinal vibration
N resonanse in afterbody

- **
Propeller x x

Slow running diesel x - x *


engine (verticaD

Shafting longitudinal x x -
vibration (longitudinal)

* caused by hull girder resonance.


* * excitation only possible with low number of propeller blades and low r I minp.
13

I TYPE OF ITEM TO I
DESIGN PHASES 1 INVESTIGATION INVESTIGATE i CONTROL OF
rcoNC:iPT"-, I I
I
Lc.f~Gf:! -~
I PRE LIMINARY
INVESTIGA
I TlONS
I
I
I MAX . WAKE
I
PROPELLER
EXCITATION

I
I
I
I
LARGE BORE
-
w
I (!)
I ENGINE
I EJCClTATIOO
<
I-

-,,_
I
J CJ)
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~iiruMiN'AAVI
&~~-- . . IGlTIONS?
DETAILED
INVESTIGA-
noNs

-
w
(!)

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rco"NTR'Acr-,1
<
I-
t/)
<=--.---'
I DESIGN
I
r=--~-.....'
10E TAIL
LP~IGN__ _:
I
rr-J----i
CLAS.SIFICA TION
:qRAWl,NGS
~~Al..!,?~- - -
I

--
I

/t
-
~
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
w

-
(!)
<
I-
CJ)
K
PAC

Fig. 2.1 Flowchart on vibration check procedure at the design stage

The annoying vibration of the superstructure is the primary object to keep under control,
and the corresponding most important source of excitation is the propeller.
14

2.2 Design concept investigation (Stage I)

2.2.1 At an early design stage the descriptive information on a ship is normally no more
than approximate principle dimensions, payload and performance.

Available drawings are usually limited to a set of rough lines and a general arrangement
which delineates position of accommodation and propulsion machinery.

Given the above information, the dynamic behaviour of a projected design may be check-
ed and relevant parameters evaluated before a decision is made on more extensive investi-
gation.

In the following, empirical methods for the evaluation of propeller excitation and excita-
tion caused by the main engine and shafting are described.

2.2.2 The proposed procedure is based on the results from a regression analysis on the
relation between pressure impulse level and vibratory response based on full scale measu-

rements (described in 3 .2).
Other equivalent methods may also be used.

Based on a rough <or finer) set of hull lines and preliminary determination of a few other

parameters as:

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maximum wake
effective wake
propeller diameter
blade area
number of blades
propeller r/ min. and power output

a first qualitative evaluation of the pressure impulses may be carried out.

The total integrated force and the vibration level vertically at aft perpendicular, A.P. and
longitudinally at superstructure nav. deck may also be evaluated. Recommended lines of

upper design pressure impulse based on 4 mm/ s peak vertical vibration velocity amplitude
at A.P., of blade frequency may also be established. The standard deviation of the method
is 30 % for the blade frequency pressure impulse component, and 40 % on the acceptable
pressure impulse /:),. Pc of blade frequency. This is of special concern to ships having the

accomodation in the aft l / 4 of the hull length.
The pressure impulse level obtained from the above method should also be viewed against
the probability of cracks in the after peak structure. This is of concern to all types of ships.

Should the recommended levels not be fulfilled, a variation of parameters is to be tested


out.

For extremely low propeller r/ min (as in case of a geared slow running diesel engine) and
a low number of propeller blades, the blade frequency will be very low. Thus, a possible
coincidence with any lower vertical hull girder natural frequency is to be investigated in-
dependent on the propeller pressure impulse level. (See also Section 2 .2 .4
15

2.2.3 Based on the length and height of the superstructure an approximate zone for the
possible superstructure resonance may be taken from the diagram in Fig. 5 .8. If the pro-
pel1er blade frequency is outside the given zone, further investigation of the superstructure
natural frequency may be omitted, provided that no shafting longitudinal resonance is clo-
se to the given zone.

2.2.4 The main engine I st and 2nd order free external moments should be known, either
by inquiring the manufacturer or by using the approximate values given in 3 .3.

Should the moments exceed some recommended limit (500 kNm) the possible coincidence
with any lower vertical hull girder natural frequency (modes of 2 - 5 nodes) is to be in-
vestigated. Such may roughly be taken from Fig. 5 .5 .

POSSIBLE VIBRATION PROBLEMS IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE,


DEPENDENT ON ITS POSITION ALONG THE HULL GIRDER

SHIP TYPES HULL GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURE


FORCED VIBRATION LOCAL RESONANCE
_:-, a RESONANCE LONG. RESONANCE

SUPPLY
COASTER
RO- RO ,I_!_ _!j
TRAWLER IF ONE OF THE LOWER M ODES ARE
21
- IF BLADE RATE FREQUENCY IS LO-
~
- IF COINC IDENCE WIT H SIGNI
or MAJN OIESEl
~~~~
EXCITED BY THE SLOW DIESEL ENGi WER THAN FREQUENCY OF THAT f"tCANT DA.DEA$
NE SITUATED IN AN ANTINOOE, AND VERTICAL HULL MODE WHERE DIS ENGINE. CASE A
FREE EXTERNAL MOMENTS ARE TANCE BETWEEN NODES IS LESS
HIGHER THAN 500 kNm. THAN 0 9 >1 BREADTH OF SHIP
1 - IF LONGITUDINAL RESONANCE OF
POS ll lON OF MACHIHERV
SHAFTING COINCIDES , CASE IA)

~-~......._,- ]
FOR CASE 181 ANO ICI THIS Will
ONLY HAVE AN EFFECT WHEN AL -
SO COINCIDENCE WITH HULL
LONG RESONANCE OCCUR-
CARGO, RO-RO, CONTAINER

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l!. - IF COINCIDENCE WITH BLADE RATE
FREQUENCY, EVEN IF THE EXCITA -
TION FORCES ARE SMALL
- IF THE PR E$SUR IS M A
PLITUOES ARE HIGHER
THAN RECOMMENDED
- IF COINCIDENCE W ITH. THE 1 - 3
HA RM ONICS Of THE PROPELLER
BLADE FREQUENCY

tn:J:T! I i fJ ! see 11
- IF LONGITUDINAL SHAFTING
RESONANCE COINCIDES
UPPER LIMIT

CARGO TANKER
BULKCARRIER RO RO
- IF THE SLOW DIESEL ENGINE FREE - OF THE AFT l / J OF THE - IF LOCAL STRUCTURE RESON -
EX TERN A L MOMfNTS .AR_E HIO H~ HULL. L.tHO-fJt If' THE ANCE IN THE AFT 1/l OF THE
THAN 500 kNm PRESSURE AMPLITU HULL LENGTH COINCIDES WITH
DES ARE HIGHER THAN 1 - 3 HARMONICS OF THE PRO
RECOMMENDED UPPER PELLER BLADE FREQUENCY
LIMIT - IF COINCIDENCEW ITH s1-GN 1o
FICANT ORDERS OF THE MAIN
PASSENGER SHIP CAR FERRY D1ESE\. ENGINE R./M IN

~
- IF COINCIDENCE WITH SIGNI-
,8 - IF THE PRESSURE AM
PLITUDES ARE HIGHER FICANT ORDE RS FR OM THE

iV~
THAN RECOMMENDED MAIN DIESEL ENGINE OR SH AFT -
UPPER LIMIT ING
- IF S IGNIFICANT RESDN
ANCE Of MAIN DIESEL
TUG ENGINE OR SHAFTING

~t--_-:V
OCCUR

FISHING VESSEL
1111111 MACHINERY

Fig. 2.2 General arrangement considerations

2.2.5 The position of the superstructure along the hull girder relative to the propeller and
engine room highly influences the probability of annoying vibration for the crew.
In Fig. 2.2 a summary of common general arrangements is given. Depending on the dy-
namic behaviour of the structure and the magnitude of the excitation forces their possible
vibratory consequences for the crew are commented upon. This figure may be of some
help during evaluation.
16

2.2.6 Summary of Stage I investigation:

The line drawings should be evaluated and the max. wake estimated based on statistics.
Based on statistics the pressure impulses, integrated forces and vibration levels should
be estimated. The results should be compared with relevant criteria.
Based on statistics and experience the natural frequency of the superstructure when
positioned in the aft l / 4 of the hull length should be estimated, and compared with
blade frequency for alternative number of propeller blades.
Based on statistics the lower vertical natural frequencies of the hull girder should be
estimated and compared with the relevant excitation from the slow running diesel en-
gine.
The general arrangement should be viewed against the probability of annoying vibra-
tion to the crew.

2.3 Preliminary design investigation (Stage II)

2.3.1 It is assumed that at the preliminary design stage more detailed information will be
available, such as final general arrangement, weight distribution, lines, structures, scantl-
ings and machinery.

2.3.2 In case the Stage I investigation has revealed the necessity for a detailed study of

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the propeller excitation, finer modifications of the afterbody lines should be tested in a
model basin and the final wake used in an existing computer program. This for the deter-
mination of the pressure impulses, thrust fluctuation, type. size and extent of the cavitation
(see 3 .2).

2.3.3 When details of the shafting are available, calculation of longitudinal, torsional and
whirling vibration may be carried out by the use of methods referred to in 4.2-4.4. Gene-
rally, the occurrence of critical speeds in the full speed range is to be avoided. In case a cri-
tical speed is close to full speed, experience has shown that the longitudinal shafting reson-
ance may cause harmful vibration of the afterbody as far as human susceptibility to vibra-
tion is concerned.

2.3.4 When found necessary hull girder vertical natural frequency of the 4 lowest modes
may be calculated using simple computer programs as referred to in 5. 2.

2.3.5 Review of the superstructure to ensure that there are sufficient numbers of vertical

continuous internal bulkheads parallel to the side bulkheads. The structure is to be rein-
forced where necessary.

2.3.6 The supporting structure should provide a rigid boundary for the superstructure,
and main structural parts in the superstructure bulkheads should continue down into the
hull girder where possible. Reinforce where necessary.

2.3. 7 Summary of Stage II investigation:

Wake measurements may be carried out in a model basin and results should comply
with relevant criteria.

b
17

The pressure impulses and the integrated forces may be investigated by the use of com-
puter programs or testing in a cavitation tunnel. Results to be compared with relevant
criteria.
The lowest vertical hull girder modes may be calculated using simple computer pro-
grams. The results should be compared with the excitation from the slow running die-
sel engine free forces and moments in the full speed range.
The two lowest longitudinal resonances of the shafting may be calculated, and be com-
pared with the approx. longitudinal resonance of the superstructure.
The internal stiffness of the superstructure and the supporting structure to be reviewed.

2.4 Final design investigation (Stage III)

~ 2.4.1 At this stage all steel drawings are available and advanced and detailed analysis
deemed necessary in stages I and II can now be performed.

2.4.2 Natural frequency calculation may now be carried out for the following items:

Local elements such as decks, bulkheads, girders etc. in superstructure, engine room
and after peak area.
Major structural parts such as superstructures funnel/ casing etc.

Coincidence with any relevant excitation frequency from the propeller and slow running

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diesel engine should be avoided in the full speed range.

2.4.3 When found recommendable, forced vibration calculation may be carried out to
check the actual vibration level in the hull, superstructure and decks caused by the actual
propeller forces and frequencies. The magnitude of the propeller forces and number of bla-
des may be tested out as well as the fluctuating thrust. Main engine excitation in the full
speed range may also be accounted for. Reference to available methods is given in 5 .5.

2.5 Examples

2.5.1 Example I (See also Fig. 2.3).

Stage I investigation
Based on the general arrangement, main engine particulars, line drawings, estimated wake,
ship speed, power output, r/ minP and a standard propeller, the pressure impulses have
been estimated and the superstructure and hull girder natural frequency evaluated. Let the
results from this investigation be:

The propeller excitation level turns out to cause no risk for vibration problems (blade
frequency pressure amplitude is more than one standard deviation, SD, below the
Average level, see Fig. 3. I I) and minor risk for cracks exist.
The hull girder vibration excited by the slow diesel engine is insignificant in the full
speed range.
The general arrangement is ok.
18

Considering now the superstructure one may find that. according to Fig. 5 .8 :

a) The superstructure resonance is well away from the propeller blade frequency in the
full speed range.
b) The superstructure resonance may be excited by the blade frequency in the full speed
range.

With case a), no further investigation is necessary before choosing the number of propeller
blades, as far as propeller excitation is concerned.
For case b), the superstructure resonance should be calculated by methods referred to in
5 .3, before final no. of propeller blades is decided. Such calculation may be carried out un-
der Stage III.

Stage II investigation
When sufficient data regarding the shafting arrangement is available it is adviceable to in-
vestigate:

Shafting longitudinal resonance in order to avoid the superstructure resonance being


excited by a shafting longitudinal resonance in the full speed range. Such investigation
is recommended when the superstructure is situated above the engine room.

The results of the investigation could be:

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a) The shafting longitudinal resonance is well away from the superstructure resonance
in the full speed range.
b) The shafting resonance may excite a superstructure resonance in the full speed range.

With case a), no further investigation is necessary before choosing the number of propeller
blades.

For case b), the superstructure resonance should be calculated by methods referred to in
5 .3, before final no. of propeller blades is decided upon. Such calculation may be carried
out under Stage III.

Stage III investigation
The results from Stage III may be the following :
a) The natural frequency of the superstructure is sufficiently remote from shafting longi-
tudinal resonance and propeller blade frequency in the full speed range.
b) The superstructure resonance may be excited by the blade frequency in the full speed
range.
c) The superstructure may be excited at resonance by the shafting longitudinal vibration
in the full speed range .

With case a), no further measures need be taken.


19

EXAMPLE
STAGE I STA GE I STAGE ll STAGE U STAGE ][ ST AGE m ALTERNATIVE
INVESTIGATIONS RESUL l S INVESllGAT IONS RESUL 15 IHVESllGAlrJNS RE SUL 15 MEASURES

HULL LINE PROPOSAL


MAX WAKE OK
e EFF WAKE OK .

PROPELLER EXCITATION
MAX PRES.SURE. IMP OK
e MAX FORCE OK
VERTICAL RESP AP OK
e SUPERSTRUCl. RESON

ENGINE EXCITATION

MOMENT OK

HULL GlRDER RESON OK .

Fig. 2.3 Flowchart, Example 1

For case b), one of the following measures should be considered:

Change the number of propeller blades

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Change the superstructure internal stiffness and/ or the supporting structure.

As for case c), one of the following measures should be considered:

Damper fitted on the shaft when the slow running diesel engine is the source of excita-
tion.
Change the no. of propeller blades when the propeller is the source of excitation.
Phase the propeller and engine excitation vectors when these are of the same order of
vibration and of equal magnitude.

A numerical example is given in Appendix B.

2.5.2 Example 2 (See also Fig. 2.4).

The ship is installed with a slow running diesel engine with a considerable 2nd order free
moment.

Stage I investigation
Let the results from the preliminary investigations be:

The pressure impulses are estimated to be low.


The general arrangement is o.k.
The natural frequency of the superstructure is remote from the blade frequency.

Further, investigation of the hull girder has shown that:


20

The slow running diesel engine rnay excite one of the 4 lowest vertical hull girder mod-
es in the range 0.85-1.15 x r/ mine

Further investigations are needed.

Stage JI investigation
Based on the recommendation given in Stage I calculation of hull girder lower vertical na-
tural frequencies may be carried out. Such investigation is recommended when:

The engine installed is located close to a node for the mode in question. and a consider-
able free vertical moment excist.
The engine is installed near an antinode and considerable free forces excist.

The results may then be:

a) Hull girder resonance in question is well away from the full speed range at the con-
sidered load conditions.
b) Hull girder resonance in question is less than 5 r/ minP away from the relevant shaft
full speed range.

With case a), no further measures need be taken, as far as engine excitation of hull is con-
cerned.

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For case b), a compensation of the engine excitation should be considered as described in
3 .3 .

It is further recommended to investigate the shafting longitudinal resonance as dealt with


in Example I .

A numerical example is given in Appendix B.

STAGE I
INVESTIGATIONS
STAGE 1
RESULTS
EXAMPLE 2

STAGE II
INVES llGA T IONS
STAGE II
RESULTS
STAGE Ill I
INVESTIGATONS I
MEASURES

HULL LINE PROPOSAL
MAX WAKE
e EFF WAKE
OK
OK .

PROPELLER EXCITATION
MAX PRESSURE IMP. OK
e MA)(_ FORCE OK
VERTICAL RESP AP OK
e SUPERSTflUCT RESCH OK

C:OMPENSAlE THE
J-fl'.,..-~~~~~~~~

ENGINE EXCITATION ENGINE EXCITATION

MOMENT

HULL GIRDER RESON -+---f'I>-~

Fig. 2.4 Flowchart, Example 2


21

2.5.3 Example 3 (See also Fig. 2.5).

Stage I investigation
The results from the preliminary investigation are as follows:

The superstructure natural frequency is remote from the blade frequency.


The general arrangement is o.k.
The hull girder resonances will not be excited by the slow diesel engine.
The propeller excitation level may cause a risk for vibration problems (blade frequency
pressure amplitude estimated to be less than one SD below Average and/ or risk of
cracks (See Fig. 3 .11 ).

Further investigations are required.

Stage II investigation
Based upon the results of Stage I the following investigations are recommended:

Model tests with wake measurements.


Model measurements or calculation of the propeller pressure amplitudes.

The results of the investigation may be:

a) The blade frequency pressure amplitude is more than SD below Average level (See

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Fig. 3.11).
b) The blade frequency pressure amplitude is within one SD of the Average level.
c) The blade frequency pressure amplitude is more that one SD above the Average le-
vel.
ct) The total blade frequency pressure amplitude is more than some 8000 NI m 2 .

Item a)- c) are for ships with the accommodation in the aft 1I 4 of the hull length. whereas
ct) is for other ships as well.

With case a). the design of the propeller may be acceptable.

For case b) and c) the propeller design and/ or wake should be improved in order to reduce
the pressure amplitude, or a forced vibration calculation of the afterbody should be per-
formed. Such a calculation is to be carried out in Stage III.

As for case ct), the propeller design and/ or the wake should be improved.

Additionally, it is recommended to investigate the shafting longitudinal resonance as dealt


with under Example 1.

Stage Ill investigation


a) The longitudinal vibration level on top of the superstructure comply with relevant
criteria.
b) The vibration level exceeds the relevant criteria limit.
22

EXAMPLE 3

STAGE I STA GE I STAGE 0 STAGE U STAGE m STAGE m


MEASURES
INVESTIGATIONS RESULTS INVESllGATIONS RE SUL TS INVESTIGATONS RESULTS

HULL LINE PROPOSAL


e MAX WAKE
EFF WAKE

RE-DESIGN
PROPEUER
PROPELLER EXCITATION
e MAX PRESSURE IMP. 1------ __, oWU NO .Of
e MAX. FORCE
e VERllCAL RESP AP PROPEUER
SUPERSIRUCT RESON OK BL.ADES

ENGINE EXCITATION

MOMENT -- OK
HULL GIRDER RESON OK ,

Fig. 2.5 Flowchart, Example 3



With a) the investigation may be considered as terminated and final no. of propeller blades
chosen.

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As for b) this may be due to:
l) The overall vibration level is too high over a wide range around the full speed range.
Re-design of the propeller to reduce the excitation forces is recommended.
2) The vibration level is only too high close to the full speed caused by a resonance
condition for the superstructure and/ or the afterbody. A change in the no. of pro-
peller blades to change the propeller blade frequency at full speed is required.


A numerical example is given in Appendix B.

3. EXCITATION SOURCES

3.1 General
3.1.1 The most common vibration excitation sources on board ship can be summarized
as:

Propeller
Slow diesel engine
Auxiliaries
Sea waves

and some of them are shown in Fig. 3 .1 .

The most important sources are the propeller and slow diesel engine.
23

Fig. 3.1 Main excitation sources

3.2 Propeller

3.2.1 Experience from measurements has revealed that the propeller is the source which
most frequently is the cause of unpleasant vibration on board ship. It is therefore of great
importance at the design stage that particular attention is paid to keeping propeller excita-
tion forces at a minimum.

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1 l:U
To Qo

0,15 0,1 5

0
t 0

0,10 '. >- 0, 10

0
0
1'
''
l
0,05 0, 05

4
;5
0

,'
6 z ' 5
'

6 z

Fig. 3.2 Normalized thrusf (F3) and horizontal bending moment (Ml) variations at
blade frequency. Mean values and standard deviations; 4, 5, and 6-bladed propellers fitt-
ed on conventional single-screw ships

7
24

3.2.2 Shaft forces


The loading on a propeller blade will fluctuate during one revolution according to the un-
even inflow. Forces and moments transferred to the shaft are the sum of the forces and
moments acting on each propeller blade. Since the distances between the blades are equal,
the forces and moments transferred to the shafting can be expressed as a Fourier series
consisting of components of multiples of blade passage frequency only. The excitation fre-
quencies are therefore:

n Z r I min ( z)
f = ---=-6-=-o- -0 - H

where

Z = number of propeller blades.


r I minP = revolutions per minute (rpm) of propeller. .1
n = integer (blade frequency l st harmonic n = 1).

In principle there are two methods of changing the shaft forces; namely, changing the fluc-
tuating loading on the blades or changing the number of blades. The fluctuating loading on t
the blades can be reduced by applying blades with skewback in such a way that a blade
will enter the wake peak progressively.

The magnitude of the forces and moments transferred to the shaft as normally experienced

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is indicated in Fig. 3 .2. The figures are derived from calculations for single-screw ships
with conventional propellers.

It is generally considered that propellers with an odd number of blades induce smaller
thrust fluctuations but larger bending moments than propellers with an even number of
blades. It can be seen that the thrust variations are in accordance with these findings. The
bending moments, however, have a tendency to decrease with increasing number of pro-
peller blades.

Normally, cavitation has no significant effect on the propeller forces transmitted through
the shaft.

3.2.3 Hull surface forces
Dominating propeller excitation may arise due to pressure impulses acting on the hull, in-
duced by the growth and collapse of the cavities on the propeller blades, see Fig. 3.3.

25

N
0,30
E
.....u
c..
~

0,25 _j
a..
:l:
<
w
0,20 ....J
C)
~
C/I
I
w CAV ITATING
C/I
0'15 ....J PROPELLER
::::>
a..
:l:

0,10 ~
::::>
~
0, 05
w
a:::
a..
,,,o/ /
0 ,......~NON

---o--
CAVITATING
-- - PROPELLER

20 30 40 so 60 70 80 90 R/MIN.

Fig. 3.3 Propeller cavitation

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Wake data is presented in ISO-wake maps where the lines are drawn through points of
equal wake. The Taylor wake (wT) is defined as:

where:

VA = measured in-flow velocity of water to the propeller disc.


Vs = measured velocity of the ship model.

With wT = 0,8 say, the water velocity at a particular point is 20 % of the model velocity.
From an excitation point of view, the variation in Taylor wake should be as small as possi-
ble. In the given example the wake variation is from 0.1 to 1. see Fig. 3.4 . This amount of
variation is by experience found to give rise to excessive propeller excitation. Improvement
of the afterbody lines gave a wake variation 0.1 to 0.7, which is assumed to give a consid-
erably lower excitation level.
26

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180 180
ORIGINAL MODIFIED

Fig. 3.4 Axial wake distribution for original and modified body lines

For ship with high block coefficients dead water regions may occur where the flow is
very unstable. Typical lines for such a ship is given in Fig. 3 .5. They should be altered be-
fore further tests are carried out. In order to obtain larger clearances between propeller and

the propeller aperture, this ship was designed with a very blunt water-line at the upper part
of the propeller aperture. The better solution is given in dotted lines, i.e. rather improve the
water-line angle than increase the clearances.
Note:
An increase of clearances may give a reduction of the excitation level only with equal wake field and under
otherwise equal conditions.
27

Fig. 3.5 Blunt water-lines for a ship with extreme full lines, with proposed alteration.

The fluctuating pressure field induced by the propeller originates mainly from the follow-
ing: a noncavitating propeller - thickness of the propeller blades and hydrodynamic load-
ing; or growth and collapse of cavitation on the propeller blades.

The effect of the wake distribution on the cavitation volume and hence also on the pressure
fluctuations is obvious, and our experience shows that the following propeller parameters
have a significant influence: radial blade loading distribution, skewed propeller blades, and
blade area.

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It should be noted that the number of propeller blades has, in general, no significant effect
on pressure impulses from the cavitation. Figure 3 .6 demonstrates what has been achieved
by changing the propeller on a ship. It was necessary to change from a 5- to a 4-bladed
propeller due to excitation of the superstructure close to resonance. A significant reduction
of the pressure fluctuations was obtained with the new 4-bladed propeller by reducing the
tip loading.

t PROPELLER 1 PROPELLER 2
z =5 z =4
AE/Ao = 0,81 AEiAo=0,76
Po, 7 10 = 0,80 Po,1/0 =
0,84
P1,0 i O = 0,80 P1,oi 0 =
0,57

4
-
-
~- ......-
6

- 0=-
- -
2
ui 0 vi vi ui vi ui
w ~
<t ....J <r <r <t <t <r
w <t w w <r w w
2 u 2 2 2 u 2 2
z 3Z z 2Z 3Z
2Z
ORDER ____. ORDER ...
Fig. 3.6 Pressure fluctuations on hull surface above propeller on a ship before and after
replacing original conventional propeller with a propeller of new design
28

It is important to note that the excitation force F 1 is not only a function of the pressure im-
pulses but also of the exposed hull surface area. An effective area factor in loaded condi-
tion is indicated in Fig. 3. 7. The area normalized with the mean thrust T 0 is

where ~p z is the pressure impulse (cavitating and noncavitating component) at the hull sur-
face above the propeller tip.

It is observed that RO/RO ships have the highest exposed area and therefore in many cases
the highest excitation forces even if the pressure impulses above the propeller tip are mod-
erate or relatively small.

There are significant differences between the pressure field induced by the noncavitating
propeller and that induced by transient cavitation, both with regard to phase angle changes
and in the manner in which the pressure impulses diminish with distance from the pro-
peller. Thus, at the hull surface area close to the propeller, total pressure impulses consist-
ing of the contribution from both noncavitating propeller and cavitation should be includ-
ed. This may be of importance for consideration of fatigue problems in the after peak. For
hull girder and superstructure response calculations, however, only the total integrated hull
surface excitation forces are of importance. In that case the contribution from the noncavi-
tation pressure impulses may be neglected.

Historic
In the cases of a chemical tanker and RO/RO ship the pressure impulses contribute ap-
proximately 87 and 96 per cent, respectively, to the sum of the superstructure response
from each excitation force. If the effect of cavitation is neglected, the response will change
completely since the noncavitating hull surface excitation force is only 10 and 5 percent,
respectively, of the total hull surface forces for the two ships.

Propeller forces transmitted through the shafting system are of no significance as long as
propeller cavitation is present and longitudinal and whirling resonances in the shafting sys-
tem are avoided.

~@

10
MAX.
RO-RO
-
TANKER
LPG
CARGO
.-
TWIN
SCREW
K
MIN . >--
-
FERRY

- >-- --
LNG
LOW
RPM

n
CARGO

Fig. 3. 7 Effective area factor A (loaded): F 1 = ~p z A T0


29

3.2.4 Estimation of propeller pressure impulses of blade frequency


The following are proposed for the selection of parameters aiming at pressure impulse and
vibration level in the superstructure below the recommended values. The method is deve-
loped based on a systematic analysis of 72 ships for which simultaneous measurements of
pressure impulses and vibration level in the hull have been carried out on 51 . In addition,
longitudinal vibration level of the superstructure was measured on 31 of these. Model wa-
ke field data have been included in the analysis.

At the early stage of design the amount of propeller data are rather limited. It is generally
recommended therefore to start the investigations using a conventional propeller with
constant pitch and blade area according to Burrill's criteria. With these assumptions, the
calculation of the pressure impulse of blade frequency for the cavitating propeller, ~pc
may be simplified to the formula

~Pc=
[(r/minJ Df
140 (d:R t [N/m2)

where

r/minP= propeller rpm


D = propeller diameter (m)
Vs = ship velocity (m/ s)
ha = depth to shaft center (m), Fig. 3 .9

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d = distance from r/R = 0,9 and to a position on the submerged hull when the blade
is in the top position, Fig. 3.9.
Kc = 1,7 - 0,7 (d/R); Kc = 1 when d/R ;;;i.1
WT max = maximum wake peak; when not measured, values given in Fig. 3 .8 may be us-
ed.
We = effective wake; this may be found by application of various methods published
in the literature. One method is shown in Fig. 3 .10 for single-screw ships. Note
that the values are model values and should be multiplied by 0,7 to obtain the
effective full-scale wake for use in the formula.

The preceding formula gives results for SD -30 % compared with measurements. This va-
lue may be used for the evaluation of the vibratory response of the hull structure according
to Fig. 3 .11 . Specially designed propellers are not covered by this method.

When it comes to cracks in the after peak structure, the pressure impulses from both the
cavitating and noncavitating propeller are to be considered as commented upon later in
Section 6. For a conventional propeller, the pressure impulse of blade frequency from a
noncavitating propeller may be calculated by the simplified formula

where

Z = the number of blades.


K0 = 1,8 + 0,4 (d/R) for(d/R) ~2 .
30

The standard deviation is -3 0 % . The total pressure impulse acting on a local part of the
submerged hull surface may then be written:

This value is to be viewed against the probability of cracks in the after peak area (see later
Fig. 7 .2).

The final number of blades should be selected after the critical speeds of the shafting sys-
tem and longitudinal resonance of the superstructure have been found. This is to be done
in order to avoid excitation by the propeller blade frequency of resonant conditions in the
full-speed range. The propeller clearances should be selected according to the recom-
mendations in the rules of the classification societies.
Fig. 3.8 Maximum wake peak values.
- Single screw: U-frame, bulb: Tendency towards lower limit
V-frame: Tendency towards upper limit

Tankers
OBO
WTmax = 0,6 to 0,8
Bulk
LPG/LNG

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Dry cargo
Container WTmax = 0,5 to 0,7
Ro-Ro

Coasters
WTmax = 0,5 to 0,8
Trawlers

- Twin screw: See figure below

With brackets: WTmax = 0,2 to 0,35


Twin skeg, type A: WTmax = 0,3 to 0,5
Twin skeg, type B: WTmax = 0,4 to 0,7

--~
WITH BRACKETS SECTION A-A

I
I

TWIN SKEG, TYPE A TWI N SKEG, TYP E B

Twin screw arrangements


31

Fig. 3.9 Input parameters

0,GO

W1

0,50

t
0,40

0 '10 +-----'---1-----'---!-- - - ' - -- l - - - - ' -- l - - - '' - - - l


0,40 0,50 0, 60 0, 70 o,eo 5 o,90
0,30 0,10 I

~
I I I

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PROPELLER DIAMETER CORRECTION
I

+ W'- !'....

-- -
0

--- ......_
0,20
-
r--
0 ,10 +----'---1------'-- +----'-- -1---'- - + - - L - - - - 1 0, 10
0,40 o,5o o,60 0,10 o,eo 6 0,90 0,02 0,03 0,04 0,05 O,OG DI L 0,07

L = LENGTH OF WATER- LINE D = PROPELLER DIAMETER


B = BREADTH OF WATER-LINE 6 = BLOCK COEFFICIENT

Fig. 3.10 Wake coefficient for single screw ships: We = (w + w2 + w3) 0,7
t 1

3.2.5 Evaluation of propeller induced pressure impulses of blade frequency


t Due to the dynamic behaviour of the hull and superstructure, the pressure impulses or to-
tal excitation forces cannot in general be considered separately. If a mean response level is
assumed, however, a preliminary impulse criterion may be established. For this purpose a
regression analysis of the propeller blade frequency impulse and the corresponding vibra-
tion level at the A.P. and longitudinally at the top of the superstructure, respectively, has
been carried out covering measurements from 51 and 31 ships, respectively. The results
are given in Fig. 3 .11 . This diagram may be used as a guideline for the preliminary estima-
tion of the acceptable propeller impulses with respect to the global vibration level of the su-
perstructure. The standard deviation is approximately 40 % of the blade frequency estima-
tion.
32

ACCEPTABLE PRESSURE IMPULSE TA= AFT DRAFT (M)


t.Pc =MEAN VALUE OF THE IMPULSES IN H = MOULDED DEPTH (M)
POINT 1 AND 2 B =WATERLINE WIDTH. MEAN ft
t.Pc 1 = ( liPc 1 + liPc 2 ) 0,5
VALUE OF THE WIDTH FOR 2
CROSS SECTION (DANO
fc -= BLADE FREQUENCY (Hz)

TA)2,47
(
t.P =543 10~ fc!B/2)
c'
H (N/m 2 )

40
0 -~~ 0 ~Ir!
B = !B 1 t 82) 0, 5

20 3

4
5
10
7
7r--~

5c===~~~=:i~~::J

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8000 5000 0,5 TA 1,0
t. Pc ( N /tn 2 ) H

Fig. 3.11 Preliminary estimation of acceptable propeller impulse related to global


vibration of superstructure.

For design purposes, an average peak velocity level of 4 mm/ s longitudinally on the navi-
gation deck of the superstructure should be aimed at. This is chosen as a basis when work-
ing out the diagram in Fig. 3 .11 . It is also assumed that the longitudinal vibration level of Q
blade frequency at the navigation deck level is equal to the vertical vibration level at the
A .P., which is approximately the case for all aft superstructures, as illustrated later in Fig.
5 .11.
I)
The following limits of pressure impulses are suggested for use in the evaluation process:

1. The pressure impulses of blade frequency due to cavitation are low, that is, L\P c <
(average - SD), where the average value is given in Fig. 3 .11 and 1 SD = 40 % . Mi-
nor additional investigations of the propeller need to be carried out.
2. The pressure impulses of blade frequency are moderate, that is, (average - SD)<
LiP c <(average + SD). This level is considered to be of such magnitude that measu-
res should be taken, either by reducing the propeller impulses or by calculating the
structural response for all-aft installations.
3. The pressure impulses of blade frequency are high, that is, LiP c >(average + SD).
This level is considered to be of such a magnitude that the propeller should be redesign-
ed and/ or lines modified.
4. The total pressure impulse of blade frequency LiP > 8000 N/m2. The propeller should
be redesigned and/ or lines modified.
33

Only a mean response level is assumed. Thus the effect of resonance is not taken into con-
sideration.

To investigate the effect of resonance conditions on the vibration level, some exciter test
measurements were considered. The maximum mobility (velocityI force) in the longitudi-
nal direction at the navigation deck and the mean mobility for the excitation frequency
range 5 to 10 Hz were applied. On average, the magnification due to resonant condition
was found to be 3 ,8. Hence, it is of importance both to reduce the excitation forces and to
avoid excitation of resonant frequencies; therefore the pressure impulse criteria discussed
in the foregoing should be applied with caution.

3.2.6 In the following various design considerations are discussed.

Propeller diameter and revolutions (r/ min)


The blade tip peripherical velocity should be as low as possible in order to reduce noise and
vibration.

Recommended upper level for the blade tip peripherical velocity should be:

vtip < 39 m/s

Propeller load distribution


Reduction of blade loading towards the blade tip is advantageous from an excitation point
of view. The limiting factor is the risk of pressure side cavitation and loss of propeller ef-

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ficiency.

Number of blades
Final selection of the number of blades should be taken after the critical speeds of the shaft-
ing system and natural longitudinal frequency of the superstructure have been found, to
avoid excitation by the propeller blade frequency of resonant conditions in the full speed
range.

t C /ea ranees
Propeller clearances are selected according to the recommendations in the rules of the
classification societies.

Maximum wake, Wrmax


A maximum wake wTmax < .8 should be aimed at. Otherwise large areas of separated and
unstable flow may occur and pressure impulses of higher orders. risk of blade erosion as
well as the possibility of hull vortex generation may increase. In case this is impossible. the
propeller should be re-designed or the clearances increased.

3.2.7 The propeller-induced excitation may be calculated by computer programs as re-


ferred to in Appendix A . In these programs a modified lifting surface technique is applied
to calculate the fluctuating pressure distribution on the propeller blades.
34
-
3.3 Main propulsion engine

3.3.1 The slow-running 2-stroke diesel engine may be a source of excessive structural vi-
bration when the frequency of free moments from the engine coincides with some hull gir-
der natural frequency.

This would chiefly occur in the case of ship size where the engine 2nd order free external
moments are in resonance with 2 - 5 node modes of vertical hull vibration in the normal
service speed range.

3.3.2 The excitation is due to the periodically varying gas and mass forces of the running
gear giving:

Free mass forces/ moments


Internal mass forces/ moments
Guide forces
Free forces and moments are always transmitted through the engine seatings into the ship
structure. Internal forces/ moments are only pure internal in case of an infinitely stiff foun-
dation, which is a rather idealized assumption for conventional ships. Significant internal
moments should therefore also be considered with respect to magnitude and frequency.

Present day slow-running diesel engines are usually not producing free forces; and the re-

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maining excitation is the 1st order moment in the transverse ( 1M H) and vertical direction
(lMv) and the 2nd order vertical moment. In the following table these moments are listed
for the two most commonly used engines. The 4-6-cyl. engines produce the largest 2nd
order free vertical moments, and are also the most frequently reported source of engine
excited hull girder vertical resonances.

Table of free moments in kNm

No. of cyl. TYPE A TYPE B

1 M\ 1 MH 2 M, l M\ l MH 21\h

4 1790 1534 2980 1222 1222 2318 I}


5 570 488 3710 396 396 2899
6 0 0 2580 0 0 2010
7 633 543 524 623 623 365
8 335 290 0 162 162 0
9 642 552 1240 818 818 658
10 253 226 905 788 788 0
11 - - - 500 500 378
12 0 0 0 0 0 0

It should be noted that some difference in the free vertical moments exist for the higher
number of cyl. due to different firing order.
Generally, when the 2nd order vertical moment exceed some 500 kNm special considera-
tion should be given to the case where there is a risk of running into one of the 4 lowest
hull vertical resonances in the full speed range.
35

3.3.3 In cases where the engine free I st or 2nd order moments are too large, adjustments
on the engine may be carried out by:

adding rotating mass on the crankshaft for compensation of the l st order free mo-
ments.
adding rotating mass operating at twice the engine revolution for compensation of the
2nd order free moment.

Reduction of vibration excited by the 2nd order free moment may also be obtained by fitt-
ing a mechanical exciter aft in the ship. Such a device must be designed with appropriate
mass forces relative to the pertaining mode shape and must be operated exactly at twice the
engine speed. ref. Fig. 3 . I 2 .


______ ,

EXCITER !777t
----IU..t...j
I
I

1
: :I
1
FREE FORCE

1----...J
I
__ J
-~~- 0
- .:.-=-....:
I
I
:-:-j

Historic
Fig. 3.12 Mechanical exciter fitted to compensate for slow diesel engine excitation of
the hull girder

4. SHAFTING VIBRATION
4.1 General

4.1.1 The dynamic response of the shafting may conveniently be divided into:

longitudinal vibration
torsional vibration
whirling vibration.

Their relative importance as sources of vibration problems for structure and machinery are
given schematically in the following table.

Table of shafting vibratory movement and concern to structure.

r~
Stern tube Shafting Thrust Hull Super- Local
bearing vibration structure vibration
t vibration

Longitudinal
vibration - - x x x x
Torsional vibration - x - - x x
10
Whirling vibration x x - - - -

>z
......
36

4.2 Longitudinal vibration

4.2.1 Longitudinal vibration in the line shafting Fig. 4.l may:

excite structural vibration of the engine room, double bottom and other local structures
in the engine room as well as local and global vibration of the superstructure through
the thrust bearing,
excite the propulsion machinery itself, i.e. engine, reduction gear, shafting components.

I
I I
I I
I I
,_/

Fig. 4.1 Longitudinal vibration of shafting

Usually the 0-node mode should be considered in connection with vibration problems.
This mode is a simple in-phase vibration of the whole shafting about a fixed point in the

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thrust bearing foundation. The total mass and the thrust bearing stiffness are the major
parameters.
For conventional ships the 0-node mode is in the range 8-16 Hz., and may either be ex-
cited by thrust variation of the 4-6 bladed propeller, or in case of slow running diesel
engine the gas forces.

Number of engine cylinders and corresponding dominant orders of crankshaft radial forces
are given in the following table. For example, a shafting system with a natural frequency
of 12 Hz could be excited in resonance by a 6 cyl, 9 cyl or 12 cyl engine at 120 r/ mine. 1)

Table of dominant orders of crankshaft radial forces

No. of cyl. Dominant orders

5 5
6 6
7 7
8 5
9 6
10 5
12 6

In general, the mass and longitudinal stiffness of the shaft itself may be established rather
accurately, whereas the overall thrust bearing stiffness is rather more cumbersome to de-
termine. The thrust bearing design may be of type:
37

integrated in the diesel engine


integrated in the reduction gear
separated from engine and reduction gear.

In the following, these constructions will be discussed with respect to simple and compu-
ter-based calculation of the 0-node mode longitudinal resonance.

4.2.2 As most of the present day slow-running diesel engines have the thrust bearing in-
tegrated in the aft end of the engine, a given type of engine will have a rather constant
thrust bearing stiffness regardless of the design of the double bottom structure. Thus, the
0-node mode is a function of type of engine, no. of cyl. and the length of the shafting from
the engine to the propeller. For conventional all-aft installations, the 0-node mode frequen-
cy may be determined approximately for one type of engine and no. of cyl. as the shaft
length and thus the mass will be of comparable size for corresponding kW and r/ min., see
Fig. 4.2. Alternative number of propeller blades have negligible influence on the natural
frequency, as the mass is approx. the same. This procedure may also be extended to cover
amidship machinery installations, as indicated in Fig. 4.2 .

VIBR.
MIN.
Hz

900 15

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14

800
13
'\
.@QQL/\,
\
84EF \

12 K80GF
\
700 \
\
11 \
.,
\

600 10

9
D
\
\
\

508
8 RND 105 AFT INSTALLATION

0 RND 105 SEMI-AFT lNSTALLATION

7
x
400;-~~.----~---..-~~-r~~-,-~~.----~---,.~~-..-~~~~~

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
NO. OF CYL .

Fig. 4.2 Longitudinal resonance of shafting of 0-node mode, for all-aft and semi-aft
installations
38

For all-aft installations this approximate natural frequency value for the 0-node longitudi-
nal mode is sl1pposed to be within l 0 % of the actual value and somewhat less accurate for
the midships installation, provided same type of engine.

Information about the 0-node mode should be requested from the manufacturer when or-
dering the engine.

4.2.3 For most medium speed installations the thrust bearing is integrated in the reduc-
tion gear. In such cases both the gear housing and the supporting structure are of import-
ance for the total longitudinal stiffness. Thus empirical values are difficult to use in a direct
assesment of the 0-node mode, unless experience from similar installations are available.
For a comparative study of structural solution, see 4.2.4. However, a rough estimation of
the 0-node mode may be obtained by using the simple formula in 4.2.5.

4.2.4 This design is commonly used in large turbine propulsion machinery, but is in-
frequently used for slow-running diesel installation.

The variation in the overall thrust bearing stiffness due to the individual design and di- !
mensioning of the thrust bearing foundation and the double bottom structure may be sig-
nificant and limit the use of empirical data. In cases where comparative studies are to be
carried out, the following structural parts should be considered:

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thickness. length and number of shear-resisting plates in the support
vertical distance from tank top to shaft centerline
thickness of top plate of the support
dimensions of strengthening material at any abrupt termination of the supporting struc-
ture near the thrust bearing
general profile of the support.

The 0-node mode natural frequency may roughly be estimated by the formula in 4.2.5 .
I~
4.2.5 For the 0-node mode. being a simple in-phase vibration of the whole shaft and
propeller mass Gncluding virtual added mass of water) about a fixed point in the thrust
bearing foundation, an estimate of the natural frequency may be made using the formula
for a simple spring/ mass system:

where KT is the effective overall thrust bearing stiffness and M the total system mass.

The calculation of the effective mass of the system is effected by adding the masses of the
propeller (including virtual mass of water) and shafting in the case of a direct drive.
Fig. 4.3.
39

~
9 '6

~8 5

SHAFTING SYSTEM WITH EQUIVALENT MASS SYSTEM SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM

Fig. 4.3 Original, equivalent and simplified vibration system for the 0-node mode
shafting longitudinal resonance calculation

In the case of a geared propulsion system, the mass (M) in the formula is taken as the mas-

ses aft of the gear unit. Concerning the overall thrust bearing stiffness, VERIT AS has ex-
perienced from own investigations the following:

KT = 1.7 - 2 .3 10 9 NI m when separate thrust bearing.

KT = 2.2-3 .0 10 9 NI m when integrated in slow-running diesel engine .

Special arrangements may fall outside the stiffness ranges indicated. Also it should be
mentioned that the lower values are norn1ally associated with low powered ships and the
higher with high powered ships. Comparison of the 0-node mode frequency using the
simple formula and the computer program NV 51 7, shows an overestimation of the fre-

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quency by 5- 15 % with an average of I 0 % when using the simple formula.

Using the given range of the thrust bearing stiffness the inaccuracy of the estimated natural
frequency can be expected to be within an accuracy of I 0-12 % , assuming an accurate
mass estimate.

4.2.6 In cases where the given approximate method of estimating the 0-node mode fre-

quency is considered to be of insufficient accuracy for use in the evaluation process, meth-
ods as referred to in Appendix A should be considered. These are based on an equivalent
shafting system consisting of lumped masses including a branched spring simulating the
thrust block. The results give natural frequency, tables of relative deflections and inertia

forces together with vector summation .

The reliability of the calculation, however, still depends on a correct assessment of the
overall thrust bearing stiffness.

4.3 Torsional vibration

4.3.1 Foundation reaction fqrces from torsional shafting vibration, Fig. 4.4, do not nor-
mally produce major excitation of the hull structure. Evaluation of torsional vibration of
the shafting system is subject to classification rule requirements. Resonance conditions are
to be avoided in the full speed range. In that respect, however, it should be pointed out that
for multi-branched systems in particular, it is not satisfactory only to base judgement on

11
40

-imple Holzer tabulation of undamped vibration. A realistic picture of the vibratory res-
ponse may be obtained by a detailed forced response analysis, in most cases also com-
plemented by synthesis calculations of all relevant harmonics. Suitable programs both for
natural frequency and forced vibration calculation are available, see Appendix A.

Fig. 4.4 Torsional vibration of shafting

4.4 Whirling vibration IJ

4 .4 .1 Whirling vibration, Fig. 4 .5, is of interest to investigate because at resonance, in


particular it may cause significant:

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additional dynamic stresses in the propeller shaft near to the propeller.
disturbance of the stern bearing as overheating or wear down.
dynamic magnification of bearing reactions, being the cause of structural vibration in
the afterbody.

MAJOR WHIRLING CRITICAL

ol

0 0,5 1,0 = xi l
PCS . OF AFT
BEARING SUPPORT

Fig. 4.5 Whirling vibration of shafting Fig. 4.6 Position of aft bearing support
41

The main vibratory effect of whirling occurs in the stern tube area, and is therefore more
difficult to recognize than longitudinal and torsional vibration. Among several cases of
wear down of aft stern tube bearing in later years, and also of loss of propeller, some have
been attributed to whirling vibration.

The position of the point support in the aftmost bearing is strongly influencing the natural
frequency as indicated in Fig. 4.6. Further, the next aftmost bearing should have a reasona-
ble load in all running conditions.

4.4.2 Natural frequencies of counter and forward whirl are calculated by dividing the
shafting system into a number of elements, including the effect of rotary inertia and gyro-
scopic precession of rotors and lateral and rotational stiffness of shafting, see Appendix A.

The difficulty in obtaining a high accuracy in the natural frequency calculations lies in the
determination of:

bearing stiffness and position of point of support.


effect of entrained water added mass and mass moments of inertia of water.

The accuracy of whirling calculations is therefore in general somewhat lower than those
for torsional vibration. However, the calculated natural frequencies are considered to be
sufficiently accurate for a practical judgement of the possibility of a whirling resonance to
occur in the full speed range.

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5. SHIP STRUCTURE VIBRATION

5.1 General

5.1.1 The pulsating forces from propeller and slow running diesel engine may either di-
rectly on the hull surface or indirectly through the shafting, set up annoying vibration in
the ship structure. The resulting vibration level depends on:

Excitation forces and frequencies

Dynamic properties of the structure


Damping in the structure.

Simple calculation methods for the investigation of natural frequencies of the hull girder,
substructures and local structures are presented in the following.

5.2 Hull girder vibration

5.2.1 The form of the hull girder vibration may be one of the following or a combination
of them:

Vertical flexural vibration, see Fig. 5 .1


Horizontal flexural vibration, see Fig. 5 .2
Torsional vibration, see Fig. 5 .3
Longitudinal vibration, see Fig. 5 .4.
42

Normally the vertical and longitudinal modes are coupled. For ships with large hatch
openings in particular the coupling between horizontal and torsional modes is of import-
ance.

5.2.2 In the following some simple calculations are shown.

Vertical flexural vibration


Vertical flexural hull vibration is the most important type of resonant vibration which may
be excited by the slow running large bore diesel engine 2nd order free moment in the full
speed range, Fig. 5 .1. Therefore, for ships equipped with such an engine having unbalanc-
ed 2nd order free moments exceeding some 500 kNm, investigation of the natural fre-
quencies and response for vertical hull modes of 2- 5 nodes should be carried out.

There exist several semi-empirical formulas which require relatively little work, involving t
only a few main parameters. These formulas predict the lowest natural frequency with
sufficient accuracy for general preliminary evaluations. Among others, the formula pre-
sented by Kumai is:

Ll~LJ )
112
N2v = l,61 10 6 ( /Hz!

where

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Iv moment of inertia in m 4
b.. i ( 1,2 + j ~) Ll = displacement including virtual added mass of water (kg)

L = length between perpendiculars in m


B = breadth amidships in m
T mean draught in m

7~

Fig. 5 .1 H oil girder vertical vibration Fig. 5.2 Hull girder horizontal vibration
of 2-5 nodes, 1.-4. mode of 2-5 nodes, 1.-4. mode
43

When compared with the finite element method, this formula has an accuracy as indicated
in the following table:

Table of comparison, 2-noded hull vertical vibration (Hz)

Ship no. Type Size (tonnes) Kumai F.E.M. Deviation %

1 Reefer 15000 1,54 1,51 + 2


2 Ro-Ro 32000 1.46 1,16 + 26
3 Ro-Ro 49000 1,49 1,6 - 7
4 Ro-Ro 42000 1,04 0,94 +10
5 Chem.tanker 33000 1 0,93 + 8
6 Bulk Carrier 73000 0,63 0,64

For higher modes:


Multipurpose 15500 2 1,62 + 23

where

v = 1.02 for tankers


1.0 for bulk carriers

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0.845 for cargo ships.

However, for higher modes, the accuracy of this formula is significantly reduced mainly
due to the fact that both mass and stiffness distribution (shear effects) is having an increas-
ed importance in the vibrating system.

Unless backed up by experience from similar ships the estimated natural frequencies for

higher modes should be used with care. In such cases it may be useful to judge the higher
mode frequencies from the plots given in Fig. 5 .5.

Horizontal flexural vibration

For the same number of nodes, the natural frequencies of horizontal hull girder vibration
Fig. 5 .2 are normally higher than those of vertical hull girder modes; for conventional ship
in the order of 50 % . The occurrence of resonant condition in the full speed range is less li-
kely to occur in single screw ships since no important excitation source, except the sea ex-
cist. In twin-screw ships excitation of significant magnitude may arise depending upon
propeller phasing conditions.

Torsional vibration
Torsional vibration Fig. 5 .3 sometimes occur in container ships with large hatch openings.
The center of torsion for these ships is below the keel, and horizontal propeller forces may
generate large torsional moments.
44

Fig. 5.3 Hull girder torsional vibration Fig. 5.4 Hull girder longitudinal vibration

Longitudinal vibration
Longitudinal vibration of the hull girder may be set up by the propeller thrust variations,
and the longitudinal vibration of the shafting, Fig. 5.4. In cases where large thrust varia-
tions or longitudinal shaft resonance occur in the full speed range, the severity o_f super-
structure vibration depends on:
.~
Longitudinal hull girder resonance
Superstructure resonance.

The longitudinal hull girder natural frequencies may be estimated by the formula:

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l
Nn= n2 n:-:A IHz I
VTT
where

Nn = natural frequency of then-node mode in Hz


n number of nodes
E = Young's modulus= 20.6 .101o(N/m2)
A = cross-sectional area in m2 of hull including longitudinal members amidships
L Lpp(rn)
b,. = ship displacement excl. added mass of water (kg)

The accuracy is tested for two ships as indicated in the following table.

Table of comparison, 1 node longitudinal vibration mode of hull

Ship size b,. Displacement during testing b,. Measured Calculated


(tonnes) (kg) (Hz) (Hz)

132250 38774 l 03 5,5 5


56400 14661 l 03 8,6 7,5

The formula has been used for calculation of the fundamental longitudinal mode for five
ships at different drafts, and the results are given in Fig. 5 .6.
45

\
\
6
'
-+-~~~--1r-~~---..~-"'<-~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~~~
REGRESSION ANALYSI 5. 1
VERTICAL HULL GIRDER VI BRAT ION FOR
GENERAL CARGO SHIPS
I STANDARD DEVIATION INCLUDES
5 --. 67/. OF DATA

..._
s Noot:s- - -- -.. -..
.......
N
:c: 4 -1-~~~--.-'~,_...+--~--'-4-~"""-l<..:.:....+-----.~~-"---'~k-~~~---="'-..._, SD =0 , 38 Hz
>-
u
z
w
::>
0
~ 3 +---i~~~~~-f---"'.....,,.-V"''w::i'f'"-""'2<"-l.:--=-~~~---""~F:-:::~~~---===--1 x SO= 0,31 Hz
u..

SD= 0,20Hz

-i:...::- _2_..tJODES
-x -~~'!:,"_ - - x- - -
-- - - x SO= 0,13Hz

NOTE : LINEAR SCALE ALONG THE HORIZONTAL AXIS FOR BETTER


DATA SEPARATION

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 TONNES


DISPLACEMENT /1

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5

N
:c:
200 SD = 0,23 Hz
>- I
u
z 3
w 0 = 0 2 5Hz
::>
0
w

'
u..
2

SD = 0, 12 Hz

SD = 0,08Hz

o +-~~~+-~-1-~+--+--+--+-1-+--+-~~~-1-~-1--~+--4--1--1-1-1--+-~~~-+-~~.._

10 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10" 2 3 4 s 6789105 200 000 TONNES


DISPLACEMENT /j,

Fig. 5.5 Plots of hull girder vertical vibration


46

o CDTANKER A 398 000 x 10


3
kg DISPL.

400 .10 6
e:. ~ A 353 000
0 @ A 153800
350 A 66 800
x@ A 39 BOO
300
......
250 z
w
~
200 UJ
u
~
150 ~
a..
If)

100 0

50
x
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Hz

Fig. 5.6 Fundamental hull girder longitudinal vibration frequency

5 .2.3 Hull girder flexural vibration of 2- 5 nodes may be calculated by simple computer
programs based on the lumped mass system. The accuracy is normally within 5 % for the

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fundamental mode and decreasing to 15 % with 5 nodes.

The hull girder modes of higher frequencies ( > 5 nodes) should be calculated using the fi-
nite element technique or equivalent methods. The accuracy is normally in the range of
5% .

For more detailed information, see Appendix A.

5.3 Superstructure vibration

5.3.1 Superstructure vibration is excited by the flexural and longitudinal vibration of the
hull girder. The total vibration deflection is made up of:

Superstructure shear deflection


Superstructure support deflection and rigid body motion due to coupling to
Vertical hull deflection mode and/ or
Longitudinal hull deflection mode
See also Fig. 5.7

The dynamic response characteristic of the superstructure is primarily a function of super-


structure shear stiffness and supporting structure vertical stiffness, and the degree of coupl-
ing to hull girder modes.

The superstructure rigid body motion is mostly due to a hull girder vertical resonance of
vibration excited by the propeller.
47

SHEAR
DEFLECTION BENDING
DEFLECTION

Q) c) VERTICAL HULL GIRDER VIBRATION

r
I
I
I
I

b) ELASTIC SUPPORT dl LONGITUDINAL HULL GIRDER VIBRATION

Fig. 5.7 Superstructure longitudinal vibration components

5.3.2 At the early design stage, a natural frequency may be obtained from the reference
curve, Fig. 5.8, based upon the height (h) and length(/) of the superstructure. The proba-

bility that the actual superstructure natural frequency is falling outside the given zone is
low, provided the support of the superstructure is within normal standard.

REGRESSION ANALYSl S
SUPERSTRUCTURE LONG. RESONANCE, f
35 SHIPS

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I S.D. = 1,0 Hz ( 67 '/, OF DATA )

15
4)

- ----J
2)

- --- ----- --
I 5 -- 2 SD
lm 5~I -~

10
....~ t ....
...... ....... ~x
/.X:IC ...............
e

N
::i::

>-
u
z
w
::>
/
..........

3)

MEASUREMENTS
x CALCULATION

0
w 1).

"'
u.
5
f = 10 xVJii. lHz)

I =IOm

1,0
NOTES:
1) 00000 dwt OBO : Internal longitudinal bulkheads : 0
Supporting longitudinal bulkheads : 2
Superstructure front and cofferdam
are out of line
2) 11000 dwt MULTIPURPOSE ship of unconventional design
3) 125000 m 3 LNG : Internal longitudinal bulkheads : 2
Supporting longitudinal bulkheads : O
4) 130000 dwt BULK : Internal longitudinal bulkheads : 4
Supporting longitudinal bulkheads : 2

Fig. 5.8 Approximate superstructure fundamental longitudinal resonance based on


measurements and calculations
48

Example

Should a superstructure have a ( ~) = 0,89, the superstructure resonance will probably


not be lower than 8 ,6 Hz. Having a propeller speed of 120 = r I minp the result will be:
No. of blades Blade frequency Lower limit
Hz Hz

4 8 8.6
5 10 8.6
6 12 8.6

Thus the superstructure natural frequency can be expected to lie above the blade frequency
of the 4-bladed propeller. t
In the case of a 5- or 6-bladed propeller a more detailed investigation of the superstructure
natural frequency is required.

Simple calculations
There exists several simple methods for approximate calculation of the natural frequency
of the superstructure fundamental longitudinal mode.

Historic
Such methods should, however, be treated with care, being generally based on an over-
simplification of important parameters. In this chapter one typical method will be present-
ed.

In this method the superstructure natural frequency is derived by a summation of the two
components according to the following formulas:

fr = frequency of rotation = 21.,.c y! ~2 !Hz l

fs = frequency of shear and bending deflection = ! yi !s c !Hz l

The fr is taken to include the flexibility of the elastic support and fs the stiffness of the shear
panels within the superstructure. See also Fig. 5 .9.

k = spring constant in NI m
I = length in m of superstructure
m = mass of superstructure in kg
r = radius of gyration in m
h = height of superstructure in m
GAS = shear rigidity in kg
b = breadth in m
As = n t l = shear area in m 2
t = thickness of longitudinal walls in m
n = number of longitudinal walls
G = shear stiffness in NI m2, for steel G = 8 ,14 . 1O10 N / m2
c = correction factor due to bending deformation -0.9
-- 49

The resulting frequency f becomes: 1 I I


r=v+v
r s

The shear natural frequency (f) is a reasonable task to evaluate whereas the rotation natu-
ral frequency (fr} totally depends on the estimation of the spring representing effective stiff-
ness of the support of the superstructure (k).
In Fig. 5. I 0 an example is presented. The natural frequencies fn fs and the resulting fre-
quency f are plotted as a function of the support spring stiffness k.
It is observed that the frequency f may be divided into three ranges depending on the sup-
porting stiffness. In this example the elastic support is of major importance for k < I os
NI m. Fork> I 0 11 N/m only the effect of shear deformation is of importance. In the stiff-
ness range between these two values both shear stiffness and elastic support stiffness are of
importance.

The method should be used with some caution. In cases where experience from similar
ships is at hand, however, the formula may be used to find the relative importance of the
shear rigidity and the supporting structure stiffness.
Say, for instance, that the measured natural frequency of the superstructure is 9 .O Hz and it


is desired to increase this frequency with I Hz due to coincidence with the blade frequency
at full speed. The shear frequency is calculated to be fs = 19 .7 Hz while the rotational fre-
quency according to the formula (or Fig. 5. IO) must be fr = 10, I Hz. To obtain the in-
creased frequency the support spring stiffness has to be increased with a factor of 1,32 or
the shear area with a factor 13 .1, which is nearly 10 times higher. Thus, in this case the
support stiffness should be increased.

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f ,Hz

20 f5 = 19,7 Hz

I
H = 13 m I
L = 17 m I
M = 510 5 kg
As= 0,6 m 2
I
k (N/m) I

I
15
r :::: 0,6 h = 7,8 m
I
I
1 r---- -, r
f 5 = 19.7Hz
f, =4,9110- 4 Jk

I
I
I
I
I a)
ROTATING
VIBRATION
10
1
f2=f2+f2
s r
1 1

-, 5

, I
I
I
I
b)
I SHEAR
I I
VIBRATION
I I

o +-~~~~~~~~-r-~~~~-.-~~~ ~-------

7 B 9 10 11
log 10 k
Fig. 5.9 Components included in a
simple calculation of superstructure Fig. 5.10 Example of simple calculation
longitudinal resonance. of superstructure longitudinal resonance.
50
-
RELATION BETWEEN PROPELLER EXCITED (BLADE FREQUENCY)
VERTICAL RESPONSE t:,,yv AT AP AND LONGITUDINAL RESPONSE
t:,,yH AT NAVIGATION BRIDGE.
REGRESSION BASED ON 57 SHIPS

BEST GUESS :

t.yH=0,768llyv+0,131 DH -0,033
H AP

/
0,2
/
/
/
/ t 10 /o 2 0 '/o

x
o, 1

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RANGE 10 '/, INCLUDES so;,
RANGE 20'/, INCLUDES 80'/,

0,02 0, 1 0,2

Fig. 5.11 Approximate longitudinal response of superstructure

5.3.3 Based on response measurements carried out by VERITAS, a regression analysis


has been worked out for the relation between the vertical response at A.P ., 6.Yv, and the
longitudinal response at navigational bridge, 6. YH at blade frequency. Fifty-seven ships ha-
ve been included, and the results are given in Fig. 5 .11. The variations in some of the main
parameters of the data material are:

Length overall L0 a: 87 to 354 m


Superstructure length/ height: 0.68-2.6
Superstructure breadth/ height: 0.77-2.46
Distance from A.P. to superstructure front, D AP
0.132-0.27
Loa
Vertical response, 6. Yy .
Longitudinal response, 6. YH
0.5-2

5.3.4 When more accurate investigation is required than described in 5 .3 .2, the super-
structure longitudinal free vibration may be calculated using the finite element method re-
ferred to in Appendix A. Normally the accuracy of the calculation is within 5 % for the
fundamental longitudinal mode.
51

5.4 Local structure vibration

5.4.1 Most vibration problems on board ship occur as local vibration, either as a result of
a relatively high vibration level of hull and/ or superstructure or because of resonance
condition in the local structure itself.

Local vibration in this context is concerned with deck area, bulkheads, panels, girders,
etc. In the following some formulas are given for the preliminary investigation of beams,
panels, bulkheads etc. including the effect of added mass of water, and reference is given to
computer-based methods.

It is recommended that panels and decks should have a natural frequency of vibration in
the fundamental mode which lies at least 15 % away from the most significant local ex-
citation frequency arising from the propeller and main engine. In addition, the inaccuracy
of calculation has to be accounted for.

In most cases local vibration is excited by the propeller pressure impulses. Of secondary
t importance are the firing impulses from a slow running diesel engine and the longitudinal
forces set up in the line shafting.

For local structural elements in the after peak area, the significant excitation frequencies
are the 1.-3. harmonic of the propeller blade frequency.

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In the engine room area the main orders from the main engine are most significant.

For local panels in the superstructure the 1. - 2. and sometimes the 3. harmonic of the pro-
peller blade frequency and main orders from the main engine are of significance.

Excessive global vibration will always lead to excessive local vibration. In these cases the
overall problem will not be rectified by trying to put the effort into reduction of the vibra-
t tion locally.

5.4.2 The formulas below may be used for natural frequency calculation of panels with
regular shape, uniform loads or no loads and no spring supports.

The accuracy is normally within 20 % , and depends on the idealization. Generally the cal-
culated frequency is somewhat lower than the measured one.

Naturalfrequency ofplate between stiffeners


Considering the plate boundaries as simply supported all around, the natural frequency in
air for the plate is given by:

t = plate thickness in m .
s = stiffener spacing in m.
I = length of stiffeners between simple supports in m (e.g. between transverse frames,
bulkheads, brackets, etd.
52

The reduction factor when the plate is immersed in water is:

L\ I = --;::==:::===:::==:::=::===
)1 + - - -c_s_ __
t

c = 0,08 with water on both sides


c = 0 ,04 with water on one side only.

-~
s.s
r I I
I I I
I I I
I I 2 I
v
I
I
v
I
vI
l
I I i I
~
I I
I I
y

L x:
I
,
I
I
... 5
I
.. r
I
s.s
l~ a

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S .S =SIMPLY SUPPORTED BOUNDARY

Fig. 5.12 Natural frequency calculation of stiffened plate

Natural frequency of stiffened panel


The panel boundaries are considered as simply supported:

IHzl
n = number of stiffeners between simple supports.

te = equivalent plate thickness =t + s (:-.:: 1) Im I


A =
cross-sectional area of one stiffener alone (m2).
I = moment of inertia of stiffener with corresponding effective plate flange (m4).
K = 1 for symmetrical stiffeners and bulb sections.
= 0 ,85 for stiffeners with onesided flange.
The other symbols are as defined before.

The reduction factor when the panel is immersed in water is:

1). 2 = ---;=:============
)1 + - -- c_a_ __
te) l + (+)2
a = breadth of panel = s (n + 1) [m]
c = 0,08 with water on both sides
c = 0 ,04 with water on one side only
53

5.4.3 In the following, the use of simple formulas for the determination of natural fre-
quencies of plates, stiffeners and girders is discussed with special emphasis on their appli-
cations and limitations.
For illustration purposes a typical deck panel from the accommodation area of a ro/ ro ship
is considered. As shown in Fig. 5 .13 the deck area is limited by bulkheads and short-span
heavy girders. Simply supported boundary conditions are applied. This is a conservative
assumption only if the panel is designed to have a resonant frequency higher than the ex-
citation frequency. The deck area consists of (mm):

One transverse girder, web 300xl 1 and flange 150x20, length 10000
16 stiffeners (longitudinals), HP 120x6, spacing 600, length 6400
Plate thickness 6.

Considering the steel weight only, the following natural frequencies are calculated:

Girder simply supported: f = 8.7 Hz


Stiffeners simply supported - with full length (6400): f = 6.8 Hz

Stiffeners supported at girder (3200):


Plating between stiffeners:
f
f
=
=
27.3
41.1
Hz
Hz

The ratio between the natural frequency of the girder (neglecting the stiffness of the stif-
feners) and the natural frequency of the stiffeners (neglecting the stiffness of the girder) is
defined as

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(J f n;r,,~r
= ___,...,,.,.._
fstiffener

In the actual case

(J = ~:~ = 1.3

t In the case of both vibrating girder and vibrating stiffeners, the same total mass is put into
vibration and the mode shapes are similar. Thus, the girder and stiffeners may be consider-
ed as two springs supporting the same mass, giving the resulting frequency:

f = V f2 girder + f2 stiffener = fstiffener V 1 + /J2


In the actual case

f= 6.8 J1 + 1.32 = 11.2Hz

This simple approach is close to the results of a finite element calculation giving 10 .8 Hz.
The simple assumption is, however, only a good approximation for symmetric arrange-
ments of girder and boundary conditions and uniform mass distribution. It is observed that
the girder will act as a nodal' line for the stiffeners when (J = 4. For girder with high tor-
sional rigidity this ratio may be even higher.

In the orthotropic plate theory which is often used, the stiffeners and girders are spread out
over the plate and obviously, therefore, the solution is valid only for a relatively high num-
ber of stiffeners and girders. The absolute minimum is two stiffeners or girders in each
54

1:ialf-wave of the vibration mode under consideration. Applied to the example with only
one girder, this theory gives f= 12.2 Hz, which is too high.

In Fig. 5 .14 the four calculation values for the example are summarized. In addition, cal-
culations are carried out for accommodation weight uniformly distributed over the deck
area, 25, 50, and 100 kg/m 2. The most common range is from 25 to 50, but even 100
kg/ m2 is possible for some areas.

In this example the propeller blade frequency is 9 .5 Hz and C is the correct calculation
method. Thus, resonant vibration may occur if the accommodation weight in this area is
approximately 20 kg/ m2. In the actual deck the stiffeners and girders will not be simply
supported but partly fixed at the ends, giving a higher resonant frequency. As illustrated in
Fig. 5 .14, the effect of one girder end fixed in calcualtion method C is given a dotted line.
In many cases the estimation of reasonable boundary conditions is the most difficult task.

--,

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- - -.- - - - - -1
.
-
-- +- ----
- - -"- - - -
.
-t
- ---1
---1
...._ - - J_ _ _ _ - - - -1

.j--==-1---=---=-
y~~~d@
--- -r - - - ---i- - - -

----c
- - ----
1!= = -=--=-~-=-~ -
-- - - .!...--- - - - i- - -
---- I- - -
1----- - - -
c-=--=--=-
l._ ~~-~~~
~-
r--- --
47 51 Sli 58 62

BULKHEAD
- - - GIRDER
- - - - - LONGITUDINAL
~ BOUNDARY OF DECK PANEL

Fig. 5.13 Typical deck panel


55

10m
~,

3,2mE .
3,2m '"-

L...L..L....L..L.1...Llu....L.1...LIL...J....L.J..J..I

ACCOMODATION BLADE 2 x BLADE


WEIGHT Kg I m2 FREQUENCY FREQUENCY

9,SHz 19Hz

100

50

25 E

.4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Hz
FREQUENCY

Fig. 5.14 Deck panel. Summary of calculated values: Steel weight 60 kg/m2. Total
weight = steel + accommodation. A = stiffener; B = girder; C = finite element
method; D =
orthotropic plate theory; E =
stiffener Oength 3.2 m)

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5.4.4 Panels having irregular shape, spring supports or non-uniform loads should be cal-
culated by the Finite element method, or equivalent methods. Reference is given in Ap-
pendix A. The accuracy is normally within 5 - 10 % , depending on the idealization.

5.5 Forced vibration of afterbody

5.5.1 Forced vibration calculation should be carried out when the pressure impulse level
is considered high with respect to the probability of annoying vibration of the superstruc-

ture in the full speed range .

Forced vibration analysis based on finite element methods are necessarily comprehensive,
and adequate model representation and excitation data are required to perform:

Calculation of the hull girder and supersturcture in one finite element model, Fig. 5 .15.
Calculation of the pressure impulses from the propeller, and integration of the hull sur-
face forces along the hull, Fig. 5 .16.
56

Fig. 5.15 Finite element model of hull superstructure for dynamic response calculation

KN/m

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.,,,,..,,,,."
/

\PHASE IN DEGREES

METERS AFT METERS FORE


I
A.P.

Fig. 5.16 Propeller hull surface force distribution ,


The longitudinal vibration level f.inst. in the superstructure at full speed is calculated by
applying the integrated forces in the finite element model at the blade frequency, thus ob-
taining the contribution from all the resonant modes in question, scaled as to their relative
importance.

This calculation may also be carried out using the same force and for a number of fre-
quencies below the full speed, thus obtaining a frequency I response characteristic as indi-
cated in Fig. 5 .1 7. Below full speed the vibration level is reduced in accordance with the
propeller load curve. The exponent is normally in the range of 3 .5 depending on the cavi-
tation behaviour.

\
57

~
REDUCTION : A 1 =A ( -f-) 3 5
'
w
>
w
~

z
2
I-
<
0::

'>

BLADE RATE

r ..... _/


A' "
/"'-
--------------""" ""
fI F FREQUENCY (Hz)

Fig. 5 .17 Frequency I response characteristic, superstructure longitudinal response of

'blade frequency

Several programs exist for carrying out such calculation, and among these is VERITAS'
SESAM 80 linked to the propeller program NV57 l, see Appendix A.

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There is an obvious advantage in carrying out the forced response calculation and the pro-
peller forces by one commisionare, as the availability of correlation improve the accuracy
of the method.

6. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS

6.1 General

Trouble shooting investigations have indicated that problems due to severe structural vi-
bration could have been avoided in most cases, if the main and local structural parts from

the outset had been designed for vibration resistance. High vibration levels have been ex-
perienced on board ship even far from the resonant condition of the superstructure, mainly
due to flexibility of the structure, combined with high excitation forces. The most signi-
ficant vibration components transmitted from the hull girder into the hull structure are the
vertical and longitudinal ones. It is therefore important to consider the support and stiff-
ness of the structure from a vibration point of view, as dealt with in the following, for dif-
ferent types of ships and arrangements.

6.2 Stiffness and support of. afterbody and superstructure

6.2.1 In order to keep the shear deflection of the superstructure at a minimum, it is re-
commended that (Fig. 6.1):

-
58

- side- and front bulkheads be witho.ut steps, and preferably also the aft bulkhead. In ca-
ses where there are steps in the aft bulkhead, continuity of the supporting structure is
to be considered.
at least one pair of continuous longitudinal internal bulkheads be fitted. Separate su-
perstructure in the afterbody higher than 4 tiers above the weather deck (excl. nav.
tier), should be designed with more than 2 internal continuous longitudinal bulkheads.
local steel bulkheads at different deck levels be in-line wherever possible.

INTERNAL
LONGITUDINAL
BULKHEAD


f f
t I
I I
I
t .,I
l
'I l
I t

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Fig. 6.1 Proposed superstructure Fig. 6 .2 Proposed vertical support
internal stiffness. of the superstructure.

6.2.2 The supporting structure should from experience include (Fig. 6 .2):

a continuous transverse bulkhead in-line with the superstructure front, and down to
the bottom.
superstructure aft bulkhead should be in-line with a transverse bulkhead extending as
far down in the engine room as possible. Alternatively, a strong girder should be fitted,
supported by pillars.
at least one pair of the continuous longitudinal bulkheads should be in-line with bulk-
heads in the hull girder.
the side bulkheads and longitudinal internal bulkheads in the superstructure should be
supported by longitudinal girders where there is no support by longitudinal bulkheads.

In a number of ships the structure above the after peak is usually of limited height and oft-
en without vertical longitudinal bulkheads thus giving a flexibility in part of the hull situat-
ed just above the propeller. Some ships have been found to have extreme deflection ver-
tically at the very aft end, often resulting in annoying vibration in the superstructure. Fig.
6 .3. In such cases the shear stiffness play an important role in keeping the vibration level
under control.

Recommended improvement will be longitudinal bulkheads through the after peak section,
well connected to the surrounding hull structure.
59

6.3 Stiffness and support of superstructure in Ro/Ro ships

6.3.1 In general, the design of the superstructure should comply with the recommenda-
tions in 6.2.l.

~
t------f I
~-'---~- -- - - - I
I

I LONGITUDINAL
(" DEFLECTION
..... ::~---- - - - - - 1
-1
VER IC AL
DEFLECTION

I
I I I I I I I I I
_.__._____. ___ T_T __ _
I
---1----T---+---
I
----- ---1-----,-- :
- ,--
I

1
I

1 I
- -T---i-J ___ II__ _
----- I ! I
-- -
-- G:J b
J
E;:J EJ
c )

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LON GI TUDINAL BULKHEAD

Fig. 6 .3 Proposed shear stiffness Fig. 6.4 Superstructure internal stiffness


in the after peak area and supporting structure, Ro-Ro ships.

6.3.2 The difficulties associated with this type of ship are the limited possibility of provid-
ing transverse bulkheads as supporting structure, especially in case of all-aft arrangement.

Therefore, the longitudinal supporting of the superstructure side bulkheads and internal
bulkheads should be the best possible. As a minimum, one pair of continuous longitudinal
bulkheads should be in-line with bulkheads in the hull girder.

The best solution is to keep the side bulkheads in-line with the ship side and also keep the
casing bulkhead in-line through-the whole superstructure, Fig. 6 .4.

6.4 Local deck areas in the superstructure

6.4.1 A superstructure being well supported and fitted with an adequate number of steel
bulkheads instead of light bulkheads is a good start to combate local vibration in the su-
perstructure. Further improvements of the design may be achieved by using experience
gained in service. Some guidelines are given below.

In Fig. 6 .5 a cabin deck consisting of beams and longitudinal deck girders is shown. Such a
deck will be less prone to excessive vertical vibration if two of the deck beams (130-160
mm deep) are replaced by webs (300 mm deep).
60

In Fig. 6.6 a part of a cabin deck is shown where acceptable vibration levels were obtained
after fitting of additional girders.

Vibration of instrument consoles, radars etc. on the navigating deck may be safeguarded
by replacing deck beams by heavier webs as shown in Fig. 6.7.

--+-+- LIGHT
BULKHEAD

'
BU LKHE AD 'f. GIRDER

I. EXCESSIVE LOCAL
VIBRATION
.)

Fig. 6.6 Vertical vibration in part of a

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Fig. 6.5 Additional stiffening of cabin cabin deck reduced by additional
deck by replacing beams by webs girders and pillars

-1 I
r+
I I I I I :
I I I I I I ~_.:
+--t -t TTrTT
I I I I I I
T'+L1 r t-r-r--r
I I I I l I I I
I I I II I I I I t.
tt ...L +L-rl..+l.
I I
I I
-+
I
D I I I I I I
I l I I
II I I
+t+t+r
II I I I 1
I

i++r+i
I I
I I
I I
WEBS

Fig. 6.7 Stiffening of navigating deck by webs


61

6.5 Design details in the after peak structure

6.5. l The after peak tank is the area most exposed to excitation from the propeller. Seve-
ral cases have beeen reported where plating, stiffeners, webs, panels or even bulkheads and
shell plating have cracked due to undefineable reasons. The following factors are found to
be of importance:

Pressure impulse level and frequency


Dynamic properties (resonances)
Ballast/ not ballast tank
Structural design details
Workmanship

Coating
Maintenance

The effect of these factors are rather unknown as to their relative influence. However, a
study of where the cracks usually occur have led to proposals as to improved design of cer-
tain details in the after peak tank area.

6.5.2 The location of cracks as experienced for various structures are given in the follow-
ing.

Frame/ girder and hull plating

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Some typical examples on locations given in Fig. 6.8, together with the better design pro-
posal, are:

a) aft end of sniped stiffener


b) at bracket toe, ending on unstiffened plating
c) crossing connections
d) in web of floor, girder/ frame just above the weld to the hull plating

e) in hull or bulkhead plating just outside the welding to floor/ girder frame/ stiffener .

Concerning ct) and e) the cracks most frequently occur in the component most suffering
from vibration .

The insert plate, Fig. 6.9, give a favourable effect on the vibration level compared to the
original design provided:

the insert plate is not fitted in a node


the frames do not vibrate in phase.
62

s = 610
REPAIR 11 AND b

~ d :ft 9

Fig. 6.8 Some typical crack locations Fig. 6.9 Cracks in frame just above
in the after peak structure the weld to the hull plating

Floors
Cracks occurred as shown in Fig. 6 .10 caused by a combination of vibration of the floor

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and a hard point at the butt weld. A simple improvement of the design is illustrated in
Fig. 6.10, where additional longitudinal stiffeners are fitted on the span. The effect of such
stiffening depends on:

the stiffener is not fitted in a node


the floors do not vibrate in phase.

Additionally, the detail at the butt weld is smoothened.


..;
~-f

,, '

"''

ADD ITIONA L STIFFENERS WELDED TO


FLANGES OF FLOORS

Fig. 6.10 Cracks in butt weld in the after peak caused by vibration of floors
63

Bulkheads
In Fig. 6. I I the wash bulkhead is better supported by stiffeners close to the cutouts.
Brackets should be fitted in the junction horizontal stiffener/vertical girder.

The center bulkhead in Fig. 6. I 2 is less prone to vibration when intermediate stiffeners are
fitted.

CENTER BULKHEAD

CRACK
/ Pl. ... ~
"'" 8,5
-

1
Pl. , .>
9,5

", Pl.
12,0
..,::.

,_..
A

,_ ~)>..
:

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-
::,.
......

---
'"",-- ----
I

---- ---- ---- .... - i----

ADDITIONAL
'~ ~
A

STIFFENER

ADDITIONAL
BRACKETS INTERMEDIATE
STIFFEN ER

SECTION A-A
~
SECTION B-B
~
Fig. 6.11 Cracks in wash bulkhead Fig. 6.12 Cracks in bulkhead
in the after peak in the after peak
64

6.5.2 The design of the after peak structure as discussed in this chapter should be carried
out with attention to:

improve detail design


reduce notches on webs and girders to a minimum in way of hull plating
improve supporting of transverse girders and floors in longitudinal direction. Max. dis-
tance between supports 1000-1250 mm
avoid sniped stiffeners connected to hull plating or bulkhead
avoid hard points (stress concentration).

7. CRITERIA

7.1 General

The three main reasons for performing design-stage predictions or measurements, analysis,
and evaluation of shipboard vibration are:

1. Vibration may result in annoyance and discomfort to the crew and/ or may interfere
with the efficient performance of their duties.
2. Vibration may cause fatigue damage to important structural elements in the ship.
3. Vibration may seriously impair the proper functioning of essential machinery and

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equipment.

Generally speaking, shipboard vibration results in annoyance to the crew before it affects
the reliability of equipment or results in structural or mechanical failure of structural or
mechanical components.

Over the years a large number of proposals for criteria or guidelines on various aspects of
vibration have been put forward. Sometimes such proposals have been lacking in clearness
of concept regarding parameters entailed, range of application, and conditions catered for ('_:
in the guidelines. Occasionally, inexperienced individuals have seen a diagram used in a
particular context and have adopted it and used in in circumstances for which the criterion
was never intended, without having resorted to the actual criterion to check on its stated
area of applicability. Hence, the need for careful study of the scope and application of a cri- ,
terion cannot be overemphasized.

7 .2 Human exposure to vibration

Various guidelines exist in this field. In the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) guidelines (Fig. 7. l) both the vertical vibration and horizontal vibration for the over-
all evaluation of vibration in merchant ships are rated equally severe. The ISO guidelines
are based upon data collected by a working group on hull vibration as measured on ships
throughout the world. These guidelines are intended to reflect the current state of the art
(what is representative of hull vibration performance of similar ship types), paying due re-
gard to the ability of man to perform effectively in a shipboard environment. An alterna-
tive is to base the criteria purely upon human reaction to whole-body vibration taken from
equal sensation curves as used in some guidelines.
65

>-

I-
u
0_J
LU
>

10 mm/s

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FREQUENCY

Fig. 7 .1 ISO guidelines for vertical and horizontal vibration in merchant ships
(peak value) (Draft proposal no. 6954, September 1979)
66

1,0

---- --
p
/
o,s J
I
v
I
,
I
I
/ aopo
5000 10000 15000 20000 llPz IN /m 2 l
10000 20000 30000 40000l1Pror lN/m2)

p DAMAGE RISK LEVEL (NO OF SHIPS WITH CRACK l


TOTAL NO OF SHIPS
LIP-z : PRESSURE IMPULSE OF BLADE FREQ.

LIPTOT: TOTAL PRESSURE IMPULSE

Fig. 7 .2 Recommended upper limit for the single and total pressure impulse
with reference to probability of cracks in the afterpeak structure

The basis for VERIT AS' evaluation of shipboard vibration is now the ISO guidelines. Ac-
cording to VERIT AS' own experience, however, complaints from the crew may be ex-

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pected when exceeding an amplitude of 7 mm/ s vibration velocity, peak value, for long-
time exposures. The ISO guidelines are applicable to both steam and diesel-driven mer-
chant ships of 100 m or greater in length and may be used as reference for the evaluation
of:

hull and superstructure vibration where design efficiency is of concern,


environmental vibration to which men and equipment are regularly subjected and
where. the habitability and maintainability are of concern, and
shipboard vibration data useful for the development and improvement of hull vibration
1-\
reference levels. ""J
The input for the evaluation is defined as the maximum value of a sinusoidal quantity, that
is, peak value. In cases of a recorded vibration signal built up by several harmonics, the
most severe harmonic with respect to amplitude and frequency is used when rating the vi- t.J
bration severity. It is suggested that the lower limit of 4 mm/ s (above 5 Hz) be considered
as a design goal while 9 mm/ s may be considered as an acceptance criterion.

7 .3 Fatigue of structure

The magnitude of the vibration level or stresses causing cracks is dependent mainly on the
following:

Stress concentration factor


Presence of corrosive medium.

The actual excited earlier vibration level depends on:


67

Magnitude of excitation force


Presence of resonance condition
Damping of structure.

As mentioned earlier, the area of the ship most frequently suffering from fatigue damage is
the structure adjacent to the propeller, that is, the afterpeak. According to VERIT AS' ex-
perience, almost 35 % of all ships have more or less serious cracks in this area.An investi-
gation was carried out to find if there existed a certain value of pressure amplitude above
which the other parameters had only minor influence on the amount of cracks.

The results are given in Fig. 7 .2, which indicates the probability of cracks as a function of
the pressure impulse level. As can be seen, about 50 % of the ships will have fatigue dama-
ges in the afterpeak area when the pressure impulse level of blade frequency exceeds some
9000 N/m 2 .

For design purposes the following two recommended upper limits are suggested:

f l. The total pressure impulse of blade frequency should be


LiPz < 8000 N/m2
2. The sum of all harmonic components of the total pressure impulse should be
LiPtot < 16000 N/m 2

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The recommended upper level based on LiP tot is more well defined than that based on the
pressure impulse of blade frequency, LiPz At the design stage, however, the pressure im-
pulse of blade frequency is to be used, as normally only information about the blade fre-
quency and 2 x blade frequency pressure impulses is available from model tests or calcula-
tions.

7 .4 Machinery vibration

When applying guidelines, one should be aware that vibration of machinery I equipment
may be divided into two categories:

Vibration excited by a source within the machinery/equipment itself (active ma-


chinery I equipment).
Vibration impressed on the machinery I equipment from external sources (passive
machinery I equipment).

Malfunction of active machinery or equipment can occur either due to operation in an ex-
ternally imposed vibration environment or as a result of excessive self-induced vibratory
response.

A number of guidelines have been issued by ISO dealing with the measurement and eva-
luation of rotating machinery. In general, however. these are concerned chiefly with the
self-induced aspects of vibration and have been derived mainly from consideration of land-
based installations. They can, in certain circumstances, be useful for assessing the severity
of on-board machinery vibration. but must be applied cautiously by experienced investiga-
tors.
68

Malfunction of passive machinery or equipment occurs when the item in question is ex-
posed to externally impressed vibrations above a certain level. This type of failure has al-
ready been recognized for certain items of essential equipment, and corresponding vibra-
tion requirements are specified by some classification societies. In most cases these require-
ments comprise vibration endurance testing of equipment to stated levels derived from full-
scale experience. This type of requirement indirectly implies a standard for on-board vi-
bration at the locations of the respective items; that is, the vibration level should not exceed
that specified for the corresponding endurance test.

A warning: Machines fitted with ball or roller bearings are sensitive to the imposed vibra-
tion environment at standstill!

7 .5 Shafting vibration

Shafting vibration comprises torsional, longitudinal, and whirling vibration in the shafting
system (see Section 4). Vibratory torsional stresses and torque are covered by classification
society requirements. The main critical torsional mode should normally be kept off the f i\'
full-speed range, and requirements exist for the maximum permissible stresses in the crank
and propeller shaft.

Longitudinal vibration is excited either by dynamic propeller thrust or by the gas forces of

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the main engine (in the case of diesel engine propulsion). Longitudinal resonance in the
full-speed range should be avoided unless satisfactory documentation proves that an ac-
ceptable vibration level is expected in relevant structures and machinery.

Whirling vibration may cause excessive wearing of the stern tube bearing as well as high
stresses in the propeller shaft. Whirling resonance in the full-speed range should be avoid-
ed unless calculations show that the dynamic stresses in the propeller shaft are acceptable.

7 .6 Equipment vibration

The concept considered here is the environmental vibration to which equipment may be
subjected, that is, the vibration impressed on the equipment through its point of support
from sources external to the equipment. The tolerance of equipment to impressed vibration
may be tested on a shaker table. Fulfilling specified tests related to given environmental
conditions, the equipment may be termed vibration resistant equipment.

In their rules, the classification societies have given requirements as to the vibration resist-
ance of essential equipment intended for automated system service.
69

APPENDIX A COMPUTER PROGRAMS DEVELOPED BY VERITAS

NV571 - Propeller Excitation

Unsteady lifting surface method is applied to calculate hydrodynamic loading on propeller


blades, type and extent of cavitation and pressure impulses induced by a cavitating pro-
peller.

The development of the method and the associated computer programs for the calculation
of propeller induced excitations have been closely followed up by extensive experiments
and measurements, both in the model tanks and on board ships, and the reliability of the
method has thus been proved.

The necessary data are:

Detailed drawing of propeller geometry (blade outline, pitch distribution and chord-
wise thickness distribution at several radial stations).
Nominal wake field (axial and preferably tangential components in the propeller plane
to about 1.3 x propeller radius).
Working condition for the actual wake field with respect to ship speed, propeller
r/ min, shaft horsepower, draught and trim.
After body hull form.
Shafting arrangement.

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NV517 - Axial Vibration in Shafting

The shafting system is transformed into an equivalent system consisting of a number of


concentrated masses connected through massless springs expressing the axial stiffness of
the system, effect of thrust bearing support included.

t The results are presented as complete Holzer tabulations and vector sums with additional
information for calculation of stresses.

The necessary data for calculations according to NV5 l 7 or NV5 l 7T are:

Detailed drawing of shafting arrangement.


Engine data.
Detailed drawing of thrust bearing and foundation arrangement.
Moment of inertia of propeller.

From the calculations the natural frequencies and critical orders for engine excitation and
for propellers with alternative number of blades may be determined.
70

NVSOO, NV503, NV514, NV516, NV519, NV522, NV523 - Torsional Vibration in


Shafting

The programs may give the following output:

Natural frequency tabulations (NV503, NV5 I 4).


Forced torsional vibrations, single harmonics and synthesis (NV500, NV523).
Secondary torsional resonance in crankshaft systems (NV5 l 6).
Harmonic tangential pressure components (NV5 l 9T).
Maximum torque and torque variation in diesel engines due to gas and mass forces
(NV522).

Straight as well as complex multi-branch/ multi-engine systems may be considered. Phas-


ing of engines and influence of irregular engine excitation may be included.

The output of data and results are mainly self-explanatory and should need no further
comments.

The necessary data depend on the programs involved, but for the more ordinary calcula-
tion of torsional vibration the following will be needed:

Detailed drawing of shaft arrangement.

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Estimated mass moments of inertia.
Torsional stiffnesses.
Damping data.
Engine data for consideration of excitation.
Data on reduction gear, if any.
Data on elastic couplings, if any.

From the calculation, natural frequencies, elastic modes, phasevector sums, vibratory tor-
ques or stresses for all significant orders in the actual speed range will be given.

NVSOS - Whirling Vibration in Shafting

The program carries out the calculation of the natural frequencies of whirling vibration for
the two lower modes for specified orders of whirl, both forward and counter whirl, of
straight shaft systems with radial symmetry. The effect of rotary inertia, gyroscopic pre-
cession, flexibility of supports and bending and shear stiffness of the shafts are considered.

The output of data and results are mainly self-explanatory.

The accuracy of the calculations depends on the accuracy with which some important par-
ameters such as overall bearing stiffnesses, or virtual mass effect of propeller entrained wa-
ter, etc. can be specified.

The necessary data for calculations according to NV505 are as follows:


71

Detailed drawing of shaft arrangement.


Weight and moment of inertia of propeller.
Weight and moment of inertia of gear wheel, if any.
Stern tube bearing clearance and arrangement.

From the calculations the most favourable number of propeller blades may be determined.

NV479 - Hull Girder Vibration

This makes possible a calculation of the 2- 5 lower vibration modes in vertical and hori-
zontal direction.

The method is based on a transformation of the hull stiffness, mass and loads into a finite
element beam model, including the effect of added mass of vibrating water.

The main excitation source of the higher modes ( > 5 nodes) is the propeller with the blade
frequency, or higher orders of this. Within this frequency range the hull vibration modes
are complex and the distance between resonant frequencies is very small. For different
loading conditions hull resonance may therefore occur at service speed. The natural fre-
quencies and mode shapes may be calculated with the finite element method, applying
beam models or two- or three-dimensional models, depending on the required accuracy.
The general purpose finite element program SESAM-80 is applicable for the calculations of

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both free and forced vibration.

The necessary data to be submitted for calculations according to NV4 79 are as follows:

Body plan.
Bonjean curves.
Weight distribution for the specified loading conditions (diagrammatically).
Distribution of the second moment of area about a horizontal and vertical axis over the

'
length of the ship (diagrammatically).
Distribution of the shear area in the horizontal and vertical direce length of
the ship, (diagrammatically).
Particulars of propulsion machinery and number of propeller blades.

NV451 - Local Structure Vibration

Simple rectangular panels and girders will be calculated by means of NV 451, using the
theory of bending of thin orthotropic plates.

Typical examples of structural elements which may be calculated are:

Deck/ bulkheads with added weights (cargo, equipment).


Deck areas with pillars.
Nonrectangular panels/ girders.
Panels/ girders with few heavy stiffeners or tripping brackets.

Natural frequencies in air and liquid are calculated.


72

The necessary data to be submitted for calculations are as follows:

Drawings of structural elements in areas where control of natural frequencies is desir-


ed.
Particulars of propulsion machinery and number of propeller blades.

SESAM 69 / 80 - Program system

SESAM is a general purpose structural analysis system based on the finite element method .
The notation 69 refers to the well known version, while SESAM 80 is the latest and most
efficient version.

The generation of element and nodal numbers, nodal coordinates. loads etc. is performed f ti
by automatic input data generators. Input and output may refer either to a Cartesian or a
cylindrical coordinate system.

The program may calculate natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes as well as ~
damped dynamic response caused by harmonic or arbitrary transient loading. The normal
mode method is used for forced vibration analyses (see Appendix A). The damping is spe-
cified as a fraction of the critical damping, or as a stiffness proportional damping.

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The program may be used to assemble fluid superelements when calculating added mass in
dynamic analysis.

The program may be applied for calculation of the natural frequency of:

Local structures as panels, bulkheads ...


Superstructure/ afterbody
Substructures as double bottom in the engine room and cargo holds
Hutt girder

as well as the forced vibration level of same, caused by the propeller and/ or the main engi-
ne.

Necessary data for the calculation of the natural frequencies are:

Body plan
Bonjean curves
Steel drawings
Cargo and outfit weight distribution .

The output will be a number of natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes.

The calculation of forced vibration require information about the magnitude of the excita-
tion forces. The propeller forces may be calculated based on a computer program such as
NV571 and the excitation from the main engine may be required from the manufacturer.
73

APPENDIX B NUMERICAL EXAMPLES


APPLICATION OF THE GUIDELINES

In the following, the three examples discussed in Section 2 are presented in some detail.
Numerical values are given for both input parameters and calculation results, and the eva-
luation is included for each step in the check procedure. Finally, results from full-scale
measurements at the sea trial are presented for correlation with the calculation results.

Example 1 (see also Fig. 2.3)

Ship data given

Bulk carrier, Fig. l :

Length LPP = 213.0 m


Breadth B = 30.5 m
Depth H = 18.0 m
Draft, ballast Tb = 7.7 m
Draft, loaded T1 = 12.5 m
Displacement, ballast 6.b = 43500 tonnes (t)
Displacement, loaded 6.1 = 73300t
Superstructure l/h = 0.73
Block coefficient, ballast CB = 0.8

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Block coefficient, loaded CB = 0.824
Main engine B&W 7K 80GF
18500 bhp at 126 r/ minP
Propeller diameter 6.4 m
No. of blades 4
Trial speed l 7 .5 knots (9 ml s)

Stage /: Investigation

(I) Lines: expected WTmax =


0.7 (Fig. 3.8, Section 3.2.4)
We = 0.37 (Fig. 3.10)
(2) Propeller excitation: estimated pressure impulses (Formula, Section 3.2.4).

- ....L J_ _ - _.L-j :
I
I L- - -~

-h~I~-~~
Fig. 1 Bulk carrier, 60,000 dwt Fig. 2 Three-dimensional finite element model
74

At Points 1 and 2, see Fig. 3 .11.

Load Ballast
3800 N/m 2 4400 N/m 2

(3) Approximate superstructure resonance (Fig. 5 .8):


f = 9 Hz with 1 SD = 1 Hz
(4) Slow running diesel engine excitation: engine 2nd-order free moment = 220 kN m.

Stage!: Results

1. The average recommended upper limits for the pressure impulse level at Points 1 and 2,
see Fig. 3 .11, are found to be 5200 and 7000 NI m 2 , respectively, for the loaded and
ballast conditions. Thus the estimated pressure impulse from the standard propeller is fr;
approximately 25 % below the average value in the loaded condition and approximate-
ly 1 SD (40 % ) in the ballast condition. This normally should lead to a calculation of the
propeller cavitation or testing in a cavitation tunnel. For some reason, such investiga-
tions were neglected for this ship. ~
2. The superstructure may be excited at resonance by the 4- and the 5-bladed propellers at
full speed:

Blade frequency, 4 blades: 8 .4 Hz

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Blade frequency, 5 blades: 10 .5 Hz
Blade frequency, 6 blades: 12 .6 Hz

As the intention was to use a 4-bladed propeller, the superstructure longitudinal reson-
ance should be calculated.
3. The 2nd-order free moment was supposed to be too small to cause annoying hull girder
resonance excitation ( < 500 kN m).

l~\
v
0,2
4 ORDER

mm

0, 1

60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140


r/min

Fig. 3 Measured vibration level of blade frequency longitudinally at navigation bridge


75

Stage II: Investigation and results

1. The superstructure longitudinal resonance was calculated to be 8 .5 Hz when using the


finite element model shown in Fig. 2. This revealed that the ship might run close to a
superstructure resonance excited by the blade frequency of 8 .4 Hz at full speed: 126
rl minP. It was decided to increase the stiffness of the superstructure by connecting it to
the casing, as shown in Fig. 3.
The increase in frequency after connection was calculated to be 0 .6 Hz. Thus the su-
perstructure resonance would occur at 137 r/ minp, which is 9 r/ minp higher than be-
fore the coupling to the casing. This was regarded to be sufficiently above full speed to
cause concern to the crew.
2. the fundamental shaft longitudinal resonance was estimated to be 13.8 Hz (Fig. 4.2) of
7th-order and will occur at 118 r/ min of the shaft. This resonance is far above the su-
perstructure resonance and should cause. no concern.

Subsequent measurements on board when the ship was loaded gave the following results:

The superstructure resonance was not found in the full-speed range. However, the
measurements indicated that the resonance was in the range estimated; see Fig. 3. The
vibration levels in the superstructure were found to be within acceptable limits.
The pressure impulses of blade frequency above the propeller at 125 rl minp were
found to be 4000 NI m2.
No annoying hull girder resonance was found in the full-speed range.

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Example 2 (see also Fig. 2.4)

Ship data given

e Bulk carrier, Fig. 4:

Length LPP = 205.0 m


Breadth B = 30.5 m
Depth H = 17.0 m
Draft, ballast Tb = 8.7 m
Draft, loaded T, = 12.5 m
Displacement, ballast Llb = 44000 t
Displacement, loaded Ll1 = 65000 t
Block coefficient, ballast CB = 0.788
Block coefficient, loaded CB = 0.817
Superstructure l/h = 0.71
Main engine B&W 6K 90GF, 6 cyl
18500120000 bhp at 110/114 rl minp
Propeller diameter D = 6.5 m
No. of blades z =4
Trial speed I 7 .5 knots (9 ml s)
76

2,0
E
E
+I
w"'
a
::::>

-
......
1, 5 _J
Q..
~
4C(

z
0

1,0
e

o,s

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0
10 5 106 107 10 B 109 110 111 112 113
r/min.

Fig. 4 Measured huJJ girder natural frequency response in the superstructure, 5-node
mode

Stage/: Investigation

( l ) Lines: expected =
0.7 (Table. Section 3.2.4)
WT max
We =
0.36(Fig.3.JO)
(2) Propeller excitation: estimated pressure impulses (Formula. Section 3 .2.4).

Load Ballast
AtPointl,LlPc1= 4400 N/m 2 4900 NI m1
At Point 2, LlP c2: 4800 N/m 2 5300 N/m 1

(3) Approximate superstructure resonance (Fig. 5 .8):


f = 8. 9 Hz with l SD = l Hz
(4) Slow running diesel engine excitation: engine 2nd-order free moment = 1700
kN m (from manufacturer).
77

Stage I: Results

1: The average recommended upper limits for pressure impulse levels are found to be
8500 and 9500 NI m 2 , respectively, for the loaded and ballast conditions. Thus the esti-
mated pressure impulses for a standard propeller are more than 1 SD (40 % ) below the
recommended values, and only minor additional investigations of the propeller should
be necessary.
2. The superstructure may be excited at resonance by the 5-bladed propeller:

Blade frequency, 4 blades, 114 r/ minP: 7 .6 Hz


Blade frequency, 5 blades, 114 r/ minP: 9 .5 Hz
Blade frequency, 6 blades, 114 r/ minP: 11.4 Hz

The 4-bladed propeller was chosen.


3. The engine 2nd-order free moment is more than three times what is acceptable and
may excite vertical hull girder modes. From Fig. 5 .5 we have the following. The 4th
mode (5 nodes) may be excited by the main engine at full speed. With the engine in-
stalled in the aft part of the hull, the free moment is supposed to be rather effective and
may cause annoying vibration of the hull and superstructure at resonance. Calculation
of this vibration mode is deemed necessary.

Stage II: Investigation

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The four lowest hull girder modes were calculated for loaded and ballasted conditions, us-
ing a beam model and the computer program NV480. Besides the hull girder resonances,
the 0-node mode longitudinal resonances were to be investigated.

Stage II: Results

l . The hull girder natural frequency in the ballast condition were calculated to be 3 .5 Hz
or 210 vibrations per minute for the 4th mode, as illustrated in Fig. 5. This means that
the resonance condition will occur at l 05 r/ min, while the ship most probably will run
at 11 O r/ min at normal service speed. A heavier load condition results in lower fre-
quency.
The situation was not satisfactory. It was decided therefore to allow space for a mo-
ment compensator and leave the installation of this until after the vibration behavior
had been tested while operating the ship.
2. The fundamental shaft longitudinal resonance was estimated to be 13.75 Hz (Fig. 4.2)
and would occur at 118 r I min. This resonance is far above the superstructure reson-
ance.

Results from subsequent full-scale measurements in the ballast condition:

The 5-noded hull resonance was found at 110 r/ min, Figs. 4 and 5.
Longitudinal vibration lev~l at superstructure navigation deck: 34 mm/ s (2nd-order) at
110 r/min.
Longitudinal vibration of same at 114 r I minp: 6 mm/ s (4th order).
Vertical response of A.P . at 114 r/minP: 2.9 mm/s(4th-order).
Pressure impulse above propeller at l 14 r/ minP: 5 200 NI m2 at Point 1.

.....
78

As the hull resonance close to full speed caused a vibration level five times what was ac-
ceptable, the moment compensator was installed. Measurements later at the same ballast
condition showed no significant 2nd-order response at the hull girder resonance, 110
r/min.

4 240 5 NODES BALLAST (ESTIMATED7.

5 NOO:::S LOAD (ESTIMATED) <frl 2)


A l)

I
3 150 I
I
Hz vi br. /min .
I
I
2 120 I
I
1. CALCULATED NV480 BALLAST
2. MEASURED, BALLAST
0 ESTIMATED FROM FIG. 5.5
1 60

SERVICE SPEED --j


I

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0 20 40 60 80 100 120
r /min.

Fig. 5 Hull girder natural frequencies, 5-node mode

0,40 5th ORDER


:!. y mm

-------1
- - - - - - --1
I
0 , 30

0,20

0,10

92 95 100 105 RPM 109

Fig. 6 Measured vibration level of blade frequency longitudinally at navigation bridge


79

Example 3 (see also Fig. 2.5)

Heavy vibration was reported in the superstructure of this ship, in both the loaded and bal-
last conditions, as illustrated in Fig. 6. It was concluded after measurements that the su-
perstructure was excited close to resonance by the blade frequency of the 5-bladed pro-
peller at full service speed. In this case a change in the excitation frequency by the fitting of
a propeller with 4 or 6 blades was considered to be the only way of solving the problem.

It will be shown in the following how, by the use of the proposed vibration check pro-
cedure, the necessary measures could have been taken at an early stage in the design pro-
cess.

Ship data given

LNG carrier:

Length LPP = 281.0 m


Breadth B = 41.6 m
Depth H = 25.0 m
Draft, ballast Tb = l 0.15 m
Draft, loaded T1 = 11.00 m
Displacement, loaded Ll1 = 95000 t
= 0.72

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Block coefficient, loaded CB
Superstructure l/h = 0.85
Main propulsion machinery 1 steam turbine propulsion plant
40 000 shp at l 05 propeller r/ minP
propeller diameter D = 7 .65 m
speed, trial, estimated 21 knots ( l 0 .8 ml s)

Stage!: Investigation

( 1) Lines: expected WTm~x = 0.75 (Table. Section 3.2.4)


We = 0.33(Fig. 3.10)
(2) Propeller excitation: estimated pressure impulses (Formula, Section 3 .2 .4).

Loaded condition
At Point l, llP cl : 5900 N/m2
At Point 2, llP c2 = 6400 N/m2

(3) Approximate superstructure resonance (Fig. 5 .8):


f = 9.5 Hz with 1 SD = 1 Hz

Stage!: Results

I. In this case the estimated pressure impulses are higher than the average recommended
value of 3700 N/m 2 taken from Fig. 3.11 . Model wake measurements and cavitation
tests/ calculations should therefore be carried out during Stage II.
2. The superstructure resonance may be excited by the 5-bladed propeller at full service
speed as:
80

Blade frequency, 4 blades = 7 .00 Hz


Blade frequency, 5 blades = 8.75 Hz
Blade frequency, 6 blades = 10.75 Hz

The superstructure natural frequency calculation should be carried out.

Thus, at a very early stage of design, warnings are given that the number of propeller
blades is crucial and that the propeller design should be considered with respect to vi-
bration.

Stage II: Investigation and results

Based on model wake measurements and the selected propeller, the pressure impulses of
blade frequency on the hull were calculated to be 6000 NI m 2. This value is more than 1 tJi
SD (40 % ) higher than the average recommended value, and the propeller design should be
improved before carrying out a forced-response calculation, Stage III.

The shafting longitudinal resonance is, according to formula, section 4.2.5, assumed to be
not lower than 11.7 Hz. With a 5-bladed propeller this resonance will occur at 140 pro-
peller r I minp, which is far above the full speed.

At this stage of the project the investigation of the original design was closed and the ship

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was built with a 5-bladed conventional propeller. After the problems occurred it was deci-
ded to investigate further, as outlined in Stage II. However, this started with the investiga-
tion of the optimum number of propeller blades with respect to vibration.

Stage III: Investigation and results

A finite element model was made of the ship, Fig. 7, and the forced response was calculat-
ed as for a conventional propeller with 4 to 6 blades by means of the SESAM 69 computer
program system. The results are given in Fig. 8, from which the propeller with 4 blades
was found to be the most favourable one.

It will be observed that the longitudinal resonance of the superstructure in the ballast con-
dition was calculated to be 9 Hz, which corresponds very well with the high vibration level
recorded for the original 5-bladed propeller. However, the calculated response at the navi-
gation deck level for the 4-bladed propeller exceeded the upper design limit. 4 mm/ s, re-
commended by Det norske Veritas. Thus it was decided to go for an improved propeller
design. This new propeller delivered a pressure impulse calculated to be 3700
NI m2, compared with 5400 NI m2 for the conventional one.

The propeller design was then found acceptable.

The vibration level in ballast condition after fitting of the new 4-bladed propeller is shown
in Fig. 9. Compared with the response caused by the original propeller with 5 blades, the
vibration level (mm/ s) was reduced by a factor of approximately I 0.
81

The costs involved in the changing of the propeller were tremendous compared with a de-
sign-stage prediction .

The following are extracts from measured results before and after changing of the propel-
ler:

(1) Ballast condition, 5 blades, 105 r/minP


Pressure impulses Point 1: 4400 NI m2
Response vertically aft: 6 .6 mm/ s
Response longitudinally, navigation deck: 8 .2 to 16 .5 mm/ s

(2) Loading condition, 5 blades, 105 r/ minp


_ Pressure impulses Point 1: 5500 NI m 2
Response vertically aft: 25 mm/ s
Response longitudinally, navigation deck: 16 .5 mm/ s

(3) Ballast condition, 4 blades, 105 r/ minp


Pressure impulses Point l : 2950 NI m 2
Response vertically aft: 2 .6 mm/ s
Response longitudinally, navigation deck: l .8 mm/ s

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iL,
Fig. 7 Three-dimensional finite element model
82

I I
I I
I I
I I
AMPLITUDE I I
I I
IN mm I I
I
1J0
'
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I I
I
I I
I
I II
I I
0, 75 I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I FULL LOAD COND.

v I
I

-
0,50
I
I BALLAST COND.
I
\
I
\
\

'
\
\
\

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\

0,25
-e'
' j \'
/ . ..o
>,. .
\ ;
I
'J

J '\j\ '" .........


FREQUENCY Hz
4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13
4- BLADES 5-BLADES 6-BLADES

Fig. 8 Calculated forced longitudinal response at navigation bridge in the case of 4, 5,


and 6-bladed propellers
83

0,04

E 4th ORDER
E
0,02 z
w
0
:::>

-
I-
_J
0....
~
<(

0
85 90 95 lOO r/min 105

Fig. 9 Measured vibration level of blade frequency longitudinally at navigation bridge

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