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Chapter 12

Leadership and Followership


1. Discuss the differences between leadership and management and between
leaders and managers.
Learning Outcomes

2. Explain the role of trait theory in describing leaders.

3. Describe the role of foundational behavioral research in the development of


leadership theories.

4. Describe and compare the four contingency theories of leadership.

5. Discuss the recent developments in leadership theory of leadermember


exchange and inspirational leadership.

6. Discuss how issues of emotional intelligence, trust, gender, and servant


leadership are informing todays leadership models.

7. Define followership and identify different types of followers.

8. Synthesize historical leadership research into key guidelines for leaders.


2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
1 Learning Outcome

Discuss the differences between


leadership and management and
between leaders and managers.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Leadership and Followership

Leadership the process of Followership the process of


guiding and directing the being guided and directed
behavior of people in the by a leader in the work
work environment environment
Formal leadership the officially
sanctioned leadership based on
the authority of a formal
position
Informal leadership the
unofficial leadership accorded
to a person by other members
of the organization

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Management and Leadership

Management Leadership
Planning and Setting a
budgeting direction for the
organization
Organizing and
Aligning people
staffing with that
Controlling and direction
problem solving Motivating
people

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Management and Leadership
MANGERS

LEADERS
Advocate stability Agitate for change
and the status quo and new
approaches

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Leaders and Managers

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2 Learning Outcome

Explain the role of trait theory in


describing leaders.

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[Early Trait Theories]

Distinguished leaders by
Physical attributes
Personality characteristics
Abilities (speech fluency, social
skills, insight)

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3 Learning Outcome

Describe the role of foundational


behavioral research in the
development of leadership
theories.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


LEWIN ON LEADERSHIP
Autocratic Style the leader uses strong,
directive, controlling actions to enforce the
rules, regulations, activities, and
relationships; followers have little
discretionary influence

Democratic Style the leader takes


collaborative, reciprocal, interactive actions
with followers; followers have high degree
of discretionary influence

Laissez-Faire Style the leader fails to


accept the responsibilities of the position;
creates chaos in the work environment
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OHIO STATE STUDIES
[Initiating Structure] leader behavior aimed at
defining and organizing work relationships and roles;
establishing clear patterns of organization,
communication, and ways of getting things done

[Consideration] leader behavior aimed at


nurturing friendly, warm working relationships, as
well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal
respect within the work unit

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MICHIGAN STUDIES
Production-Oriented Leader
Focus getting things done
Uses direct, close supervision
Many written or unwritten rules
Employee-Oriented Leader
Focus relationships
Less direct, close supervision
Fewer written or unwritten rules
Displays concern for people and their
needs

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Leadership Grid Definitions
Leadership Grid an approach to
understanding a leaders or managers
concern for results (production) and
concern for people
High

Concern for
People

Low
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions

Organization Man (5,5) a middle-of-


the-road leader

High

Concern for
People 5,5

Low
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions
Authority Compliance Manager (9,1)
a leader who emphasizes efficient
production

High

Concern for
People

Low 9,1
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions

Country Club Manager (1,9) a leader


who creates a happy, comfortable work
environment

High 1,9

Concern for
People

Low
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions
Team Manager (9,9) a leader who
builds a highly productive team of
committed people

High 9,9

Concern for
People

Low
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions
Impoverished Manager (1,1) a leader
who exerts just enough effort to get by

High

Concern for
People

Low 1,1
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions
Paternalistic father knows best
Manager (9+9) a leader who promises
reward and threatens punishment

High 1,9

Concern for
People
9+9

Low 9,1
Low High
Concern for Production
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Leadership Grid Definitions
Opportunistic Opportunistic
whats in it for Management
me Manager
(Opp) a leader
whose style aims to
maximize
self-benefit
High 1,9 9,9 1,9
9+9
Concern for 9,1
5.5
People
Source: The Leadership Grid figure.
Paternalism Figure and Opportunism from
Leadership DilemmasGrid Solutions.
by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams
McCanse (Formerly the Managerial Grid by Low 1,1 9,1
Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton).
Houston: Gulf Publishing Company (Grid
Low High
Figure: p. 29; Paternalism Figure: p. 30;
Opportunism Figure: p. 31.) Concern for Production
Copyright 1991 by Blake and Mouton, and
Scientific Methods, Inc. Reproduced by
permission of the owners.
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4 Learning Outcome

Describe and compare the four


contingency theories of
leadership.

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Fiedlers Contingency Theory
Fit between leaders need structure and
favorableness of leaders situation determine
the teams effectiveness.

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) the


person a leader has least prefers to work
with
High LPC leaders who describe LPC in
positive terms
Low LPC leaders who describe LPC in
negative terms

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Situation Favorableness
Three elements to leaders situation:

Task structure
Position power
Leader-member relations

Favorable leadership situation structured task for


the work group, strong position power for leader,
good leader-member relations

Unfavorable leadership situation unstructured task,


weak position power for leader, poor leader-member
relations.

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Leadership Effectiveness in the Contingency Theory

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PathGoal Theory of Leadership

Leader behavior styles


Follower path Follower goals
Directive
perceptions Satisfaction
Supportive
EffortPerformance Rewards
Participative
Reward linkages Benefits
Achievement oriented

Follower Workplace
Characteristics characteristics
Ability level Task structure
Authoritarianism Work group
Locus of control Authority system

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Vroom-Yetton-Jago
Normative Decision Model
Decide
Manager
should use Consult individually
the decision
method most
appropriate
for a given
Consult group
situation

Facilitate

Delegate
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Time Driven Model

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Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

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Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model

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5 Learning Outcome

Discuss the recent developments


in leadership theory of leader
member exchange and
inspirational leadership.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Leader-Member Exchange
Leaders form two groups of followers:

In-groups Out-Groups

Members similar to Managed by formal rules and


leader policies
Given greater responsibilities, Given less attention; fewer
rewards, attention rewards
Within leaders inner circle of Outside the leaders
communication communication circle
High job satisfaction and More likely to retaliate against
organizational commitment, the organization
low turnover Stress from being left
Stress from added out of communication
responsibilities network

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Inspirational Leadership Theories

Transformational Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Authentic Leadership

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Transformational Leadership

Transformational leaders
inspire and excite
followers to high level of
performance

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Charismatic Leadership
Charismatic leaders use the
force of personal abilities and
talents to have profound effects
on followers.

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Authentic Leadership

I cannot tell a lie.

Authentic leaders have a


conscious and well-
developed sense of
values and act in ways
that are consistent to
their value systems.
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Beyond the Book:
Bad Charismatic Leaders?
Charismatic leaders are dynamic figures who create a
strong relationship with followers. However, some
charismatic leaders may act unethically, manipulating
followers for their personal benefit and interest.

What makes a charismatic leader unethical?


- When they use power to dominate others for personal
gain.
- When they are the sole source of vision.
-When they engage in one-way communication.
- When they are insensitive and unresponsive to followers.
- When they thrive on attention.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


6 Learning Outcome

Discuss how issues of emotional


intelligence, trust, gender, and
servant leadership are informing
todays leadership models.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Emerging Issues in Leadership
Emotional Intelligence

Trust

Gender and Leadership

Servant Leadership

Abusive Supervision
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Beyond the Book:
Diversity Pays

Diversity is not just politically correct, it adds to the bottom


line.

According to Catalyst, a workplace-research group,


Fortune 500 companies with most women in senior
management had higher return on equities.

The success may lie in a female management style


thinking long term, avoiding risk and emphasizing
collaboration and consensus.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


7 Learning Outcome

Define followership and identify


different types of followers.

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Followership

Traditionally, followers
viewed as passive

More contemporary views


cast follower as active role,
with potential for
leadership
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Five Types of Followers

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Beyond the Book:
I Will Follow
Eight tips for being a good protg:
1. Talk first and often
2. Read between the lines
3. Go the extra mile
4. Do your homework
5. Share information
6. Make it mutual
7. Be personable
8. Have a positive attitude
2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
8 Learning Outcome

Synthesize historical leadership


research into key guidelines for
leaders.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Guidelines for Leadership
Leaders and organizations should appreciate the
unique attributes, predispositions, and talents of
each leader.
Leaders should be chosen who challenge the
organizational style without destroying it.
Participative, considerate leadership enhances the
health and well-being of followers.
Different leadership situations call for different
leadership talents and behaviors.
Good leaders are likely to be good followers.

2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.


Beyond the Book:
Leadership: At What Cost?
Hamid Karzai was inaugurated to his second term as
president of Afghanistan on November 19, 2009.

In his inaugural speech, he promised to fight corruption


and bring peace to the war-torn country.

Many in Afghanistan and around the world discredit


Karzais legitimacy, as there is substantive evidence of
election fraud.

Will Karzai be an effective leader? How can he reassure


skeptics of his legitimacy?

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1. Assess the behavior of both Major
Sinclair and Michael Canaris. Which
leadership traits described earlier in
this chapter appear in their behavior?

2. Apply the behavioral theories


discussed earlier to this film
sequence.
Which parts apply to Sinclair and
Doomsday Canariss behavior? Draw specific
examples from the film sequence.

3. Does this film sequence show any


aspects of transformational and
charismatic leadership? Draw some
examples from the sequence.

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