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Overview of content

Types of bonding and different

properties for different bonding

Bonding Shapes of molecules VSEPR rule


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Metallic bonding

Types of Bonding A metallic bond represents the electrostatic force of

attraction that two neighbouring nuclei have for the
delocalised electrons between them.

Both cations attract the delocalised electrons

between them leading to metallic bonding.
Metallic bonding Ionic bonding Covalent bonding
Delocalised electrons??

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Metallic bonding Hexagonal close packed lattice

Most metals exist in close packed lattices of cations Sequence: ab, ab, ab
surrounded by delocalised outer electrons. The close Examples: Mg and Zn
packed layers can be stacked together where either
every other or every third layer is vertically aligned.

Examples: (a) hexagonal close packed lattice (b) face

centred cubic lattice and (c) body centred cubic

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Face centred cubic lattice Body centred cubic lattice

Sequence : abc, abc, abc Metals are packed in cubic formation.

Examples: Al and Cu Examples: Fe and Cr

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Metallic bonding Properties of Metals
Conduction: A metal lattice contains a very large number of
Lattice energy is used and defined as energy required free, delocalised outer electrons. When a potential gradient
to break up one mole of atoms in a lattice into (voltage) is applied, these electrons can move to the positive
separate atoms. i.e. M (s)  M (g) end of the potential gradient carrying charge. Metals conduct
Lattice energy decreases as the size of cations
increase (going from Li to Na, Group 1) Ductility and Malleability: Metals can be bent and reshaped
BUT increases as the charge on the ion increases without snapping. Bending and reshaping can occur because
close packed layers can slide over each other without breaking
going across a period (e.g. Na<Mg<Al) more bonds than are formed.
High lattice energies result from small highly charged
cations. Impurities in metals disturb the lattice and make metals less
ductile. Alloys are harder than pure metals from which they are

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Ionic bonding Ionic bonding

This involves a metal atom bonding to a non-metal atom.
In sodium chloride, 6 anions can sit around the
The charges on the ions are equal to the number of electrons
lost or gained. sodium cation and the coordination number is 6.

These correspond to the group for metals and (8 the group

number )for non-metals. i.e. Na+, Cl-

An ionic bond is the attraction between two oppositely

charged ions formed by electron transfer.

Ions clump together, each attracting those of the opposite

Crystal structure of NaCl SEM image of a salt crystal

The type of lattice that forms depends on the ratio of radius of

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the cation to that of the anion.
Ionic bonding Ionic bonding

For ionic lattices, lattice energy is also used

In contrast for caesium chloride, 8 anions can fit
around the caesium cation because it is bigger than and defined as energy required to break
the sodium cation. Hence, the coordination number up 1 mole of lattice into separate ions in
is 8. the gas phase.

MX (s)  M+ (g) + X- (g)

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Properties of Ionic Compounds Covalent bonding

Conductance: Solid ionic compounds are insulators because Covalent bonds are formed between two non-metallic atoms.
the ions are held tightly in the lattice and cannot move to
carry charges. When they are molten or dissolved in solution, They form when the orbitals of the two neighbouring atoms
the ions can move and carry charges through the liquids and overlap so that both nuclei attract the pairs of electrons shared
so they are conductors. between them.

Brittleness: When a force is applied to an ionic lattice, it A covalent bond is the electrostatic force of attraction that two
makes the layers slid past each other. When ions of the same neighbouring nuclei have for a localised pair of electrons
charge are next to each other, the layers repel causing the shared between them.
lattice to break.
Two types of covalent bond exist. E.g. Sigma () and pi

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Covalent bonding (sigma bond) Covalent bonding ( bond)
When the orbitals from two atoms overlap along a line drawn Sometimes, after a sigma bond has formed, the p orbitals of
between the two nuclei. A sigma () bond is formed and is end- the two atoms also overlap above and below the line drawn
to-end overlap. between the two nuclei (overlapping sideway).

This can be between two s orbitals, an s and a p orbital and two This second bond that forms is called bond and consists of
p orbitals. two regions of electron density.

The shape of the new molecular orbital differs from those of

the atomic orbitals.

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Covalent bonding Covalent bonding

Covalency is known as the number of bonds formed. Alternatively,
valency for short. The table below shows how the no of bonds formed by an atom is related to
the position in the periodic table.
To form a bond, an atom usually needs an electron to contribute to
a bond and a space in an orbital to accept an electron from the Element B C N O F Ne
other atom.
For atoms in the second period, the number of bonding electrons in No of 3 4 5 6 7 8
the outer shell is limited to 8. electrons
in outer
The table below shows how the no of bonds formed by an atom is related to the position in the
periodic table. shell
Element B C N O F Ne No of 5 4 3 2 1 0
No of electrons 3 4 5 6 7 8 spaces in
in outer shell
No of spaces in 5 4 3 2 1 0
outer shell No of 3 4 3 2 1 0
No of bonds 3 4 3 2 1 0 made
Examples BCl3 CH4 NH3 H2O HF Ne
Examples BCl3 CH4 NH3 H2 O HF Ne
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Covalent bonding Covalent bonding
 N 1s22s22px12py12pz1 It is possible for both the electrons in a covalent bond to come
from only one of the atoms, i.e. coordinate or dative covalent
 O 1s22s22px2py12pz1
 F 1s22s12px22py22pz1 Examples: ammonium ion, NH4+ and hydroxonium ion, H3O+.
These are tetrahedral in shape with the hydroxonium ion
having one lone pair of electrons.
 For N,O and F, there are pairs of electrons not shared (1,2 and 3
respectively) and these are called non-bonding or lone pairs.

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Shapes of molecules VSEPR

Chemists use VSEPR to predict shapes of molecules Rules

formed between s- and p-block elements. - Repulsions between nuclei are assumed to be negligible

- Core electrons (close to nuclei) are also neglected (i.e.

V S E P R valence electrons only)

- Electrons will form pairs (lone or bonding) wherever possible.

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

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VSEPR (Examples) VSEPR

One central atom with all its valence electrons used to form Pairs of Valence Bond angle Shape
single bonds. Electrons

2 AB2 180o Linear

General formula: Abn
3 AB3 120o Trigonal planar
Calculate total valence electrons around central atom using: 4 AB4 109.28o Tetrahedral
Total valence = valence electrons on central atom+
Number of bonds to central atom 5 AB5 90o, 120o Trigonal bipyramid

6 AB6 90o Octahedral

Then Use Pairs of Valence electrons to predict shape

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B------A------B PCl5
Valence electron at P = 5
Valence electron at Be =2 Five P-Cl bonds =5
Two Be-Cl bonds =2 Total valence electrons =10
Total valence electrons at Be = 4
Five pairs of valence electrons so Trigonal bipyramid

Two Pairs therefore AB2 so linear

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Shapes of Ions Molecules and Ions containing Lone Pairs

Same criteria central atom, single bonds

A lone pair is given the symbol L
Valence electrons at P = 5
A lone pair does not take part in bonding
Four P-H bonds =4
+ve charge on P = -1 Lone pairs affect the shape of the molecule
Total valence electrons = 8

Four pairs so tetrahedral

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Molecules and Ions containing Lone Pairs Molecules and Ions containing Lone Pairs

Valence electrons at N = 5 Valence electrons at O = 6
Three N-H bonds =3 Two O-H bonds =2
Total valence electrons =8 Total valence electrons = 8

Four pairs so shape based on tetrahedron but only three bonds Four pairs of valence electrons but only two bonds so
so AB3L. tetrahedral based with two lone pairs
Lone pair repulsion is greater than bond angle H-N-H will be less Lone pair repulsion greatest so 10928 reduced to 1045
than 10928. Its 107. Order of repulsion lp/lp > lp/bp > bp/bp

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Molecules with more than one central atom Molecules with more than one central atom

Deal with each central atom separately eg. C2H6 ethane

Valence electrons at C = 4 Valence electrons at C = 4
Four bonds =4 Four bonds =4 H
(3C-H,1C-C) (3C-H,1C-C)
Total valence =8 Total valence =8
Four pairs Tetrahedral Four pairs Tetrahedral H

Ethane C2H6

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Molecules with more than one central atom Molecules with more than one central atom

Valence electrons at C =4 Valence electrons at N =5 H
Four bonds =4 Three bonds =3
(3C-H,1C-C) (2 N-H,1N-C)
4 pairs electrons 4 bonds 4 pairs electrons, 3 bonds,
1 lone pair
Tetrahedral (10928 ) 107

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Carbonate ion CO32- Carbonate ion CO32-

Central C atom - -
Valence electrons at C = 4 -
O - O

Three C-O single bonds = 3
One C=O = -1 - -

Total valence electrons at C = 6

Three pair = trigonal planar

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These resonance structures lead to the concept of Principles involved in the covalent bonding:

1. Promotion of electrons

C 2. Hybridisation - A process in which the electrons
O rearrange themselves.
3. Formation of molecular orbitals
Delocalisation occurs in most oxo-anions (e.g. nitrate sulphate,
manganate) and in some organic molecules, notably bezene
which will be considered in the next section.

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Hybridisation Hybridisation
C 1s22s22px12py12pz (ground state configuration of C)
an electron is promoted from the 2s orbital to the vacant 2p orbital to allow 4
equivalent orbitals to be formed which are sp3 hybrids.
C 1s22s12px12py12pz1
These are sp3 hybrids that form a regular tetrahedron and the shape of the
new hybrid orbitals is intermediate between those of s and p orbitals.
The 4 electrons in the sp3 hybrids can each form a covalent bond (sigma
Energetically, sp3 hybridisation is favoured since although the energy required
for promoting the electron, much more energy is gained by the formation of
two extra bonds.

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Hybridisation Hybridisation
If one electron is promoted from a 2s orbital to a 2p orbital but one of
the p orbitals remains unchanged, then sp2 hybridisation has
Electron configuration of C:
This enables 3 equivalent sigma bonds to be formed with a bond angle
of 120.
The electron density in the p orbital can form a second C-C bond, but
this is a pi bond.
Thus the C=C bond in alkenes comprises one sigma bond and one pi
bond with the pi bond being the weaker one.

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Hybridisation Hybridisation
Consider benzene where sp2 hybridisation occurs. The 6 p electrons for the 6 ring
carbons are equivalent to 3 pi bonds in the ring.
For ethyne, one electron is again promoted from a 2s orbital to a 2p
orbital but two of the p orbitals remains unchanged, then sp1
Thus for each of the 6 carbons, there are 3 sigma bonds and 1 pi bond. hybridisation has occurred.
The bond length of 0.139 nm for benzene is between those of 0.154 and 0.134 nm for Electron configuration of C:
C-C and C=C bonds.
The hybrid orbitals are arranged as far apart in space as possible: 180
Benzene is stabilised considerably compared to 3 normal C=C bonds to the apart.
delocalisation of the p electron clouds above and below the ring.
The bonds between H and C and the first C-C bond are formed by the
The process of delocalisation of electron density in cyclic carbon structures is known end-on overlap of these sp1 hybrid orbitals to form sigma bonds.
as aromatisation. The second and third bonds of the triple bond between C atoms are
formed by the side-on overlap of the 2 original atomic unhybridised
orbitals. These are pi bonds.
Thus for each of the carbon in ethyne, there are 2 sigma bonds and 2
pi bonds.

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