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# TITLE:

## ANALYSIS OF BUCK-BOST CONVERTER

INTRODUCTION:
Due to rapid advancement in electronics in the past few years, use of inverters and

## converters is increased in every electrical application. Whether it is starter of ceiling fan to

increase or decrease the speed of fan or implication of HVDC line use of inverters and

converters is there. The topic of our report is Buck-Boost converter. Main focus of this report is

to study the working and operation of buck boost converter and its various applications. The

buck converter is used where we want to decrease the DC voltage level and boost converter is

used to increase the DC voltage level. But the buck-boost converter has dual function it can step

up the DC voltage and also it can lower the DC voltage level according to the requirement i.

AIM:
The aim of this report is to become familiar with buck-boost converter and its various

applications.

OBJECTIVES:
To study construction of Buck-Boost converter.
To study the principle of Buck-boost converter.
To analyze the various modes of operation of Buck-Boost converter.
To become familiar with some common applications of Buck-Boost converter.

THEORY:
The Buck-Boost converter is type of switched mode power supply that combines the

principle of Buck and Boost converter in a single circuit ii. The buck-boost converter delivers

## regulated DC voltage output from either DC or AC input.

1. TOPOLOGY:
There are basically two topologies of buck-boot converter:
i) Inverting Topology

## Capacitor C, a switch S and voltage Vo is taken across the resistor R. This is

the basic topology of buck-boost converter usually for switching purposes PWM

is used along with P or N-channel MOSFET. The PWM acts as a control unit for

the circuit that senses the level of input voltage and then selects the appropriate
circuit action. The most important term in buck-boost converter is duty cycle

because the output voltage is directly dependent on it. By changing the value of

## duty cycle D its output is increased or decreased.

In inverting topology the output voltage is of inverting polarity.The basic

principle of buck-boost converter is fairly simple. During the on state the input

## voltage is directly proportional to inductor L.The inductor stores the energy in

the form of magnetic field. In off state the inductor is connected to the output load

## ii) Four-Switch Topology

In this topology output voltage is of same polarity and diodes are replaced by

switches. The below figure depicts the 4 switch topology for buck-boost

converter:

## Figure 2: Four switch buck-boost converter

It uses single inductor to step up or step down the DC voltage.
It is operated in two modes first is buck mode and the second is boost mode. One

switch is fixed in either modes to control the duty cycle, the other one is used in

opposite polarity for commutation and the remaining two are in fixed position for

## speed required but mostly MOSFET or FET are used as switches.

2. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
The principle of buck-boost converter is best understood by considering the inductance

reluctance i.e. it opposes sudden change in current. Considering figure 2 in the initial

state when switch is opened nothing is charged and current through the inductor is zero.

When the switch is closed the diode D1 blocks the current flowing into the right hand

side of the circuit, so all the current flows through the inductor but inductor opposes

sudden change in current and it will drop most of the voltage provided by the source.

After some time current starts to increase slowly and voltage drop is decreased. During

this time inductor will store the energy in the form of magnetic field.

3. WAVEFORMS
The following waveforms are obtained for the buck-boost converter shown in figure 3

## Figure 3-Buck-Boost Converter

Figure 4: Waveforms of buck-boost converter

4. IMPORTANT RELATIONS:

The relation between duty cycle D,input and output voltage is given as:

V s ( D)
V 0=
1 D
D=Duty Cycle
V0
D=
V s +V 0
The value of output inductance of a buck-boost power stage is generally selected to limit the
peak-to-peak ripple current flowing in it. To step up or step down DC voltage we need to
find the certain inductance for circuit that is given by following relation:

D ( 1D )2 R
For Inductance , Lm=
2f
f =switching frequency of switch
The value of output capacitance of a buck-boost power stage is generally selected to limit
output voltage ripple to the level required by the specification. The series impedance of the capacitor
and the power stage output current determine the output voltage ripple .The value of capacitor
to be used in the circuit is given by:
D
For Capacitance , C=
R ( V ) f
V =Ripples
Whereas V is the ripple factor, depending upon the ripple factor there could be slight

## variation in the output voltage.

5. FLY BACK POWER STAGE
A transformer-coupled variation of the traditional buck-boost power stage is the fly back

power stage. This power stage operates like the traditional buck-boost power stage except that

the single winding inductor is replaced with a two (or more) winding coupled inductor iv. The

power switch, Q1 in Figure 5, applies the input voltage to the primary side (LPRI) of the coupled

inductor. Energy is stored until Q1 is turned off. Energy is then delivered to the output capacitor

and load resistor combination from the secondary side (LSEC) of the coupled inductor through

the output diode CR1. This power stage provides electrical isolation of the input voltage from the

output voltage. Besides providing electrical isolation, the isolation transformer can step-down

(or step-up) the input voltage to the secondary. The transformer turns ratio can be designed so

that reasonable duty cycles are obtained for almost any input voltage/output voltage

combination, thus avoiding extremely small or extremely high duty cycle value.

## Figure 5: Buck-Boost converter with Fly back Transformer

6. APPLICATIONS
Used in MPPT (maximum power point tracking) of the solar charger, while

## designing PV solar panels.

Used in brushed and brushless motor controllers.
Buck-boost converter are used Battery chargers, POL converters (POL converters)

## and Power audio amplifiers.

They are widely used in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV).
Used in regulated DC supplies, regenerative braking of DC motors or switching

regulators.
They are used in some USB applications where input required varies and Low

## power TEC driver.

The fly back power stage is very popular in 48-V input telecom applications and

## 110-V ac or 220-V ac off-line applications for output power levels up to

approximately 50 watts.

7. CONCLUSION:

## The buck-boost converter is a ubiquitous DC-DC converter that efficiently

converts a high voltage to a low voltage and low voltage to high voltage efficiently. The buck-

boost converter fits in the category of DC-DC converters. These converters are used to step up or

step down the DC voltage to match the load to power supply. Buck-boost converter has unique

circuitry and it can both step up and step down DC voltage level. The applications of buck-boost

converter includes in various fields where we require to operate multiple devices from a single

source by increasing or decreasing the voltage. Buck Boost converters are used in self-regulating

power supplies. Output of buck-boost converter is mainly dependent upon duty cycle, whereas

value of capacitor and inductor also plays prominent role in determining the nature of the circuit

either it will act as buck or boost converter. A controlling unit is necessary to drive the buck-

boost converter, this unit depends upon the topology used it could be PWM or switches such as

## MOSFETs, FETs and BJTs.

REFERENCES
i[1]Muhammad H. Rashid, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, IEEE, 1996, Pennsylvania State University
USA,ISBN 0-78-0323084