Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

1. Distinguish between analog and digital communication?

Any three

NO Analog Communication Digital Communication

1 In analog communication, the In digital communication signal, can take up only one
signal can take up voltage level among two voltage levels corresponding to 1 and 0.
corresponding to any real number.
2 Hence once it is corrupted with Hence even if it is corrupted by channel noise it is
noise it is difficult to recover the possible to recover the original information by using a
correct value. suitable threshold at the receiver.
3 Repeaters in analog Repeaters in digital communication can be wave
communication are amplifiers regenerators which produce new waveforms after
which also amplifies noise thereby recovering the original information from the received
degrading the quality of the waveform and hence noise does not accumulate through
system. a digital communication link as in analog link.
4 Since the voltage can take infinite Since the voltage can take only finite number of values, it
levels, it would need infinite bits to requires finite number of bits for propagation.
represent data.
5 Analog data is continuous time Digital data is discrete time discrete amplitude data.
continuous amplitude data. digital communication is more efficient in terms of noise
immunity and quality.

2. Describe the cell approach with the help of diagram?

Cellular radio provides mobile telephone service by employing a network of cell sites distributed
over a wide area. Cell is a network of small geographical. Each cell site has a base station with a
computerized 800 or 1900 megahertz transceiver and an antenna.

3. Differentiate between hand set & base unit of wireless phone?

The base transmits radio signals to the handset, which converts radio signals to an electrical
signal that travels to the speaker. The speaker converts the electrical signal into voice sound.
Talking into a handset sends a voice through a second radio signal back to the base. The dual
frequencies allow users to talk and listen at the same time, a phenomenon that is called duplex
The base receives voice signals and converts them to electric signals that transmit through a
phone line to the person on the other end of the line. Cordless phone bases attach to phone
jacks with the same wire connections used for corded phones. Incoming calls in the form of
electrical signals are converted into FM radio signals within the base.
4. What is basic purpose of digital diaries?
The Digital Diary takes the diary methodology to the next level, improving ease-of-use, depth of
information, and participation levels for both researchers and study participants.

5. Describe fuzzy logic implemented in washing machine?

Fuzzy logic washing machines are gaining popularity. These machines offer the advantages of
performance productivity, simplicity, and less cost. Sensors continually monitor varying conditions
inside the machine and accordingly adjust operations for the best wash results.

6. Describe the Fuzzy Logic.

Fuzzy Logic is a technique to embody human like thinking into a control system. OR

Prepared By Umair Saeed
Fuzzy Logic is a mathematical system that analyzes analog input values in terms of logical variables
that take on continuous values between 0 and 1, in contrast to classical or digital logic, which
operates on discrete values of either 1 or 0 (true or false respectively).

7. Why RGB are fundamental color.68

According to the theory of Helmholtz, in human eyes there are two types of light sensitive organs, Rod and
Cone. the human cones contains three different receptors for color, one is most sensitive to red, one is
most sensitive to green, and one is most sensitive to blue. Thus only Red, Green and Blue colours are used
by human eyes to generate the complete range of colours. So, that the RGB colour are fundamental

8. Define Rod and Cones.68

Rod: Provides brightness information to eyes. All colours from black to white are sensed by rod.
Cones: only sensitive to colours. There are three groups. i)Red Sensitive ii)Green iii)Blue

9. Define Luminance.68
It shows the intensity of light. (i.e. In B&W picture)

10. Define Hue.68

Colour of a light perceived by eyes is called Hue. It is very rare that we see pure colour. (i.e. Banana have
greenish-yellow colour)

11. Define Saturation.68

Spectral purity of a colour is called Saturation. (i.e. Dark Green vs. Light Green)

12. Define Color Mixing and Enlist its types.91

Combining two are more than two colour wavelength is called colour mixing. It used to produce some new
colour. (i.e. Blue + White = Sky Blue)
Types: There are two types of Colour mixing
i) Subtractive Mixing ii) Addictive Mixing
13. Describe Subtractive Mixing.91
When two are more colour are mixed they reflect the wavelength which common to both. (i.e. To get Sky
blue the white and blue colour are mixed. The sky blue reflect the wavelength of white as well as blue)

14. Define Addictive Mixing.91

When two are more colour light source is combined, the colour of combined light is new colour. (i.e.
combined of RGB = White)

15. Define Chrominance.91

When Hue and Saturation information of colour is combined, then it is called Chrominance of the colour.

16. Define VHF-UHF Tuner and AFT stand for. 93

The tuner takes the RF signal from the receiving antenna. TV receivers use electronic tuning. The
electronic tuning is done with the help of varactor diode.
AFT stand for Automatic Fine Tuning.

17. Define IF Subsystem.95

Prepared By Umair Saeed
The IF subsystem consists of SAW filter for bandshaping, AGC controlled, IF Amplifiers, AGC, AFT (or
AFC), Intercarrier Sound, IF Detector, Video Detector and Video Buffer amplifier. The Video Detector uses a
diode as a rectifier and filter to remove the unwanted high frequency carrier signals.

18. Define SAW Filter. 95

To obtain the controlled gain with stable bandpass response, a piezoelectric Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)
filter is commonly used before the IF section of colour TV receiver. A pre-amplifier is normally used before
the SAW filter

19. What is luminance channel.99

It controls the brightness of the picture. When the transmission is black & white, then only luminance
channel supplies signal to picture tube and chroma section is idle. OR
In a colour TV system, any circuit path intended to carry the luminance signaIn a colour TV system, any
circuit path intended to carry the luminance signal is called Luminance channel.

20. Define Video Detector.97

When the receiver is tuned to a colour signal, the chrominance subcarrier component appears in the output
of the video detector, and it is thereupon operated on in circuits that ultimately recover the primary-colour
signals originally produced by the colour camera.

21. Define chroma decoder.100

This decoder is basically a PAL decoder. It uses delay line (called PAL delay line) to separate U & V signals
from chrominance signal. Therefore it is also called PAL-D (D for delay line) decoder.

22. Describe the function of PAL delay line.102

The signal from second chroma amplifier is given combinely to adder, subtractor and PAL delay line. This
delay line generates the signal by on line period i.e. 64 microseconds.

23. What is Color Picture Tube and enlist its types?103

The colour picture tube screen is coated with three different phosphors. There are three independent
electron beams for Red, Green and Blue. The electron beams hit their respective phosphors to generate
Red, Green and Blue lights. These Red, Blue and Green lights emitting dots are very close to each other.
There lights mix addictively to produce the required colour for that pixel.
There are three type of Colour Picture Tube.
i) Delta Gun type ii) Precision in line type iii) Trintron types

24. Define PIL(Precision in Line) color picture tube.104

This type of picture tube uses in-line guns. The phosphors are arranged in vertical strips on the screen.
There is a continuous strip from top to bottom of the screen for each colour. They are placed one after
another on the screen. A transparent shadow mask is placed in front of the screen. This type of picture tube
is called PIL colour picture tube.

25. Define Trintron color picture tube.105

A type of picture tube in which a single electron gun is used instead of three. The gun consists of three
cathodes for Red, Green and Blue tube beams is called Trintron colour picture tube.

26. What is Satellite TV Receiver? Also LNB stand for. 106

Prepared By Umair Saeed
The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish and a low-
noise block down-converter. A satellite receiver decodes the desired television program/channel for viewing
on a television set. Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services.

LNB stands for low noise block

27. What is TV camera tube?112

TV camera is an eyes of TV system. It uses a tube that rapidly scans an optical image and converts it into
electronic signals is called TV camera tube.

28. Difference between Photo emission and Photo conductivity.112

Photo Emission: An emission of photoelectrons from a metallic surface when light falls upon it is called
photo emission.
Photo Conductivity: Photoconductivity material have the property that, when light falls on them, their
resistance varies according to intensity of light.

29. Enlist Photo Sensitive material.112

There are two type of photo sensitive material
i) Photoemissive
a. Cesium silver
b. Bismuth silver
c. Cesium oxides
ii) Photoconductivity
a) Selenium
b) Tellurium
c) Lead
d) And their oxides
30. What is meant by Vidicon Camera tube?114
The vidicon is a storage-type camera tube in which a charge-density pattern is formed by the imaged scene
radiation on a photoconductive surface which is then scanned by a beam of low-velocity electrons. The
fluctuating voltage coupled out to a video amplifier can be used to reproduce the scene being imaged.

31. Define Gamma, Resolution and Beam aperture.117

Gamma: The Gamma indicates the relationship between light intensity and corresponding signal current.
Resolution: The resolution is the ability to resolve picture element. It depends upon the diameter of the
electron beam when it lands on the target.
Beam Aperture: The diameter of the beam is called beam aperture. Vidicon has 400 lines of resolution at
55% of modulation.

32. Define Plumbicon Camera tube and Antihalation.117

The plumbicon, developed by Philips of Holland, is a small lightweight television camera tube that has fast
response and processes high quality pictures at low light levels. Its small size and low power operating
characteristics make it an ideal tube for solid-state TV cameras designed to serve a particular purpose.
Modern colour television cameras are making widespread use of the plumbicon because of its simplicity
and spectral response. OR
Functionally, the plumbicon is very similar to the standard vidicon. Focus and deflection are both
accomplished magnetically. The main difference between the plumbicon and the standard vidicon is the

Prepared By Umair Saeed
33. Difference between Up and Down conversion.125
The chrominance signal around 4.43 MHz is down-converted to 562.5 kHz before recording and is up-
converted to the original value around 4.43 MHz in the playback section. The purpose of down and up
conversions is to eliminate 'time-base error'.

34. Advantage of Plumbicon camera tube.118

a) It has lowest lag of all camera tube.
b) The dark current in plumbicon is extremely low
c) It is independent of temperature.
d) It has small size, low weight and low power requirement etc.
35. Types of video disk.135
The video disk are of two types depending on the playback method (i) Optical and (ii) Capacitive

36. Video Recording Requirement.121

Video recording is not easy as audio recording. The audio recording contains frequencies from 20 Hz to 15
KHz. This is very small range of frequencies. But frequency range for video is very high (Hz to few MHz).
Secondly, Video recording consists of recording of video audio chrominance etc. signals on single tape.

37. Video Recording Formats and enlist its types.122

When video recording was developed, everybody was trying in his own way. At that time the various leading
multinational companies come together and released two widely accepted video recording formats
i) Betamax and ii) Video Home Service (VHS)

38. Difference between Optical and Capacitive Disk.135

Optical Disk: In these types of disks a laser beam is focused on the micro scopic pits of the disk. A
reflected light from these pits varies depending on the size and depth of the pit. This reflected light
corresponds to the audio and video signal recorded on the disk. Normally the depth of the pit is one fourth
of the wavelength of laser light beam.
Capacitive Disk: In the optical disks the playback head doesnt touch the disk. But in capacitance disks the
diamond stylus rides on the disk. The signal information is recorded on the disk with varying depth of the
groove. The capacitance between the diamond stylus and the disk changes depending on the depth of the
groove. The capacitance variations represent the signal information recorded on the disk.

39. Working of video monitors and dose it contain RF, IF and Demodulator. 138
The video monitors reproduced the picture from composite video signal. Hence monitors doesnt not
contain RF, IF and Demodulation. It provide the batter reproduction, resolution, bandwidth, linearity and
less geometric distortion. It may or may not have audio reproduction circuit. They are used in CCTV.

40. Define LCD, uses and it working?139

Define: It is combination of two states of matter, the solid and the liquid. LCD uses a liquid crystal to
produce a visible image.
Uses: Liquid crystal displays are super-thin technology display screen that are generally used in laptop
computer screen, TVs, cell phones and portable video games.
Working: When electric voltage applied to liquid crystal, it alters the polarization of light passing through it.
i.e. the visible light can be made invisible by applying voltage signal to the liquid crystal. That means the
light is absorbed by the liquid crystal.

41. Enlist the type of Liquid Crystals.139

Prepared By Umair Saeed
There are three types of Liquid Crystal used in LCD.
a) Nematic crystals
b) Cholesteric crystals and
c) Smectic crystals
42. Advantages, Disadvantages and Application of LCD

Advantages of an LCDs:
LCDs consumes less amount of power compared to CRT and LED
LCDs are consist of some microwatts for display in comparison to some mill watts for LEDs
LCDs are of low cost
Provides excellent contrast
LCDs are thinner and lighter when compared to cathode ray tube and LED
Disadvantages of an LCDs:
Require additional light sources
Range of temperature is limited for operation
Low reliability
Speed is very low
LCDs need an AC drive
Applications of Liquid Crystal Display

Liquid crystal technology has major applications in the field of science and engineering as well on electronic

Liquid crystal thermometer

Optical imaging
The liquid crystal display technique is also applicable in visualization of the radio frequency waves in
the waveguide
Used in the medical applications
43. Define LCD TV display and TFT stand for.140
The small to medium size LCDs are developed for TV receivers. Such LCDs use active matrix twisted
nematic liquid crystals. The typical liquid crystal matrix consists of 240 x 200 pixels. These pixels are
selected by switching the p-channel MOS switches in the matrix. These are also called thin film transistor
(TFT) switches.
The LCD panels consists the pixels which are made up Of subpixels Of Red, Green, Blue and White
translucent dots of liquid crystal material.

44. Advantages and Disadvantages of LCD display.140

Advantages of LCD displays:

LCDs are compact in size and lower in weight.

LCDs have very low power consumption.
Very large flat panels can be built with the help of LCDs.
LCDs are suitable for portable apparatus like video cameras, laptop computers,
pocket TV etc.
Disadvantages of LCD displays:

They are costlier compared to displays which use CRT.

Brightness, contrast and colour resolution of LCD displays is poor.
45. What is plasma display.140

Prepared By Umair Saeed
A plasma display is a computer video display in which each pixel on the screen is illuminated by a tiny bit
of plasma or charged gas, somewhat like a tiny neon light. Plasma displays are thinner than cathode ray
tube (CRT) displays and brighter than liquid crystal displays ( LCD ).

46. What is CCTV System.141

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a
limited set of monitors.

47. Enlist the types of CCTV system Connection.142

a) Many Cameras and Single monitor CCTV System
b) Single Camera and Many monitors CCTV System
c) Many Cameras and Many monitors CCTV System
48. Enlist the Applications of CCTV.143
CCTV systems are used in hospitals for monitoring patients, for demonstrating operations to
students without entering into operation theatre.
CCTV can be used to observe the processes where very high voltages, electric fields, heat or cold
etc. are present.
In the field of training CCTV finds applications. Lot of people can be trained simultaneously using
CCTV by a single teacher.
CCTV is also used in big departmental stores or shops to keep eye over salesmen and customers.
The other applications like entertainment, surveillance, aerospace and oceanography are also
49. What is meant by HDTV.145
The term high definition means increased details, increased aspect ratio and reduced viewing distance of
the image produced by Television. Such TV is called as HDTV.

50. Basic concept of HDTV.145

The basic concept behind high-definition television is actually not to increase the definition per unit area.
But rather to increase the percentage of the visual field contained by the image.

51. Scanning line and Scanning method of HDTV.146

Scanning Line (in a cathode-ray or television tube) a single horizontal trace made bythe electron beam in
one traversal of the fluorescent screen.
The HDTV has almost twice the horizontal and vertical definition compared to conventional 625 line CCIR
system. The horizontal scanning lines are increased to achieve more vertical definition. The scanning lines
proposed are 1050, 1125 or 1250.
There are two type of scanning method of HDTV.

Interlaced scan: Traditional TV systems (such as NTSC, the standard TV system in the United

States) use an interlaced scan, where half the picture appears on the screen at a time. The other

half of the picture follows an instant later (1/60th of a second, to be precise). The interlaced system

relies on the fact that your eyes cant detect this procedure in action at least not explicitly.

Progressive scan: In a progressive-scan system, the entire picture is painted at once, which

greatly reduces the flickering that people notice when watching TV. Progressive scan is available

throughout a range of TV types.

52. How to avoid flickering in HDTV.146
Prepared By Umair Saeed
HDTV proposes progressive scanning. That is complete TV frame is scanned only once (1050 or 1125 or
1250 lines per frame). Therefore to avoid the effect of flicker in HDIV the frame proposed is about 50 Hz.
This also increases total brightness of the picture.

53. Which scanning system is used in conventional system to reduce flickering.146

Interlaced scanning is used in conventional scanning to reduce flicker. But the draw-back of interlaced
scanning is that the complete picture is divided into two and fast moving object are not produced properly.

54. Describe Aspect ratio, Viewing Distance and Sound system.147

Aspect Ratio:
The ratio of the width to the height of an image or screen is called Aspect ratio. Aspect ratio of HDTV is
increased to 16 : 9 (1.78 : 1). Because when wide screen films are transmitted with the conventional aspect
ratio of 4/3 (1.33 : 1) it is not possible to show the full width of the film image. The aspect ratio of HDTV tries
to cover the wide screen of motion pictures.
Viewing distance:
The optimal distance between the viewer and an HD television set is called viewing distance. A common
formula for computing the desirable range is to multiply the screen measurement by 2 and 3. The
conventional TV is viewed approximately six times the height Of the screen where as HDTV should be
viewed about three times the picture height.
Sound system:
A set of equipment for the reproduction and amplification of sound is called sound system. As we have
seen to have the realism of wide screen HDTV picture a stereophonic sound is used along with picture. The
stereophonic sound accompanying the HDTV picture should be very high fidelity and to the standard of
digital compact disk. The dynamic range of the sound should be about 90 dB. HDTV systems propose to
transmit sound digitally. This reduces the interference on the sound during transmission.

55. Describe the bandwidth requirement and transcoding?147

The video bandwidth of HDTV is about five to six times of the bandwidth required by conventional IV
systems. For example the video bandwidth is 5 MHz for 625 line CCIR System. Therefore corresponding
HDTV video bandwidth required will be around 30 MHz. Such a large bandwidth may reduce the number of
channels to be transmitted in the given frequency spectrum.
Therefore some sort of band compression techniques are applied to reduce the bandwidth. This is called

56. How much bandwidth required in HDTV compare to conventional TV?147

The video bandwidth of HDTV is about five to six times of the bandwidth required by conventional IV

57. What is meant by Proposed HDTV Standards.148

Three main systems are proposed as the HDTV standard systems. Those are 1050 lines (USA), 1250 lines
(Europe) and 1125 line (NHK Japan).
The 1125-line system is proposed as an international standard for program exchange.

58. Difference between HDTV and conventional system.149

a) The number Of scanning lines in HDTV systems are more compared to conventional system.
b) The aspect ratio Of HDTV is more compared to conventional TV systems.
Prepared By Umair Saeed
c) The band width requirement Of HDTV is more.
d) Some of the HDTV systems propose progressive scanning where as conventional TV systems use
interlaced scanning.
e) The sound accompanying the picture is proposed to be stereo in HDTV where as it is mono in
conventional systems.
59. Why microwave oven used?151
The microwave oven is an electronically controlled home appliance used for cooking.

60. Microwave oven working on which principle?151

It uses the principle of dielectric heating at microwave frequencies.

61. How much frequency of a microwave oven.151

The frequency of microwaves is 2450 MHz.

62. Describe magnetron and waveguide.152

The high voltage transformer generates about 3000 volts required for magnetron tube. Magnetron tube
converts this high voltage into electromagnetic waves of 2450 MHz. These microwaves are carried to the
cooking cavity by waveguide. Sometimes the waveguides are built-in within the cooking cavity itself.

63. Working of Food cooking in Microwave oven.

The frequency of microwaves is 2450 MHz. The microwaves are generated in the cooking cavity. These
waves are reflected from the walls of the cavity and strike the food. Because of these high frequency waves
the heat is induced inside the food. The temperature increases much faster than the conventional cooking.
The heat is conducted inside the food and it is cooked in short time.

64. Enlist the feature of microwave oven.153

Now let us consider the features of microwave ovens available presently in the market. Listed below are the
features of LG model no MC-804AAR convection type microwave oven.
a) 2450 MHz microwave frequency
b) Quartz heater element
c) 850 W RF power output
d) STS cooking cavity
e) ChiId lock facility
f) Clock facility
g) Five power levels
65. Describe Remote Control.153
A remote control (RC) is a small, usually hand-held, electronic device for controlling another device, such
as a television, radio or audio/video recording device.

66. Use of Remote Control

Most of the electronic appliances such as TV, VCR, music systems, games, toys etc are operated with the
help of remote control.

67. The remote control base on which principle.

The remote control is based on electronic principles.

68. Working of remote control.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
The remote control has a transmitter, which transmits infra-red waves towards the receiver. This receiver
detects the infra-red waves and produces specific electronic signals. The infra-red signal detectors and
receivers are fitted on the front panel of the appliance, which is being controlled by the remote control.

69. Block Diagram of Remote Control.

70. Enlist the feature of remote control.

Listed below are the common features of remote controls.
a) Frequencies: Infra-red range or VHF range.
b) Range Of operation: 10 to 15 meters or radius upto 5 km.
c) Power Source: Battery operated.
d) Number Of keys: 15 to 20, can be more depending upon application.
e) Controls: Almost all controls except mains power shutdown.
f) Type of keys: Rubber membrane keypad with push button contacts.
g) Transmitter: Infra-red LED or VHF transmitting areal.
h) Detector or Receiver: Infra-red photo-diode or photo transistor or VHF antenna/areal.
The other features are facilities are like handheld, long duration of batteries etc.

71. Describe Video Game Console.157

The present day video games have a console. This console is a highly specialized computers. It consists of
CPU, RAM, ROM, Kernel Software and audio & video control unit. OR
A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual
image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

72. Use of Video Game Console.

Game consoles such as Microsoft Xbox 360, Sony PlayStation 3, and Nintendo Wii arent just for
playing games anymore. These gaming consoles are multipurpose devices that can be the
centerpiece of a home theater.

Can Play DVD movies.

Can Play audio CDs.
Can Surf the Web.
73. Working of Video Game Console.
The operation code of the game load in RAM. The CPU acts accordingly and drives the audio & video
control unit. These units provide outputs, which can be connected to TV. You can play the game with the
help of paddles (or keys) available on the console.

74. Block Diagram of Video Game Console.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
75. Enlist the feature of video game.
Listed below are features/ specifications Of Sony's play station video game console.

32-bit R 3000 A RISC processor.

33.8688 MHz clock speed.
30 MIPS i.e. 30 Million Instructions Per Second.
132 MB per second bus speed.
4 KB data cache and 1 KB instruction cache.
640 x 480 maximum graphics resolution with five interlaced and four non-interlaced modes.
24-bit colours.
256 x 256 maximum sprite size.
360, 000 polygon rendering speed.
1 MB RAM for graphics.
MPEG decoder.
76. Describe RISC.
RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processor. These RISC processors are superscalar. They perform
multiple instructions at the same time. Such processors operate fast.

77. Define Digital Diaries.159

It is basically a small pocket computers. It has a CPU, Keyboard, Display and memories. They have
wireless ports as well as serial port.

78. Use of Digital Diaries.

It is used to manage personal information like name, address, telephone numbers, e-mail address etc.
These diaries are also used to make task list, taking notes to keep track appointment, remind you of
appointment, to do calculation to send and receive e-mail etc.

79. Block diagram of Digital Diaries.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
80. Enlist the feature of Digital Diaries.
Listed beiow are the typical features of digital diaries.

Hitachi's SH7709a or Motorola Dragonball or similar microprocessors.

16-75 MHz operating speed.
Pocket PC high speed operating systems.
160 160 or 240 320 pixel resolutions of the display 16 grayscales.
10 cm (4 inch) LCD display.
5 to 32 MB solid state memory.
Battery operated system with external suppiy facility.
Wireless port for operating internet and e-mails.
Serial or USB port for communicating with PC.
Video games facility.
81. Describe Music Synthesizer.161
A music synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to
sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.

82. Block diagram of Music Synthesizer.

83. Describe Washing machine.162

A washing machine is a machine that washes dirty clothes. It contains a barrel into which the clothes are
placed. This barrel is filled with water, and then rotated very quickly to make the water remove dirt from the

84. Block Diagram of fuzzy controller of washing machine.165

Prepared By Umair Saeed
85. Enlist the feature of washing machine.168
Listed below are the features of Videocon washing machine, model No V-NA-1311F.

Auto power off

Lint filter
Bleach inlet
Softner inlet
Cycle end buzzer
Dry tap indication
Soak facility
Memory backup
Programmable timer
Load sensor
Ambient temperature sensor
86. Define Camcorders and Enlist it types.168
The camcorder is basically a single unit which consists of video camera, video recorder and display or view
finder. The camcorder normally provide video signal as the output signal. The camcorders are portable
devices. They operate from their batteries or external power supply. The camcorders can be analog or

87. Difference between analog and digital camcorder.168

In analog camcorders, the video signal and audio signals are analog.
In digital camcorders, the audio and video signals are digital.

88. Block diagram of camcorder.169

89. Enlist the feature of camcorder.170

Listed below are the features/specifications camcorders.
Prepared By Umair Saeed
2.5" 1% low reflective LCD view screen
100x/10x digital (optical zoom)
Digital camera control
Digital image stabilization
i-LINK/RS-232c port
270 variable angle/self-record
Still/snap/strobe facilities
Gamma brightness correction
Playback with sound
2.5" digital color LCD view finder
90. Describe the cellular phone.171
Cellular telephone, sometimes called mobile telephone, is a type of short-wave analog or digital
telecommunication in which a subscriber has a wireless connection from a mobile phone to a relatively
nearby transmitter. The transmitter's span of coverage is called a cell. As the cellular telephone user moves
from one cell or area of coverage to another, the telephone is effectively passed on to the local cell

91. Block diagram of cellular phone.173

92. Enlist cellular phone uses.174

Modern cell phones can do lot of functions as mentioned below.

Cell phones can make a phone call to any other phone.

It stores information such as phone numbers, names etc.
Cell phones can keep track of your appointments and remind you about them.
Cell phones contain calculator.
Some models of cell phones can send and receive e-mails.
Cell phones can also browse on internet.
You can play games, play MP3 sound files etc on cell phones.

93. Enlist cellular phone feature.174

Listed below are the features and specifications of Philips made savvy cell phone.

900 MHz or 1800 MHz dual band operation.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
SMS cell broadcast with upto 5 channels selection option.
Displays number of name of the incoming call.
Allows the receiver to receive and manage second call.
Emergency call can be made with or without SIM card. The standard emergency number is 112.
It records incoming messages (voice mail).
Editable fixed dial number to control outgoing calls through network operator.
94. What is meant by Facsimile or Fax.175
Facsimile or Fax is an electronic system for transmitting graphical information. Facsimile means an exact
reproduction. Document at the transmitting end is copied exactly at the receiving end in Facsimile system.

95. Difference between fax and television.

Live scenes are not transmitted by facsimile. The Television transmits live scenes. This is the main
difference between facsimile and Television. Normally facsimiles use Telephone lines for data transmission.
Hence rate of maximum transmission is low compared to Television.

96. Enlist the uses of Fax.175

The facsimile systems are used to transmit.

Photographs and any other graphical information can be transmitted.

Documents, weather maps, etc. can be transmitted.
Fax is suitable for transmission language texts for which teleprinter is not suitable. For example
Fax can be used to transmit any language message across any state, town or country.
The transmission via fax is reliable, low cost and fast.
97. Block diagram of concept of Fax.176

98. Define Raster scanning.177

Paper documents are two-dimensional. In order to scan the entire surface of the page, the fax machine
must examine the image on a line-by-line basis, starting from the top and working its down. This type of
scanning is called Raster scanning

99. Define Scan line.

In this, the images to be scanned is divided vertically into several horizontal segment called scan lines.

100. Enlist the types of scanning techniques used in fax machine.177

There are two types of scanning techniques used in fax machine.
i) Cylindrical scanning ii) CCD Scanning
101. Difference between Analog and digital transmission.180

Prepared By Umair Saeed
Fig. 6.11.6 shows the analog transmission of data.

In this, image on the page is converted to a series of audible tones. These tones are then transmitted from
one fax machine to another on phone lines. The two main disadvantages of analog transmission are.
1. It is subjected to noise.
2. The sequencing of tones reduces the transmission speed.
Fig. 6.11.7 shows the digital transmission of data. Digital transmission also uses audible tones, but these
tones are fewer in number, and represent digital information

102. Block diagram of fax transceiver.182

103. Describe the wireless phones.184

The cordless telephones have handset and the base unit. Both the handset as well as base unit consists of
transmitters and receivers in them. The handset and base unit can communicate each other with the certain
range without any wire connection.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
104. Define base unit.184
The base unit is attached to the phone jack through a standard phone wire connection. The base operates
like a standard telephone plus transmitter/receiver and charger for the handset.

105. Block diagram of base unit.184

106. Define handset.185

When you are away from the base unit along with your handset, then the call is transmitted to you. The
base station receives the call, converts it to spread spectrum or FM radio signal and broadcasts through the
areal or omnidirectional antenna. This signal is received by the handset, which then acts like a normal

107. Block diagram of handset.185

108. Enlist the feature of wireless or cordless phone.186

Listed below are the features and specifications of Sony SPP-59226 cordless telephone.

LCD display to show your caller ID.

Facility to store the directory and caller ID.
Full duplex speaker phone.
Lighted keyboard allows for easier dialing in the dark.
109. Define Digital Calculators.187
A digital calculator is a small, portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic
arithmetic to complex mathematics.

110. Enlist the types of Calculator.187

There are four types of digital calculators.
i) General Purposed ii) Scientific iii) Programmable iv) Commercial calculators

111. Block diagram of Calculator.187

Prepared By Umair Saeed
What is meant by kernel in video game?
The kernel is the central module of an operating system (OS). It is the part of the operating system that
loads first, and it remains in main memory. Typically, the kernel is responsible for memory management,
process and task management, and disk management. The kernel connects the system hardware to the
application software. Every operating system has a kernel.

112. Enlist the feature of digital calculators.187

Listed below the specifications/features of Casio SL-450L basic handheld general purposed calculator.

8 digits LCD display.

Solar power.
Function sign in display.
Hard, plastic tamper proof keys.
Basic functions : plus, percent, plus/minus, squareroot, memory keys.
Constants for + / - / x /
Ability to clear last and/or all entries.
Impact resistant slide-on case.
Independent memory stores and totals the results of a series Of calculations.
Floating negative sign appears immediately to the left of negative number.
Separate keys for 'clear last entry' and 'all clear'.
1. Draw the block diagram of fax machine, also explain its each block.

When paper as graphical information is inserted into fax machine, it is scanned rowbyrow. The Charge
Coupled Device (CCD) converts this information into proportional analog signals which is fed to A/D
converter circuit to produce a digital signal which is compressed before modulating a carrier for
The Charge Coupled Device (CCD) is a special integrated circuit consisting of a flat, two-dimensional array
of small light detectors referred to as pixels as shown in Figure 8. Each pixel acts like a bucket for
electrons. A CCD chip acquires data as light or electrical charge. During an exposure, each pixel fills up
Prepared By Umair Saeed
with electrons in proportion to the amount of light that enters it. The CCD takes this optical or electronic
input and converts it into an electronic signal. The electronic signal is then processed to either produce an
image or provide information.
When the fax signal reaches receiver block through telephone line, it is demodulated using demodulator
within the modem. The data is fed to digital data expansion block to recover the original data from the
compressed form. The signals are fed to a printer together with the control signals such as Line Feed (LF).

2. Draw the block diagram of automatic washing machine.

Fig. 6.8.1 shows the block diagram of washing machine. It uses the micro controller or microcomputer as
the central controller. The controller has LCD or LED display and keyboard for program entry. The machine
can be operated in manual or auto modes. The machine has two washing tubs. The inner tube is
perforated. This tub contains the clothes to be washed. The outer tub is water scaled. The outer tub has
hot/cold water inlets, water outlets, soap inputs etc. The wash tubs are attached to the motor and gear box
Please refer Fig. 6.8.1 on next page.
The controller senses volume of clothes, type of dirt and degree of dirt. Depending upon this data, the
controller decides various timings of the wash cycle. The controller controls the mixture of hot/cold water,
detergent/soap etc. After you fill the inner tub with clothes, the machine fills the tub with water. The
controller then adds the detergent to the water. The controller then agitates the inner tube. After the
completion of agitation time, the washer drains the water. The solenoid valve of water outlet is opened. The
controller spins the inner tube so that water comes out of the holes and goes to the outlet. & the controller
then refills the wash tub, agitates again for some time and spins the inner tube to rinse out the soap. This
washing cycle continues till the time estimated by the controller.

3. Draw the block diagram of Remote Control & Explain its Operation.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
Operating Principle:
Most of the electronic appliances such as TV, VCR, music systems, games, toys etc are operated with the
help of remote control. The remote control is based on electronic principles. The remote control has a
transmitter, which transmits infra-red waves towards the receiver. This receiver det&'ts the infra-red waves
and produces specific electronic signals. The infra-red signal detectors and receivers are fitted on the front
panel of the appliance, which is being controlled by the remote control. The remote control has several
keys. The pattern of the transmitted signal depends upon the key pressed. The receiver decodes this
pattern and decides which key on the remote control is pressed. The appliance then acts accordingly.

4. Draw the block diagram of Microwave Oven & Explain its Operation.

Operating Principle:
The microwave oven is an electronically controlled home appliance used for cooking. It uses the principle of
dielectric heating at microwave frequencies. The frequency of microwaves is 2450 MHz. The microwaves
are generated in the cooking cavity. These waves are reflected from the walls of the cavity and strike the
food. Because Of these high frequency waves the heat is induced inside the food. The temperature
increases much faster than the conventional cooking. The heat is conducted inside the food and it is
cooked in short time.

5. Draw the block diagram of Video Game & Enlist its Features.

Prepared By Umair Saeed
32-bit R 3000 A RISC processor.
33.8688 MHz clock speed.
30 MIPS i.e. 30 Million Instructions Per Second.
132 MB per second bus speed.
4 KB data cache and 1 KB instruction cache.
640 x 480 maximum graphics resolution with five interlaced and four non-interlaced modes.
24-bit colours.
256 x 256 maximum sprite size.
360, 000 polygon rendering speed.
1 MB RAM for graphics.
MPEG decoder.
12. 24 channels of audio.
13. 44.1 kHz audio sample rate.
14. 512 KB audio RAM.
15. Special digital audio effects like envelope, looping, reverb etc.

Feature of VCR:
Listed below are the features/specifications of SHARP VC-S101U VCR

4/super VHS Hi-Fi Audio and Video heads

Universal remote control
360 x rewind speed
On unit information display
Automatic EZ set up
Front A/V inputs
Trilingual display menu (E/S/F)
VCR plus + (R) for programming VCR for timer recording simply by inputting plus code (R) number.
S-video in/out
10. S-VHS/ET mode to achieve S-VHS picture quality on an HS (High
Grade) VHS cassette tape
Sharp Super Quasi playback
Skip search/instant replay
Super picture
Tamper proof
Simple record timer
Auto zero back counter
Index search (DPSS)
Auto head cleaner
Auto repeat

Prepared By Umair Saeed