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GENERAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY diameter of the nucleus ~ 10 -13cm

the nucleus is positively charged

the large region around the nucleus is occupied by

ATOM- from Greek word atomos meaning uncuttable or Some important terms:
indivisible ATOMIC NUMBER- number of protons in the nucleus
- it is the characteristic of atoms of an element that distinguish
Advocates of the particular nature of matter: them from atoms of other elements
Leucippus and student Democritus, Greek (~450 BC)
Epicurus, Greek (~360 BC) MASS NUMBER - sum of the number of protons and neutrons in
Lucretius, Roman (~56 BC) the nucleus
Evidences of atoms:
Robert Boyles experiment in 1661 (led to Boyles Z X
ANTOINE LAVOISIER experiments that led to the ISOTOPES - are atoms of the same element that contain same number
Law of Conservation of Mass: the total mass of of protons but differ in the number of neutrons in their nuclei, and
substances before a chemical reaction is equal to the hence in mass number
total mass of substances after a chemical reaction.
JOSEPH-LOUIS FROUST experiments that led to the ATOMIC MASS- the relative mass of an atom based on the standard
Law of Definite Proportions: all samples of a mass of C-12
compound have the same composition, i.e., the same - previously used standard masses: O-16 and H-1
proportions by mass of the constituent elements.
RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS- weighted average of the atomic masses
Postulates of the Daltons Atomic Theory of the isotopes of the element based on their abundance
1. All matter is composed of atoms, which are indivisible.
2. All the atoms of a given element are alike in weight and in all Subatomic particles of an Atom
other aspects. Relative Actual
Mass , Cha
3. The atoms of different elements are of different weights. Particle Discovery mass, charge,
gram rge
4. Atoms are indestructible and preserve their identities in all amu coulomb
chemical reactions. Discovered
Early Models of the Atom JJ
0.000548 -1.6x10
Billiard Ball Model (Structureless Atom) Electron THOMSON 9.11x10 -28 -19 -1
-held by the Greek atomists up to JOHN DALTON Named by:
Basis: No experimental evidence, purely from intuition. George
Prouts Model Discovered
-proposed by WILLIAM PROUT (English physician) by:
Basis: Atomic masses of the elements known then were ERNEST
integral multiples of the atomic mass of hydrogen. RUTHERFO +1.6x10
Proton 1.00728 1.673x10-24 -19 +1
Conclusion: Atoms of other elements are made of two or RD
more hydrogen atoms (but found that some elements will Named by:
contain fractions of hydrogen atoms). Eugene
Plum Pudding Model (Raisin Bread Model) Discovered
-proposed by JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (English and named
physicist) Neutron by: 1.00667 1.675x10-24 0 0
Basis: Observations from experiment with the discharge JAMES
Findings: All atoms consist of an arrangement of positive * amu (atomic mass unit)- defined by assigning a mass of 12 amu to
and negative particles. the isotope of carbon-12
1 amu = 1.66054 x10-24g
Nuclear Model
-proposed by ERNEST RUTHERFORD (New Zealand Recent Models of the Atom
Basis: Observation from alpha particle scattering experiment Solar System Model
(done with Hans Geiger, Rutherfords assistant) - proposed by NIELS BOHR
Findings: The mass of the atom is concentrated in a small Basis: Quantum Theory: dual nature of light
volume at the center, called the nucleus. This tiny particle Photoelectric effect
accounts for more than 99% of the mass of the atom. Other Line spectrum of hydrogen
subsequent findings: Findings: The atomic spectrum of hydrogen can be explained by
the size of the atom and the nucleus: assuming the electrons move around the nucleus in fixed orbits,
diameter of an atom ~ 10 -8cm each designated by a quantum number n. The energy of electrons
epsumalapao/09 Page 1
is quantized, that is the electron can only absorb or emit photons 0 s (spherical)
of energy equivalent to the energy difference between allowed 1 p (principal)
orbits. 2 d (diffuse)
3 f (fundamental)
Quantum Theory
-proposed by Max Planck 3. Magnetic QN, m
-that energy is never emitted in continuous stream but only in - describes the ORIENTATION OF THE ORBITAL
small discrete packets called quanta. - allowed values: - to + including 0
E = h where: E = energy
h = Plancks constant 4. Spin QN, m s
= 6.626 x10-34 J-s - differentiates how two electrons in the same orbital will interact
= frequency of light with an external magnetic field
Photoelectric effect -allowed values: + or -
- proposed by Albert Einstein
- a phenomenon in which electrons are ejected from the surface Electronic Structure of Atom
of certain metals exposed to a light of at least a certain minimum ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION - the arrangement of
frequency electrons in the orbital of an atom
Dual Nature of Light energy arrangement of electrons
-Electromagnetic radiation (light) has a particulate nature (in
addition to its being wave). Light can be viewed as a stream of EXCITED STATE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION- allowed
PHOTONS, the particles of light. Each photon carries a packet of energy arrangement other than the ground state
energy called QUANTA and this energy can be calculated using
the equation: Rules to remember when writing ground state electron
E = h configuration:
=c/ where: c = speed of light in vacuum AUFBAU PRINCIPLE- the orbitals of an atom are filled in order
= 3.0 x108 m/s of increasing energy (n + rule)
= wavelength of light
PAULIS EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE- no two electrons can have
Two types of Spectrum: the same set of four quantum numbers; an orbital can
accommodate a maximum of two electrons
1. Continuous- contains all wavelengths
-e.g. rainbow HUNDS RULE- the lowest energy arrangement of electrons in a
set of degenerate orbitals (have the same energy in the absence
2. Emission/Line/Atomic/Discontinuous- each line in an atomic of magnetic field) is where there is a maximum number of
spectrum corresponds to the wavelength of light emitted by the electrons of the same spin; consequently, every orbital in a
atom when an electron moves from one allowed orbit to another subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any orbital is
orbit of lower energy. doubly occupied and all electrons in the singly occupied orbitals
- production of fireworks and spectroscopy have the same spin.

Dual Nature of Matter

-proposed by Louis de Broglie PERIODICITY
-that all objects have wave properties The Elements
E = h = mc2 = hc / -different definitions of the elements were given through time:
= h / mc = h / m
Ancient times: there are four elements that made up matter:
air, water, earth and fire.
Quantum Mechanical Model ( Wave Model)
-proposed by MAY PLANCK (German physicist) 1661 ROBERT BOYLE: Elements are substances which
Basis: Dual nature of light and matter cannot be decomposed into any number of distinct substances.
Findings: Electrons can be described as wave and their
energy and behavior are wave functions that are dependent on 1789 LAVOISIER: Elements are the last point which analysis
variables known as the quantum numbers. is capable of reaching.

The Quantum Numbers 1914 HENRY MOSELEY: An element is composed of atoms

1. Principal QN, n which have the same number of protons.
-refers to the main energy level
- related to the SHELL Early Classifications
-allowed values: integral values, e.g. 1, 2, 3n 1817 JOHANN WOLFGANG DOBEREINER: In a triad, the
combining weight of the central member of the average of its
2. Azimuthal/Angular momentum QN, partners.
-refers to the energy sublevel/subshell 1865 JOHN NEWLANDS: When elements are arranged in
- defines the SHAPE OF THE ORBITAL increasing atomic mass, every eighth element has similar
-allowed values: 0 to (n-1) properties.
- each value of is given a letter symbol:

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1869 LOTHAR MEYER: A periodic trend in properties is Trends in Atomic Properties
observed when elements are arranged in increasing atomic mass. Property Across the period Down a group
(from left to right) (from top to
1869 DMITRI MENDELEEV: the properties of the elements bottom)
are periodic functions of their atomic weights; predicted the Atomic size Decreasing Increasing
discovery of 10 elements. First Ionization
Increasing Decreasing
MOSELEYS PERIODIC LAW: The properties of the Affinity for Increasing Decreasing
elements are functions of their atomic numbers. Electron (excludes Group (excludes Group
Electronic Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table Tendency to form
The properties of the elements are related to the Decreasing Increasing
arrangement of electrons in their atoms, or more specifically, to Tendency to form Increasing
the valence electron configurations of the elements. Anion (excludes Group Decreasing
VALENCE ELECTRONS-are the electrons that occupy the *Electronegativity Increasing Decreasing
outermost main energy level of the atom in its ground state Reactivity with Decreasing -------
CORE ELECTRONS-are the electrons in the inner main energy Metallic property Decreasing Increasing
*atomic property is manifested only when the atom is bonded to
another atom
Elements belonging to the same group have the same number
and type of valence electrons.
ATOMIC RADIUS-average distance between the nucleus and the
Elements from left to right in a period have an increasing
outermost electron
number of valence electrons in the same main energy level.
IONIZATION ENERGY-amount of energy required to remove
an electron from an atom
The number of valence electrons of an element may be
ELECTRON AFFINITY-amount of energy released/evolved
determined from the group number. For:
when an atom gains electron/s
Group 1-12 or Group IA-VIIIA: # of valence electron = group
AFFINITY FOR ELECTRONS- the tendency of an atom to gain
electron/s. If there is a great tendency of an atom to gain
Group 13-18 or Group IB-VIIIB: # of valence electron = group #
electrons, the more exothermic the process would be and the
- 10
value of the electron affinity would be more negative. Note: some
electron arrangements result in deviations from the general trends
Elements with valence electrons only in the s orbital belong to
in AFE.
the s-block.
ELECTRONEGATIVITY- the ability of an atom to attract shared
Elements with valence electrons only in the p orbital belong to
the p-block.

Elements in the s-block and p-block are called the

-based on their differences in conductivity and melting point
Elements with valence electrons in the ns and (n-1)d orbitals
1. Metallic
are the d-block. These elements are also called TRANSITION
2. Ionic
3. Covalent molecular
4. Covalent network
Elements with valence electrons in the ns 2, (n-1)d1 and (n-2)f
orbitals are the f-block. These elements are also called
-based on the crystal structure
___________________________________. The upper row
1. Crystalline solid
elements are the LANTHANIDES while the lower panel is the
2. Amorphous solid

Elements can be divided into three categories:

1. Metal
2. Nonmetal
Nature of chemical bonds
3. Metalloid/semi-metal- e.g. B, Si, Ge, As,Sb,Te,Po,At
CHEMICAL BOND-net electrostatic attractions between atoms
of the same or of different elements
Family Name
Group IA Alkali metals Group VA Nitrogen Family
COVALENT BOND- results from the attraction of the
Group IIA Alkaline earth Group VIA Chalcogens
nucleus of one atom to the electron/s of the other atom and
the attraction of the nucleus of this atom to the electron/s of
Group IIIA Boron Family Group VIIA Halogens
the first atom.
Group IVA Carbon Family Group VIIIA Noble Gases
IONIC BOND-results from the attraction between the
positive ion (cation) and the negative ion (anion)

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METALLIC BOND- results from the attraction between RESONANCE STRUCTURES-are possible Lewis structures of a
the cations in the lattice and the sea of delocalized electrons molecule or a polyatomic ion but one of which is fully consistent
with the observed properties of the molecule or ion (in terms of
When atoms of two or more nonmetals form a bond, the resulting bond strength, length, etc.). These structures are said to contribute
substance is COVALENT in nature. to the true structure of the molecule or ion. Their contribution to
When atoms of metal and nonmetal combine, the binary the structure varies. A structure is considered important if it
compound formed is IONIC. contributes more to the true structure than others. The
importance of a resonance structure may be determined from the
Properties of a chemical bond FORMAL CHARGES.
BOND ENERGY-amount of energy involved when a bond is
broken. It is of the same magnitude as the amount of energy
released when the bond is formed. Formal charge = (# of valence electron in the free atom) (# of
*HIGHER BOND ENERGY-stronger bond non-bonded electrons) - (total # of bonding electron)
BOND LENGTH-distance between the nuclei of the atoms * The closer the formal charges on the atoms in the structure to
forming the bond zero, the more important is the structure.
*SHORTER BOND LENGTH-stronger bond
BOND ORDER-it expresses whether a covalent bond is single, Determining the importance of resonance structures:
double, triple or even in between the strength of a single and a The contributing structure must be consistent with the location
double bond. of atoms in the molecule.
The structure where formal charges on atoms are close to zero is
The Octet Rule more important.
The atoms of the main block elements lose, gain or The number of unpaired electrons must be consistent with the
share electrons in order to acquire an octet of electrons (except H) magnetic property of the molecule.
in their outermost energy level. Structures where atoms with like charges lie adjacent are less
important that when the opposite is true.
Exceptions to the Octet rule: Structures where a negative formal charge lies on the more
Incomplete octet- molecules which contain an atom with less electronegative atom are more important than when the reverse is
than an octet of electrons but has no unpaired electron. true.
e.g. BF3, AlCl3
Expanded octet- molecules which contain an atom with more
than eight electrons in its valence shell. Geometry of Molecule
e.g. SF6, PCl5 ELECTRON PAIR GEOMETRY- the shape of a molecule (or a
polyatomic ion) is determined by repulsions of electron pairs
Odd-electron species- these are molecules where one atom (stereoactive pairs) seek the orientations that result in a minimum
contains an unpaired electron and does not fulfill the Octet rule. repulsion between them
Only a few molecules exist with an odd-electron situation and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY- is the spatial arrangement of the
many of these are free radicals which are quite reactive. atoms comprising the molecule relative to one another

*When the shape of the molecule is described, bond length and

bond angle are important properties to consider.
LEWIS STRUCTURE (ELECTRON DOT STRUCTURE) *Multiple bonds are considered one stereoactive group.

Lewis symbol is consist of

1. chemical symbol of the element- which represents the
CORE ELECTRONS of an atom and; # of
# of # of
2. dots placed around the symbol to represent the stereo- VSEPR Bond
bonding lone Geometry Ex
VALENCE ELECTRONS. active symbol angle
pairs pairs
2 2 0 AX2 Linear 180 BeCl2
Lewis structure- is one or a combination of Lewis symbols to Trigonal BF3
represent a single atom (neutral or charged), a molecule, or a 3 0 AX3 120
polyatomic ion. 3
2 1 AX2E V-shaped <120 SO2

Important points to remember in writing Lewis structures: 4 0 AX4 Tetrahedral 109.5 CH4
All valence electrons of the atoms must appear in the structure.
Usually, all electrons are paired. Trigonal NH3
Usually, each atom requires a valence shell octet of electrons. C, 4 3 1 AX3E 107
N, O, F are strict followers of the Octet rule (except in odd- 2 2 AX2E2 V-shaped 104.5 H2O
electron situations).
Multiple bonds may exist between atoms. 5 90 PCl5
H and F are always the terminal atoms and can form single Trigonal
5 0 AX5 120
bonds only. bipyramidal
The central atom is element which has the least 4 1 AX4E See-saw 90 SF4
electronegativity except H. 120

epsumalapao/09 Page 4
90 ClF3 If the value of the molar masses of the substances
3 2 AX3E2 T-shaped
180 being compared are relatively near each other, the
2 3 AX2E3 Linear 180 XeF2 presence of dipole-dipole interaction would greatly
90 contribute to the relative strength of the IMFA.
6 0 AX6 Octahedral SF6
Square 90 BrF5 Physical properties that are affected by IMFA:
6 5 1 AX5E 1. Boiling point
pyramidal 180
Square 90 XeF4 2. Melting point
4 2 AX4E2 3. Surface tension
planar 180
*A = central atom, X = bonding pairs, E = lone pairs 4. Viscosity
5. Heat capacity
6. Specific heat capacity
Polarity of bonds and molecules 7. Heat of vaporization
A POLAR BOND is a covalent bond where 8. Heat of fusion
bonding electrons are not shared equally
electron density distribution between the nuclei of the Phase Diagrams
bonding atoms is not uniform -summarizes the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid,
electronegativities of bonding atoms are different or not liquid or gas

This results in the separation of the center of charges, and one MOLE CONCEPT
end of the bond is partially positive while the other end is MOLE-is the amount of substance that contains the same number
partially negative. The degree of separation in a bond is of elementary particles as the number of atoms in exactly 12
expressed as its DIPOLE MOMENT. grams of C-12.
*When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be
* The HIGHER is the electronegativity difference of the atoms specified. These may be atoms, molecules, formula units, ions,
forming the bond, the more polar is the bond. electrons and other particles.
A bond formed from two atoms of equal electronegativities is a
NON-POLAR BOND. Ways of expressing mole
1. by number of particles
*A POLAR MOLECULE is one which has a dipole resulting Use of Avogadros number: 1 mole = 6.02x1023 particles
from the net effect of polar bonds in the molecule. 2. by mass
Use of molar mass: this is numerically equal to the atomic
mass/atomic weight of an atom or the formula mass/formula
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES OF ATTRACTION (IMFA) weight of a molecule, a compound or a polyatomic ion.
-these are the forces of attraction between molecules and not 3. by volume
within molecules Use of molar volume at STP: 1 mole = 22.414 L

Types of IMFA
LONDON DISPERSION FORCES- is a weak and short-lived
force of attraction that exists in all molecules. This result from CHEMICAL FORMULA
nonsymmetrical electron distribution that produces a temporary CHEMICAL FORMULA-combination of symbols that indicates
dipolar arrangement of charges called instantaneous dipole. the composition of a substance
molecules with polar bonds. Polar molecules exhibit dipole EMPIRICAL FORMULA-describes the elements present and
moment. They attract each other electrically by lining up in a the simple whole number ratio of the atoms of these elements
manner that the partial positive end of a molecule and the partial MOLECULAR FORMULA-describes the elements present and
negative end of another molecule are close to each other. the actual number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of
HYDROGEN BONDING- is a particularly strong dipole-dipole the substance; used in describing the atoms composing the
force where hydrogen is covalently bound to any of the highly particle of a covalent molecular compound
electronegative elements (N, O, and F).
STRUCTURAL FORMULA-describes the element present, the
Assessing the strength of IMFA actual number of atoms of each element and the order in which
In comparing nonpolar molecules, since only LDF is present, the atoms are bonded together in the molecule.
the larger the molar mass, the stronger the IMFA.
In comparing polar molecules (whose masses are relatively
near), the greater the polarity of the molecule, the stronger the Interpretation of a chemical formula
IMFA. 1. sucrose (C12H22O11)
In comparing a combination of polar and nonpolar molecules, a. molecular level:_____________________________________
the following should be used: b.molar level: _________________________________________
If the molar masses of the substances being compared
are widely different, the LDF is considered more 2. gypsum (CaSO4)
important than the dipole-dipole interaction in a. in terms of atoms per formula unit:
determining the relative strength of the IMFA. __________________________________________________
b. in terms of ions per formula unit:

epsumalapao/09 Page 5
__________________________________________________ Types of Chemical Reaction
c. in terms of the numbers of moles of atoms per mole: 1. Combination: A + B AB
__________________________________________________ e.g. nonmetal oxide + water acid
d. in terms of the number moles of ions per mole: SO2 + H2O H2SO3
__________________________________________________ metal oxide + water base
MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2
2. Decomposition: AB A + B
Percentage Composition from Formula e.g. metal oxide metal + O2
The percentage composition of a compound is a list of the HgO Hg + O2
percentages by weight of the elements in the compound. The metal nitrate metal nitrite + O2
percentage weight of an element in a compound is equivalent to KNO3 KNO2 + O2
the number of grams of the element present in 100 grams of the metal carbonate metal oxide + CO2
compound. Na2CO3 Na2O + CO2
metal bicarbonate metal carboante + H2O + CO2
e.g. Calculate the percent composition of CsClO2 (by mass). NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
Ans: 66.3% Cs; 17.7% Cl: 16.0% O metal oxyhalide metal halide + CO2
KClO3 KCl + CO2

3. Single Displacement: AB + C BC + A
CHEMICAL EQUATION-a representation of a chemical reaction e.g. Na + H2O NaOH + H2
which makes use of symbols and formula to indicate the reactants Zn + HCl ZnCl2 + H2
and the products Al + FeCl3 Fe + AlCl3
The state of the substance is described by the symbols s, g, l and Fe + AlCl3 non-spontaneous reaction
aq to indicate solid, gas, liquid and aqueous, respectively.
An arrow ( ) separates the reactants from the products and is 4. Double Displacement: AB + CD AD + CB
interpreted to mean to yield or to form or to produce. e.g. Neutralization reaction:
The chemical equation should follow the Law of Conservation HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
of Mass. It must have the same number of atoms on both sides of Precipitation reaction:
the equation. AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3
In balancing chemical equation, ONLY the coefficients and not
the subscripts are changed. 5. Combustion
A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted in two ways. e.g. Al + O2 Al2O3
C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O
e.g. 2H2 + O2 2H2O
a. molar level:______________________________________
b. molecular level:___________________________________ SOLUBILITY RULES at 25C

Soluble salts
STOICHIOMETRY All nitrates, acetates, .bicarbonates, chlorates, and
STOICHIOMETRY-refers to the quantitative measurements compounds containing alkali metal ions and ammonium ion
involving the amounts of the reactants used or the products All halides except Ag+, Hg22+, Pb2+
formed based on a balanced chemical equation. All sulfates except that of Ag+, Sr2+, Ca2+ and Pb2+

STOICHIOMETRIC COEFFICIENT-coefficients used in Insoluble salts

balancing the chemical equation All carbonates, phosphates, chromates and sulfides except
that of alkali metal ions and ammonium ion
STOICHIOMETRIC RATIO/FACTOR-conversion factor that All hydroxides except that of alkali metal ions and Ba 2+
relates the molar amounts of the species involved in a chemical Reaction rate the rate at which the reaction proceeds to
reaction completion
*The values used in the stoichiometric factor are the
stoichiometric coefficients. Collision Theory
In a chemical reaction, the reactant molecules must collide to
PERCENT YIELD-percentage of the theoretical yield of the commence product formation.
product that is actually obtained in a chemical reaction
Requirements for successful collision
% Yield = actual amount of the product formed x 100 1. proper orientation of the molecules
Theoretical amount 2. adequate energy (Energy of Activation, EA)

LIMITING REACTANT-the reactant that is completely Factors affecting the rate of the reaction
consumed in a chemical reaction, determines the amount of the 1. concentration of species: [ ] , faster rate
product formed 2. temperature: T, faster rate
EXCESS REACTANT-the reactant that is not completely 3. pressure: pressure, faster rate
consumed in a chemical reaction 4. catalyst: lowers the activation energy by finding an alternative

epsumalapao/09 Page 6
Theory Definition of Definition of
ARRHENIUS H+ producer in OH- producer in
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM-is a state or condition aqueous solutions aqueous solutions
characterized by the ff: BRONSTED- H+ or proton donor H+ or proton
The reaction or process occurring in the system is reversible. LOWRY acceptor
The forward and reverse processes occur at the same time. LEWIS Electron pair Electron pair donor
The opposing processes never cease to occur. acceptor
The concentrations of the reactants and products do not change
with time.

* A system that reaches equilibrium is one that does not change Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
mass or energy with the surroundings.
Conjugate pairs: Acid - conjugate base pair
At equilibrium, the concentrations of the reactants and the
products expressed in moles per liter or in partial pressures of base c.acid
gaseous components for (for gaseous reactions), are interrelated HCl + NH3 NH 4
+ Cl-
by a mathematical relationship called the equilibrium law. acid c.base
Base -conjugate both
pairas an acid
The equilibrium law is expressed as the quotient of the and a base
concentrations of the products raised to exponents numerically
equal to their coefficients in the balanced equation to the
concentrations of the reactants similarly raised to exponents Ionization Constants
equal to their coefficients. This coefficient is called the mass
action expression. For water,
The numerical value of the mass action expression is the 2H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq)
REACTION QUOTIENT(Q). When a system is in a state of Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.0x10 -14 at 25C
equilibrium, the reaction quotient is a constant value called
EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT For acids in general,
*Kc vs. Kp HA(aq) + H2O(l) H(aq) + A-(aq)
Implications of K values: Ka = [H3O+] [A-] / [HA]
Very large K values: EQUIL IS FAR TO THE RIGHT (PDT)
Unity K value: [PDTS] = [REACTANTS]
Very small K value: EQUIL IS FAR TO THE LEFT For bases in general,
(REACTANT) B(aq) + H2O(l) OH- (aq) + BH+ (aq)
Kb = [OH-] [BH+] / [B]
LE CHATELIERS PRINCIPLE-If the state of equilibrium of a
system (a reaction) is disturbed, the system will react in the Relationship between Ka of an acid and Kb of a conjugate base:
direction that will relieve the stress and re-established the Kb / Ka = Kw = 1.0x10 -14 at 25C

Factors that may disturb the equilibrium: The pH scale

1. Addition or removal of reactant or product pH = -log [H3O+]
2. Change in the volume of the reaction vessel of a gaseous pOH = -log [OH-]
reaction pH + pOH = 14 (for any aqueous solution)
3. Change in temperature
4. Addition of a catalyst
5. Addition of an inert gas Strengths of Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases
Acid-base ionization constant, Ki (Ka/Kb)
VERY LARGE Ka (Kb), stronger acid (base)
A saturated solution of an insoluble or sparingly soluble pKa
salt is a heterogeneous equilibrium, for which the mass action SMALL VALUE pKa, stonger acid
expression is written as a product of ion concentrations and hence
referred to as SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANT, Ksp. proton affinity values

Prediction of Precipitation: Proton affinity is the negative of the enthalpy of proton gain.
Ion product > Ksp: SUPERSATD, PPTN WILL OCCUR The HIGHER the magnitude of proton affinity of a substance, the
Ion product = Ksp: SATD, NO PPN stronger is its base property.
Ion product < Ksp: UNSATD, NO PPTN

Acid-base Properties of Salts

From strong base From strong acid NEUTRAL
Acid-base theories commonly used: (Na+) (Cl-)

epsumalapao/09 Page 7
From strong base From weak acid BASIC Trends: Anion hydrolysis: high Kh, HIGH pH
(K+) (CN-) Cation hydrolsis: high Kh, LOW pH
From weak base From strong acid ACIDIC
(NH4+) (NO3-)
From weak base From weak acid (A-) DEPENDENT SOLUTIONS
(BH+) ON THE Kh - a homogeneous mixture
(HYDROLYSIS -components: solute and solvent
OF THE IONS Types of solutions based on the relative amount of solute
Strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4, SbF4 1. saturated solution
Strong bases: hydroxides of group IA and IIA 2. unsaturated solution
Periodic trends in acid-base strengths: 3. supersaturated solution
1. Binary acids contain hydrogen atom and anionic group Types of solution based on concentration:
From left to right: INCREASING ACID STRENGTH 1. dilute solution
From top to bottom: INCREASING ACID 2. concentrated solution
Types of solution based on physical states:
2. Oxoacids contain hydrogen, oxygen and another element Solution Solute Solvent Example
*With central atoms belonging to the same group and have the Solid aerosol Solid Gas Smoke
same number of oxygen atoms: Liquid Liquid Gas Cloud
From top to bottom: DECREASING ACIDITY WITH aerosol
Foam Gas Liquid
*With the same number of oxygen atoms on the central atom: drinks
From left to right: INCREASING ACIDITY Solid foam Gas Solid Styrofoam
Emulsion Liquid Liquid Mayonnaise
3. Aqua acids Solid Liquid Solid Jellies
The strength of aqua acids generally increase with increasing emulsion
positive charge on the central metal ion and with decreasing Sol Solid Liquid Paint
radius. Solid sol Solid Solid Alloy

4. Acidic and basic oxides

Elements Be, At, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, Pb have amphoteric oxides Factors affecting solubility:
which elements As, Sb and Bi are acidic at high oxidation states. 1. nature of solute and solvent
2. temperature
3. pressure
BUFFER-a solution that resists drastic change in its pH when
small amounts of OH- or H3O+ are added Types of solute:
1. electrolyte
2. non-electrolyte
Hydrolysis of Salt 3. covalent electrolyte
-the four properties of solution that depend only on the
where B+ = conjugate acid of the base, BOH a. nature of the solvent
A- = conjugate base of the acid, HA b. mole fraction of the solute (nonvolatile, non-
BA B+ + A-
1. Vapor Pressure Lowering
Cations conjugate acid of weak base 2. Boiling Point Elevation
Anions conjugate base of the weak acid Tb = Kbm
3. Freezing Point Depression
Note: Conjugate acids (of a weak base) and (conjugate basis (of Tf = Kfm
weak acids) undergo hydrolysis since they are strong and can 4. Osmotic Pressure
compete with water. = cRT
Note: KF of water at 25C = 1.86 C/molal
General hydrolysis reaction for a conjugate base, KB of water at 25C = 0.513 C/molal
A- + H2O HA + OH-

Kh = [HA] [OH-] / [A-]

Quantitative expression of concentration
General hydrolysis reaction for a conjugate acid, MASS OF COMPONENT/
B + + H 2O B + H3O+ Percent by mass MASS OF SPLE(OR
+ +
Kh = [B] [H3O ] / [B ] (% by mass or weight) MIXTURE) X 100

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Percent weight per volume COMPONENT/VOLUME OF
(%w/v) SPLE (OR MIXTURE) X 100
Mg/L or mg/kg -deals with the conversion of chemical energy into electrical
Parts per million (ppm) energy and vice versa
Moles solute/ L soln GALVANIC/VOLTAIC CELL-generates electricity through a
Molarity (M) spontaneous redox reaction
Moles solute/ kg solvent
Molality (m) ELECTROLYTIC CELL-utilizes electrical energy to produce a
# of equivalents/ L soln chemical change
*Normality (N)
Moles component i/ total
Mole fraction moles Difference between a galvanic cell and an
electroltytic cell
* In acid-base reactions, an equivalent in the amount of substance Galvanic cell Electrolytic cell
that reacts with or liberates 1 mole of hydrogen ion. Energy CHEMICAL -> ELCTRICAL ->
* In redox reactions, an equivalent in the amount of substance conversion ELECTRICAL CHEMICAL
that reacts with or liberates 1 mole of electron.
Polarity of <+>
anode <->
Polarity of <-> <+>
-a type of chemical reaction which involve the transfer of
electron/s from one substance to another
OXIDATION-the half reaction that involves loss of electrons CATHODE CATHODE
Cation flow

REDUCTION-the half reaction that involves the gain of electron ANODE ANODE
Anion flow

OA-the reactant which oxidizes the other reactant; the reagent Cell <+> <->
which undergoes reduction or that which gains electrons potential
RA- the reactant which reduces the other reactant; the reagent of the
which undergoes oxidation or that which losses electrons reaction

Cell diagram or cell notation:

Oxidation number (ON) the number of charges the atom would Cu Cu2+ (0.02M) Ag+ (0.02M) Ag
have in a molecule if electrons were transferred completely
Elemental state: ON = 0 ELCTROLYSIS- the use of electricity for non-spontaneous
Monoatomic ion: ON = charge of ion reduction or oxidation of substance
1 Faraday (F) = 96485.3365 C/mol e-
Assessing the Strength of reducing agent (RA) and oxidizing
agent (OA)
a. spontaneity of the reaction THERMOCHEMISTRY
Cu2+ + Mg Mg2+ + Cu spontaneous -the study of heat changes and heat transfers accompanying
chemical changes
The OA and RA in the reactant side of a spontaneous ENERGY- capacity to do work
reaction are stronger than the OA and RA in the product 1 Joule (J) = 1 kg-m2/s2
Therefore, OA: Cu2+ > Mg2+ SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER- amount of heat that can raise the
RA: Mg > Cu temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius; 4.18
b. Standard Reduction Potential Table
(-) Ered weak OA, strong RA WORK-force acting through a distance
(+)Ered strong OA, weak RA
SPECIFIC HEAT-amount of heat required to raise the
Mg2+ + 2e- Mg Ered = -2.37 v temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius
Cu2+ + 2e- Cu Ered = +0.15 v
HEAT OF REACTION-amount of energy, in the form of heat,
Therefore, OA: Cu2+ > Mg2+ involved in a reaction, at constant temperature when the entire
RA: Mg > Cu energy change for the reaction involves heat
Endothermic reactions
Balancing redox reactions: Exothermic reactions
1. by change in the ON method
2. half-reaction method

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CALORIMETRY-the measurement of heat changes in a process; * Radiation can be measured and detected by: Geiger
makes use of the knowledge of the thermal properties of the counter/Geiger-Muller counter, closed chamber, scintillation
device and the system undergoing change counter and dosimeter.

Types: Ways of measuring radiation:

1. bomb calorimeter dps-number of nuclear disintegration per second
2. coffee-cup calorimeter SI units: Becquerel (Bq); Curie (Ci)
1 Bq = 1 disintegration or nuclear transformation/sec
Some notes when using thermochemical equations: 1 Ci = 3.7x1010 Bq; equivalent to rate of
The stoichiometic coefficients continue to refer to the number disintegration of 1.0 g radium
of moles of each substance. The enthalpy change given is specific
to the number of moles indicated in the balance equation. rad/rd = radiation absorbed dose
The given enthalpy change is also specific for the states of the 1 rd = 10-5 J/g
substances indicated in the equation. Hence, the physical states of
the reactants and products must be indicated. gray = 1 J/kg absorbing material
When the equation is reversed, the magnitude of the change in 1 Gy = 100 rd
enthalpy remains the same but its sign is reversed.
If the equation is multiplied by a factor of n, the change in rem-radiation equivalent for man
enthalpy changes by the same factor. Enthalpy change is -dose in rad multiply by conversion factor reflecting type of
directly proportional to the amounts of substances in the radiation
system. for alpha radiation: 1 Gy = 20 x rad
The enthalpy of a substance increase with temperature and the
enthalpy change for a reaction also depends on the temperature at
which the reaction happens. Important names:
Antoine Henri Becquerel (French physicist)
Determination of enthalpy change -accidentally discovered radioactivity in uranium
From known enthalpies of reactions Marie and Pierre Curie (Polish chemist and physicist and
HESSS LAW-When reactants are converted to products, the French)
change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in -discovered polonium and radium
one step or in a series of steps. Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (German physicist)
From standard enthalpies of formation and reaction -discovered x-rays

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY Radiation can be measured and detected by:

Geiger counter/ Geiger-Muller counter
RADIOACTIVITY -the radiation emitted spontaneously from the -measures electrical conductivity of gaseous ions
nucleus of an unstable nuclide produced

NUCLIDE -an atom of an element that has a specific number of Closed chamber
protons and neutrons in its nucleus -visualizes tracks of particles of radiation

RADIOACTIVE NUCLIDE -an atom with unstable nucleus that Scintillation counter
spontaneously emits radiation
-measures the collision between emitted particles on a
RADIOACTIVE DECAY -process where in a radioactive nuclide special surface
is transformed into a nuclide of another element as a result of
emission of radiation Dosimeter
-measures total quantity of radiation received by a
surface, some uses photographic plates
Types of emitted particles
Particles Symbol Charge Application of isotopes:
Alpha particle or 1. Structural determination
2. Metabolic tracers
Helium particle
3. Tracer analysis in medicine to locate tumors or unusual growth
Beta particle 4. Neutron activation analysis to determine concentrations of
some element in a substance
Positron 5. Isotope dilution analysis to determine concentration of a
component of a mixture
Proton or 6. Measuring small volumes
Hydrogen nucleus
Gamma rays Three isotopes of hydrogen:
1. Protium- has 1 electron, 1 proton and no neutron
Neutron 2. Deuterium- has 1 electron, 1 proton and 1 neutron
3. Tritium- has 1 electron, 1 proton and 2 neutrons

epsumalapao/09 Page 10
Nuclear reactions 5. How many kilograms of metallic sodium and of liquid chlorine
can be obtained from 100 metric tons of salt? ANS: 393 kg Na
Alpha particle decay
and 607 kg Cl
Beta particle decay 6. How many moles of oxygen are there in each of the following?
a. 0.17 mol O2 ANS: 0.34 mol O
Gamma ray emission b. 6.02x1024 molecules CO ANS: 10.0 mols O
c. 1.0 mol BaS2O84H2O ANS: 12 mols
Positron emission d. 20.0 g O2 ANS: 1.26 mol O
e. 1.6 g CO2 ANS: 0.073 mol O
Neutron emission f. 1.0 mol Ba(NO3) H2O ANS: 7.0 mol O
Electron capture or K-
capture 7. How many moles of Ba and Cl are contained in 107.0 g of
Ba(ClO3)2H2O? How many molecules of water of hydration are
Nuclear stability in the same amount? ANS: 0.332 mol Ba and 0.664 mol Cl;
Nuclei that contain 2, 8, 0,50 ,82, or 126 protons or 2.00x1023 molecules H2O
neutrons are more stable than nuclei that dont possess
these numbers. 8. Calculate the percent composition of Ca(HCO3)2 (by mass).
ANS: 24.7% Ca, 1.2% H, 14.8% C, 69.3% O
Nuclei with even numners of both protons and neutrons
are generally more stable than those with odd number
9. A 10.00 g sample of a crude ore contains 2.80 g of HgS. What
of these particles.
is the percentage of mercury in the pure compound? In the ore?
All isotopes of the elements with atomic numbers
ANS: 86.21% in the pure compound; 24.1% in the ore
higher than 183 are radioactive. All isotopes of
Technitium and Promethium are radioactive.
10. A sample of pure compound contains 2.04 g sodium,
2.665x1022 atoms of carbon and 0.132 mol of oxygen. Find the
Nuclear binding energy
empirical formula?
-the energy required to break up a nucleus into its component
protons and neutrons
11. An oxide of arsenic was analyzed and found to contain
Mass defect
75.74% As. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
-the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the
ANS: As2O3
masses of its protons, neutrons and electrons
12. A 1.367 g sample of an organic compound was combusted in
Nuclear Reactors
a stream of air to yield 3.002 g CO 2 and 1.640 g H 2O. If the
1. Light water
original compound contained only C, H and O, what is the
2. Heavy water
empirical formula of the sample?
3. Breeder
Rates of radioactive decay
13. A saturated hydrocarbon contains 82.66% carbon. What are
The rate of decay, dN/dt, of a radioactive material is
the empirical formula and the molecular formula of the
directly proportional to the amount of material present, N.
HALF-LIFE-the time required for one-half of any given quantity
14. Calculate the required number of moles of Ca(HCO 3)2 to
of aradioactive substance to undergo decay; constant for every
prepare 2.50 moles of CO2 according to the equation:
radioactive isotope
Ca(HCO3)2 + HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
Formula: t1/2 = (ln 2) / k
ANS: 1.25 mol
ln (No/N) = kt
15. Caustic soda, NaOH, can be prepared commercially by the
reaction of sodium carbonate with slaked lime, Ca(OH) 2,. How
many g of NaOH by treating 1.00 kg of sodium carbonate can be
1. How much phosphorus is contained in 5.00 g of the compound
ANS: 755 g NaOH
CaCO33 Ca3(PO4)2? ANS: 0.900 g P
16. A 0.800 mol sample of Cu2S is roasted in excess oxygen to
2. How many molecules of H 2 are present in 7.5 g of H 2? How
yield copper metal and sulfur dioxide. Calculate the mass copper
many atoms of H? ANS: 2.2x1021 H2 molecules; 4.4x1024 H
metal formed. The reaction involved is: Cu2S + O2 Cu + SO2
17. Calculate the mass in grams of calcium chloride needed to
3. Calculate the number of atoms in 300 g of CaCO3?
react with excess silver nitrate to produce 6.60 g silver chloride.
ANS: 2.541 g
4. What mass of CuO will be required to furnish 200 kg copper?
ANS: 250 kg
18. How much KClO3 must be heated to obtain 2.50 g oxygen?
ANS: 6.35 g

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19. Calculate the mass of carbon tetrachloride that can be 30. The solubility product constant for AgCl is 1.7x10-10.
produced from the reaction of 10.0 g carbon with 100.0 g Calculate the mass of AgCl that would be dissolved in 250.0 mL
chlorine. Determine the mass of excess reactant left unreacted. of water.
ANS: 108 g CCl4; 1.54 g C unreacted ANS: 4.68x10-4 g

20. How much potassium chloride is produced from the reaction 31. Calculate the solubility (mol/L) of CaF2 (Ksp = 3.4x10-11) in:
of 2.00 g K and 3.00 g Cl2? ANS: 3.81 g KCl a. pure water ANS: 2.04x10-4 mol/L
21. In the Mond process for purifying nickel, the volatile nickel b. 0.10 M NaF(aq) ANS: 3.4x10-9 mol/L
carbonyl, Ni(CO)4, is produced by the reaction: Ni + CO c. 0.10M CaCl2(aq) ANS: 9.22x10-6 mol/L
How much CO is used up in volatilizing 2.00 kg nickel? If nickel 32. Should a precipitate of PbCl 2 form when 50.0 mL of 0.10 M
is 50% converted, how much CO is used up? ANS: 3.82 kg CO; Pb(NO3)2 solution is added to 100.0 mL of 0.05 M NaCl solution?
1.9 kg CO (Ksp of PbCl2 = 1.3x10-5) ANS: precipitate will
22. A mixture of 1.00 ton CS 2 and 2.00 tons Cl2 is passed through
a hot reaction tube where the reaction: CS 2 + Cl2 CCl4 + S2Cl2 33. The solubility product constants of Fe(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 are
takes place. 1.8x10-15 and 6.0x10-38, respectively. Which of these two
a. How much CCl4 can be made by complete reaction of the hydroxides is least soluble (in terms of molar solubility)? ANS:
limiting material? ANS: Fe(OH)3 is least soluble
1.45 tons
b. Which starting material is in excess and how much of it 34. An aqueous solution is prepared by dissolving 1.0x10 -8 mole
remains unreacted? ANS: of MgCO3 in 2.0 L of water. How many moles of the soluble salt
0.286 ton MgCl2 can be added to the solution before MgCO 3 (Ksp=1.0x10-
c. If a trial process would yield 1.254 tons of CCl 4, what is the ) begins to precipitate? ANS: 3.9x10-7 mol
percent yield? ANS:
86.5% 35. A solution is saturated at 20C by shaking an excess of PbCl 2
in pure water. A 100.0 mL sample of clear solution is drawn off
23. Aspirin, C9H8O4, the medicine for headaches, is produced by and evaporated leaving a residue of 990.5 mg of PbCl 2. Calculate
the reaction of salicylic acid, C 7H6O3, and acetic anhydride, the molar solubility of the salt and its K sp. ANS: 0.0356 M;
C4H6O3. Another product of the synthesis of aspirin is acetic acid, 1.80x10-4
CH3COOH. In a laboratory, 2.00 g of salicylic acid was mixed 36. Calculate the hydronium ion concentration of a solution
with 2.50 g acetic anhydride in one liter of water, and then containing 0.200 mol of CH3COOH in 1.00 L of solution (Ka=
allowed to react in the presence of phosphoric acid, which acts as 1.80x10-5). What is the percent ionization of the acid? ANS:
catalyst. The aspirin that was produced and purified weighs 0.500 1.9x10-3 M; 0.949%
g. What is the percent yield of aspirin?
ANS: 19.16% 37. What is the OH- concentration of a 0.20 M solution of NH3?
(Kb= 1.8x10-5) ANS: 1.9x10-3M
24. Calculate the amount of lime that can be prepared by heating
200 kg of limestone that is 90% calcium carbonate? If the 38. Calculate the percent ionization of 1.00 M solution of
limestone is 80% converted to quicklime, how many kilograms of hydrocyanic acid, HCN. (Ka= 6.2x10-10) ANS: 0.0025%
CaO were produced?
ANS: 107 kg; 85.27 kg 39. Calculate the pH of a solution containing 0.10 M H 3BO3 and
0.118 M NaH2BO3. (Ka= 7.3x10-10) ANS: 9.39
25. How many kilograms of H2SO4 can be prepared from 3.00 kg
of cuprite, Cu2S, if each atom of S in Cu2S is converted into one 40. What is the pH of a solution that is 0.0100 M HCN and
molecule of H2SO4? ANS: 1.85 kg H2SO4 0.0200 M NaCN? (Ka= 6.2x10-10) ANS: 9.51

26. For the reaction: Ba(OH)2 + HClO3 Ba(ClO3)2 +H2O 41. Calculate the extent of hydrolysis in a 0.01000 M solution of
Calculate the number of moles of water formed when 0.10 mole NH4Cl. (Kb= 1.8x10-5). ANS: 0.024%
Ba(OH)2 is treated with 0.250 mol HClO3. ANS: 0.200 mol H2O
27. What is the percent free SO 3 in an oleum (considered as a
solution of SO3 in H2SO4) that is labeled 109% H 2SO4? Such 42. Calculate the pH of the following salts:
designation refers to the total mass of pure H 2SO4. 109 g that a. 0.30 M NaF solution (Ka for HF = 7.2x10-4) ANS: 8.31
would be present after dilution of 100 g of the oleum when all b. 0.50 M NH3CH3Br solution (Kb for CH3NH2 = 4.38x10-4) ANS:
free SO3 would combine with water to form H2SO4. ANS: 40% 5.47
SO3 in the oleum
43. How many faradays of electricity are required to electrolyze 1
28. It is found that 0.080 g of PbSO4 will dissolve in 2.0 liters of mol of CuCl2 to copper metal and chlorine gas?
water to form a saturated solution. What is the solubility product
constant of PbSO4? ANS: 9.6x10-4 44. Calculate the mass of copper that can be deposited by the
passage of 10.0 A for 20.0 minutes through a solution of copper
29. The solubility of MgF2 in water is 0.0012 mol/L. What is the (II) sulfate?
solubility product constant for MgF2? ANS: 6.912x10-9 ANS: 3.95 g

epsumalapao/09 Page 12
45. What is the average current if 100 g nickel is deposited from
a nickel (II) solution in 3 hours and 20 minutes? ANS: 27.4 A

46. 18F was found to undergo 90% radioactive decay in 366 min.
What is its the computed half-life from this observation? ANS:
110 min

47. Given 2.00 kg of uranium-238 (half-life = 4.50x10 9 years).

The ultimate decay product in this series is lead-206. What
weight of lead -206 is produced in 3.00x109 years? ANS: 0.74 kg

48. An atomic battery for pocket watches has been developed

which uses beta particles from 147Pm as the primary energy
source. The half-life of 147Pm is 2.62 years. How long would it
take for the rate of beta emission in the battery to be reduced to
10% of its initial value? ANS: 8.7 years

49. Identify the IMFA present in each compound

a. CHCl3
b. Xe
c. HF
d. NH3
e. BF3
50. Assessing strength of IMFA (use <, > or =)
a. H2O _____ H2S
b. C2H10 ______ (CH3)2CO
c. Ne ______ Ar
d. Cl2 ______ I2
e. CH3CH2OH _______ H3C-O-CH3

51. At 25C, K = 0.90 for the reaction:

H2O(g) + Cl2O(g) 2HOCl(g)
Calculate the concentration of all species at equilibrium for each
of the following cases:
a. 1.0 g H2O and 2.0 g Cl2O in 1.0 L flask
b. 10 mol pure HOCl in 2.0 L flask

52. At a partial temperature, Kp = 2.50 for the reaction:

SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g)
a. A container initially contains SO 2 and NO2, each 1.00 atm
partial pressure. Calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of the
b. If all four gases had an initial partial pressure of 1.00 atm,
calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of the gases.

53. Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for the

reaction below if at equilibrium there are 5.0 mol N 2, 7.0 mol O2
and 0.10 mol NO2 in a 1.5 L vessel at a certain temperature?
ANS: 6.18x10-5

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