Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

Mobility and accessibility are integral component for planning and design of road transport

infrastructure.
Pedestrian traffic is most neglected road users while planning and designing the road
transportation.
Significant portions of road users killed inn the road accidents are pedestrian.
According to Mander, Brebbia and Tiezzi (2006) high density, connectivity, and quality of life
are three primary elements in maintaining a sustainable elevated walkway system (p.302).
With respect to high density, they suggested that by creating connections through buildings and
nodes, multiple points can be established that draw various uses together into a sustainable
network. They consider the formation of connections as being fundamental to the process as
skywalks become places to eat, stop and breath but only when design interventions
emphasize the development of strong pedestrian environments. Quality of life remains a core
ingredient for a sustainable skywalk system and for Mander, Brebbia and Tiezzi, this includes
creating them as places with multiple functions and good design
Benefits of skyways to provide a pedestrian-friendly environment and encourage the
university upon the students as the two major interrelated advantages of skyways
I. Creating pedestrian-friendly environment- as they separate vehicles & pedestrians
improving safety & allowing pedestrians to stroll freely if connected to differend
buildings of the university
II.
Feasibility study
I. Economic analysis:
1. Construction period
2. Project concession period
3. Project cost
4. Discount factor
5. The average monthly income
II. Financial analysis
1. Tax rate
2. Discount rate
3. Depreciation rate os structure cost
4. Equity and debt
5. Loan amount
6.
Literature review

The term Pedestrian is used to recognize the fact that the approach to
pedestrian pathway development must be as scientific systematic as the
techniques which are applied to highway design development. Present
approach for planning and designing pedestrian traffic is not user friendly. Funds
allocated for pedestrian facilities is insignificant as compared to total cost of the
project due to inadequate facilities provided for the pedestrian movement,
there exist a constant conflict between pedestrian and motor vehicles in sharing
the limited space of road, resulting in pedestrian being involved or the cause of
the road accidents. Need for innovative approach to ensure safe and secure
movement of pedestrian traffic in along/across the gates of the university.

Saint Louis University from now has rapidly increasing its population and
has taken its toll on pedestrian safety levels, often the traffic officials in order to
provide better transportation facilities on the roadside or compromise the safety
of pedestrians. So the need of the hour is provide a safe environment for
pedestrians without any conflicts with other modes of transportation. Today,
pedestrians walkways through the roads are suffering from the problems like
decreasing.

Traffic accidents involving pedestrians have become a major safety


problem all over the world, particularly in universities, due to high population
density, rapid urbanization, and lack of adherence to traffic by both drivers and
pedestrians. Lack of adherence to traffic regulations at pedestrian crossing
particularly by drivers create a paradigm in which pedestrians may become
bold and force approaching vehicles in the traffic stream to brake in order to
gain priority to pedestrian crossing. On the other hand, pedestrian crossing with
heavy pedestrian flow is likely to cause unacceptable vehicular delay.
Pedestrians are observed to be a majority component of the total urban traffic
accidents.

In Pedestrian Planning and Design, Fruin (1971) recommends that the


pedestrian planning process should rely on goals and objectives for the
planning, study design, inventory and data collection, analysis and data
collection, analysis and forecast, alternative plans and plan selection, and
design phase. He then proceeds to discuss general criteria and design
standards for pedestrian systems, outlining the following goals and objectives for
an improvement program dedicated to pedestrians:
Safety: Fruin defines safety primarily as the reduction of the
pedestrian-vehicle conflict (Fruin 1971, 115), and points at two
ways of attaining it: space separation (either horizontal or vertical),
or time separation.
Security: Fruin pleads for considering surveillance as a necessity for
the pedestrian design: buildings and streets should enhance clear
observation by police and other pedestrians, as well as provide for
television surveillance.
Convenience: Pedestrian convenience is referred at in terms of
clearing pedestrian ways of obstructive elements and favouring the
pedestrian flow as opposed to the vehicular flow at crossings, as
well as special needs facilities.
Continuity: The necessity of integrating new pedestrian systems into
the existing network.
Coherence: A pedestrian system should lay out clear itineraries and
address the perception by providing immediate sense of orientation
and direction.
Attractiveness: Fruin attaches the concept of excitement to that
of aesthetic deign, supported by variety, elements of surprise and
events.

Fruin underlines that the last three objectives are essential to the grade-
Separated pedestrian networks.

Kent Robertson (1994) conducted a comparative case study on the


skywalks of five Midwestern cities: Cincinnati, Des Moines, Duluth, Minneapolis,
and St Paul. The initial phase of his study consisted of several days of observation
dedicated to each system, with particular focus on design, usage, signage,
obstacles, activities, and unique characteristics. Next, Robertson 35 made an
inventory of the land uses in each of the blocks connected by the skywalk
systems. The final phase involved surveying about 100 skywalk users in each city
to assert their usage patterns as well as their perception of the system. The
research made use of interviews, surveys, field observation, and inventory
studies. Robertsons conclusions were that while planners believe that skywalks
do play a crucial role in the downtown redevelopment process, the actual
success of the skywalks may be based on inevitable popularity since they are
harbingers of the increasingly indoor-oriented and privatized space of the 21st
century. Thus, skywalks could only be successful since they were tailored for the
contemporary society (which, on the other hand, caused and feeds the decay
of downtowns), but they may not necessarily be instruments of redevelopment.
However, Roberson was convinced that skywalks could cause shifts in where
and how people walk, shop, commute and do business. He stressed that
skywalks increase pedestrian access to business, provide shelter from harsh
weather, improve traffic flows, and provide accessibility to new spaces, allowing
for more retail and business uses. On the other hand, he noticed that skywalks
constitute yet another way for people to isolate themselves according to class
and consequently, to race. Skywalk users had indicated in his study that they
feel safer on skywalks than they do on sidewalks, so, given a choice, they
choose the skywalk.

Earlier studies provide significant facts about pedestrian demographic


characteristics (such as age, gender) and how these characteristics influence
road crossing behaviour. Such studies have focused on detailed experiments to
find out the effect of age on road crossing decisions with effect of vehicle
distance or speed of vehicle (Oxley et al., 1997; Lobjois and Cavallo, 2007). Most
of these studies have been carried out in a virtual environment. Road crossing
behaviour with respect to gender and baggage held has also been observed in
various studies. Males have a tendency to show more hazardous road crossing
behaviour than females due to less waiting time (Khan et al., 1999; Tiwari et al.,
2007).

Some studies have also addressed pedestrian road crossing behavior by


considering the effectiveness of educational training programs (Dommes et al.,
2012). Studies had identified the importance of the environmental
characteristics, such as type of crossing facility, traffic volume and roadway
geometry on road crossing behavior (Kadali and Vedagiri, 2013). Some studies
have also explored the pedestrian road crossing behavior before and after re-
construction of traffic facility (Gupta et al., 2010). And to maintain its successful
use they provide a regulation of their skywalk system
Pedestrian crossings is where a complete segregation of pedestrian from
vehicular traffic. Being the most vulnerable road users, pedestrian should
increasingly given the place and time to legally claim the right to cross the road.
Pedestrian crossing could be broadly classified as at grade crossing and grade
separated crossing. At grade crossing are those where the pedestrian cross the
carriageway at the same level as that of vehicular movement which can be
uncontrolled or controlled. Uncontrolled crossing are those where the pedestrian
cross-walk is marked by studs or paint line but not controlled by any system of
signals or a zebra form of crossing. Controlled crossing is achieved normally
through provision of zebra crossing with signalized intersection by the use of stop
lights or traffic lights. s. Grade separated crossing are those where the
pedestrians are required to cross the carriageway at a level different from that
of vehicular movement. Thus, the latter may be in the form of a pedestrian
subway or a foot over bridge across the road or a skywalk. (IRC:103-2012)

In the consideration of safety of the pedestrian skywalks fits all the needs
of pedestrians. Not only by their safety but also with their easy access to building
by building movement accessibility. This is proved in Hong Kong in 1970 where
the first skywalk is made in their central business district. The skywalk system link
up their offices, hotels, shopping malls, and also extensively used in residential
areas. The effect of skywalk to the CBD is successful because it grown
extensively since then the first skywalk system which agreed by the developer to
open up the ground floor as a public space in exchange to the skywalk as the
layer of pedestrian space as a response to high density living. But to maintain its
success they made a regulation of skywalk system. Providing the detailed
standards and guidelines for the layout. The guidelines state that grade
separation is a means to overcome conflicting demands between vehicles and
pedestrians. (Lye, Savage, Chou, Yu and Kua 2014)

Campus renewal project (2016) says that skywalks are designed as a


connector to blend in with its surroundings. Withstand high pedestrian traffic and
outside environmental factors such as wind and weather and provide a
comfortable, safe environment for its travellers. For security reasons as well as
aesthetics, lights are installed and also an emergency exist, as well as
emergency security intercoms at all garage and building points along its route.
In Design Guidelines of Toronto (2012), it stated that the goal of skywalk
is to provide safe, pleasant, convenient and comfortable pedestrian walkway
networks. Having criteria with first is to provide a continuous and rational system
that includes clear and straight routes, minimal dead end corridors, or bends
and jogs in walkway. Walkway should use to connect key destinations, facilities
and focal points. Second, is proving a direct and convenient access to the
street, public transit, public places, washrooms, mechanical movement systems,
stairs and underground parking facilities. Third is to provide views to key elements
and facilities, exits, daylight, the street below, the public transit system and
mechanical movement system. Offer choices at frequent intervals, either to
continue in the system or exit to the street. And lastly the skywalk should be
design designed to have a good proportion and should accommodate
anticipated pedestrian volumes.

As pedestrian walkways like skywalk networks continue to expand,


effective orientation and way finding are now more critical than ever to ensure
people reach their destination in a timely and comfortable manner. Pedestrian
walkway networks should have a clear, visual identity so that the function,
location and purpose of the various places and routes within the network are
legible. Walkways with long sightlines should link major spaces with strong
connections to grade, and should not result in isolated segments. The walkways
should be well linked and recognizable as part of a coherent and continuous
network with a distinct public presence. Only after the primary need for comfort
and orientation is satisfied, can the pedestrian appreciate the variety of
amenity available. (Design Guidelines of Toronto 2012).

Guidelines of reinforce the pedestrian walkways as distinct thoroughfares


that form a continuous network. Orient and size the layout according to the
level of activity, and where appropriate, the rectilinear pattern of the street
system at above grade. Where appropriate, use transparent materials for doors,
outside walls, stairway balustrades etc. to minimize obstructions and maximize
sightlines. Ensure that these materials are clearly identified to avoid an
additional hazard. Maximize the use of daylight and visual connections to
above grade and the outdoors. At all points of entry, provide signage, the hours
of operation and accessibility information. And pedestrian bridge connections
between buildings, provide transparent glazing on both sides of corridors, where
possible and appropriate. (Design Guidelines of Toronto 2012).
According to Mander, Brebbia and Tiezzi (2006) high density,
connectivity, and quality of life are three primary elements in maintaining a
sustainable elevated walkway system (p.302). With respect to high density, they
suggested that by creating connections through buildings and nodes, multiple
points can be established that draw various uses together into a sustainable
network. They consider the formation of connections as being fundamental to
the process as skywalks become places to eat, stop and breathe but only
when design interventions emphasize the development of strong pedestrian
environments. Quality of life remains a core ingredient for a sustainable skywalk
system and for Mander, Brebbia and Tiezzi, this includes creating them as places
with multiple functions and good design elements that attract people into a
well-conceived network of connected places.

Robertson (1993) reviewed and assessed the pedestrianization of


downtown with a focus on exploring both skywalks and the more traditional
pedestrian mall. Robertson noted that a critical pathway for development
agencies has been on bringing people and activities back downtown. He notes
that the early literature on skywalks has been limited and mostly focused on
description with little regard for a critical analysis on design elements and
economic impact. Moreover, he cites that skyways have been characterized as
contributing to the dulcification of downtowns and that they face an
inherently tough battle for widespread acceptance as drivers of positive
change.

A key reflection by Robertson is on the historical development of skywalks


and he traces the first such effort to Minneapolis in 1962. While early skywalks
promoted protection from the elements, they have since been viewed through
a development potential lens. Through this perspective skywalks can be viewed
for their ability to attract development while also providing for pedestrian
movement. Robertson offers several points for consideration: Skywalk systems
are ever changing and cities that have them are constantly adding to the
system as demand warrants; While most skywalk systems are publicly funded
and operated, there is a perception among users that they are private as most
pass through buildings, Skywalks have been attributed to declining street level
property values with main floor leasing presenting challenges; Skywalks offer a
safer way for pedestrians to navigate through downtown; Skywalks promote
convenience, comfort and climate control; With a focus on elevated
movement of people, the perception from the street; can be that of lack of
activity or vitality, regardless of the high volume of internal movement; and
Skywalks must be planned in a comprehensive and coordinated manner that
brings together parking, transit and development together.

The aesthetic criteria used in the evaluations of skywalks stress the


principle of visual and experiential coherence, with an addition of excitement
(Fruin 1971). Forusz also insists on visual cohesiveness: any portion of the
walkway should be considered as part of an integrated skywalk system with
similar characteristics and image, rather than isolated individual elements.
(Forusz 1980). This adds to Robertsons request for harmonious design (Robertson
1994), entailed in the relationship of the skywalk bridges not with the rest of the
system but with the adjacent buildings. Robertson also discusses the impact of
skywalks on street image and vistas.

Pedestrianization benefited of the wide acclaim of planners at the time


(McMorrough 2001). Lewis Mumford, Jane Jacobs, Bernard Rudovsky, William W
Whyte and Jacquelin Robertson are among the many well known public figures
that argued for the environmental soundness of the pedestrian mall, in a well
known collection of essays For Pedestrians Only: Planning, Design, and
Management of Traffic-Free Zones (1977)

Brambilla and Longo (1977) highlight the benefits of the pedestrian-only


environment into four categories: traffic management (a balanced
transportation system), economic revitalization (pedestrians are consumers),
environmental improvements (less air, noise and visual pollution), and social
benefits (social interaction and safety).

Skywalks were considered to help downtowns compete with suburban


developments by promoting density, creating a new layer of commercial
activity, and ensuring a safe, weather protected shortcut between retail
locations and other activities (Fruin 1971; Robertson 1994). First, they facilitate
pedestrian mobility, allowing most trips to be made in less time and in more
comfort, especially in bad weather. Second, since pedestrians are separated
from vehicular traffic, improved pedestrian safety is accommodated. And
finally, [] whatever the reasons for their implementation, skywalks have been
proven to be immensely popular with the public, who use them heavily
regardless of weather conditions (Robertson 1994, 88).
REFERENCES:

Fruin, John J. 1971. Pedestrian Planning and Design. New York, NY: Metropolitan

Association of Urban designers and Environmental Planners.

Dommes, A.; Cavallo, V.; Vienne, F.; Aillerie, I. 2012. Age-Related Differences in

Street-Crossing Safety Before and After Training of Older Pedestrians,

Accident Analysis & Prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.

aap.2010.12.012, 44(1): 42-47.

Kadali, B.R.; Vedagiri, P. 2013. Modelling Pedestrian Road Crossing Behaviour

Under Mixed Traffic Condition, European Transport, 55(3): 1-17.

Gupta, U.; Tiwari, G.; Chatterjee, N.; Fazio, J. 2010. Case Study of Pedestrian Risk

Behaviour and Survival Analysis, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for

Transportation Studies, Vol. 8: 1-17.

Lye L.H, Savage V.R, Chou L.M, Yu L.E and Kua H.W (2014) Sustainable matters:

Asias green challenges. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.ph

BJC Healthcare [BJCvideo]. (2016, September 9). BJC Campus Renewal Project

Update - Building the Link [Video File]. Retrieved from


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHlmsJUFvq4

Design Guidelines for Path and Other Climate-Controlled pedestrian Networks

(2012) Retrieved from https://www1.toronto.ca/city_of toronto/

city_planning/transportation_planning/files/pdf/path_designguideline

16feb12.pdf

Robertson, Kent A. (1994). Pedestrianization malls and skywalks. Traffic

Separation strategies in American downtowns. Brookfield, VT: Avebury


McMorrough, John. (2001). Suburban Model. In Harvard Design School Guide to

Shopping, ed. Chuihua J. Chung and others: 720-727. Koln; New York:
Taschen.

Brambilla, Roberto, and Gianni Longo, ed. 1977. Banning the Car Downtown,

Selected American Cities. New York - Washington: Institute for

Environmental Action.

Robertson, Kent A. (1993). Pedestrians and the American downtown. Town

Planning Review 64, no. 3 (July): 273-286.

Rotmeyer, J. (2006). Can elevated pedestrian walkways be sustainable? In: U.

Mander, C. Brebbia & E. Tiezzi (eds.) the sustainable city IV: urban

regeneration and sustainability. Southampton, UK: WIT Press.