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4- Earthquake Resistant Design

According To 1994 UBC
The Static Lateral Force Procedure

4-1 Applicability:

The static lateral force procedure may be used for the

following structures:
A.All structures, regular or irregular (see Tables 4.1.a and
4.1.b), in seismic zone no. 1 and in standard occupancy-
structures in seismic zone no. 2 (see Table 4.2 for zone
classification and Table 4.4 for occupancy factors).
B. Regular structures under 73 m in height with lateral force
resistance provided by systems given in Tables 4.5.a and
4.5.b except for structures located in soil profile type S4
which have a period greater than 0.70 sec. (see Table 4.3
for soil profiles).
C. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in
D.Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a
rigid lower portion where both portions of the structure
considered separately can be classified as being regular,
the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least
ten times the average stiffness of the upper portion and
the period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.10
times the period of the upper portion considered as a
separate structure fixed at the base.

Regular Structures:
Regular structures are structures having no significant
physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration or
in their lateral force resisting.
Irregular Structures:
Irregular structures are structures having significant
physical discontinuities in configuration or in their lateral
force resisting systems (See Table 4.1.a and 4.1.b for
detailed description of such structures).
Load Combinations:
The total design forces are calculated from the following
cases of loading.

U =1.4 ( D + L E ) (4.1)
U = 0.9 D 1.4 E (4.2)
U = Ultimate design force
D = Service dead load
L = Service live load
E = Service earthquake load

Concept of Method:
The 1994 UBC equivalent static method considers
only horizontal movement and neglects effects of
vertical ground movement.
Statically models the inertial effects using Newtons
2nd Law of Motion given by Eqn. (4.3).
F =Ma (4.3)
F = resulting force on structure
M = building mass
a = acceleration of ground

But M =
And Eqn. (4.3) can be written as

F =W (4.4)
Minimum Design Lateral Forces:
The design seismic forces may be assumed to act non-
concurrently in the direction of each principal axis of the
The total design base shear in a given direction is to be
determined from the following Eqn.

V= (4.5)

V = total seismic lateral force at the base of the structure

W = total seismic load
- In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of
25 % of floor live load is to be considered.
- Total weight of permanent equipment is to be included.
- Where a partition load is used in floor design, a load of
not less than 50 kg/m2 to be included.
= seismic base shear coefficient, somewhat
equivalent to a / g but accounts for additional factors
that affect building response like: underlying soil, the
structural configuration, the type of structure, and
occupancy of the building.
Z = seismic zone factor given in Table (4.2) and is
related to the seismicity of the zone. It is the effective
peak ground acceleration with 10 % probability of
being exceeded in 50 years.
I = Building importance factor given in Table (4.4), which
accounts for building use and importance
Rw = structural factor, accounting for building ductility
and damping, given in Tables (4.5.a) and (4.5.b). A
Larger Rw value means a better seismic performance.

Ductility = ability to deform in the inelastic range prior to

Damping = resistance to motion provided by material
C = dynamic response value, and accounts for how the
building and soil can amplify the basic ground
1.25 S
C= 2.75 C 0.075 Rw (4.6)
(T )2/3

S = site Coefficient depending on the soil characteristics

given in Table (4.3).
T = structural fundamental period in seconds in the
direction under consideration evaluated from the
following equations.

For moment-resisting frames,

T = 0.073 (hn )3 / 4 (4.7)

For shear walls,

(hn )3 / 4
T = 0.0743 (4.8)
For other buildings,

T = 0.048 (hn )3 / 4 (4.9)

hn = total height of building in meters
Ac = effective cross-sectional area of shear walls

Ac = Ai 0.2 + De / hn 0.9 (4.10)

Ai = cross-sectional area of individual shear walls in the

direction of loads in m2
De = length of each shear wall in the direction of loads
Vertical Distribution of Force:
The base shear evaluated from Eqn. (4.5) is distributed to
the various stories of the building according to the
following Eqn.

Fx =
(V F )w
t x hx
wi hi
i =1

Fig. (4.1) Vertical Distribution of Force



Ft = 0 for T 0.7 sec.

Ft = 0.07 T V 0.25V for T > 0.7 sec.

The shear force at each story is given by Eqn. (4.12)

Vx = Ft + Fi (4.12)
n = number of stories above the base of the building
Ft = the portion of the base shear, concentrated at the top
of the structure to account for whiplash effects
Fi , Fn , F x = lateral forces applied at levels i , n , or x ,
hi , hn , hx = height above the base to levels i , n , or x ,
Vx = design shear in story x
Horizontal Distribution of Force:
The design story shear in any direction Vx , is distributed to
the various elements of the lateral force-resisting system in
proportion to their rigidities.
Horizontal Torsional Moment:
To account for the uncertainties in locations of loads, the
mass at each level is assumed to be displaced from the

calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal

to 5 % of the building dimension at that level perpendicular
to the direction of the force under consideration. The
torsional design moment at a given story is given by
moment resulting from eccentricities between applied
design lateral forces applied through each storys center of
mass at levels above the story and the center of stiffness of
the vertical elements of the story, in addition to the
accidental torsion.
Overturning Moments:
The overturning moments are to be determined at each
level of the structure.
The overturning moment M x at level x is given by Eqn.
M x = Ft (hn hx ) + Fi (hi hx ) (4.13)
i = x +1

Overturning moments are distributed to the various

elements of the vertical lateral force-resisting system in
proportion to their rigidities.
P Effects:
The resulting member forces, moments and story drifts
induced by P effects are to be considered in the
evaluation of overall structural frame stability. P
effects are neglected when the ratio given by Eqn. (4.14) is

M sec ondary Px x
= (4.14)
M primary Vx hx
Px = total seismic weight at level x and above
= drift of story x
Vx = shear force of story x
hx = height of story x
In seismic zones no. 3 and 4, P effects are neglected
when the story drift 0.02 / Rw times the story height.
Design of Cantilevers:
Horizontal cantilever components are to be designed for a
net upward force of 0.2 w p , where w p is the weight of the
cantilevered element.
Story Drift Limitations:
Story drift is the displacement of one level relative to the
level above or below due to the design lateral forces.
Calculated drift is to include translational and torsional
deformations. Calculated story drift shall not exceed
0.04 / Rw or 0.005 times the story height for buildings with
periods < 0.7 second. For structures with periods 0.7 sec.,
the calculated story drift is not to exceed 0.03 / Rw or 0.004
the story height.
Design of Diaphragms:
Floor and roof diaphragms are to be designed to resist the
forces determined from the following formula

Ft + Fi
F px = n wpx (4.15)
i = x i

The force F px need not exceed 0.75 Z I w px , but shall not

be less than 0.35 Z I w px

w px = weight of the diaphragm at level x
F px = diaphragm lateral design force at level x

Table (4.1.a) Vertical Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Definition How to Deal with
A- Stiffness Irregularity- - -Soft Story Use the dynamic lateral force
A soft story is one in which the lateral procedure.
stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the
story above or less than 80 percent of the
average stiffness of the three stories above.
B- Mass Irregularity Use the dynamic lateral force
Mass irregularity is considered to exist procedure.
where the effective mass of any story is
more than 150 percent of the effective mass
of an adjacent story.
C- Vertical Geometric Irregularity Use the dynamic lateral force
Vertical geometric irregularity shall be procedure.
considered to exist where the horizontal
dimension of the lateral force-resisting
system in any story is more than 130 percent
of that in an adjacent story.
D- In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical The Structure is to be designed
Lateral Force-resisting Element to resist the overturning effects
An in-plane offset of the lateral load- caused by seismic forces, down
resisting elements greater than the length of to the foundations level.
these elements.
E- Discontinuity in Capacity-Weak Story Structures are not to be over
A weak story is one in which the story two stories or 9 m in height
strength is less than 80 percent of that in the where the weak story has
story above. The story strength is the total calculated strength of less than
strength of all seismic-resisting elements 65 % of the story above.
sharing the story shear for the direction
under consideration.

Vertical Irregularities

Table (4.1.b) Plan Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Definition How to Deal with
A- Torsional Irregularity The one-third increase usually
Torsional irregularity is to be considered permitted in allowable stresses
to exist when the maximum story drift, for elements resisting
computed including accidental torsion, at earthquake forces is to be
one end of the structure transverse to an discarded.
axis is more than 1.2 times the average of
the story drifts of the two ends of the
B- Re-entrant Corners The one-third increase usually
Plan configurations of a structure and its permitted in allowable stresses
lateral force-resisting system contain re- for elements resisting
entrant corners, where both projections of earthquake forces is to be
the structure beyond a re-entrant corner discarded.
are greater than 15 % of the plan
dimension of the structure in the given
C- Diaphragm Discontinuity The one-third increase usually
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or permitted in allowable stresses
variations in stiffness, including those for elements resisting
having cutout or open areas greater than earthquake forces is to be
50 % of the gross enclosed area of the discarded.
diaphragm, or changes in effective
diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 %
from one story to the next.
D- Out-of-plane Offsets Structures are to be designed to
Discontinuities in a lateral force path, suchresist the overturning effects
as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical caused by earthquake forces and
elements. are these effects are to be carried
down to the foundation.
E- Nonparallel Systems The requirement that orthogonal
The vertical lateral load-resisting elements effects be considered may be
are not parallel to or symmetric about the satisfied by designing such
major orthogonal axes of the lateral force- elements for 100 % of the
resisting system. prescribed seismic forces in one
direction plus 30 % of the
prescribed forces in the
perpendicular direction.
Alternately, the effects of the
two orthogonal directions may
be combined on a square root of
the sum of the squares basis.

Table (4.2) Seismic Zone Factor

Zone 1 2A 2B 3 4
Z 0.075 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40

Table (4.3) Site Coefficients

Type Description S Factor

S1 - Rock-like material characterized by a shear wave 1.0
velocity greater than 750 m/s or by other means of
- Stiff or dense soil condition where the soil depth is less
than 60 m.
S2 A soil profile with dense or stiff soil conditions, where 1.20
the soil depth exceeds 60 m.
S3 A soil profile 20 m or more in depth and containing 1.50
more than 6 m of soft to medium stiff clay but not more
than 12 m of soft clay.
S4 A soil profile containing more than 12 m of soft clay 2.0
characterized by a shear wave velocity less than 150

Table (4.4) Occupancy Importance Factors

Occupancy Category Functions of Structure Importance

Factor I
Essential Facilities Hospitals, fire stations, police 1.25
stations, water tanks, garages,
shelters, disaster control centers, and
communications centers.
Hazardous Facilities Structures containing toxic, atomic, 1.25
and explosive substances.
Special Occupancy Public assembly, schools, jails, 1.0
power-generating stations.
Standard Occupancy Structures not listed above. 1.0

Table (4.5.a) Structural Factors (building structures)

Basic Structural Lateral Load-Resisting System Rw Height (m)

System Zones 3 & 4
Building Frame Shear Walls (without vertical loads) 8 73
Shear Walls (with vertical loads) 6 73
Moment-Resisting SMRF 12 No Limit
Frame IMRF 8 Not Used
OMRF 5 Not Used
Dual Systems Shear Walls + SMRF 12 No Limit
Shear Walls + IMRF 9 48

Table (4.5.b) Structural Factor (nonbuilding structures)

No. Structure Type Rw

1- Tanks, vessels or pressurized spheres on braced or unbraced 3
2- Cast-in-place concrete soils and chimneys having walls 5
continuous to the foundation.
3- Inverted pendulum-type structures. 3
4- Cooling towers. 5

Example 1:
A seven-story building frame system (residential) with
shear walls has the dimensions shown in the figure. The
total sustained dead load is 800 kg/m2. This building is
located in Gaza Strip and lies on top of a deep clayey
deposit. Eight shear walls, each 3 m long and 0.2 m thick
are used as a lateral force resisting system. Determine the
seismic loads at the floor levels of the building in a
direction perpendicular to axis 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4 using
the 1994 UBC.
7x3 = 21m

1 A 2 3 B 4



1 2 3 4

6m 6m 6m

Z = 0.075, I = 1, S = 2.0, R w = 8
Weight of floor = 0.8(18)(18) = 259.2 tons
Total seismic weight = 259.2(7 ) = 1814.4 tons
Building natural period, T
0.0743(hn )

Ac = Ai 0.2 + e De / hn 0.9
4 3

Ac = (3)(0.2)0.2 + = 0.529m2 , 3 = 0.142 < 0.9

i =1 21 21
T = 0.0743
(hn )
3/ 4
= 0.0743
(21)3 / 4 = 1.002 sec
Ac 0.529
1.25(2 )
> 0.075(8)
C= = = 2.5 sec < 2.75 and
T 2/3
(1.002) 2/3

The base shear V is given by

0.075(1.0 )(2.5)(1814.4)
V= = 42.52tons
forT > 0.7 sec, Ft = 0.07TV = 0.07(1)(42.52)
Ft = 2.97t < 0.25(42.52)O.K
Vertical Distribution of Force:
Fx =
(V Ft )wx hx

i =1

Story shears:
Vx = Ft + i =1 Fi

Overturning moment:
M x = Ft (hn hx ) + i = x+1 Fi (hi hx )

Lateral displacement:
g T 2 Fi 9.81 2 Fi
i = = (1) = 0 .248
4 2 wi 4
wi wi
Story drift:
i = i i 1 0.004 hn
P effects:
Px i
When < 0.1 , P effects are to be neglected.
Vx hx
Lateral force distribution:

Px i
level wi hx wx hx Fx Vx Mx i (mm) i Px Vx hx
7 259.2 21 5443.2 9.89 12.86 - 12.33 4.21 259.2 0.028
6 259.2 18 4665.6 8.48 21.33 38.57 8.12 1.35 518.4 0.011
5 259.2 15 3888 7.06 28.40 102.57 6.77 1.35 777.6 0.012
4 259.2 12 3110.4 5.65 34.05 187.76 5.42 1.36 1036.8 0.014
3 259.2 9 2332.8 4.24 38.28 289.89 4.06 1.36 1296 0.015
2 259.2 6 1555.2 2.83 41.11 404.74 2.70 1.35 1555.2 0.017
1 259.2 3 777.6 1.41 42.52 528.06 1.36 1.35 1814.4 0.019
0 0 42.52 655.62 0

Example 2:
A seven-story reinforced concrete special moment-resisting
frame (SMRF) has the dimensions shown in the figure. The
total sustained dead load is 800 kg/m2 and the live load is
250 kg/m2. The building which is characterized as a
residential building is located in Gaza City and lies on top
of a deep clayey deposit. Evaluate the seismic loads at the
floor levels of the building in a direction perpendicular to
axis 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4 using the 1994 UBC.

Z = 0.075, I = 1, S = 2.0, R w = 12
Since the building is residential, no live load is to be used
in seismic weight calculation
Weight of floor = 0.8(18)(22.5) = 324 tons
Total seismic weight = 324(7 ) = 2268 tons

Building natural period, T

T = 0.073(h n )3 / 4
T = 0.073 (21)3 / 4 = 0.716 sec

1.25S 1.25(2 )
C= = = 3.12 sec > 2.75 N.O.K
T 2/3

C 2.75
= = 0.229 > 0.075 O.K
Rw 12

The base shear V is given by

Z I C W 0.075 (1.0 )(2.75)(2268)

V= = = 38.98 tons
Rw 12

T > 0.7 sec, Ft = 0.07TV = 0.07 (0.716)(38.98) = 1.95 tons

< 0.5 V O.K
Vertical Distribution of Force:

(V Ft )wx hx
Fx =

i =1

Lateral force distribution:

level wi hx wx hx Fx Vx Mx
7 324 21 6804 9.26 11.21 -
6 324 18 5832 7.93 19.14 33.63
5 324 15 4860 6.61 25.75 91.05
4 324 12 3888 5.29 31.04 168.3
3 324 9 2916 3.97 35.01 261.42
2 324 6 1944 2.64 37.65 366.45
1 324 3 972 1.32 38.97 479.40
0 0 38.97 596.31