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UBC 1994 Example

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According To 1994 UBC

The Static Lateral Force Procedure

4-1 Applicability:

following structures:

A.All structures, regular or irregular (see Tables 4.1.a and

4.1.b), in seismic zone no. 1 and in standard occupancy-

structures in seismic zone no. 2 (see Table 4.2 for zone

classification and Table 4.4 for occupancy factors).

B. Regular structures under 73 m in height with lateral force

resistance provided by systems given in Tables 4.5.a and

4.5.b except for structures located in soil profile type S4

which have a period greater than 0.70 sec. (see Table 4.3

for soil profiles).

C. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in

height.

D.Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a

rigid lower portion where both portions of the structure

considered separately can be classified as being regular,

the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least

ten times the average stiffness of the upper portion and

the period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.10

times the period of the upper portion considered as a

separate structure fixed at the base.

95

Regular Structures:

Regular structures are structures having no significant

physical discontinuities in plan or vertical configuration or

in their lateral force resisting.

Irregular Structures:

Irregular structures are structures having significant

physical discontinuities in configuration or in their lateral

force resisting systems (See Table 4.1.a and 4.1.b for

detailed description of such structures).

Load Combinations:

The total design forces are calculated from the following

cases of loading.

U =1.4 ( D + L E ) (4.1)

U = 0.9 D 1.4 E (4.2)

Where

U = Ultimate design force

D = Service dead load

L = Service live load

E = Service earthquake load

96

Concept of Method:

The 1994 UBC equivalent static method considers

only horizontal movement and neglects effects of

vertical ground movement.

Statically models the inertial effects using Newtons

2nd Law of Motion given by Eqn. (4.3).

F =Ma (4.3)

Where

F = resulting force on structure

M = building mass

a = acceleration of ground

W

But M =

g

And Eqn. (4.3) can be written as

a

F =W (4.4)

g

Minimum Design Lateral Forces:

The design seismic forces may be assumed to act non-

concurrently in the direction of each principal axis of the

structure.

The total design base shear in a given direction is to be

determined from the following Eqn.

97

Z I CW

V= (4.5)

Rw

Where

W = total seismic load

- In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of

25 % of floor live load is to be considered.

- Total weight of permanent equipment is to be included.

- Where a partition load is used in floor design, a load of

not less than 50 kg/m2 to be included.

ZIC

= seismic base shear coefficient, somewhat

Rw

equivalent to a / g but accounts for additional factors

that affect building response like: underlying soil, the

structural configuration, the type of structure, and

occupancy of the building.

Z = seismic zone factor given in Table (4.2) and is

related to the seismicity of the zone. It is the effective

peak ground acceleration with 10 % probability of

being exceeded in 50 years.

I = Building importance factor given in Table (4.4), which

accounts for building use and importance

Rw = structural factor, accounting for building ductility

and damping, given in Tables (4.5.a) and (4.5.b). A

Larger Rw value means a better seismic performance.

98

fracture

Damping = resistance to motion provided by material

friction

C = dynamic response value, and accounts for how the

building and soil can amplify the basic ground

acceleration

1.25 S

C= 2.75 C 0.075 Rw (4.6)

(T )2/3

given in Table (4.3).

T = structural fundamental period in seconds in the

direction under consideration evaluated from the

following equations.

T = 0.073 (hn )3 / 4 (4.7)

(hn )3 / 4

T = 0.0743 (4.8)

Ac

For other buildings,

Where

hn = total height of building in meters

Ac = effective cross-sectional area of shear walls

99

De

2

Ac = Ai 0.2 + De / hn 0.9 (4.10)

hn

direction of loads in m2

De = length of each shear wall in the direction of loads

Vertical Distribution of Force:

The base shear evaluated from Eqn. (4.5) is distributed to

the various stories of the building according to the

following Eqn.

Fx =

(V F )w

t x hx

(4.11)

n

wi hi

i =1

100

Where

n

Vx = Ft + Fi (4.12)

i=x

Where

n = number of stories above the base of the building

Ft = the portion of the base shear, concentrated at the top

of the structure to account for whiplash effects

Fi , Fn , F x = lateral forces applied at levels i , n , or x ,

respectively

hi , hn , hx = height above the base to levels i , n , or x ,

respectively

Vx = design shear in story x

Horizontal Distribution of Force:

The design story shear in any direction Vx , is distributed to

the various elements of the lateral force-resisting system in

proportion to their rigidities.

Horizontal Torsional Moment:

To account for the uncertainties in locations of loads, the

mass at each level is assumed to be displaced from the

101

to 5 % of the building dimension at that level perpendicular

to the direction of the force under consideration. The

torsional design moment at a given story is given by

moment resulting from eccentricities between applied

design lateral forces applied through each storys center of

mass at levels above the story and the center of stiffness of

the vertical elements of the story, in addition to the

accidental torsion.

Overturning Moments:

The overturning moments are to be determined at each

level of the structure.

The overturning moment M x at level x is given by Eqn.

(4.13).

n

M x = Ft (hn hx ) + Fi (hi hx ) (4.13)

i = x +1

elements of the vertical lateral force-resisting system in

proportion to their rigidities.

P Effects:

The resulting member forces, moments and story drifts

induced by P effects are to be considered in the

evaluation of overall structural frame stability. P

effects are neglected when the ratio given by Eqn. (4.14) is

0.1.

102

M sec ondary Px x

= (4.14)

M primary Vx hx

Px = total seismic weight at level x and above

= drift of story x

Vx = shear force of story x

hx = height of story x

In seismic zones no. 3 and 4, P effects are neglected

when the story drift 0.02 / Rw times the story height.

Design of Cantilevers:

Horizontal cantilever components are to be designed for a

net upward force of 0.2 w p , where w p is the weight of the

cantilevered element.

Story Drift Limitations:

Story drift is the displacement of one level relative to the

level above or below due to the design lateral forces.

Calculated drift is to include translational and torsional

deformations. Calculated story drift shall not exceed

0.04 / Rw or 0.005 times the story height for buildings with

periods < 0.7 second. For structures with periods 0.7 sec.,

the calculated story drift is not to exceed 0.03 / Rw or 0.004

the story height.

Design of Diaphragms:

Floor and roof diaphragms are to be designed to resist the

forces determined from the following formula

103

n

Ft + Fi

i=x

F px = n wpx (4.15)

w

i = x i

be less than 0.35 Z I w px

Where

w px = weight of the diaphragm at level x

F px = diaphragm lateral design force at level x

104

Irregularity Type and Definition How to Deal with

A- Stiffness Irregularity- - -Soft Story Use the dynamic lateral force

A soft story is one in which the lateral procedure.

stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the

story above or less than 80 percent of the

average stiffness of the three stories above.

B- Mass Irregularity Use the dynamic lateral force

Mass irregularity is considered to exist procedure.

where the effective mass of any story is

more than 150 percent of the effective mass

of an adjacent story.

C- Vertical Geometric Irregularity Use the dynamic lateral force

Vertical geometric irregularity shall be procedure.

considered to exist where the horizontal

dimension of the lateral force-resisting

system in any story is more than 130 percent

of that in an adjacent story.

D- In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical The Structure is to be designed

Lateral Force-resisting Element to resist the overturning effects

An in-plane offset of the lateral load- caused by seismic forces, down

resisting elements greater than the length of to the foundations level.

these elements.

E- Discontinuity in Capacity-Weak Story Structures are not to be over

A weak story is one in which the story two stories or 9 m in height

strength is less than 80 percent of that in the where the weak story has

story above. The story strength is the total calculated strength of less than

strength of all seismic-resisting elements 65 % of the story above.

sharing the story shear for the direction

under consideration.

105

Vertical Irregularities

106

Irregularity Type and Definition How to Deal with

A- Torsional Irregularity The one-third increase usually

Torsional irregularity is to be considered permitted in allowable stresses

to exist when the maximum story drift, for elements resisting

computed including accidental torsion, at earthquake forces is to be

one end of the structure transverse to an discarded.

axis is more than 1.2 times the average of

the story drifts of the two ends of the

structure.

B- Re-entrant Corners The one-third increase usually

Plan configurations of a structure and its permitted in allowable stresses

lateral force-resisting system contain re- for elements resisting

entrant corners, where both projections of earthquake forces is to be

the structure beyond a re-entrant corner discarded.

are greater than 15 % of the plan

dimension of the structure in the given

direction.

C- Diaphragm Discontinuity The one-third increase usually

Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or permitted in allowable stresses

variations in stiffness, including those for elements resisting

having cutout or open areas greater than earthquake forces is to be

50 % of the gross enclosed area of the discarded.

diaphragm, or changes in effective

diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 %

from one story to the next.

D- Out-of-plane Offsets Structures are to be designed to

Discontinuities in a lateral force path, suchresist the overturning effects

as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical caused by earthquake forces and

elements. are these effects are to be carried

down to the foundation.

E- Nonparallel Systems The requirement that orthogonal

The vertical lateral load-resisting elements effects be considered may be

are not parallel to or symmetric about the satisfied by designing such

major orthogonal axes of the lateral force- elements for 100 % of the

resisting system. prescribed seismic forces in one

direction plus 30 % of the

prescribed forces in the

perpendicular direction.

Alternately, the effects of the

two orthogonal directions may

be combined on a square root of

the sum of the squares basis.

107

108

Zone 1 2A 2B 3 4

Z 0.075 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40

S1 - Rock-like material characterized by a shear wave 1.0

velocity greater than 750 m/s or by other means of

classification.

- Stiff or dense soil condition where the soil depth is less

than 60 m.

S2 A soil profile with dense or stiff soil conditions, where 1.20

the soil depth exceeds 60 m.

S3 A soil profile 20 m or more in depth and containing 1.50

more than 6 m of soft to medium stiff clay but not more

than 12 m of soft clay.

S4 A soil profile containing more than 12 m of soft clay 2.0

characterized by a shear wave velocity less than 150

m/s.

Factor I

Essential Facilities Hospitals, fire stations, police 1.25

stations, water tanks, garages,

shelters, disaster control centers, and

communications centers.

Hazardous Facilities Structures containing toxic, atomic, 1.25

and explosive substances.

Special Occupancy Public assembly, schools, jails, 1.0

power-generating stations.

Standard Occupancy Structures not listed above. 1.0

109

System Zones 3 & 4

Building Frame Shear Walls (without vertical loads) 8 73

Shear Walls (with vertical loads) 6 73

Moment-Resisting SMRF 12 No Limit

Frame IMRF 8 Not Used

OMRF 5 Not Used

Dual Systems Shear Walls + SMRF 12 No Limit

Shear Walls + IMRF 9 48

1- Tanks, vessels or pressurized spheres on braced or unbraced 3

legs.

2- Cast-in-place concrete soils and chimneys having walls 5

continuous to the foundation.

3- Inverted pendulum-type structures. 3

4- Cooling towers. 5

110

111

Example 1:

A seven-story building frame system (residential) with

shear walls has the dimensions shown in the figure. The

total sustained dead load is 800 kg/m2. This building is

located in Gaza Strip and lies on top of a deep clayey

deposit. Eight shear walls, each 3 m long and 0.2 m thick

are used as a lateral force resisting system. Determine the

seismic loads at the floor levels of the building in a

direction perpendicular to axis 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4 using

the 1994 UBC.

7x3 = 21m

1 A 2 3 B 4

4.5m

C D

4.5m

4.5m

E F

G H

4.5m

1 2 3 4

6m 6m 6m

112

Solution:

Z = 0.075, I = 1, S = 2.0, R w = 8

Weight of floor = 0.8(18)(18) = 259.2 tons

Total seismic weight = 259.2(7 ) = 1814.4 tons

Building natural period, T

0.0743(hn )

3

4

T=

Ac

D

2

Ac = Ai 0.2 + e De / hn 0.9

hn

4 3

2

i =1 21 21

O.K

T = 0.0743

(hn )

3/ 4

= 0.0743

(21)3 / 4 = 1.002 sec

Ac 0.529

1.25(2 )

> 0.075(8)

1.25S

C= = = 2.5 sec < 2.75 and

T 2/3

(1.002) 2/3

ZICW

V=

Rw

0.075(1.0 )(2.5)(1814.4)

V= = 42.52tons

8

forT > 0.7 sec, Ft = 0.07TV = 0.07(1)(42.52)

Ft = 2.97t < 0.25(42.52)O.K

Vertical Distribution of Force:

Fx =

(V Ft )wx hx

7

i =1

Fi

113

Story shears:

Vx = Ft + i =1 Fi

7

Overturning moment:

M x = Ft (hn hx ) + i = x+1 Fi (hi hx )

n

Lateral displacement:

g T 2 Fi 9.81 2 Fi

i = = (1) = 0 .248

Fi

4 2 wi 4

2

wi wi

Story drift:

0.03hn

i = i i 1 0.004 hn

Rw

P effects:

Px i

When < 0.1 , P effects are to be neglected.

Vx hx

Lateral force distribution:

Px i

level wi hx wx hx Fx Vx Mx i (mm) i Px Vx hx

7 259.2 21 5443.2 9.89 12.86 - 12.33 4.21 259.2 0.028

6 259.2 18 4665.6 8.48 21.33 38.57 8.12 1.35 518.4 0.011

5 259.2 15 3888 7.06 28.40 102.57 6.77 1.35 777.6 0.012

4 259.2 12 3110.4 5.65 34.05 187.76 5.42 1.36 1036.8 0.014

3 259.2 9 2332.8 4.24 38.28 289.89 4.06 1.36 1296 0.015

2 259.2 6 1555.2 2.83 41.11 404.74 2.70 1.35 1555.2 0.017

1 259.2 3 777.6 1.41 42.52 528.06 1.36 1.35 1814.4 0.019

0 0 42.52 655.62 0

21772.8

114

Example 2:

A seven-story reinforced concrete special moment-resisting

frame (SMRF) has the dimensions shown in the figure. The

total sustained dead load is 800 kg/m2 and the live load is

250 kg/m2. The building which is characterized as a

residential building is located in Gaza City and lies on top

of a deep clayey deposit. Evaluate the seismic loads at the

floor levels of the building in a direction perpendicular to

axis 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4 using the 1994 UBC.

115

Solution:

Z = 0.075, I = 1, S = 2.0, R w = 12

Since the building is residential, no live load is to be used

in seismic weight calculation

Weight of floor = 0.8(18)(22.5) = 324 tons

Total seismic weight = 324(7 ) = 2268 tons

T = 0.073(h n )3 / 4

T = 0.073 (21)3 / 4 = 0.716 sec

1.25S 1.25(2 )

C= = = 3.12 sec > 2.75 N.O.K

T 2/3

(0.716)2/3

C 2.75

= = 0.229 > 0.075 O.K

Rw 12

V= = = 38.98 tons

Rw 12

< 0.5 V O.K

Vertical Distribution of Force:

(V Ft )wx hx

Fx =

7

i =1

Fi

116

level wi hx wx hx Fx Vx Mx

7 324 21 6804 9.26 11.21 -

6 324 18 5832 7.93 19.14 33.63

5 324 15 4860 6.61 25.75 91.05

4 324 12 3888 5.29 31.04 168.3

3 324 9 2916 3.97 35.01 261.42

2 324 6 1944 2.64 37.65 366.45

1 324 3 972 1.32 38.97 479.40

0 0 38.97 596.31

27216

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