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BECHTEL CHILE LTDA.

DESIGN CRITERIA

24017-DC-001

FOR

CIVIL/STRUCTURAL

MINERA ESCONDIDA LIMITADA

ESCONDIDA PHASE IV EXPANSION PROJECT

1 10Mar99 Modified as indicated CN CN CN LDJ CL/OQ M.C.


0 10-2-99 Issued for Construction CN CN CN LDJ CL/OQ M.C. MSK
C 20-12-98 Issued for Approval CN XS XS LDJ CL/OQ M.C.
B 19-11-98 Issued for Coordination CN AL AL LDJ CL/OQ M.C.
A 9-10-98 Issued for Coordination AL AL AL LDJ CL/OQ M.C.
REV. DATE REASON FOR REVISION BY CHECK EGS VEM PE PEM CLIENT
JOB No. 24017 SHEET 1 OF 30

DESIGN CRITERIA NO. REV.


BECHTEL CHILE LTDA. 24017-DC-001
1

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION DESCRIPTION PAGE

1.0 INTRODUCTION 3

2.0 GOVERNING CODES, REGULATIONS AND 3


REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

3.0 SITE INFORMATION 6

4.0 PLANT AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 10

5.0 CIVIL SITE WORK CRITERIA 10 1

6.0 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA 15

7.0 DESIGN BASIS 23

8.0 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 26

9.0 TRANSPORTATION LIMITS BY TRUCK 29

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

These criteria shall govern the design of structures and facilities. These criteria shall
be applied in conjunction with civil/structural specifications governing specific
elements of the project.

All designs shall be tested against the following criteria:

Insure that critical facilities have a design margin appropriate for the risk
involved

Maximize safety

Minimize risk by employing proven technology

Minimize on-site construction activities and reduce on-site labor

Limit capital expenditure by innovation without lowering quality standard

2.0 GOVERNING CODES, REGULATIONS AND REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

2.1 GENERAL

Unless specifically stated otherwise, the design of all structures and facilities
shall be based on the applicable portions of the following codes,
specifications, industry standards, regulations, and other referenced
documents, based on the latest revision or edition thereof.

In addition to the codes and regulations listed below, the design shall comply
with any laws or regulations of the local authorities. In the event of
conflicting requirements between codes and standards, the most stringent
shall apply.

2.2 CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS

Ch.BLDG. Ordenanza General de Construcciones Urbanizaciones

ICHA Instituto Chileno de Acero

NCh. Normas Chilenas Oficiales (NCh), by Instituto


Nacional de Normalizacin (INN):

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NCh 432.Of 71 Clculo de la Accin del Viento Sobre las


construcciones

NCh 433. Of 93 Diseo Ssmico de Edificios

NCh 2369.a 96 Diseo Ssmico de Edificios Industriales

UBC International Conference of Building Officials,


Uniform Building Code, 1994

AISC American Institute of Steel Construction

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings -


Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design
(1989),S335

AWS American Welding Society Structural Welding


Code, AWS D1.1-96

ACI American Concrete Institute

Building Code Requirements for Structural


Concrete, ACI 318-95

API American Petroleum Institute

Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, API 650-93

AWWA American Water Works Association

Steel Pipe Design and Installation, M11-89

Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage, D100-89

ASCE Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other


Structures, ASCE 7-95

AASHTO American Association of State Highway and


Transportation Officials

Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets,


AASHTO-94

Standard Specification for Highway Bridges,


AASHTO-92

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NFPA National Fire Protection Association Standards to


meet MSHA requirements

ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers - Manuals


Reports on Engineering Practice No. 37, Design and
Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers

AISE Association of Iron and Steel Engineers, Technical


Report No. 13, 1991 - Guide for the Design and
Construction of Mill Buildings

2.3 REGULATIONS

MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration


Regulations and Standards Applicable to Metal and
Nonmetal Mining and Milling Operations

OSHA Occupation, Safety and Health Administration

Regulatory Authorities for Chile as follows:

Ministerio de Obras Pblicas y Transportes (MOPT)

Ordenanza General de Urbanismo y Construcciones

Direccin General de Aguas

Direccin de Obras Sanitarias

Servicio Nacional de Obras Sanitarias (SENDOS)

Reglamento sobre Condiciones Bsicas Sanitarias y Ambientales en


los Lugares de Trabajo

Secretara y Superintendencia de Servicios Elctricos y Combustibles

Servicio Nacional de Salud (SNS)

Manual de Carreteras M.O.P.

CMAA Crane Manufacturers Association of America

2.4 OTHER REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

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2.4.1 Geotechnical Investigation Reports, by E.C. Rowe & Asociados

2.4.2 Civil/structural specifications and civil design guides developed by


Bechtel will be used on this project

3.0 SITE INFORMATION

3.1 LOCATION

The mine-site facilities for the Escondida expansion project are located at the
Minera Escondida Limitada (MEL) facilities in the Atacama Desert of
northern Chile at 3200 metres above mean sea level. The site is surrounded
by a mountainous area known as Cordillera de Domeyko and it is adjacent to
the Salar de Hamburgo, 180 kilometres southeast of the port of Antofagasta,
Chile.

3.2 TOPOGRAPHY

The mine-site facilities are on the western slope of a basin formed by the
Cerro Colorado Chico and the Cordillera de Domeyko. Topographical
features are barren, rock-covered hillsides sloping downward to a shallow
salt flat or salar. Extremes in temperatures have weathered the surface rock
extensively and covered the mine-site area with talus material. The higher
elevation of the Cerro Colorado Chico region receive rain and snow that
drain down through the barren soil and is collected in nearby basins. These
basins are evaporation ponds and form dry salt beds.

The surface soils at the plant site are composed of weathered volcanic ash,
underlain by gravel layers intermixed with sandy material. The surface
material in the concentrator area may have a high salt content and will be
removed to expose the unweathered surface below. The specific
characteristics, thickness and depth of the soil strata are defined in the
Project Geotechnical Investigation Report.

The plant site is at approximately 3200 metres above mean sea level.

Wells for fresh water will be located at Salar Punta Negra (approximately 25
kilometres southeast of the site) and at Salar Monturaqui (approximately 70
kilometres northeast of the site).

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3.3 ACCESS

The mine-site is accessible from Antofagasta via a branch of the Panamerican


Highway and MELs access road. An existing narrow gauge railroad from
Antofagasta passes within 6.5 kilometres of the site.

3.4 SOIL DATA

The geotechnical report by E.C. Rowe & Asociados, titled Mine Site
Facilities Geotechnical Report dated March 1989, was issued for the existing
mine-site facilities. For the Phase IV Expansion Project the Geotechnical
Report by E.C. Rowe & Asociados, issued in December 1998, shall be used.

3.5 PROJECT DATA

3.5.1 HORIZONTAL

All coordinates shall be in meters and shall be based on the UTM


(Universal Transverse Mercator) grid system.

A Local coordinate system was defined as detailed in a report by


A.G. Ing. Geomensores Asociados, dated July 1988:

The Local grid North is the same as UTM North.

The grid correction factor is 0.99907; to convert local grid


distance to UTM distance, multiply the local grid distance by
the grid correction factor.

Common coordinates for the two grid systems are defined


at the mine-site bench mark BM-2 as follows:

UTM coordinates = N 7 316 915.10 E 493 974.28


Local coordinates = N 108 494.09 E 17 325.91
Elevation = 3 095.145

A Plant coordinate system is used in the Plant Design System (PDS)


modelling in order to have the convenience of a coordinate system
orthogonal to the Plant North and avoid the perception of a plant
rotated with respect to the coordinate grid:

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The Plant North is rotated 30 degrees to the east of UTM North


The Plant coordinate system is orthogonal to the Plant North
The correspondence between coordinate systems is established at
a master point in the Phase IV Plant defined as follows:

UTM coordinates = N 7 308 057.049 E 494 150.273


Local coordinates = N 99 627.793 E 17 502.067
Plant coordinates = N 1 000.000 E 5 110.300

The Local coordinate system shall be used to locate the Phase IV 1


Plant site and all other offsite facilities with respect to the minesite
bench mark BM-2.

The Plant coordinate system shall be used exclusively in the PDS and
in all the design drawings for the Phase IV Plant Area, excluding off-
site drawings

3.5.2 VERTICAL

All elevations shall be shown in meters above sea level.

3.5.3 PROJECT SURVEY CONTROLS

Existing control monuments at the mine-site shall be used.

3.6 PRECIPITATION
Minesite Coloso
Rainfall average annual mm 7.2 12.5
Rainfall maximum for 24 hour period mm 55.8
Snowfall design load mm 500 0

3.7 EVAPORATION

Winter (June) mm/d 3.8


Summer (December) mm/d 10.7

3.8 GROUNDWATER TABLE

The groundwater table is deep, in the range of 40 to 60 meters below the


existing ground surface. The definitive elevation of the groundwater table
shall be considered as defined in the Project Geotechnical Report.

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3.9 FROST PENETRATION

Depth below grade m 0.7

3.10 AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE, DRY BULB


Minesite Coloso

Maximum Summer High C 22 27


Mean C 10
Minimum winter low C -20 7

3.11 WIND

The design shall be based on NCh 432.Of 71.


For equipment suppliers outside Chile, ASCE 7-95, exposure C, with a 3
second gust speed of 175 kilometers per hour will be used. 1

3.12 EARTHQUAKE

Minesite:
The design shall be based on the requirements of NCh 433, NCh 2369 and
UBC codes (see 4.7).
Seismic Zone 2, with soil Type II and importance coefficient I=1 shall be
used for NCh codes.
Seismic Zone 4, with site coefficient S factor = 1.2 and seismic importance
factor I=1 shall be used for UBC.
For equipment suppliers outside Chile, the design shall be based on UBC
code.
1
Coloso:
The design shall be based on the requirements of NCh 433, NCh 2369 and
UBC codes (see 4.7).
Seismic Zone 3, with soil Type I and importance coefficient I=1 shall be used
for NCh codes.
Seismic Zone 4, with site coefficient S factor = 1.2 and seismic importance
factor I=1 shall be used for UBC.
For equipment suppliers outside Chile, the design shall be based on UBC
code.

3.13 SOIL CONDITIONS

For soils data for civil/structural design refer to the Project Geotechnical
Report.

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4.0 PLANT AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

4.1 The Concentrator building, Flotation/Regrind building, and the Coarse Ore
Stockpile building shall be steel frame structures with metal roofing and
siding, as defined on the design drawings.

4.2 The ore storage reclaim tunnel shall be constructed of reinforced concrete.

4.3 Grade slabs and sump bottoms shall be constructed of reinforced concrete
placed on native competent material or on compacted fill.

4.4 Operating floors and other floors indicated on drawings shall be constructed
of reinforced concrete. The elevated concrete floors shall use noncomposite
steel deck as the formwork

4.5 Elevated floors and access platforms shall be constructed of metal grating,
except where noted on drawings or in areas with potential for crushed ore
spillage.

4.6 Inclined walkways shall be of expanded metal grating.

4.7 The seismic requirements per NCh 433 and NCh 2369 and those per UBC
may be in some respects more severe than each other in terms of ductile
details and redundant force transfer systems, and the factors used to arrive at
the design spectrum. The most severe requirements out of those Codes shall
prevail, and the design engineer must be fully cognizant of such differences
and incorporate them into the design.

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5.0 CIVIL SITE WORK CRITERIA

5.1 EARTHWORK

The following slopes shall be used for design purposes:

Cuts in rock - Vertical, for temporary cutting when cut not


exceed 2 meters in vertical measurement.

1(H):3(V) for temporary cuttings when cut


not exceed 6 meters in vertical measurement.

- 1(H):2(V) for temporary cuttings when cut 1


exceed 6 meters in vertical measurement.

- 1(H):2(V) for permanent cuttings. When cut


exceed 8 meters in vertical measurement,
1
benches 4 meters wide minimum shall be
provided each 8 meters height.

Cuts in mine waste - 1.5(H):1(V)

Cuts in original soils - Vertical, for temporary cutting when cut not
exceed 1meter in vertical measurement.

- 1(H):2(V) for temporary cuttings when cut


not exceed 4 meters in vertical measurement

- 1(H):1(V) for temporary cuttings when cut


exceed 4 meters in vertical measurement

- 1.5(H):1(V) for permanent cuttings. When


cut exceed 8 meters in vertical measurement,
benches 4 meters wide minimum shall be 1
provided each 8 meters height.

Compacted fills 1.5(H):1(V) with benches 4 meters wide


provided each 10 meters height.

Fill (ore storage berm) 2(H):1(V)

The Project Geotechnical Report shall be consulted for additional governing


recommendations that may be applicable.

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5.2 YARD GRADING

5.2.1 Yard finish grading shall be a minimum of 150 millimetres below the
adjacent floor slabs.

5.2.2 Yard grading shall have a finish grade slope of two percent minimum
away from structures and toward the storm drainage.

5.3 FOUNDATION CRITERIA

Allowable bearing values for mat foundations and spread footings shall be in
accordance with the Project Geotechnical Report.

5.4 ROADS

5.4.1 Plant roads maximum design speed 60 km/h

5.4.2 Maximum grades shall be as follows:

Principal roads 6%
Secondary roads 10 %

5.4.3 Minimum horizontal curve radius shall be as follows:

Principal roads 50 m
Secondary roads 25 m
Maintenance roads and pond inspection roads 25 m

5.4.4 Maintenance roads

Minimum vertical curve radius (parabola) shall be as follows:

Principal roads 30 m

5.4.5 Minimum road widths shall be as follows:

Principal roads (including 1 metre shoulders) 10 m


Secondary roads 6 m
Maintenance roads and pond inspection roads 4 m (one lane)

5.4.6 Road design shall be developed in accordance with the Manual de


Carreteras by Chile M.O.P.

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5.4.7 Loading over culverts and pipes shall be in accordance with


AASHTO-HS20-44 except for areas of special equipment operation
(i.e., mine haul trucks) which shall be considered on an individual
basis.

5.4.8 Minimum vertical clearance under overpasses or obstructions shall be


4.6 meters, except for areas with special equipment operation, where
it shall be adequate for 300 ton trucks to pass with the bed up, or for
other specific requirements.

5.5 STORM DRAINAGE

5.5.1 Runoff, resulting from rainfall, generally shall be allowed to follow


natural courses but when necessary shall be conveyed to drainage
ditches or storm sewers by sloping the tributary surface area.
Manholes, if required, shall not exceed a 90 meter spacing.

5.5.2 Storm runoff quantities for small areas in the plant site shall be
determined by the Rational Method using a minimum time of
concentration of 10 minutes.

5.5.3 Design frequency shall be as follows:

Facility Criteria

In-plant storm sewers 10-year frequency storm flowing full


without surcharge; the hydraulic grade
line for a 50 year frequency shall be
designed at a minimum of
300 millimetres below any building
floor or other critical elevation.

Culverts 10-year frequency with the head water


for the 50-year frequency designed at a
minimum of 300 millimetres below any
building floor or other critical
elevation.

Ditches/channels 10-year frequency with 50-year


frequency storm water levels checked
to assure critical areas are not flooded.

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5.5.4 Ditches shall be of V-type or trapezoidal design. Trapezoidal ditches


shall have a 0.6 meters minimum width at bottom. The ditch side
slopes shall not be steeper than 1 vertical to 1.5 horizontal. The
intersection of the ditch side slopes and the natural ground shall be
located to allow a 10 meters minimum clear distance from the
existing or contemplated structures or foundations. Longitudinal
slopes shall be 0.2 percent minimum; where velocity exceeds 2
meters per second, ditch liners will be considered, but should
consider the consequences of erosion and cost before installing a liner
based on a general criteria. Liners are not required in medium to
heavy gravel and rock.

5.5.5 Open channel flow calculations shall be made according to the


Mannings Formula.

5.6 SANITARY SYSTEM

5.6.1 Design flows shall be calculated on the basis of:

a) 150 litres per person per day for treatment system operation,
and maintenance with a design flow rate of four times the
average for pipe sizing

b) On the number of equivalent fixture units

The method that results in the largest flow shall be used.

5.6.2 All sanitary sewers shall be at least 150 millimetres in diameter. The
minimum velocity shall be 0.5 meters per second flowing half full.
Maximum velocity shall not exceed 1.5 meters per second to prevent
the water from leaving floating solids behind thus forming dune or
which subsequent flows catch and eventually plug the pipe.

5.6.3 The top of all sanitary sewer line must be 200 mm below the bottom
of any water line.
5.6.4 Spacing between manholes shall not exceed 90 meters.

5.7 FIRE PROTECTION

5.7.1 The yard fire main shall be a minimum of 200 millimetres in diameter.
The minimum depth of cover for the yard pipe shall be 1 meter below
grade.

5.7.2 The yard pipe for fire protection shall be complete with hydrants,
gate valves, and post indicator valves as required.

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5.7.3 Fire hydrants shall be placed at a spacing of not more than 90 meters.

5.8 FRESH WATER

The minimum depth of cover for the fresh water pipe will be 0.7 meters
below grade.

5.9 POTABLE WATER

The minimum depth of cover for the potable water pipe will be 0.7 meters
below grade.

6.0 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CRITERIA

6.1 LOADS

6.1.1 DEAD LOADS

The dead loads (DL) shall include the weight of framing, roofs,
floors, walls, partitions, platforms and all permanent equipment and
materials (see Section 6.1.7.a). The static vertical and lateral 1
pressures of liquids shall also be treated as dead load (in accordance
with Section 9.2.5 of ACI 318-95).

6.1.2 LIVE LOADS

The live loads (LL) shall include floor area loads, laydown loads,
equipment handling loads, active earth pressure and truck wheel loads.
The floor area live load shall be omitted from areas occupied by
equipment whose weight is specifically included in the dead load.
Live loads shall not be omitted under equipment where access is
provided, for instance under elevated tanks on four legs. In no case
shall the minimum design live loads be less than specified in Section
7.1.3. The equipment operating loads (LLo), upset operating loads
(LLu) and crane loads (CL) shall be included as described in Section
6.1.7.b, c and e. 1

The design live loads shall be shown both in the calculations and on
the design drawings for the corresponding floors.

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6.1.3 MINIMUM DESIGN LIVE LOADS

a) The following minimum live loads shall be used in the design


unless otherwise established by a specific analysis of equipment
loads in certain areas. Certain other applicable loads are listed
separately in succeeding sections.

Roofs (accounts for snow load at 60 kgf/m2) kgf/m2 100

Offices kgf/m2 250

Assembly and locker rooms kgf/m2 500

Laboratories kgf/m2 500

Stairs and walkways kgf/m2 500

Platforms, grating and elevated floors kgf/m2 500

Mill operating floors and platforms kgf/m2 1250


around grinding mills
(except mill liner area)

Ground floors kgf/m2 1250

Surcharge adjacent to plant structures kgf/m2 1250

Control rooms kgf/m2 500

Electric switchgear rooms kgf/m2 1250

Sag or Ball mill liner floors kgf/m2 3200

Conveyor gallery walkways kgf/m2 250

Railings concentrated load applied kgf 90


in any direction at top of railing

Truck support structures AASHTO, HS 20-44 or


mine haul trucks as
applicable

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b) A concentrated load on the beams and girders and any one


panel point of the secondary trusses (in addition to all other
loads) of 1000 kgf shall be applied to maximize stresses. This
load is not carried to the columns, and it is not applied in the
office, laboratory, locker rooms or similar areas.

c) A concentrated load on the slabs of the office floors (to be


considered with dead load only) of 1000 kgf shall be applied
over an area of 0.24 m2 and located to maximize stresses. This
load is not carried to the columns.

d) A concentrated load on the slabs of the operating floors (to be


considered with dead load only) of 1400 kgf shall be applied
over an area of 0.24 m2 and located to maximize stresses. This
load is not carried to the columns.

e) A concentrated load of 140 kgf shall be placed at the


center of a stair tread.

f) A concentrated load on any one panel point of the main trusses


(in addition to all other loads) of 3000 kgf shall be located to
maximize stresses. This load is not carried to the columns.

6.1.4 LIVE LOAD REDUCTION

Live load reduction on floors and roofs shall be allowed as follows:

a) No reduction shall be allowed for the warehouse, storage areas


and tanks.

b) For live loads greater than 500 kgf/m2, the following reductions
shall apply for columns, piers and walls supporting:

Roof =0%
Roof and 1 floor = 0 %
Roof and 2 floors = 10 %
1
6.1.5 WIND LOADS

Structures shall be designed for wind loads (WL) determined in


accordance with section 3.11 .

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6.1.6 SEISMIC LOADS


1
Structures shall be designed for seismic loads (EL) determined in
accordance with Sections 3.12 and 4.7.

6.1.7 EQUIPMENT LOADS

Equipment loads shall be in accordance with the vendor drawings and


shall include the weight of the product to be handled. The design loads
for equipment supports shall include the following:

a) Equipment dead loads, including piping and platforms


supported from the equipment and internal construction, such
as lining, shall be included in the DL (Section 6.1.1). 1

b) The operating live load (LLo) shall include the contents of fixed
equipment, containers, conveyors, pipeways, etc., with
materials at normal operating densities.

c) The upset operating load (LLu) shall include dead loads plus
equipment filled to maximum capacities with materials of
maximum density, including scale buildup; e.g., plugged chutes
or screw conveyors, etc. These loads may be considered as
short-term loading conditions, with the special considerations
of Section 6.2.1, and shall be included as a special case of LLo
in the loading combinations per Section 7.2. 1

d) Material live load at conveyor transfer points shall be increased


to twice the material live load along the conveyor for a length
of 6 metres.

e) The crane loads (CL) shall be as defined by equipment vendors


for wheel loads for cranes, monorails and other traveling
equipment.

f) Supports shall be checked for vibration for all heavy


reciprocating or centrifugal operating equipment, particularly
mills, fans, crushers, vibrating screens or feeders.

g) Unbalanced dynamic forces for vibration analysis shall be


obtained from the vendor and the project mechanical group for
fans, crushers and reciprocating equipment.

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6.1.8 IMPACT LOADS

The minimum increase in equipment loads for impact shall be as


follows:

a) Cranes, motor driven

Vertical, lateral and longitudinal load shall comply with


Sections A4.2 and A4.3 of the AISC Specification:

Cab-operated traveling crane % 25


Pendant-operated traveling crane % 10

b) Conveyors

Along the length of belt conveyors:

Vertical impact none

Shuttle and tripper conveyors: 1

Vertical impact percentage of


of material and conveyor weight % 25

At transfer points:

Vertical impact calculated force required to


decelerate the falling mass

6.1.9 CONVEYOR LOADS

Conveyor trusses and supporting structures shall be designed to carry


their dead load, material loads (including material loads due to clogged
chutes filled to capacity), and the walkway live load. Where
applicable, piping and/or cable tray loads shall be added. Belt tensions,
including the maximum running and maximum motor torque belt
tensions, shall be considered in the design of the support members.

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In addition to the primary forces, the design of truss members shall


take into account the secondary forces due to eccentric connections.
1
For load combination purposes, conveyor loads will be treated as
equipment loads and equipment operation loads

The following belt tensions shall be considered:

a) 1.5 x (operating belt tension)

b) Stalling belt tension = (operating belt tension) x F*

factor, F*, equals: 2.15 for DC motor


2.25 for wound rotor motor
1.8 for squirrel cage motor

6.1.10 FOUNDATION LOADS

The foundation design shall be based on the recommendations in the


project Geotechnical Report.

6.1.11 ORE PROPERTIES

For civil/structural design, ore properties shall be as follows:

Crushed Ore
Angle of repose:
Stacking degrees 37.5
Draw down degrees 70
Density for:
Weight t/m3 2.1
Volume t/m3 1.8

6.1.12 THERMAL EXPANSION LOADS

All structures and elements shall be designed to accommodate the


loads or effects produced by a differential temperature of 30C.

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6.1.13 MINIMUM LATERAL LOADS (OTHER THAN WIND AND


EARTHQUAKE)

The minimum compression loads in struts, used for lateral stability in


structures, shall be 2 percent of the axial loads in the supported
columns or beams.

6.2 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR TEMPORARY/CONSTRUCTION


LOADS

6.2.1 For wind, earthquake and temporary loads caused by upset conditions
or construction sequence, the allowable stress or load capacity may be
increased by a factor of 1.33.

6.2.2 The strength and deflection of the metal decking and support framing
shall be checked for the weight of wet concrete plus 150 kgf/m2
without the allowable stress increase.

6.3 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO VIBRATING EQUIPMENT LOADS

6.3.1 GENERAL

Structural members subject to vibrating shall have a minimum beam


depth-to-span ratio of 1:12 unless a vibration check indicates a
smaller depth can be used.

Floor plates adjacent to vibrating equipment shall have a minimum


thickness in millimetres equal to 10.5 times the span in metres
unless a vibration check indicates a smaller thickness can be used.

In order to minimize vibration caused by resonance in braced


structures, the following ratios of first natural frequency (fn) of
support beams to forcing frequency (f0) shall be maintained. For the
resonance check, members shall be considered to have only one
degree of freedom.

Type of End Support


(framed to) Span (mm) fn/fo
Column 6000 1.5 or 0.8
Column > 6000 2.0 or 0.75
Beam 6000 2.0 or 0.75
Beam > 6000 2.5 or 0.75

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Foundations shall be designed to have a natural frequency sufficiently


different from the applied frequency to avoid resonance. Foundations
shall be separated from the slab and building column foundations by 20
millimetre expansion joint materials where possible.

6.3.2 MEMBERS SUBJECT TO VIBRATING EQUIPMENT LOADS

Unbalanced dynamic forces for the design of supports for vibratory


equipment shall be obtained from the vendor.

When a detailed evaluation is warranted, the designer will ensure the


separation of the fundamental mode structural frequency from the
machine frequency. The recommended criteria are as follows:

Structural frequency less than 2/3 of machine frequency, or


Structural frequency greater than 1.5 machine frequency

Particularly, the following equipment supports will be formally


addressed with calculations of frequency and amplitude of vibration to
support design:

Gyratory crushers
Cone crushers
Grinding mills
Flotation cells
Conveyors
Vibrating screens

Soil/structure/interaction will be considered, when calculating the


natural frequency and displacements.

Vibration will be minimized by lateral supports, bracing or mass


damping. Vibration isolators can be used where practical.

6.3.3 SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS

Appendix B of ASCE 7-95 will be used for serviceability of structures


subject to vibration, deflection and drift.

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7.0 DESIGN BASIS

7.1 GENERAL

All steel structures shall be designed by the working stress method. Soil-
bearing pressures for the actual loads shall be checked against the allowable
pressures. All reinforced concrete structures shall be designed by the ultimate
strength design method.

The minimum factor of safety provided for all structures shall be as shown
below for each loading condition:

Overturning 1.5 (1.2 with seismic load)


Sliding 1.5 (1.2 with seismic load)
Buoyancy 1.5

For maximum uplift, sliding and overturning, the minimum dead load, which
may occur during construction or with equipment empty, shall be considered in
combination with the wind loads.

7.2 LOADING COMBINATIONS

The loading combinations listed below shall be considered for the design of
structures and elements of structures. The footnotes list the reduction factors
that shall be applied to the individual loads to reflect the improbability of
simultaneous occurrence for infrequent or transient loads.

a) DL + LL + LLo + CL

b) DL(3) + LLo(4) + CL(2) + EL

c) DL + LL(5) + LLo(5) + CL(2) + EL

d) DL + LL + LLo + CL(2) + WL(1)

e) DL(3) + WL (or EL)

For steel structures, allowable stresses may be increased for certain


combinations in accordance with UBC, Division IX, Section A5. For concrete
structures, loads shall be factored in accordance with UBC Sections 1909.2.1
and 1921.2.7.

NOTES
(1) Maximum crane loads need not be combined with more than 0.50 wind

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(2) Crane hook load need not be considered for maintenance type cranes in
combination with wind or earthquake.
(3) For materials or designs where working stress procedures are used, dead
loads shall be multiplied by 0.85 to maximize the net uplift caused by
seismic loads
(4) In laydown areas the actual weight of the equipment as spread out on the
floor shall be considered
(5) When used in combination with seismic loads, (LL + LLo) shall be
multiplied by 0.7; this factor does not apply when using LLo alone (without
LL) in combination with seismic loads. The upset load LLU shall be
included as a special case of LLO.

7.3 DEFLECTIONS

Deflections due to live load and wind load or earthquake load shall not exceed
the following:

a) Roofs

Roofing and secondary members Span/240


(purlins and joists)

b) Floors

Floor plate and grating Span/200

Floor beams Span/240

c) Walls (lateral wind load)

Siding and girts Span/180

d) Crane girders and monorail beams. (without impact)

Vertical Span/1000

Horizontal Span/500

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e) Conveyors

Vertical deflections of trusses Span/600


due to belt live loads

Horizontal deflections of trusses Span/600


due to lateral loads

Horizontal deflections at the end Span/800


of stacker trusses due to lateral loads
(maximum deflection shall be limited to
150 millimeters)

Steel supporting head pulley frames, Span/800


speed reducers and motors

7.4 CRANE GIRDERS

Crane girders shall be designed in accordance with AISE Technical Report No.
13, 1991 - Guide for the Design and Construction of Mill Buildings.

7.5 FATIGUE STRESSES

Connections of all major structural elements, including crane girders and


conveyor trusses, shall consider the effects of fatigue according to Appendix K
of the AISC Code.

7.6 CORROSION STRESSES

Effects of corrosion shall be considered in areas where steel or concrete is in


contact with the ore, reagents or humid atmospheres.

7.7 TANKS WITH SUPPORTED BOTTOMS

Flat bottom tanks or other tanks with supported bottoms founded at or below
grade, shall be designed to resist the seismic forces calculated by using the
procedures in UBC Section 1632, for rigid structures, considering the entire
weight of the tank and its contents.

Potable water tanks shall be in accordance with AWWA D100.

Process water tanks shall be in accordance with API 650. A corrosion


allowance shall be provided.

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7.8 BRACED FRAMES

Braced frames and bracing members shall be designed in accordance with UBC
Section 2211.

7.9 FLOOR DRAINAGE

The minimum floor slab slope shall be as follows:

SAG mill area % 14.5


Ball mill area % 11.5
Flotation area % 4.5
Reclaim tunnel% 1.1

All other floors subject to frequent washdowns or occasional process spills


shall have a minimum slope to drain of 3 percent.

8.0 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

8.1 STRUCTURAL STEEL

8.1.1 Structural steel shapes, plates and bars shall conform to ASTM A36,
A42-27ES (NCh 203), or as approved.

8.1.2 Rails shall conform to ASTM A1.

8.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL CONNECTIONS

8.2.1 Shop connections: In general, shop connections will be welded.


In some cases, shop connections should be
bolted and elements should be shop assembled
as indicated on drawings.

8.2.2 Field connections: Bolted; field welded only when indicated on


drawings

All connections will be bearing-type connection with threads included


in shear plane.
Bolts for all members shall conform to ASTM A325.
Where slip-critical connections are required, the faying surfaces of the
connection shall be blast-cleaned and uncoated or blast-cleaned and
coated with a Class B coating as defined in the Specification for
Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts.
All bolts shall be fully tightened unless noted otherwise on the
drawings.

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Bolts for secondary (nonstructural) members should be ASTM A307


or A42-23 (NCh 206).

8.3 GRATING

8.3.1 Grating and banding A37-24ES (NCh 203) steel

8.3.2 Bearing bars 32 x 5 millimetre spaced at 30 mm c/c

8.3.3 Cross bars Cross-sectional area of not less than 40 mm2


and thickness not less than 6 millimetres
spaced at 100 mm c/c

8.3.4 Grating sections Fastened by HILTI X-FCM grating disk


fasteners as defined on project standard
drawings.

8.3.5Heavy duty grating shall be provided for areas with heavy vehicular traffic:

8.4 CHECKERED PLATE

8.4.1 Checkered plate shall be A37-24ES (NCh 203) steel and shall have a
four-way safety pattern.

8.4.2 Checkered plate shall be field welded to end supports with 40


millimetre long by 5 millimetre fillet welds at 300 mm c/c and to
intermediate members with 15 millimetre plug welds at 450 mm c/c.

8.5 EXPANDED METAL GRATING

Expanded metal grating shall be galvanized.

8.6 ANCHOR BOLTS

Anchor bolts and anchor plates shall conform to ASTM A36/A36M or A42-23
(NCh 206). Nuts shall conform to ASTM A563 and round washers shall
conform to ASTM F436. Minimum diameter of bolts shall be inches.

8.7 HANDRAILS

8.7.1 Top rail 40 millimetre (1-1/2 inch) diameter steel tube

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8.7.2 Intermediate rails 40 millimetre (1-1/2 inch) diameter steel tube;


clear open space between intermediate rails shall
not be more than 300 millimetre

8.7.3 Posts 40 millimetre (1-1/2 inch) diameter steel tube,


spaced at 1800 mm c/c maximum. 1200
minimum height from platform to top of rail.

8.7.4 Toe plate 100 x 6 millimetre thick minimum with


10 millimetre clearance above floor or platform

8.8 CONCRETE

8.8.1 Unless otherwise noted on drawings, concrete design compressive


strengths shall be as follows:

Use NCh Cod f 'c

Structural concrete (miscellaneous H30 250 kgf/cm2 (3625psi)


footings, isolated equipment
foundations, mill foundations, etc.)
Electrical duct encasement H20 150 kgf/cm2(2175psi)
Building foundations and H30 250 kgf/cm23625psi)
footings
Slab at grade and elevated H35 300 kgf/cm2(4350psi)
retaining walls, reclaim
tunnel and thickeners
Operating floor at grinding bay H35 300 kgf/cm2(4350psi)
Lean concrete fill and mudmats H10 75 kgf/cm2(1088psi)

8.8.2 Compressive strength (f 'c) refers to strength at 28 days.

8.8.3 Ultimate load capacities for reinforced concrete design shall be


determined in accordance with the ACI 318 code. 1

8.9 REINFORCEMENT STEEL

8.9.1 Reinforcement steel shall be in accordance with ASTM A615 Grade60


or A63-42H (NCh 434) unless shown otherwise on the design
drawings.

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8.9.2 Ultimate load capacities for reinforced concrete design shall be


determined in accordance with the ACI-318 Code.

8.10 WELDED WIRE FABRIC

Welded wire fabric shall be in accordance with ASTM A185 or AT56-


50H(NCh 218 and 219), with a minimum yield strength of 450 MPa for
wire diameters of 3 millimeters and greater

8.11 CONCRETE MASONRY

8.11.1 Concrete masonry units shall be in accordance with NCh 181, Class
A, with a minimum compressive strength 70 kgf/cm2 (average of 5
units).

8.11.2 Allowable stresses in concrete masonry shall be determined in


accordance with the UBC or NCh 1928.

8.12 GROUT

For column and equipment bases, the grout shall be nonshrink and nonmetallic
and shall be in accordance with technical specification 24017-GC-005.

8.13 WELDING MATERIALS

Welding materials shall conform to the following specifications:

- AWS A-5.17 bare mild steel electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc
welding
- AWS A-5.18 mild steel electrodes for gas metal arc welding
- AWS A-5.1 mild steel covered arc welding electrodes for shielded metal
arc welding.

8.14 STORM SEWERS AND CULVERTS

8.14.1 Storm sewers shall be of reinforced concrete pipe with a


300 millimeters minimum diameter.

8.14.2 Culverts shall be of galvanized corrugated steel pipe outside coated


with bitumen , 600 millimetre minimum diameter.

9.0 TRANSPORTATION LIMITS BY TRUCK

Normal dimensions and load limits for transportation by truck should be considered as

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follows:

Maximum width m 2.5


Maximum height m 3.0
Maximum length m 14.0
Maximum weight t 35.0

Larger dimensions and weights are possible subject to special permit, and shall be
confirmed through the Construction Traffic Department.

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