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WEATHER- the general condition of the atmosphere at a particular time or place.

The sun, air and water are the factors why the weather is constantly changing.

The elements of weather like temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and cloud formation affect daily weather

PRECIPITATION- the water droplets or ice particles condensed from the water vapor in the atmosphere and sufficient to
fall as rain.

HUMIDITY- the amount of water vapor in the air

CLOUD- made up of billions of tiny drops of water so light that they float in the air

Warm air, which is lighter than cold air, soaks up water from rivers, lakes and seas like a sponge. The water is in the form
of an invisible gas called WATER VAPOR.

OROGRAPHIC LIFTING- air is being forced up as it travels over hills, ridges, and mountains

A cloud will continue to grow as long as the rising air remains warmer and lighter than the surrounding air.

LUKE HOWARD- first person to name the clouds

CUMULUS CLOUDS- heaps; low-level, clumpy clouds that looked like cauliflower or pillows. Puffy white clouds with a flat
base, grey at the bottom but white at the top

Cumulus clouds are produced by rising bubbles of warm air called THERMALS.

CIRRUS CLOUDS- feathery; it form high up in the sky that the water inside them is frozen to crystals of ice. It is the first
sign of fine weather coming to an end. The sun and moon look as if they are surrounded by halo when they shine, a
strong indication that rain is on the way.

STRATUS CLOUDS- layered; are the sheet-like clouds. They form in layers that build up and reach across the sky. They
bring persistent drizzling or rain or light snow. It is the lowest clouds. Sometimes they are much lower and form fog over
the ground.

NIMBUS CLOUDS- dark; they may be cumulus or stratus that have become loaded with tiny particles of water.

TEMPERATURE- the amount of heat in the atmosphere.

THERMOMETER- the instrument used to measure temperature. It contains liquid mercury that moves up when it gets
warmer and moves down when it gets colder.

Temperature should always be measured in the shade

Two scales are used to measure temperature- the CELSIUS or centigrade and the FAHRENHEIT.

In centigrade scale, the freezing point is 0 degrees Celsius and the boiling point is 100 degrees Celsius

In Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point is 32 degrees Fahrenheit and the boiling point is 212 degrees Fahrenheit.

ANDERS CELSIUS-swedish astronomer

GABRIEL FAHRENHEIT- german physicist

WIND- air that moves

PREVAILING WINDS- winds that blow all the time in the same area of the world.

When land and water become warm, the air above them becomes warm, too. But air over land becomes warm faster
than air over water.

When air becomes warm, it becomes less dense, so it goes up. Cool air is heavier so it moves toward land to take the
place of the rising warm air. Since warm air over land rises, cooler air over the water moves to take its place.

WALL THERMOMETER-instrument used in measuring air temperature.

WIND VANE- an instrument used to shows the direction from which the wind comes.

WIND SOCKS- an instrument used in small airports to show pilots the strength and direction of the wind.

ANEMOMETER- an instrument used to measure the wind speed. It shows how fast the wind is blowing.

BREEZES-slower and gentler type of wind. Leaves and twigs move, kites fly and sailboats move across water.

GALES- winds that are faster. Trees bend, hard to walk and things blow off the roof.

STORMS- very fast winds. Trees and buildings are damaged.

RAIN GAUGE- instrument in measuring rainfall

Before the cold season, some animals go to a warmer country. This is called MIGRATION.

Some animals, like bears and chipmunks, sleep for a long time during winter. This is called HIBERNATION.

Some animals like frogs, snails and mudfish sleep deep in the mud during very hot, dry weather. This is called


POX, MEASLES -diseases during Sunny Days

during Rainy Days.

CARBON DIOXIDE- one of the gases that prevent the heat radiated back by the earth to escape to outer space.

When it is warm, the water evaporates and changes to water vapor. The water vapor is now part of the air. As a result,
the water vapor in the cool air condenses into droplets of water. Many water droplets make up clouds. As the water
droplets become bigger and as more and more droplets of water form, the clouds become heavy. When the clouds
become heavy, the droplets of water fall as rain.

CONDENSATION- the process in which the water vapor changes back to water

DRY ICE-used in cloud seeding.