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IITM IITB-ICI Workshop on

Achieving Durable Concrete Construction Through Performance Testing


(Feb. 2014)

Concrete Durability:
Industry Perspective*

Vijay Kulkarni
Principal Consultant, Ready-Mixed Concrete Manufacturers
Association (RMCMA)
Former President, Indian Concrete Institute (ICI)
Former Editor, The Indian Concrete Journal (ICJ)

* Views expressed are not necessarily those of RMCMA or ICI


Broad Outline
Concrete Industry Scenario
Role of Production Control System influencing
durability
Recent up-gradation of Production Control Criteria
Properties of ingredients affecting durability
Some Live examples of customer-specified mixes
Use of SCMs: Code-specified Limitations
Recent changes in IRST and IRC Standard
specifications
Laboratory Data on RCPT & Strength
Conclusion
Future
Vestige of Recent Past

Courtesy: Mahesh Tendulkar


Typical Modern RMC Plant

Cement/SCM Silos

Aggregate Conveyor

Twin-Shaft Mixer

Aggregate Bins
1st Phase of Development

Establishment of
RMC facilities in
Delhi
metropolitan
centres

Kolkata

Mumbai Hyderabad

Bangalore

Chennai
2nd Phase of Development
56 Major Cities
1 Amritsar 29 Mangalore
2 Ahmedabad 30 Mohali
3 Baddi-HP 31 Mumbai

4 Bangalore 32 Mysore


5 Bhubneswar 33 Nashik


6 Chennai 34 Nagpur
7 Coimbatore 35 Navi Mumbai

8 Derabasi
9 Durgapur
36 NOIDA
37 Panchkula

10 Faridabad 38 Pune


11 Giaspura 39 Ranchi

12 Ghaziabad 40 Raipur


13 Gurgaon 41 Rajkot
14 Gauhati 42 Rudrapur
15 Goa 43 Sahibabad

16 Hyderabad 45 Sonepat

17 Hubli
18 Indore
46 Surat
47 Surajpur

19 Jalandhar 48 Thane


20 Jaipur 49 Trichy
21 Kochi 50 Tuticorin


22 Kolkata 51 Trivandram
23 Kolhapur 52 Thrissur

24 Lalkuan 53 Vapi


25 Lucknow 54 Vijaywada
26 Ludhiana 55 Visakhapattanam
27 Madura 56 Vadodara
28 Manipal
Size of Organized Concrete Industry
(including RMC Industry)
(Rough Estimates)
Year Cement Consumption App. Concrete
through RMC Route Production

2012-13 7.5% 87 million m3


2017-18 10% 147 million m3
Assumptions
Production figures include concrete produced from all sources using modern batching
and mixing plants (commercial and captive plants)
Concrete production figure is calculated by assuming that the average cement
consumption is 300 kg/m3
Large Concrete Producing Countries
Statistics 2007 and (2012)

Country Concrete production, million m3

USA 345 (225) 147 mm3


China 149 87 mm3(N.A.)
( 2017)

( 2012)
Spain 87.6 (21.6)
Italy 77.4 (40)
Turkey 46.3 (93)
India* 45* ??
Source: ERMCO
* Not authentic; contains organized concrete industry data collected from private sources.
RMC: A Mockery?
RMC: A Pretense or Farce?
Why Production Control Criteria?
Unlike steel, aluminium, glass, etc. concrete is
processed but unfinished material at delivery time
Factors affecting quality (including durability) :
Controls exercised in process control measures during
productionIntermixing of Aggregates

Variability in the properties of ingredients


aggregates, cement, SCMs, etc.
Variations in mix proportioning
Concretes ultimate quality - compressive strength or
durability - cannot be verified at the time of sale
Negligence or misinterpretation of standard methods of
testing
Practices followed during
transportation, placement, consolidation and
curing/protection of concrete No Protection During Placing!
Intermixing of Aggregates
Calibration

Accuracy and sensitivity of


weighing devices
Tolerances specified in IS
4926
Cement & SCMs:
2 percent of the quantity of
constituents being measured
Aggregates, chemical
admixture and water:
3 percent of the quantity of
constituents being measured
Mixer Blade Worn Out
Built-up on Mixer Blade/Arm
Why Production Control Criteria?

Inside cleaned mixer


No Protection During Placing!
RMCMA Quality Scheme
Best Practices : Advanced Countries
USA U.K. Canada Turkey
National Ready Quality RMC Turkish
Mixed Scheme for Association Ready Mixed
Concrete Ready Mixed of Ontario Concrete
Association, (N Concrete State, Association,
RMCA) (QSRMC) (RMCAO)

1. Plant Quality & 1. RMCAO Seal of


Certification Product Concrete Third Party
Scheme Conformity Quality Quality
2. Quality Regulations 2. RMCAO Seal of Scheme
Management Special KGS
System for Concrete
RMC Company Quality
RMCMA Quality Scheme

Indigenous in character
Based on two strong pillars
Best practices from advanced countries
Strict adherence to various BIS codes of
practice
RMCMA Quality Manuals
No. of audited plants
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(March 2012)

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City-wise Certified Plants
Efforts in Enhancing
Production Control Criteria
Multi-stakeholder Ownership
Auditing: Completely Independent character
RMCMA signs MoU with QCI on Dec. 11, 2011 to
develop a New Quality Scheme
What is QCI ?

Established under Cabinet decision in 1996, formed in


January 1997
Registered as a non-profit autonomous society
Joint initiative of the Government of India, and the Indian
Industry, represented by :
Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India
(ASSOCHAM)
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI)
QCI: Objectives
Establish and maintain an accreditation structure in
the country
Provide right and unbiased information on quality
related standards
Facilitate upgradation of equipments and techniques
related to quality
Spread quality movement in the country through
National Quality Campaign
Represent Indias Interest in International forums
Help establish brand equity of Indian products and
service
Structure of New QCI Scheme

Quality Council of India

Steering Committee

Technical Committee Certification Committee

Certification Bodies accredited by


NABCB of QCI
Multi Stake Holder Committees
Participations from:
Central Government Ministries, e.g.
Housing, MORT&H, etc.
Key Specifier: Central Public Works Department
(CPWD)
Central PSUs e.g. NHAI, AAI, etc.
User bodies, e.g. BAI, CFI, etc.
Professional bodies, e.g. ICI, ICCE
Consultants, e.g. Mahendra Raj, TCPL, etc.
Manufacturers, e.g. RMCMA, CMA
Certifying bodies, e.g. BVCI, ICMQ
Quality Scheme: New Manuals

Criteria for Certification Provisional


Production Control Process for Approval for CBs for
of RMC RMCPCS RMCPCS
Download from http://qcin.org/CAS/RMCPC/
Two Schemes
Ready-Mixed Concrete Plant Certification
Scheme (RMCPCS)
RMC Capability Certification: A Must

RMC 9000+ Certification: Optional


Scope of QCI Scheme
Applicable for:
RMC Plants supplying concrete commercially
RMC plants supplying concrete for specific
project
RMC Plants supplying concrete partly on
commercial basis and partly for captive
consumption
Scheme excludes operations of
placing, compaction, finishing and curing of
concrete
Conforming Standards
Provisions of QCI Scheme conform to:
Bureau of Indian Standards
IS 4926, IS 456, IS 8112, IS 12269, IS 383, IS
3812, IS 9103, IS 516, IS 1199, IS 2386, IS
15388, etc.
Indian Roads Congress
IRC 112, IRC 58, MORT&H Specifications
Indian Railway Standards
IRS Bridge code, IRST 89, IRST 45, etc.
Who are Qualified to Certify
RMC Plants?

Bureau Veritas Certification (I) Pvt Ltd


(BVCI)
ICMQ India
Tata Projects Ltd.
Production Control Criteria:
Broad Contents
Section A
Resource Management
Plant and equipment
Laboratory
Key personnel
Control on quality of incoming materials
Concrete design
Production and delivery
Control on process control equipments and maintenance
Complaints
Feedback
Section B
Check List (182 Item )
Tables
Table No 1 to 11
Resource Management
Resource
Management

Plant, Equipme Key


nt & Other Laboratory Personnel
Utilities

Educational Opera- Specific


Material Central Ticketing Level tional Knowledge
Storage Batching System Skills
Mixer
& Equip-
handling ment
Tests on Test on
Aggre- Concrete
gates
Minimum Specified Lab Test
Aggregates
Sampling (IS 2430)
Moisture content (IS 2386-
Part III)
Bulk density (IS 2386-Part
III)
Sieve analysis (IS 2386-
Part-I)
Concrete
Slump (IS 1199)
Unit weight (IS 1199)
Strength (IS 516)
Minimum Test Equipment &
Calibration Frequency
Relevant test BIS Standard Minimum units

Slump test IS 1199-1959 2 sets

Compressive strength of concrete IS 516 One no.

Preparing concrete test specimens IS 1199 30 nos.

Sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates IS 2386- Part I one set for C.A.
and F.A.
Agg. Sampling (sieve shaker/sample divider) IS 2430 One

Unit weight of concrete IS 1199 one no.

Aggregates Bulk density IS 2386- Part III one each for


C.A. and F.A.
Silt content of sand one no.

Specific gravity of aggregates one no.

Other accessories
Electronic weighing balance One
Laboratory mixer(min 50 lit) One
Electric microwave oven (IS 11332) One
Table / needle vibrator, tamping rods One
Curing tank with temperature control One
Shovels, trowels, flexible spatulas, meter, Sufficient nos.
Quality of Incoming Materials
Material IS Conformity Physical and Testing at NABL-accredited Lab
Requirements Chemical Testing
Cement IS 8812 (OPC) Manufacturers First consignment of each brand
IS 12269 (OPC) certificate for each Once in a year for used brands or
IS 1489 (PPC) consignment change of source
IS 455 (PSC)
Fly ash IS 3812 (Part 1 Manufacturers BIS conformity tests once in six
and 2) certificate for each month or when source changed
consignment
GGBS IS 12089 and Manufacturers BIS/BS conformity tests once in six
BS 6699 certificate for each month or when source changed
consignment

Silica IS 15388 Manufacturers BIS conformity tests once in six


fume certificate for each month or when source changed
consignment
Quality of Incoming Materials
(cond)
Material IS Conformity Physical and Testing at NABL-accredited Lab
Requirements Chemical
Testing
Chemical IS 9103 Manufacturers All code-specified tests before
Admixtures certificate for finalization of source
each consignment BIS conformity tests once in six
month or when source changed
Water IS 456 and Non-mains water: Initially every
IS 4926 week for first 6 weeks and then at
3-monthly internal
Mains water: Annual basis once all
tests for source are satisfactory
Coarse and IS 383 All IS-specified tests during
Fine selection of source or change of
Aggregates source
Minimum tests in plant lab
Other tests at NABL-accredited
lab at IS-specified frequencies
Concrete Mix Design
Organization should have the capability to
design concrete mixes by adopting any rational
method
Organization should also have the ability to
convert prescribed and designed mixes into
batches of production
Organization to keep records of trial mixes and
modifications done for the scrutiny of auditors
Production & Delivery
Company to prove evidence that materials and quantities
batched are in accordance with order placed and
approved mix design
Auditors shall choose and verify any five customer
orders during past three months, verifying following
basic parameters
Properties As ordered As delivered
Grade of concrete
Slump, mm
Minimum/maximum cementitious
content and Cement Type, if specified

Maximum water-binder ratio, if specified

Chemical admixture dosage, if specified


Control of Final Product
Fresh Concrete
a) Sampling (IS a) Sampling: At least one sample for a) IS 4926
4926 procedure) every 50 m3 of production or every
50 batches whichever is of greater
frequency
b) At least one sample for every 50 m3 b) IS 1199
b) Slump test of production or every 50 batches
c) Density of fresh whichever is of greater frequency
concrete c) At least once in a day c) IS 1199
d) Placing d) At least one sample for every 50 m3 d) IS 1199
Temperature of of production or every 50 batches
the concrete #
whichever is of greater frequency
Hardened concrete
a) Compressive a) At least one sample for every 50 m3 IS 516
strength * of production or every 50 batches
whichever is of greater frequency *
# optional test (if specified)
* One sample involves casting of 3 specimens of 150x150x150mm size, to be tested at 28 days.
Key Personnel
Key personnel to be competent, adequately
qualified and trained
Basic knowledge in concrete technology
essential
QC in-charge to have degree/diploma in civil
engineering with min. 3 years of experience
Lab Technicians to have knowledge and skills in
sampling and testing
Identification of gaps in knowledge and efforts in
training personnel
Chronology of RMC Quality
Schemes : A Comparison
USA
1913: Beginning of RMC production
1935: ASTM C 94 adopted first time
30 years
1965: Certification System commenced
U. K.
1930: beginning of RMC production
1950: BRMCA formed
18 years
1968: Authorisation Scheme
1984: QSRMC launched 16 years

India
1994: Beginning of commercial RMC
2002: RMCMA established 6 years
2008: Quality Scheme commenced
5 years
2013: QCI certification launched
Specifying Concrete as per
BS EN 8500 & ISO 22965
Methods of Specifying
Concrete
Designated concretes Production control certification essential

Designed concretes Production control certification essential

Prescribed concretes Production control certification not


essential

Standardized Production control certification not


Prescribed concretes essential

Proprietary concretes Production control certification essential


Properties of Ingredient
Influencing Durability
Properties of Ingredient Influencing
Durability: Cement

Variation in Compressive Variation in Compressive


Strength of a Cement brand Strength of different Cement
during a Month Brands
80.0
28-day comp. strength, MPa 71
70.0
65 60 61 61 60 59
61.52 58
60.0 55 56 55
58.82 51 51
60 57.48 49
50.0
55 53.47 53.1 03 days
40.0
07 days
50 30.0
28 days
20.0
45
10.0
40
0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Properties of Ingredient Influencing
Durability: Cement
No provision on
Uniformity Requirement
in compressive strength
of Cement in Indian
Codes!
International standards
ASTM C 917 requirement on uniformity include such provision
80.0 28-day SD= 1.01 MPa Some Indian
Strength, MPa

manufacturer provide
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
uniformity data on
30.0
20.0
request
10.0
0.0
1-day SD= 1.04 MPa
Urgent need to modify
Indian Standards on
cement to include this
Uniformity Chart of a major Indian brand provision.
Properties of Ingredient Influencing
Durability: Aggregates
Dredging restrictions on sand from natural
sources
Industry constrained to use Crushed Stone Sand
(CSS)
What constitutes CSS?
IS 383 definition of CSS
Fine aggregate produced by crushing hard stone
IS 383 draft revision (2014) introduced one
more term - Blended sand
Fine aggregate produced by blending natural sand and
crushed stone sand or crushed gravel sand in suitable
proportions
Glimpses of Natural Sand Quality

40 Without washing)
Silt content, % volume

35
30
25 After washing)
20
15
10
5
0

ep ep ep ep ep ep ep ep ep
1 -S 3 -S 5 -S 7 -S 9 -S 1 -S 3 -S 5 -S 7 -S
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
Properties of Ingredient Influencing
Durability: Aggregates
120
120
Paradeep,
Nellore, 100
100 Orrisa
Tamil nadu
80
80

60 60

Min. Min.
40 40

20 20

0 0
Max. Max.
10 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 10 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15

R. SAND Min. Max. CSS R. SAND Min. Max. CSS

120
R. SAND Min. Max. CSS
Boisar
120 100 (near Mumbai)
100 Hospet,
80
Karnataka
80 60

Max. Min.
60 40
Min.
40 20

20 0
Max.
10 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15
0
10 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15
R. SAND Min. Max. CSS
Properties of Ingredient Influencing
Durability: Aggregates

Limits of deleterious materials (IS 383)


SL. DELETERIOUS SUBSTANCE METHOD OF FINE AGGREGATE COARSE AGGREGATE
NO. TEST PERCENTAGE BY PERCENTAGE BY
WEIGHT, Max WEIGHT, Max
Uncrushed Crushed Uncrushed Crushed
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
i) Coal and Lignite IS: 2386 (Part II) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
ii) Clay lumps IS: 2386 (Part II) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
iii) Materials finer than 75- IS Sieve IS: 2386 (Part I) 3.00 15.00 3.00 3.00
iv) Soft fragments IS: 2386 (Part II) ---- ---- 3.00 ----
v) Shale IS: 2386 (Part II) 1.00 ---- ---- ----
vi) Total of percentages of all deleterious ---- 5.00 2.00 5.00 5.00
materials (Except mica) including Sl.
No. (i) to (v) for Col 4,6,7 and Sl. No.
(i) and (ii) for Col 5 only.
NOTE 1 -The presence of mica in the fine aggregate has been found to reduce considerably the durability and compressive strength of
concrete and further investigations are underway to determine the extent of the deleterious effect of mica. It is advisable, therefore, to
investigate the mica content of fine aggregate and make suitable allowances for the possible reduction in the strength of concrete or mortar.
NOTE 2- The aggregate shall not contain harmful organic impurities [tested in accordance with IS:2386 ( Part II )- I963 ] in sufficient
quantities to affect adversely the strength or durability of concrete. A fine aggregate which fails in the test organic impurities may be used,
provided that, when tested for the effect of organic impurities on the strength of mortar, the relative strength at 7 and 28 days, reported
accordance with 7 of IS : 2386 (Part VI )-1963 is not less than 95 percent.
Microfine Content
Research Report ICAR 102-1F
Good quality concrete can be made with
amounts of microfines (particles passing 75
sieve) as high as 15%. In fact, most of the
concrete made with MFA in both projects
surpassed the concrete made with natural sand
in terms of strength, resistance to chloride ion
penetration, and abrasion*
New Zealand experience
For low to medium compressive strengths, the
optimum % of microfines can be as high as 18%#
Concrete Mixtures with High Microfines by Pedro N. Quiroga, Namshik Ahn, and David W. Fowler, ACI Materials Journal, Aug 2006
# Manufactured sands in Portland cement concrete The New Zealand Experience, by S. Goldsworthy
Suggested Grading Limits of
Manufactured Sand
General Grading Limits
Sieve size Cumulative amount passg,
%
4.75 mm 90-100
0.6 mm 15-80
0.075 mm 0-20

Limits of Deviations
Sieve size, mm Maximum
deviation, %
9.5 -
4.75 5
2.36 10
1.18 15
0.6 15
0.3 10
0.15 5
0.075 3
Properties of Ingredient Influencing
Durability: Fly Ash
Uniformity Requirement of Fly Ash
Blaine's fineness 320 m2/kg (min)
Particles retained on 45 sieve 34% (max)
Lime reactivity 4.5 MPa (min)
28-day Compressive strength Not less than 80% of control

IS 3812 requirement
Variation
% retained on 45 micron

50

in Fly
40
30
Ash
sieve

20
Quality 10
0
Dominant Grades of Concrete
supplied by major RMC Players

30
30 25 25 25 25
25 20 20
20
15
10
5
0
Customer Specified Mixes:
Some Examples
Customer-Specified Mixes: Some
Examples (Grade M25)

Region Exposure w/b ratio OPC, Fly ash, Total


class kg kg cementitious,
kg
Mumbai Not specified Not specified 380 - 380*
Not specified Not specified 300 100 (25%) 400*
NCR Not specified Not specified 380 - 380*
Not specified Not specified 290 90 (24%) 380*
Goa Not specified Not specified 380 - 380*

Coastal Not specified 0.48 400 - 400*


Karnataka
Not specified Not specified 315 65 (17%) 380*

* IS 456 specifies minimum cementitious content of 300 kg and w/b= 0.50


Customer-Specified Mixes: Some
Examples (Grade M30)
Region Exposure w/b ratio OPC, kg Fly ash, Total
class kg cementitious,
kg
Mumbai Not specified Not specified 350 - 350*
Not specified Not specified 400 40 (9%) 400*
NCR Not specified Not specified 400 - 400*
Not specified Not specified 310 95 (23%) 390*
Goa Not specified Not specified 400 - 400*

Coastal Not specified 0.44 420 - 420*


Karnataka
Not specified Not specified 380 50 (11%) 430*

* IS 456 specifies minimum cementitious content of 320 kg and w/b= 0.45


Customer-Specified Mixes: Some
Examples (Grade M35)

Region Exposure w/b ratio OPC, kg Fly ash, Total


class kg cementitious,
kg
Mumbai Not specified Not specified 450 - 450*
Not specified Not specified 390 90 (19%) 480*
NCR Not specified Not specified 395 95 (19%) 490*
Not specified Not specified 365 73 (17%) 438*
Goa Not specified Not specified 420 - 420*

Coastal Not specified Not specified 390 90 (19%) 480*


Karnataka
Not specified Not specified - - -

* IS 456 specifies minimum cementitious content of 340 kg and w/b= 0.45


Mix Optimization
Currently, little freedom given to RMC
players to optimize mixes even for
strength - leave apart durability
Result:
Uneconomical mixes devoid of
durability and sustainability
Shrinkage cracking owing to higher
cement and water contents
Usual blame goes to RMC producer
Why cracks
in my
Two strong restraints in concrete ?

production
Min. cement Max. fly ash RMC
content content Customer Producer
Need of the Hour
Try to give the producer as much choice
as possible. Clause 5.2.1 of ISO 22965-
Part I
Provide freedom to RMC producer to
design his own mix under designed
mix category as permitted under IS
4926
Encourage optimization of mixes for
strength and durability
Improving Durability through
Enhanced utilization of SCMs

Code-specified Upper Limit on SCMs


Pozzolanic
materials like fly 35%
ash (conforming
to IS 3812)
Ground
Granulated Blast- 70%
furnace Slag
(conforming to IS
12089)
Typical HVFAC mix

Grade of OPC, Fly Total w/b Slump,


Concrete kg Ash, Cementitious ratio mm
kg materials, kg
M20 170 170 340 0.44 160
40 140
32.31
26.48 120
30 23.72 100
80
20 13.63 60
100 112 136
40 57
10 20
0
7-day 28-day 56-day 90-day

7 day

28 day

56 day

90 day
Compressive strength
Other Examples of HVFAC

Grade OPC, kg FA, kg Total Cementitious, w/b Slump,


kg ratio mm

M30 160 160 320 0.45 150


M40 180 180 360 0.43 170

50
44.64
45 200
39.99 42.26
40 160
34.65 37.63 120
35 115 122
80 100
30 61 143 169
72 100
25 21.34 26.27 40
0
20 18.92
15 7 day 28 day
56 day 90 day
7-day 28-day 56-day 90-day
Typical Triple Blend Concrete

Grade of OPC, Fly Ash, GGBS, Total w/b ratio Slump,


Concrete kg kg Kg Cementitious mm
material, kg
M20 125 100 75 300 0.55 110

160
120
80 156
122
100
40 57
0
7 day 28 day 56 day 90 day
Recent Changes in Durability
Specifications of IRST and IRC
IRST Concrete Bridge Code (1997)
Exposure classes similar to those in IS 456
Provisions of maximum w/b ratio and min.
cementitious contents

Permeability test shall be mandatory for all RCC/PSC


bridges under severe, very severe and extreme
environment
The depth of penetration shall not exceed 25mm
IRST Guidelines for HPC
Cementitious content
not less than 380 kg/m3 and not more than 450 kg/m3
W/c ratio not less than 0.33 and not more than 0.40
RCPT value shall be less than 800 coulombs.
Additional durability tests, such as, Water
Permeability test as per DIN: 1048 Part 5-1991 or
Initial Surface Absorption test as per BS:1881 Part 5
can also be specified.
The permissible values in such tests shall be decided
taking into account the severity of the exposure
conditions.
IRC 112: Durability Recommendations
for 100 Year Service Life

Exposure Max. Min. Minimum Minimum


Condition water- cement grade of cover, mm
cement content, concrete
ratio kg/m3
Moderate 0.45 340 M25 40
Severe 0.45 360 M30 45
Very Severe 0.40 380 M40 50
Extreme 0.35 400 M45 75
Source: Code of Practice for Concrete Road Bridges, IRC 112-2011
IRC 112: Durability Tests
Suggested upper limits for 56-day RCPT value
Exposure Class RCPT @ 56 days
Severe 1500
Very severe 1200
Extreme 800
Additionally suggested tests
Water permeability (DIN 1048) No permissible values
suggested
ISAT (BS1881-Part 5)
Acceptance criteria
To be arrived at prior to testing
Metro Rail Specifications
Mumbai Metro: Durability Specifications
Water Penetration Test (DIN Not greater than
1048) 25mm @ 28 day
Not greater than:
RCPT 2500 Columbs for M-30 and
value 1500 Columbs for M-45 and higher

Chennai Metro: Durability Specifications


Water Penetration Test (DIN 1048) Not greater than 10mm @ 28-35day

Drying Shrinkage Not greater than 0.05% @ 28day

Moisture Movement Not greater than 0.03% @ 28day


RCPT Not greater than
Value 600 Coloumbs @ 90day
Lab Data on RCPT &
Compressive Strength
Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability Test
(RCPT)
Why RCPT is popular in spite of
shortcomings?
RCPT is a rapid test
It provides a good indication of the
degree of penetrability of concrete.
It is a measure of conductivity -
governed by the volume, size and
connectivity of pores
Good co-relationship between RCPT data
and ponding test

In spite of other developments, it is


likely that this test (RCPT) will remain
as an index test for permeability for
many years to come*

* Hearn, N, Hooton, R. J, and Nokken, M. Pore structure, permeability and penetration resistance characteristics of concrete.. Significance of tests and properties of concrete and
concrete making materials, ASTM STP 169D, ASTM International, 2006, pp. 237-252.
RCPT and Strength Data
(OPC 350 kg/m3 and w/c ratio = 0.50)
6000 50
5510
45
5000
40

3572 35
RCPT Value, Coloumb

4000
3451
3198 30

3000 25
2489
20
2000
15

10
1000
5

0 0
0 35 40 45 50

% Replacement of OPC by Fly Ash

28-day RCPT 28-day Comp. strength

28-day RCPT Values and Compressive strength for different replacement


levels of OPC by Fly Ash
RCPT and Strength Data
(OPC 400 kg/m3 and w/c ratio = 0.44)
60 4000
3630

3500
50

3000
COmpressive strength, MPa

40
2275 2500

30 2000
1627 1480
1420
1495 1340 1500
20

1000

10
500

0 0
0 35 40 45 50 60 70

% Replacement of OPC by Fly Ash

28-day Comp. strength 28-day RCPT

28-day RCPT Values and Compressive strength for different replacement


levels of OPC by Fly Ash
Conclusion
When ordering concrete, it will be appropriate
to specify:
Third-party production control criteria and
certification
Exposure conditions
Higher % utilization of SCMs
Allow freedom to RMC supplier to optimize
concrete mixes to achieve desired strengths and
durability
Provide incentives for producers optimizing mixes
for strength and durability
Specify durability tests and permissible limits
Future
Evolve Guidelines Document for specifying
durability (on lines of ISO 22965 Part I and II*)
New definition of exposure classes
Properties of concrete constituents including their
uniformity requirements
Encourage increased utilization of SCMs for enhancing
durability and sustainability
Upgraded production control criteria
Durability requirements including conformity criteria
for different tests
Encourage service life design and specify service life
requirements
* ISO 22965-1, Concrete Part 1: Methods of specifying and guidance for the specifier
* ISO 22965-2, Concrete Part 2: Specification of constituent materials, production of concrete and conformity of concrete
Thank You!
RCPT Shortcomings
Current passed is related to all ions
Measurement made before any steady state migration is achieved
High voltage may increase temperature
Presence of fibers, calcium nitrite increases the value of coulombs