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1. What do you mean by Unit Operations?
2. Define unit process.
3. Give the significance of unit operations in industrial biotechnology.
4. What is the difference between thermodynamics and heat transfer?
5. What are the three modes of Heat transfer?
6. State the fundamental principle of Conduction?
7. How will you define Convection?
8. State Fouriers law of conduction.
9. How thermal conductivity of a material is defined? What are its units?
10. Define Critical Thickness of Insulation.
11. What is an insulator? Mention different insulating materials.
12. What are Fins? List the types.
13. What is thermal resistance and provide the mathematical statement for thermal
resistance for a composite wall.
14. Differentiate Fin efficiency and Fin effectiveness.
15. Calculate the Heat flow per m2 of surface area for an Insulating wall composed
of 25.4 mm thick Fiber insulating board, where the inside temperature is 352.7 K
and the outside temperature is 297.1 K.
16. What is convective heat transfer coefficient? Give its units.
17. What is a good conductor? State few examples.
18. Mention the different types of fins as per its geometric configuration.
19. Write the difference between steady state and un-steady state conduction.
20. What is overall heat transfer coefficient?
1. Discuss the effects of various parameters on the thermal conductivity of solids.
2. Derive expression for temperature distribution, under one dimensional Steady
state heat conduction equation for the following systems a) composite wall b)
composite cylinder.
3. a) Explain the concept of Critical Thickness of Insulation and derive the equation
for critical thickness for a cylinder
b) Calculate the critical radius of insulation for asbestos (k = 0.172 W/mk)
surrounding a pipe and exposed to room air at 300 k with h = 2.8
w/mK).Calculate the heat loss from a 475 K, 60 mm diameter pipe covered with
the critical radius of Insulation and without insulation.
4. Obtain relationship for overall heat transfer coefficient from Inside surface and
outside surface of a cylindrical pipe considering one dimensional steady state heat
flow with a hot fluid flowing inside and the pipe exposed to ambient atmosphere.
5. A furnace is constructed with 225 mm thick of fire brick ( k = 1.4 W/mK) , 120
mm of insulating brick ( k = 0.2 W/mK) and 225 mm of building brick ( k = 0.7
W.m K ). The inside temperature is 1200 K and the outside temperature is 300 K.
Find the heat loss per unit area and the temperature of the junction of the fire brick
and insulating brick.
6. an exterior wall of a house may be approximated by a 0.1m layer of common brick
(k= 0.7 w/mC) followed by a 0.04 m layer of gypsum plaster (k = 0.48
w/mC).what thickness of loosely packed rock wool insulation (K = 0.065 w/mC)
should be added to reduce the heat loss or gain through the wall by 80 %.
7. A cool storage room has wall made of 220 mm of brick on the outside, 90mm of
plastic foam w/mC, finally 16 mm of wood on the inside.the outside and inside
air temperature are 25 C and 3 C respectively the inside and outside heat transfer
coefficients are respectively 30 w/m 2 C and 11 w/m 2C.The thermal conductivity
is are as follows Brick is 0.99 w/mC, Foam is 0.022 w/mC ,Wood is 0.17
w/mC. Determine a ) the rate of heat removal by refrigeration if the total wall
area is 85 m2 and b) the temperature of the inside surface of the brick.
8. A metal plate of 4 mm thickness ( k = 95.5 W/m C ) is exposed to vapour at 100
C on one side and cooling water at 25 C on the opposite side. The heat transfer
coefficients on vapour side and water side are 14500 W.m2 C qand 2250 W.m2 C
respectively. Determine a. the rate of heat transfer, b. the overall heat transfer
coefficient and c. temperature drop at each side of heat transfer.
9. Steel pipe 25 mm I.D and 33 mm O.D and insulated with Rockwool carries steam
at 178oC. If the surrounding air temperature is 21oC. Calculate the Rate of heat
loss from one meter length of Pipe. The thickness of Insulation is 38 mm. The
Thermal conductivity of Steel and Rockwool are 38.66 kcal/hr m oC and 0.15 kcal
/ hr m oC. The inside and outside Heat transfer coefficients are 4882 kcal / hr m2
C and 9.77 kcal / hr m2oC.
10. A hollow cylinder 5cm inner radius and 10cm outer radius has an inner surface
temperature of 200C and outer surface temperature of 100C. If the thermal
conductivity is 70W/mK, find heat transfer per unit length.

1. Define Convection. When does convection occur?
2. State Newtons Law of Cooling.
3. Differentiate Forced and Natural convection with example.
4. Define Reynolds number (Re). What is its significance?
5. Write Grashoff number and mention its significance.
6. Prandtl number of liquid metals has high values. Comment on it
7. What is Dimensional analysis? Give its applications.
8. Differentiate Laminar and Turbulent Flow of fluids. How to determine the
9. Give some Dimensionless groups involved in Forced convection.
10. What is local heat transfer coefficient of a plate thats cooling ?
11. Define Boiling and condensation.
12. List out the types of boiling.
13. What is dropwise condensation ?
14. State Filmwise condensation.
15. State the physical principle of radiation heat transfer.
16. What is Irradiation ?
17. What is the purpose of Radiation Shield ? Where it is applied ?
18. Distinguish a gray body with a black body.
19. What do you mean by Emissive Power ? And state monochromatic emissive
20. State Stefan Boltzmanns Law.
1. Air at 20C at atmospheric pressure flows over a flat plate at a velocity of 3m/s.
If the plate is 1m wide and 80C, Calculate the following at x = 300m.
a. Hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness
b. Thermal boundary layer thickness
c. Local friction co-efficient
d. Average friction co-efficient
e. Local heat transfer co-efficient
f. Average heat transfer co-efficient
g. Heat transfer

2. Air at pressure of 8kN/m2 and a temperature of 250C flows over flat plate
0.3m wide and 1m long at a velocity of 8 m/s. If the plate is to be maintained
at a temperature of 78C, estimate rate of heat to be removed continuously
from the plate.
3. Air at 206.8 kPa and an average of 477.6 K is being heated as it flows through
a tube of 25.4 mm inside diameter at a velocity of 7.62 m/s. The heating
medium is 488.7 K Steam condensing on the outside of the Tube. Assume the
surface wall temperature of the Metal in contact with the Air is 488.7 K.
Calculate the Heat transfer coefficient for an L/D >60 and also the Flux. Data:
At 477.6 K, Physical properties of Air, b = 2.30 x 10 -5 Pa.s, k = 0.03894
W/m K, Npr = 0.689, At 488.7 K, w=2.64 x 10-5 Pa.s, air = 1.509 kg/m3 ..

4. A vertical tube of 65mm outside diameter and 1.5m long is exposed to steam
at atmospherics pressure. The outer surface of the tube is maintained at a
temperature of 60C by circulating cold water through the tube. Calculate the
following 1. The rate of heat transfer to the coolant., 2. The rate of condensation
of steam.

5. Explain the Mechanism of Boiling heat transfer with neat sketch.

6. Water is to be boiled at atmospheric pressure in a polished copper pan by

means of an Electric heater. The diameter of the pan is 0.38m and is kept at
115C.Calculate the following 1. Power required to boil the water.,
2. Rate of evaporation, 3. Critical heat flux

7. Air is flowing through a tube of 38.1 mm ID at a velocity 6.71 m/s, with an

average temperature of 449.9K and a pressure 138 KPa. The inside wall
temperature is 204.40C. Calculate heat transfer coefficient and heat flux for
the following data: At 449.9 K, Physical properties of Air, b = 2.5 x 10 -5 Pa.s,
k = 0.629W/m K, Npr = 0.82, w=2.64 x 10-5 Pa.s.

8. Explain condensation and its types with neat sketch.

9. A black body at 3000K emits radiation. calculate the following:

a. Monochromatic emissive power at 1m wave length
b. Wave length at which emission is maximum
c. Maximum emissive power
d. Total emissive power
e. Calculate the total emissive of the furnace if it is assumed as a real surface
having emissivity equal to 0.85.

10. A furnace wall emits radiation at 2000K. Treating it as black body radiation,
calculate (i) monochromatic radiant flux density at 1 m wavelength. (ii)
Wavelength at which emission is maximum and the corresponding emissive
power. (iii) Total emissive power.

1. What is the purpose of a heat exchanger? List three significant applications.
2. What is the difference between a parallel flow and counter flow heat exchanger?
3. Mention the Log mean temperature difference for Counter flow pattern.
4. What are the types of Heat exchanger?
5. What is Double pipe heat exchanger.
6. Sketch out the Cross flow heat exchanger.
7. What are Baffles? Give its type.
8. What are the parameters to be considered for evaporator design?
9. How you will classify the heat exchangers according to their usage?
10. What is Tube pitch? Give its types.
11. Distinguish single effect and multi effect evaporator.
12. State Duhrings rule.
13. What is Steam economy and Capacity in Evaporators?
14. What is Fouling factor?
15. Comment on Boiling point rise.
16. Define Evaporation.
17. List out the evaporation equipments.
18. What are the advantages of Calendria type Evaporators?
19. Distinguish Evaporation and Drying.
20. Write the purpose of baffles in Heat Exchanger.
1. Crude oil flows at the rate of 1000 kg / hr through the inside pipe of a Double pipe
heat exchanger and is heated from 30oC to 90oC. The heat is supplied by Kerosene
initially at 200oC flowing through the annular space. If the temperature of
approach (minimum temperature difference) is 10oC, determine the Heat transfer
area for Co-current flow and the Kerosene flow rate.
a. Cp for crude oil = 0.5 kcal / kgoC.
b. Cp for kerosene = 0.6 kcal / kgoC.
c. Uo = 400 kcal / hr m2oC.
2. Water enters a Two-fluid heat exchanger at 55oC and leaves at 85oC. Hot gases
enter at 305oC and leaves at 160oC. If the total Heat transfer area is 500 m2 and the
overall Heat transfer coefficient is 600 kcal / hr m2 oC. Determine the total Heat
transferred per hour for (a) Parallel flow and (b) Counter flow of the two fluids.
3. Explain Shell and Tube heat exchanger with neat sketch.
4. Give a brief note on
a. Types of heat flow
b. LMTD concepts
c. Fouling factor
d. NTU concepts

5. An evaporator is to be fed with 5000 kg / hr of solution containing 10 % Solute

by weight. The feed at 40oC is to be concentrated to a Solution containing 40
% by weight of the Solute under an absolute pressure of 1.03 kg/cm . Steam is
available at an absolute pressure of 3 atm. (Saturation temperature is 134oC). The
overall Heat transfer coefficient is 1500 kcal / hr m2oC. Calculate
a. Heat transfer area that should be provided.
b. The steam requirement.
c. Treat the Solutions as pure Water for purposes of enthalpy calculations.
d. Data
Temperature (oC) Enthalpy (kcal / kg)
Vapor Liquid

40 613.5 40.5
100 639.2 100.0
134 651.4 134.4

6. Calculate the amount of Steam required for concentrating the Solution of Caustic
soda from 28% W of solids to 40% W of solids in a Single effect evaporator. The
Feed rate is 25000 kg / hr and its temperature is 60oC. The Absolute pressure in
the Evaporator is 0.2 kg / cm2 (boiling point 60oC). Saturated steam at 1.4 kg / cm2
(108.7oC) is to be used as Heating medium. The elevation in Boiling point is 25oC.
If the overall Heat transfer coefficient is 670 kcal / hr m2oC. Calculate the Heating
surface required. The Enthalpy data for various streams are as follows :
Vapor at 0.2 kg / cm2 = 623 kcal / kg
28% NaOH at 60oC = 50 kcal / kg
40% NaOH at 85oC = 90 kcal /kg
Latent heat of steam at 1.4 kg / cm2 = 534 kcal / kg
7. Explain in detail about the various methods of Feeding to Multiple effects
Evaporator system. Give some advantages and disadvantages of Forward and
backward feed
8. Give a brief account on Double pipe heat exchanger.
9. Explain the construction and working principle of Horizontal and Vertical type
10. Explain the construction and working of principle of Forced circulation
1. State three differences between a solid and a fluid.
2. Define Ideal Fluids and Real Fluids. Give examples.
3. Illustrate the characteristics of compressibility of a liquid and a gas.
4. Define Mass Density. What are its units?
5. What is coefficient of viscosity?
6. State Newtons Law of Viscosity.
7. What is a Newtonian Fluid? Give examples.
8. How does temperature of a fluid affect its bulk modulus of elasticity?
9. What is vapour pressure?
10. Mention liquids that have high vapour pressure.
11. If 5 m3 of a certain oil weighs 40 kN, calculate the specific weight and specific
gravity of the oil.
12. At a certain point in castor oil the shear stress is 0.216 s-1. If the mass density of
castor oil is 959.42 kg/m3, find kinematic viscosity.
13. State Pascals Law.
14. What is the purpose of a manometer? Classify them.
15. State two different pressures measured with respect to datum.
16. State the advantages of mechanical pressure gages over the manometer.
17. What is fluidization? Mention its types
18. List out the applications of fluidization process.
19. State the basic principle on which a venturimeter works?
20. What is a micromanometer?

1. Differentiate between simple and differential types of manometers.
2. Calculate the capillary rise in a glass tube of 2mm diameter when immersed in a.
water and b. mercury. Both the liquids being at 20 C and the values of the
surface tensions for water and mercury at 20 C in contact with air are
respectively 0.0075 kg/m and 0.052 kg/m.
3. Describe about compressibity and elasticity of a fluid.
4. Explain surface tension and capillarity.
5. Describe about the nature of fluids and its properties .
6. Explain with neat diagram working of a. Bourdon type pressure gauge &
b.Diaphragm pressure gauge.
7. Briefly discuss about a. Rotameter and b. Orificemeter.
8. Explain a Venturimeter with a necessary sketch. Derive the equatrion for
calculating discharge in a venturimeter.
9. Explain the phenomenon of fluidization.
10. With neat sketch explain a fluidized bed boiler.

1. Define Filtration.
2. Give the significance of filter medium resistance in filtration.
3. List out some Industrially used Filtration equipment
4. What is Compressibility factor?
5. State three significant factors that affect the rate of filtration
6. What is constant rate period and falling rate period?
7. What are the types of Centrifuges?
8. Distinguish Settling and Sedimentation.
9. What is free settling ?
10. Comment on hindered settling.
11. What are called Filter aids and Filter medium? Give examples
12. List out the types of filters that are normally in use.
13. Write the advantages of filtration.
14. Illustrate about Sand filter?
15. List the basic parameters that are to be considered for designing filters
16. Define Critical Moisture Content.
17. Give the Schematic representation of centrifugal separator.
18. Define sedimentation process
19. Differentiate clarifiers and filters.
20. A wet solid is to be dried from 80 % to 5 % moisture on wet basis. Calculate the
amount of moisture to be evaporated per 100 kg of dried product. What is the
purpose of filtration?

1. Draw the sketch of spray dryer and explain its working
2. Give a detailed account on classification of Mechanical separation Processes.
3. A 50 kg bath of granular solids containing 25 % moisture is to be dried in a tray
dryer to 12% moisture by passing a stream of air at 363 K tangentially across its
surface at a velocity of 1.8 m/s. If the constant rate of drying under these condition
is 0.0008 kg moisture / m2.s and the critical moisture content is 10 %, calculate
the drying time. The surface area available for drying is 1.0 m2.
4. Explain in detail about the various types of Centrifuges.
5. Detail the working of a fluidized bed dryer with necessary sketches.
6. Write in detail about
a. Continuous rotary drum filter.
b. Equipments for Settling and Sedimentation.
7. Explain the working principle of Plate and flame filter press with neat sketch.
Give its Advantages and Disadvantages.
8. Explain briefly about settling? Explain Laboratory Batch settling with neat sketch.
9. Calculate the Specific resistance of the Cake () and the Resistance of the Filter
medium (Rm) on the basis of the following experimental data for a Constant
pressure filtration of a Suspension of incompressible Solids of concentration 30kg
/ m3 on a Filter medium of area 1 m2. The Pressure drop was 2 bar. The Viscosity
of the Filtrate is 1.1 x 10-3 kg / m.s
Volume of Filtrate
2.0 4 6 8 10.0
V(m3) x 10-3
Time (t), sec 23 60 114 184 270

10. A filtration test was carried out, with particular product slurry, on a laboratory filter
press under a constant pressure of 340 kPa and volumes of filtrate were collected as
Filtrate volume (kg) 20 40 60 80
Time (min) 8 26 54.5 93
The area of the laboratory filter was 0.186 m . In a plant scale filter, it is desired to
filter a slurry containing the same material, but at 50% greater concentration than that
used for the test, and under a pressure of 270 kPa. Estimate the quantity of filtrate that
would pass through in 1 hour if the area of the filter is 9.3 m2.