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1668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO.

5, MAY 2011

Ground Plane Boosters as a Compact Antenna


Technology for Wireless Handheld Devices
Aurora Andjar, Student Member, IEEE, Jaume Anguera, Senior Member, IEEE, and Carles Puente, Member, IEEE

AbstractThe increasing demand for multifunctional wireless since it has to provide multi-band operation while dealing with
devices has fostered the need to reduce the space devoted to the the constraints associated to physical limitations. On one hand,
antenna in order to favor the integration of multiple and new small size antennas are required for allowing the integration of
functionalities. This fact becomes a challenge for the handset
other components in the phone platform, such as big displays
antenna designers who have to develop antennas capable of pro-
viding multi-band operation constrained by physical limitations. enabling touch screens, cameras, batteries, speakers, etc. On the
This proposal consists in a radiating system capable of providing other hand, a low profile and low weight design is preferable
multi-band operation without the need of an antenna element, by in order to ensure slim multifunctional platforms. Nowadays,
properly exciting the efficient radiation modes associated to the internal antennas such as patch/PIFAs (planar inverted F An-
ground plane structure. In this sense, the typical volume devoted tenna) and monopoles are the most common designs for hand-
to a handset antenna is reduced by a factor of 20. The electrical
sets [1]. Nevertheless, they are constrained by the fundamental
model approximation of the radiating structure leads to the ra-
diofrequency system design able to provide multi-band operation. limits of small antennas that imply an inherently narrow band-
The feasibility of the proposal has been tested by electromagnetic width (BW) [2]. For PIFAs, several well-known techniques are
simulations as well as by experimental measurements regarding used to provide dual-band or multi-band operation such as in-
the main antenna parameters: reflection coefficient, efficiency, serting slits in the radiating path or using slotted ground planes.
and radiation patterns. Furthermore, the human head interaction This fact increases the complexity of the design and difficult the
concerning biological compatibility in terms of SAR (Specific
integration in slim platforms, since to guarantee good perfor-
absorption rate) has been measured and a solution for its reduc-
tion is presented. As a result, a promising standard solution for a mance, the antenna has to be arranged at a certain height with
radiating system capable to operate in the main communication respect to the ground plane occupying a considerable volume
standards GSM850, GSM900, DCS, PCS and UMTS is provided ( mm ). Handset monopole antennas are an alternative
with a volume reduction factor around 20. to provide multi-band operation in slim platforms mainly due to
Index TermsCoupling element, electrical models, ground its characteristic low profile [3][5].
plane modes, handset antennas, low-volume antenna, multi-band, Until relatively recently, the efforts on the antenna design
non-resonant antennas. were mainly addressed to the antenna geometry and not to the
ground plane, since its relevance in the radiation process was un-
derestimated. Accordingly, the antenna element was typically
I. INTRODUCTION a self-resonant element that provided an efficient radiation in-
dependently from the ground plane structure. Nevertheless, the
HE primary handset phones initially conceived with a lim-
T ited number of functionalities have evolved to a novel con-
cept of multifunctional wireless devices or smart phones, which
ground plane is progressively acquiring relevance since several
studies have demonstrated its strong contribution to the radia-
tion properties [6][21]. In this way, the study presented in [6],
must integrate a great number of services in a limited space in
proposes an equivalent circuit model that provides a quantita-
order to satisfy the user demands. Furthermore, new frequency
tive view of the effect of the combination of a single-resonant
bands appear for allocating new communication standards for
antenna and chassis over the most significant antenna parame-
which the antenna has to guarantee operability. In this sense,
ters. The theoretical effect of the coupling factor and the reso-
the antenna design becomes more and more a challenging effort
nant frequencies is demonstrated through simulation regarding
self-resonant antennas such as patch antennas and PIFA an-
Manuscript received June 14, 2010; revised October 13, 2010; accepted Oc- tennas. At the same time, [7] presents a folded radiating ground
tober 16, 2010. Date of publication March 03, 2011; date of current version May
04, 2011. This work was supported by the ACC1.
plane fed with a bowtie-shaped planar monopole specially se-
A. Andjar is with the Technology and Intellectual Property Rights lected to properly excite the desired ground plane modes. How-
Department, FRACTUS S.A., 08174 Barcelona, Spain (e-mail: aurora.an- ever, the folded ground plane can be understood as a PIFA an-
dujar@fractus.com).
J. Anguera is with the Technology and Intellectual Property Rights Depart-
tenna over a finite ground plane (100 mm 40 mm) with signif-
ment, FRACTUS S.A., 08174 Barcelona, Spain and also with the Electronics icant physical dimensions (49.5 mm 35 mm 10 mm), which
and Telecommunications Department, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, are too large for practical purposes in modern handheld wireless
Spain (e-mail: jaume.anguera@fractus.com).
C. Puente is with the Technology and Intellectual Property Rights De-
devices. Again the radiation becomes a combination of the PIFA
partment, FRACTUS S.A., 08174 Barcelona, Spain and also with the Signal antenna and the ground plane modes. In the present study, the
Theory and Communications Department, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, efficient radiation is entirely provided by the proper excitation
Barcelona, Spain. of the ground plane modes since no antenna is regarded.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. In [8], resonant elements are used for simultaneous tuning
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2011.2122299 of two different ground plane modes. On one hand, the reso-
0018-926X/$26.00 2011 IEEE
ANDJAR et al.: GROUND PLANE BOOSTERS AS A COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY FOR WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES 1669

nance of the first ground plane mode is adjusted by strategi-


cally loading the ground plane with a resonant screen acting
as a quarter-wave slot resonator for the DCS and PCS bands.
In this sense an electrical enlargement of the ground plane is
achieved for the low frequency region (0.840.96 GHz). On the
other hand, the resonant frequency at the high frequency region
(1.712.17 GHz) is obtained by reducing the electrical length
of the chassis for this frequency region. Similar proposals are
found in [9][14] where a slot is used for tuning the resonant
mode to lower frequencies by providing a longer current path,
whereas in [15] the resonant mode is tuned to the high fre-
quency region. At the same time, in [16] a distributed antenna
system is proposed for enhancing the radiation efficiency of the
ground plane mode while providing robustness to the perfor-
mance degradation caused by the human interaction.
Regarding [17], two antenna structures based on coupling el- Fig. 1. Eigenvalues (1) and modal significance versus frequency associated
to the first and second predominant modes ( and  ) regarding a PCB with
ements designed to transfer energy to the ground plane mode 2
dimensions 100 mm 40 mm. Current distribution (A/m) at the frequency of
are presented. They are intended for covering the communica- f = 892 MHz provided by the first radiation mode J .

tion standards GSM900 and GSM1800 separately by means of a


single-resonant matching circuit based on distributed matching
elements. Other reference based on coupling elements is given II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
in [18] where an antenna structure consisting in two coupling Characteristic modes theory [22][24] becomes a useful tool
elements and two resonant circuits is proposed. The proposal to understand the ground plane contribution and can be used to
achieves a quad-band behavior. Nevertheless, the coupling ele- perform systematic analysis and design of handset antennas.
ments presented for covering each frequency region (624 mm They are described as the electrical current eigenfunctions
and 64 mm respectively), and specially that in charge of pro- linked to the boundary conditions established by an arbitrary
viding operability in the low frequency region, still presents shaped conducting body. Thus, they provide a physical insight
a considerable volume compared with the 250 mm disclosed into the radiation properties of a specific radiating structure
herein for providing penta-band operation. In [19], the penta- and are only dependent on the shape and size of the conducting
band behavior is achieved by means of two small antenna el- object. Accordingly, the behavior of the radiating structure can
ements and two matching networks capable to provide multi- be described as a combination of the radiation and impedance
band operation at each frequency region. characteristics of the wave modes associated to the antenna
Accordingly, in the present study the self-resonant antenna element and the phone chassis.
element is replaced by non-resonant ground plane boosters. In In this sense, once the shape of the radiating structure is deter-
this sense, a challenge appears since the ground plane resonance mined, the radiation modes can be computed and the optimum
is not coupled to the antenna resonance. Thus, the present re- feeding configuration can be selected in order to correctly excite
search is focused on providing a multi-band wireless handheld the desired radiation mode [25].
device architecture based on the proper excitation of the ground A predominant longitudinal mode is provided by a conven-
plane without the need of an antenna element [20], [21]. This tional ground plane layer with typical handset dimensions (100
paper demonstrates that no handset antenna is required for effec- mm 40 mm) in the operation range (Fig. 1), which is perfectly
tively exciting the radiation modes of the ground plane. On the aligned with the results shown in [26]. From (Fig. 1) it is pos-
contrary, the novel architecture introduced here only requires sible to determine that a mode is in resonance when its associ-
small ground plane boosters featured by a high quality factor ated eigenvalue is zero. At the same time, the smaller the mag-
( for the low frequency region and for nitude of the eigenvalue, the higher the contribution to the total
the high frequency region) and extremely poor stand-alone ra- surface current density. In addition, the sign of the eigenvalue
diation properties in combination with a matching network for determines whether the mode contributes to store magnetic en-
providing simultaneous operability in the main communication ergy or electric energy . It is important to
standards (GSM850/900, DCS, PCS, and UMTS). notice that the modal significance of the eigenvalue predom-
The paper is structured in the following manner: firstly, the inates in the entire frequency range of interest.
characteristic modes theory as a base of this study is briefly In the low frequency region, the ground plane is featured by
reviewed in Section II. Subsequently, the radiating system a longitudinal radiation mode characterized by a low quality
comprising both the radiating structure electrical model and factor provided by its resonant dimensions at this frequency
the matching network design is presented in Section III. Sec- range (Fig. 1). If a self-resonant antenna element is used, the
ondly, the proposal is evaluated through simulations using the radiation becomes a combination of the wave mode associated
software IE3D based on MoM (Section IV). In a third stage, a the antenna element and said longitudinal radiation mode. Con-
prototype is built for the sake of validating the simulations with sequently, the resulting radiation strongly depends on the effi-
the experimental results (Section V). Finally the conclusions 1Note that  in Section II is defined as the eigenvalue and must not be con-
are disclosed (Section VI). fused with the wavelength.
1670 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 5, MAY 2011

Fig. 2. Geometry and dimensions associated to the radiating structure com-


prising two non-resonant ground plane boosters located at a 2 mm distance from
the ground plane edge, each one in charge of the ground plane excitation for
each frequency region. Current distribution referred to the excited ground plane Fig. 3. Q and related BW versus frequency referred to the radiating struc-
mode at f = 0:892 GHz. ture.

ciency of the radiation mode provided by the antenna element However, the proper excitation of the predominant mode is
if the ground plane mode is not correctly excited. In this sense, not enough for providing penta-band behavior and a matching
the main idea of this proposal consists in maximizing the en- network is required in order to guarantee operability in the
ergy transfer to the efficient radiation mode of the ground plane aforementioned communication standards.
by means of a non-resonant ground plane booster with a high In this sense, two non-resonant ground plane boosters are
around 2250 for the low frequency region and 265 for the high preferable in order to match each one to each one of the fre-
frequency region. This non-resonant element merely acts as a quency regions of interest. Hereafter, the radiating structure and
ground plane booster for both frequency regions. the matching network as a whole will constitute the radiating
system.
III. CONCEPT DEFINITION
B. Matching Network Design
A. Electrical Model of the Radiating Structure
The excitation of the radiation modes of the ground plane can The input impedance associated to the radiating structure
be made either via its magnetic or electrical fields. The suit- presents a capacitive behavior regarding the whole frequency
able location of the non-resonant ground plane booster is only range (0.83 GHz). The of the structure (Fig. 3) and its in-
dependent of the fields distribution associated to the radiation herent BW can be calculated from its input impedance
modes. The predominant mode of the proposed radiating struc- according to (1) and (2) derived in [27].
ture presents a current distribution (Fig. 2) similar to that pro- The for referred to the central frequency of
duced by a thick dipole, having its maximum at the center both operation regions is around 8.9% and 11.6% respectively
of the ground plane not only for the low frequency region but (Fig. 3), which is not enough for covering the bandwidth asso-
also for the high frequency region. In this sense and in order to ciated to the GSM850/900 (15.2%), DCS/PCS/UMTS (23.7%)
correctly excite the mode, an electric element should be located communication standards
at the shorter edge of the ground plane where the maximum of
the electric field distribution takes place.
Accordingly, the radiating structure is designed following
these considerations and high radiation efficiency around (1)
80% is attained at both frequency regions. In this regard, the
radiating structure comprises two non-resonant ground plane
boosters featured by their reduced dimensions of just 5 mm 5 (2)
mm 5 mm, which entails a very low volume (125 mm ), and
a ground plane (100 mm 40 mm) (Fig. 2). A systematic method for broadening the of RLC cir-
Said non-resonant ground plane boosters characterized by a cuits in a factor around one half of Fanos limit [28] is proposed
high (2250 for the low frequency region and 265 for the high in [29] for parallel RLC circuits and in [30] for circuits featuring
frequency region) are used to couple energy to the ground plane RLC series input impedances. Thus, before applying the method
in order to correctly excite the predominant radiation modes of a previous step is required. A series inductor is used to compen-
the ground plane [20], [21]. Thus, the ground plane acts as a sate the capacitive reactance of the radiating structure. In this
main radiator taking profit of its high radiation efficiency for a sense, the input impedance can be modeled as an RLC series
wide range of frequencies (Fig. 1), concerning both the low and circuit and the broadband mechanism developed in [30] can be
high frequency regions. applied.
ANDJAR et al.: GROUND PLANE BOOSTERS AS A COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY FOR WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES 1671

time, the value of can be easily obtained substituting (8)


into (3)

(8)

(9)

Where and are computed according to (10) and (11),


respectively

(10)

(11)

Theoretically, the obtained with the addition of the pro-


posed broadband matching network can be defined according to
(12) as

Fig. 4. (a) Equivalent circuit regarding the input impedance referred to the radi- (12)
ating structure, the reactance cancellation (series inductor (L )) stage and the
broadband matching network. (b) Condition required for achieving a BW en-
hancement around one half of Fanos limit. The enhancement factor is calculated as the ratio between
the inherent of the structure and the potential that
can be achieved with the addition of the two stages matching
Accordingly and in order to achieve the enhanced bandwidth network. In this sense, is defined as
, a parallel capacitor and inductor is used as a broadband
matching network. (13)
The proper values of these reactances are readily obtained
through an accurate mathematical analysis developed using the The enhancement factor given by (13) presents the same
associated electrical model (Fig. 4). The suitable values, that shape as that given by the Fanos limit for an ideal network.
provide the expected , are those that satisfy the condition However, the obtained in this case is not as high since
represented graphically in Fig. 4 and defined mathematically in lesser number of components is used. Equation (13) allows
(5), (6), and (7). determining the theoretical that can be achieved. In this
The imaginary and real part of the input admittance (Fig. 4) sense and as given by Fig. 3, the inherent equal to 8.9%
is and 11.6% regarding low and high frequency region respec-
tively, can be enhanced in a factor 2.45 for (13),
(3) for each frequency region, which is enough for covering the
communication standards GSM850/900/DCS/PCS and UMTS.
(4) As aforementioned, two non-resonant ground plane boosters
are proposed in order to provide penta-band behavior. In this
sense, each booster is matched separately since one is used to
It is important to note that if the imaginary part of the input
provide operability in the low frequency region while the other
admittance is equated to 0, three resonant frequencies appear
is in charge of the high frequency region. Thus, the value of
( , and ). In order to maximize the BW, the input
the series inductor is adjusted for tuning the resonance of the
impedance locus has to be forced to fulfill the following
radiating structure at a frequency belonging on one hand to the
requirements that will condition the and values
low frequency region (Fig. 5(a)) and on the other hand to the
(Fig. 4)
high frequency region (Fig. 5(b)), according to [20], [21].
The addition of this reactance cancellation inductor tunes the
(5)
resonant frequency whereas the broadband matching network
(6) allows tuning the impedance locus at the centre of the Smith
chart (Fig. 6) providing the expected (Fig. 7).
(7)
IV. MULTI-BAND DESIGN: SIMULATED RESULTS
The first solution to (3) gives in a straightforward manner Previous section demonstrates the feasibility of providing op-
the relationship required between and (8). At the same erability in both frequency regions separately. This section goes
1672 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 5, MAY 2011

Fig. 7. Reflection coefficient associated to the radiating structure without any


components (dashed line). Reflection coefficient associated to the schematic
shown in (Fig. 5(a)) designed for covering the low frequency region (solid line
with square markers). Reflection coefficient associated to the schematic shown
in (Fig. 5(b)) designed for covering the high frequency region (solid line with
triangular markers).

Fig. 5. (a) Reactance cancellation and broadband matching network required


for the low frequency region. (b) Reactance cancellation and broadband
matching network required for the high frequency region. The one-port box
corresponds to the simulated impedance of the radiating structure.

Fig. 6. (a) Impedance associated to the radiating structure (triangular markers).


Impedance after the addition of the series inductor as a reactance cancellation
element for the low frequency region (square markers). Impedance according
with the schematic shown in (Fig. 5(a)) (rhombus marker). (b) The same se-
quence but regarding the high frequency region (Fig. 5(b)).

beyond and proposes a matching architecture suitable to attain


penta-band behavior simultaneously using a single input/output
port [21]. Fig. 8. (a) Radiating system designed for achieving a penta-band behavior con-
Besides the reactance cancellation element and the broadband sisting in a reactance cancellation element, a broadband matching network, and
a notch filter for each frequency region. Note that the first stage of the notch
matching network, the radiating system also comprises a notch filter and the broadband matching network can be simplified using only two
filter for the low frequency region as well as for the high fre- components. The two-port box is the simulated input impedance of the radiating
quency region. structure shown in Fig. 2. (b) Detailed view of the radiating structure obtained
from the simulated layout comprising two non-resonant ground plane boosters
The integration of the notch filters provides high isolation 2 2
with dimensions 5 mm 5 mm 5 mm, and a ground plane with dimension
between both frequency regions, which is preferable in order to 2
100 mm 40 mm. The ground plane boosters are located at a 2 mm distance
avoid coupling effects that would difficult the matching network from the edge of the ground plane.
process (Fig. 8).
The isolation achieved allows applying the matching network
principle proposed in Section III.B. This systematic network non-resonant ground plane boosters featuring capacitive input
design provides a standard solution for matching all those impedance.
ANDJAR et al.: GROUND PLANE BOOSTERS AS A COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY FOR WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES 1673

Fig. 9. Reflection coefficient associated to the schematic shown in Fig. 5(a) Fig. 11. Reflection coefficient to provide penta-band operation simultaneously
(dashed line with square markers) and in Fig. 5(b) (dashed line with triangular achieved with the radiating system proposed in Fig. 8 (solid line). Reflection
markers) for providing operability in both frequency regions separately. Reflec- coefficient associated to the same radiating structure as shown in Fig. 8(b) but
tion coefficient to provide penta-band operation simultaneously achieved with with the difference that the size of the ground plane boosters (previously 5
the radiating system proposed in Fig. 8 (solid line). 2 2 2
mm 5 mm 5 mm) has been reduced to only 3 mm 3 mm 3 mm (dashed 2
line). The topology of the radiofrequency system remains equal as disclosed in
Fig. 8(a), whereas the values of the reactive components have been adjusted.

Fig. 12. Single-band prototype including the reactance cancellation inductor


Fig. 10. Radiation efficiency ( ), antenna efficiency ( ) and current distri- and the broadband matching network.
bution associated to the radiating structure at the central frequencies of both
frequency regions (f = 0:89 and f = 1:94 GHz). The antenna efficiency takes
into account the mismatch losses since it is defined as  =  (1 0j jS ).
been built and tested for the sake of demonstrating the ef-
fectiveness of the proposal. On one hand, a ground plane
The topology remains equal and just the component values (100 mm 40 mm) is etched over a 1 mm thickness FR4 piece
are modified according to the frequency of operation. Thus, ( and tan ) and several pads are arranged
the simulated analysis demonstrates the feasibility of the pro- in the upper side of the long edge in order to facilitate the
posal since the designed radiating system provides operability in integration of the matching network components. On the other
the main communication standards such as GSM850/900, DCS, hand, a non-resonant ground plane booster featured by its low
PCS, and UMTS (Figs. 9 and 10). physical dimensions (solid cube of 5 mm 5 mm 5 mm
It is important to remark the relevance of the ground plane made of brass) is soldered at a 2 mm distance from the edge of
boosters since their nature, location, and size clearly con- the ground plane layer (Fig. 12).
ditions the correct excitation of the ground plane mode and The radiating system consisting in a single element provides
consequently, the performance of the radiating system. In operability in a specific frequency region and consequently no
this sense, if the size of the ground plane boosters is reduced filter is required.
from 5 mm 5 mm 5 mm to 3 mm 3 mm 3 mm, the However, the challenge of the proposal lies in achieving a
radiating system limits the frequency range of operation from penta-band behavior and for this reason a prototype integrating
a penta-band radiating system to a tri-band radiating system two non-resonant ground plane boosters featuring the same
(GSM900/PCS/UMTS) (Fig. 11), still becoming encouraging characteristics previously described have been manufactured
results taking into account the reduced volume of the ground (Fig. 13).
plane boosters used (54 mm ). The radiofrequency system comprises the reactance can-
cellation elements, the broadband matching networks, the
V. MULTI-BAND DESIGN: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS filtering stages and a transmission line that interconnects both
The previous simulated results are validated through an non-resonant ground plane boosters in order to provide a single
experimental procedure. Accordingly, several prototypes have port system. In this configuration (Fig. 13) the radiofrequency
1674 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 5, MAY 2011

Fig. 15. Radiation efficiency ( ) and antenna efficiency ( ) related to the


penta-band prototype (Fig. 13). The antenna efficiency takes into account the
mismatch losses since  =  (1 0j jS ).

Fig. 13. Penta-band prototype designed according to the schematic shown in


Fig. 8 including besides the reactance cancellation inductor and the broadband
matching network, the notch filters required for providing isolation between
both frequency regions.

Fig. 16. Set-up for radiation measurement in the Fractus anechoic chamber
Satimo Stargate-32 showing the coordinate system.

The antenna efficiency has been measured by integration of


the 3D radiation pattern by means of the anechoic chamber
Satimo Stargate-32 (Fig. 15). Regarding the high frequency re-
gion, the reduction in the antenna efficiency with respect to the
simulated case is negligible since it remains around the 70%
for all the frequency range. However, in the low frequency re-
gion the difference between the simulated results and the mea-
Fig. 14. Reflection coefficient related to the penta-band prototype (Fig. 13). sured ones becomes significant (the simulated values around
70% drop to approximately 40% in the measured case). This
reduction is mainly due to the fact that in the simulated case
system occupy a certain space in the PCB. However, such inte- the matching network components are considered to be lossless.
gration can be further improved to minimize it. With this aim, However, in practice they present a value which is smaller for
the soldering pads can be arranged parallel to the shorter edge the low frequency region than for the high frequency region. In
of the PCB diminishing not only the required PCB space but this sense, their effect becomes more significant in the low fre-
also the transmission line length. Furthermore, it is important to quency region. Nevertheless, this antenna efficiency value is still
remark that lumped components can be arranged in a reduced acceptable for mobile communications [31][34].
space according to current soldering techniques.
In order to completely characterize the radiating perfor- B. Radiation Patterns
mance of the proposed prototype the main antenna parameters
As aforementioned, the radiation patterns have been also
have been measured and they are gathered in the following
measured using the anechoic chamber Satimo Stargate-32
subsections.
located in the Fractus lab (Fig. 16).
The main cuts normalized to the maximum gain (
A. Reflection Coefficient and Efficiency
and ) are obtained for the frequencies ( MHz,
A network analyzer has been used for measuring the reflec- MHz, MHz). They show an omnidirectional
tion coefficient associated to the penta-band prototype shown behavior for both frequency regions (Fig. 17), which is desirable
in Fig. 13. As expected, the proposed radiating system is able for a handset antenna.
to provide operability in the main communication standards The radiation is associated to that produced by a conventional
(GSM850/900/DCS/PCS/UMTS) since the reflection coeffi- dipole antenna having a null in the y-axis, especially in the low
cient remains below dB for both operating frequency region. The gain is computed regarding the antenna
regions (Fig. 14). As seen, the measured results (Fig. 14) are in efficiency. It means that, the losses introduced by the matching
good agreement with the simulations (Fig. 9). network as well as the mismatching losses are considered.
ANDJAR et al.: GROUND PLANE BOOSTERS AS A COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY FOR WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES 1675

Fig. 18. SAR measurements for the low frequency region at the specific fre-
quencies of f = 835 MHz and f = 900 MHz regarding both positions: left
(antenna up) and right (antenna down). Right cheek position is tested.

Fig. 17. Main cuts (Phi = 0 and Phi = 90 ) of the radiation pattern pro-
vided by the penta-band prototype (Fig. 13) measured at the frequencies of Fig. 19. SAR measurements for the high frequency region at the specific fre-
f = 900 MHz, f = 1800 MHz, and f = 2000 MHz. quencies of f = 1700 MHz, f = 1800 MHz, f = 1900 MHz and f = 2000
MHz regarding both positions: left (antenna up) and right (antenna down).

C. SAR Measurement
on the other hand, the prototype is rotated 180 (antenna down
Once the feasibility of the proposal is demonstrated, the bi- position).
ological compatibility of the prototype in terms of SAR is ana- Two main conclusions can be extracted from previous results
lyzed. (Figs. 18 and 19).
The SAR is a measure of the localized maximum value of On one hand, SAR values are strongly dependent not only
the power absorbed by the human head. It is defined as the ab- on the geometry and the distribution of the radiation mode ex-
sorbed RF energy by unity of volume, and its dimensions are cited in the ground plane but also on the way that other handset
mW/g. Due to the fact that this absorption is produced in the components are connected to the PCB. For instance, a plastic
near field, SAR can be computed from the electric near field ac- back-cover may absorb some radiated power decreasing as a
cording to (14), where , and are the human tissue effective consequence the SAR value.
conductivity and the tissue volumetric density, respectively On the other hand, as the excited mode presents a localized
maximum field value placed in the vicinity of the shorter ground
(14) plane edge at a certain distance from its center, the rotation
reduces considerably the SAR values for both frequency re-
In this sense the SAR values associated to the prototype under gions but in a significant way for the high frequency region. In
study (Fig. 13) have been measured using the DASY4 equip- this sense, at high frequencies the hot spot is located near the
ment located at Fractus Lab. The prototype is arranged in the non-resonant ground plane boosters. This fact produces higher
right cheek of the phantom head and the ground plane is spaced SAR values in the antenna up position mainly due to the prox-
apart 1 mm from it thanks to the use of a methacrylate piece. imity between such maximum field value and the human head.
For this location two different positions have been evaluated. Accordingly, the antenna down position considerable dimin-
On one hand, the non-resonant ground plane boosters are placed ishes these SAR values since in this context the hot spot is lo-
near the right ear of the phantom head (antenna up position) and cated at a larger distance from the human head. In the case of the
1676 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 5, MAY 2011

low frequency region the SAR values regarding both positions [10] J. Anguera, A. Cabedo, C. Picher, I. Sanz, M. Rib, and C. Puente,
are located below or close to the standards (American standard Multiband handset antennas by means of groundplane modification,
presented at the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Symp.,
(ANSI/IEEE): 1.6 mW/g (1 g) and European standard (ICNIRP) Honolulu, HI, June 2007.
2 mW/g (10 g)). However, for the high frequency region the an- [11] C. Picher, J. Anguera, A. Cabedo, C. Puente, and S. Kahng, Multiband
tenna down position is preferred. handset antenna using slots on the ground plane: Considerations to fa-
cilitate the integration of the feeding transmission line, Progr. Elec-
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[12] A. Cabedo, J. Anguera, C. Picher, M. Rib, and C. Puente, Multi-band
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ANDJAR et al.: GROUND PLANE BOOSTERS AS A COMPACT ANTENNA TECHNOLOGY FOR WIRELESS HANDHELD DEVICES 1677

Aurora Andjar (S11) was born in Barcelona, multiband and small antennas, broadband matching networks, diversity antenna
Spain, in 1984. She received the Bachelor degree systems, electromagnetic dosimetry, and handset antennas. From September
in telecommunication engineering (specializing 2003 to May 2004, he was with Fractus-Korea (Republic South of Korea)
in telecommunication systems), in 2005, and the were he was managing projects for miniature and multiband antennas for
Master degree in telecommunications engineering handset and wireless applications. Since 2005, he has been leading research
and the Master of Science in telecommunication projects in the antenna field for handset and wireless applications in a frame
engineering and management, both in 2007, from of Industry-University collaboration: Fractus company and the Department of
the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Electronics and Telecommunications of Universitat Ramon Llull-Barcelona,
Barcelona, Spain. Spain. He holds more than 30 invention patents in the antenna field. He is the
In 2005, she worked as a Software Test Engi- author of more than 120 journal, international, and national conference papers
neer for applications intended for handset wireless and he has directed more than 50 bachelor and master thesis.
devices. In 2006, she worked as an SW Engineer designing a load simulation Dr. Anguera was a member of the fractal team that received the 1998 Euro-
tool for testing digital campus in academic environments and developing pean Information Technology Grand Prize from the European Council for the
improvements in the performance of web servers referred to the management of Applied Science an Engineering and the European Commission for the fractal-
static and dynamics contents. Since 2007, she is working as an R&D Engineer shaped antenna application to cellular telephony. He was the 2003 Finalist to the
at Fractus, Barcelona, Spain where she has contributed to the maintenance and Best Doctoral Thesis Fractal and Broadband Techniques on Miniature, Multi-
growth of the patent portfolio of the company. She is also involved in several frequency, and High-Directivity Microstrip Patch Antennas on UMTS. The prize
projects in the field of small and multiband handset antenna design. Since has been promoted by Technology plan of UMTS promotion given by Tele-
2009, she is leading research projects in the antenna field for handheld wireless fnica Mviles Espaa. He was named a 2004 New faces of Engineering by
devices in the collaborative university-industry framework. She is doing her the IEEE and IEEE foundation. In the same year he received the Best Doc-
Ph.D. in the field of small and multiband antennas for handset and wireless toral Thesis (Ph.D.) in Network and BroadBand Services (XXIV Prize Edi-
devices. She has published more than 18 journals, international and national tion Ingenieros de Telecomunicacin) organized by Colegio Oficial de Inge-
conference papers. She has authored five invention patents in the antenna field. nieros de Telecomunicacin (COIT) and the Company ONO. He is reviewer for
Mrs. Andjar is member of the COIT (Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros de Tele- the IEEE TRANSACTION AND ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, IEEE ANTENNAS
comunicacin) and AEIT (Asociacin Espaola de Ingenieros de Telecomuni- AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, Progress in Electromagnetic Research
cacin). She was the recipient of a research fellowship in the field of electromag- (PIER), IEE Electronics Letters, and ETRI journal (Electronics and Telecommu-
netic compatibility from the Signal Theory and Communications Department, nications Research Institute, South Korea). His biography is listed in Whos Who
UPC, 20042005. in the World, Whos Who in Science and Engineering, Whos Who in Emerging
Leaders and in IBC (International Biographical Center, Cambridge-England).

Jaume Anguera (S99M03SM09) was born in


Vinars, Spain, in 1972. He received the Technical Carles Puente (M97) received the M.Sc. degree
Engineering degree in electronic systems and the from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
Engineering degree in electronic engineering, both in 1994 and the Ph.D. degree from the Universitat
from the Ramon Llull University (URL), Barcelona, Politcnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain,
Spain, in 1994 and 1998, respectively, and the En- in 1997.
gineering and Ph.D. degrees in telecommunication He is a co-founder of Fractus and leads its antenna
engineering, both from the Polytechnic University technology research team, with responsibility for the
of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona, in 1998 and 2003, companys intellectual property portfolio develop-
respectively. ment and antenna development. He is a Professor
From 1998 to 2000, he was with the Electromag- at UPC where he started researching fractal-shaped
netic and Photonic Engineering Group, Signal Theory and Communications antennas while a student in the late 1980s. From
Department, UPC, as a Researcher in microstrip fractal-shaped antennas. In 1994 to 1999, he worked with the faculty of Electromagnetic and Photonic
1999, he was a Researcher at Sistemas Radiantes, Madrid, Spain, where he Engineering, UPC, on pioneering developments of fractal technology applied
was involved in the design of a dual-frequency dual-polarized fractal-shaped to antennas and microwave devices. He has authored more than 50 invention
microstrip patch array for mobile communications. In the same year, he became patents and over 90 scientific publications in fractal and related antenna
an Assistant Professor at the Department of Electronics and Telecommuni- technologies.
cations, Universitat Ramon Llull-Barcelona, where he is currently teaching Dr. Puente was awarded with the Best Doctoral Thesis in Mobile Commu-
antenna theory. Since 1999, he has been with Fractus, Barcelona, Spain, nications by the COIT in 1997, the European Information Society Technology
where he holds the position of R&D Manager. At Fractus he leaded projects Grand Prize from the European Commission in 1998, and the Premi Ciutat de
on antennas for base station systems, antennas for automotion, and currently Barcelona in 1999. He and his team at Fractus were awarded with Technology
managing handset and wireless antennas. His current research interests are Pioneer distinction by the World Economic Forum, in 2005.