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Instrument and
15 applications and
Contents Section IV: Non-conventional methods of current
measurement 15/569
15.1 Introduction 15/531 15.11 Current Sensors 15/569
15.2 Types of transformers 15/531 15.11.1 Resistive shunts 15/569
15.2.1 Voltage transformers (VTs) 15/531 15.11.2 Hall effect current sensors 15/570
15.2.2 Current transformers (CTs) 15/531 15.11.3 Faraday effect optical sensors 15/570
15.3 Common features of a voltage and a current transformer 15/531 15.11.4 Zero flux current sensors 15/571
15.3.1 Design parameters 15/531 15.11.5 Rogowski coil current transducers 15/571
15.11.6 Digital optical instrument transformers 15/573
Section I: Voltage transformers 15/531
Relevant Standards 15/574
15.4 General specifications and design considerations for voltage
transformers (VTs) 15/531 List of formulae used 15/574
15.4.1 Instrument voltage transformers 15/531 Further Reading 15/575
15.4.2 Electromagnetic voltage transformers 15/534
15.4.3 Residual voltage transformers (RVTs) 15/534
15.4.4 Capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs) 15/538
15.4.5 Control transformers 15/540
15.4.6 Summary of specifications of a VT 15/543
15.5 Precautions to be observed while installing a voltage
transformer 15/543
Section II: Current transformers 15/544
15.6 Current transformers (CTs) 15/544
15.6.1 General specifications and design considerations for
current transformers 15/545
15.6.2 Measuring current transformers 15/549
15.6.3 Interposing current transformers 15/550
15.6.4 Summation current transformers 15/550
15.6.5 Protection current transformers 15/551
15.6.6 Special-purpose current transformers, type PS 15/553
15.6.7 Core-balanced current transformers (CBCTs) 15/563
15.7 Short-time rating and effect of momentary peak or dynamic
currents 15/563
15.8 Summary of specifications of a CT 15/564
15.9 Precautions to be observed when connecting a CT 15/564
Section III: Testing of instrument and control transformers 15/566
15.10 Test requirements 15/566
15.10.1 Voltage transformers 15/566
15.10.2 Current transformers 15/568
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/531

15.1 Introduction meet the requirements for a switchgear assembly, except

for small variations in the test requirements. For more
details refer to the following publications:
Transformers are used in an auxiliary circuit, linked to a
1 For voltage transformers
power circuit, to indicate, measure and control its voltages
IEC 60044-2 (for two-winding transformers such as
and currents. They find application in a switchgear or a
controlgear assembly and a switchyard. It would be
2 For current transformers
impracticable to produce indicating and measuring
IEC 60044-1 and IEC 60044-6
instruments or protective devices to operate at high to
very high voltages or currents. The universal practice,
therefore, is to transform the high voltages, say, 415 V
and above, and currents above 50 A to reasonably low SECTION I: VOLTAGE
values, as discussed later, for these applications. Indicating TRANSFORMERS
and measuring instruments and protective devices are
designed for these reduced values. The transformers used
to transform voltages are known as voltage transformers* 15.4 General specifications and
and those to transform currents as current transformers. design considerations for
Below we discuss their classifications, basic requirements voltage transformers (VTs)
and design parameters.
These transformers develop a voltage on the secondary,
substantially proportional to the voltage on the primary
15.2 Types of transformers (there being no knee point saturation, as is sometimes
required in CTs (Section 15.6.1(viii)).
15.2.1 Voltage transformers (VTs)
These may be classified as follows: 15.4.1 Instrument voltage transformers
1 Instrument voltage transformers
1 Rated primary voltage
(i) Conventional two-winding, electromagnetic
voltage transformers This will generally be the nominal system voltage, except
(ii) Residual voltage transformers (RVTs) and for transformers connected between a phase and the ground
(iii) Capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs). These or between the neutral and the ground, when the primary
may be used for metering or protection, with voltage will be considered as 1/ 3 times the nominal
very little difference between the two as noted systems voltage (Vr).
2 Control transformers 2 Rated secondary voltage
In Europe and Asian nations this is generally 110 or 110/
15.2.2 Current transformers (CTs) 3 V, (63.5 V) for phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground
auxiliary circuits respectively. In the USA and Canada
These may be classified as: these voltages are 120 or 120/ 3 V for distribution
1 Instrument current transformers systems and 115 or 115/ 3 V for transmission systems.
(i) Measuring current transformers
(ii) Protection current transformers and 3 Rated frequency
(iii) Special-purpose current transformers, class PS. This may be 50 or 60 Hz as the system may require. The
2 Interposing current transformers permissible variation may be considered as 2% for
3 Summation current transformers measuring as well as protection VTs. These limits are
4 Core balance current transformers (CBCTs) based on the recommended variations applicable for a
switchgear assembly (IEC 60439-1) or an electric motor
(Section 1.6.2).
15.3 Common features of a voltage
and a current transformer 4 Insulation systems
These transformers may be PVC taped, thermoplastic
15.3.1 Design parameters (service conditions (polypropylene) moulded, fibreglass taped, polyester resin
and likely deratings) cast or epoxy resin cast depending upon the system voltage
and the surroundings. HV indoor transformers, for instance,
These are similar to parameters for a switchgear assembly
are generally polyester or epoxy resin cast, and are
as discussed in Section 13.4. Since they are directly
economical with good dielectric properties. They are resistant
associated with the same power system and interrupting
to humid, chemically contaminated and hazardous areas.
devices as a switchgear assembly, they should generally
Outdoor HV transformers, however, may be epoxy resin
cast, oil or SF6 insulated and oil or SF6 cooled. Epoxy
insulation provides better mechanical and constructional
* Potential transformer (PT) is not the appropriate word to identify qualities. They are resistant to humid, contaminated and
an instrument voltage transformer. corrosive atmospheres and are suitable for all HV
15/532 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

systems. They are mechanically strong and can bear 9 Short-time rating
shocks and impacts. This is not material in voltage transformers, as neither
the voltage measuring instruments nor the protective relays
5 Creepage distances will carry any inrush current during a switching operation
For outdoor installations the recommended minimum or a fault. No short-time rating is thus assigned to such
creep distances for all types of voltage or current transformers.
transformers are given in Table 15.1, according to IEC The electromagnetic unit, however, as used in a residual
60044-1 or IEC 60044-2. VT (Section 15.4.3) or a capacitor VT (Section 15.4.4)
should be suitable for carrying the heavy discharge or
6 Tappings inrush currents during a capacitor discharge or switching
Tappings are generally not necessary, as a transformer is
designed for a particular voltage system. If and when
such a need arises (as in a control transformer (Section 10 Accuracy class
15.4.5)) they can be provided on the primary side of the The accuracy of a VT depends upon its leakage reactance
transformer. and the winding resistance. It determines the voltage
and the phase errors of a transformer and varies with the
7 Rated output VA on the secondary side. With the use of better core
material (for permeability) (Section 1.9) and better heat
The standard ratings, at 0.8 p.f. lagging, may be 10, 15,
dissipation, one can limit the excitation current and reduce
25, 30, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 or 500 VA or as
the error. A better core lamination can reduce the core
the auxiliary circuit may demand. The procedure to
size and improve heat dissipation.
determine the total VA burden of a circuit is described in
Section 15.4.5. Typical values of VA burden for a few Measuring voltage transformers Standard
instruments are given in Table 15.2 from data provided accuracy class may be one of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 or 3.
by the manufacturers. The recommended class of accuracy will depend upon
the type of metering and generally as noted in
8 Rated burden Table 15.3.
This is the maximum burden the transformer may have Protection voltage transformers Generally, a
to feed at a time. The preferred values will follow series measuring voltage transformer may also be used for
R-10 of ISO-3 (IEC 60059) and as noted in Section the purpose of protection. A protection transformer,
13.4.1(4). however, is assigned an accuracy class of 3 or 6, which
defines the highest permissible percentage voltage error
at any voltage between 5% of the rated voltage up to
the voltage obtained by multiplying the rated voltage
Table 15.1 Recommended values of minimum creepage by the rated voltage factor of 1.2, 1.5 or 1.9. And
distances for a VT or a CT when the secondary has a burden between 25% and
100% of the rated burden at a p.f. of 0.8 lagging. This
Pollution level Minimum creepage distance between phase accuracy class is followed by a letter P such as 3P
and ground mm per kV (r.m.s.) and 6P etc. The voltage and phase displacement errors
(phase to phase)
should not exceed the values noted in Table 15.6.
Light 16 Notes
Medium 20 1 A low voltage of 5%, at which the transformer is required to
Heavy 25 maintain its accuracy limit, is of great significance. A protection
Very Heavy 31

Table 15.3 Recommended class of accuracy for VTs for different

types of meters
Table 15.2 Typical values of VA burdens of instruments
Application Class of accuracy
Instruments Maximum burden
(VA) a 1 Precision testing or as a standard 0.1
VT for the testing of other VTs
1 Voltmeter 5 2 Meters of precision grade 0.5
2 Voltage coil of a watt-meter or a power 3 Commercial and Industrial meters 1.0
factor meter 5 4 Precision industrial meters (Indicating 0.2 or 0.5
3 Voltage coil of a frequency meter 7.5 instruments, recorders and electronic
4 Voltage coil of a kWh or a kVAr meter 7.5 integrating meters)
5 Recording voltmeters 5 5 General industrial measurements 1 or 3
6 Voltage coils of recording watt-meters and (Indicating instruments and recorders)
power factor meters 7.5 6 Purposes where the ratio is of less 3
7 Voltage coil of a synchroscope 15 importance
These VA burdens are for moving iron instruments. For electronic Note
meters these values would be of the order of 0.1 to 0.5 VA. To choose a higher class of accuracy than necessary is not desirable.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/533

transformer is required to operate under a fault condition, during Z1 Z 2

which the primary voltage may dip to a value as low as 5% of
the rated voltage. R1 X1 I1 I 2 R 2 X 2
2 It is possible to have two windings in the secondary circuit of
a VT when it is required to perform the functions of both I n
measurement and protection.

11 Rated voltage factor Z

This is the multiplying factor which, when applied to the V1 V1 V 2
rated primary voltage, will determine the maximum
Im Im
voltage at which the transformer will comply with the
thermal requirements for a specified time as well as with
the relevant accuracy requirements. This factor carries a
greater significance, particularly on a fault, when healthy
V1 Primary voltage
phases may experience an over-voltage and the protection
V1 Primary induced emf
VTs may all the more be required to accurately sense
this and activate the protective circuit. Such a situation V 2 Secondary induced emf referred to the primary side
may arise on a ground fault on an isolated neutral system (V2 being secondary induced emf not shown)
I n Excitation or no-load current
or a high impedance grounded system (Sections 20.6
and 21.7). Table 15.4, following IEC 60044-2, suggests Im Loss component of current supplying the hysteresis and eddy
current losses to the voltage transformer core (it is the active
the recommended voltage factors and their permissible component)
durations for different grounding conditions. I m Magnetizing component producing the flux f (it is the reactive
12 Circuit diagram R1 Primary circuit resistance
To illustrate the important features of a VT, let us analyse R 2 Secondary circuit resistance referred to the primary side
its equivalent circuit diagram. Refer to a simple diagram X1 Primary circuit reactance
as in Figure 15.1 which is drawn along similar lines to X 2 Secondary circuit reactance referred to the primary side
those for a motor (Section 1.10, Figure 1.15). For ease Z1 Primary circuit impedance
of analysis, the ratio of primary and secondary turns has Z 2 Secondary circuit impedance referred to the primary side
been considered as 1:1. Then from the circuit diagram, Z Load (burden) impedance
the following can be derived: Figure 15.1 Equivalent circuit diagram for a voltage transformer

V1 I1 ( R1 + X1) = V1 and

V1 I 2 ( R2 + X 2 ) = V2 K n V2* V1*
Voltage error = 100%
and this is drawn in the form of a phasor diagram V1*
(Figure 15.2). The phase displacement between phasors V1 where
and V2 is the phase displacement error d as discussed Kn = rated transformation ratio
later. V1 = actual primary voltage (r.m.s.)
V2 = actual secondary voltage (r.m.s.)
13 Voltage error or ratio error
This is the error in the transformed secondary voltage *
as generally caused by the excitation current I1, and as Only the r.m.s. values and not the phasor quantities are considered
shown in Figure 15.1. It is the variation in the to define the voltage error. The phase error is defined separately.
actual transformation ratio from the rated and is expressed Together they form the composite error. Refer to Table 15.5 for
by measuring and Table 15.6 for protection VTs.

Table 15.4 Rated voltage factors

Sr. no. Rated voltage factor Rated time Method of system grounding Method of primary connections

1 1.2 Continuous All types of system grounding (i) Between lines or

(ii) Between transformer
star point and ground
2 1.2 Continuous An effectively grounded system Between line and ground
3 1.5 30 seconds An effectively grounded system Between line and ground
4 1.2 Continuous An ineffectively grounded system Between line and ground
5 1.9 30 seconds An ineffectively grounded system Between line and ground
6 1.2 Continuous (i) An isolated neutral system or Between line and ground
(ii) A resonant grounded system
7 1.9 8 hours A resonant grounded system Between line and ground
15/534 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

I 2
V1 I 2 Z 2 V 2

I2 X
I 2 R
2 d V1

I 1Z 1
I Im


d = Phasor displacement error

Note The phasor diagram is drawn taking the applied voltage V1 as the reference phasor. It can also be drawn
taking the primary induced emf V1 as the reference. The logic to the diagram and the subsequent results shall
however, remain the same.

Figure 15.2 Phasor diagram for a voltage transformer

14 Phase displacement error, d errors at about 2% of the rated voltage, the limits of
This is the difference in phase between the primary and VA burden and p.f. remaining the same.
the secondary voltage phasors (d ). The direction of the
phasors are so chosen, that the angle is zero for a perfect 15.4.2 Electromagnetic voltage transformers
transformation. Refer to the phasor diagram, Figure 15.2,
and Table 15.5 for measuring and Table 15.6 for protection These are single-, double- or three-phase wound-type
VTs. transformers with windings on both primary and secondary
sides (Figures 15.3(a) and (b)).
15 Limits of voltage and phase displacement errors
At rated frequency, these should not exceed the values Application
given in Table 15.5 for measuring VTs, at any voltage They are used for both measuring and protection purposes.
between 80% and 120% of the rated voltage and a As a measuring VT, they are used to feed a voltmeter,
burden of 25100% of the rated burden at a p.f. 0.8 kW, kWh or a kVAr meter, a power factor, frequency
lagging. meter or a synchroscope. As a protection VT they are
For protection VTs these should not exceed the values used to feed a protective circuit, incorporating voltage
given in Table 15.6 at any voltage between 5% of the sensing protection relays. To save on cost and mounting
rated, up to the voltages obtained by multiplying the space, they may also be wound for one common primary
rated voltage by the rated voltage factor as in Table and two secondary windings, one for metering and the
15.4, and a burden between 25% and 100% of the other for protection. For markings, see Section 15.10.1(2)
rated load at a p.f. 0.8 lagging. At voltages lower than and Figure 15.35.
5% of the rated, the limits of error may increase
disproportionately and become up to twice the specified
15.4.3 Residual voltage transformers (RVTs)
When the primary of a three-phase two-winding
Table 15.5 Recommended limits of voltage and phase transformer, having its secondary wound for a three-
displacement errors, applicable for all types of measuring VTs phase open delta, is connected across an unbalanced supply
(only electromagnetic and capacitor VTs).
(A residual VT is basically a protection VT)
system, a residual voltage across the open delta will appear.
This is the principle on which this transformer is based
Class of accuracy % voltage (ratio) Phase displacement (d)
(Figure 15.4(a)). As discussed in Section 21.2.2, and
error a minutes illustrated in Figure 21.7, the phasor sum of all the three
line to ground voltages in a three-phase balanced system
0.1 0.1 5 is zero, i.e.
0.2 0.2 10
0.5 0.5 20
VR + VY + VB = 0
1.0 1.0 40 When this balance is disturbed, due to either an unbalance
3.0 3.0 Not specified in the loads or due to a ground fault, a residual or zero
phase sequence voltage in the neutral circuit will appear.
As in IEC-60044-2
When one of the phases in the secondary of a three-
These errors are valid only when the voltage is between 80% and phase transformer is open circuited and a three-phase
120%, burden 25100% of the rated burden and p.f., 0.8 lagging. supply is applied to its primary windings, there will appear
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/535

Transformers with HV fuse

Figure 15.3(a) Typical indoor epoxy resin cast instrument voltage transformers up to 11 kV (Courtesy: Kappa Electricals)

Table 15.6 Recommended limits of voltage and phase

displacement errors, applicable for all types of protection VTs
(electromagnetic, capacitor and residual VTs)

Class of accuracy % voltage (ratio) Phase displacement (d)

error a minutes

3P 3.0 120
6P 6.0 240

As per IEC-60044-2
These errors are valid only when the voltage is between 5% to
rated voltage factor 100%, burden 25100% of the rated burden,
and p.f., 0.8 lagging.
At voltages lower than 5%, the limits of error may increase. They
become up to twice the specified errors at about 2% of the rated
(b) 11 kV three-phase indoor
voltage, the limits of VA burden and p.f. remaining the same.
(a) 33 kV single-phase outdoor
Figure 15.3(b) Typical HV instrument voltage transformers Note
(Courtesy: Prayog Electricals) The choice of class 3P or 6P will depend upon the application and
the protection scheme of the system. The following may be considered
a residual or zero phase sequence voltage across the as a rule of thumb when making this choice.
open terminals at the secondary. This represents the
residual or the zero phase sequence voltage, whatever (i) Class 3P
may exist in the main supply system. This voltage will This class may be selected for protective devices that operate
be zero when the main primary system is balanced and on the basis of phase relationship between the voltage and the
current phasors, such as in a directional overcurrent protection,
healthy. reverse power or directional distance protection.
(ii) Class 6P
Important parameters This class may be selected for protective devices where their
operation does not depend upon the phase relationship between
1 Residual voltage The residual voltage appearing the voltage and the current phasors, such as for an over-
across the secondary windings will be three times the voltage, over-current or an under-voltage protection. For
zero sequence voltage, if it existed in the primary windings. instance, a residual VT should have this accuracy class.
This is due to an open magnetic circuit in the secondary (iii) When a residual VT is employed for capacitor discharges it
requires no accuracy class.
open delta winding having no return path through the
15/536 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

third magnetic limb. This phenomenon does not exist phasors in the open delta windings will be as illustrated
when three single-phase transformers are used, as each in Figure 15.5(a). The phasor sum of these phasors is
transformer core winding will form a closed magnetic zero. Therefore Ve = 0.
circuit of its own.
In a normal three-limb transformer the resultant flux, Ground fault on one phase
on a ground fault, of the two healthy lines limb will System neutral grounded
return through the transformer limb of the grounded line,
inducing a heavy short-circuit current in that winding. Consider a ground fault on phase R. The voltage across
This will induce a voltage which will be reflected in the this phase will become zero and the phasor diagram will
corresponding secondary winding, and the voltage across be as illustrated in Figure 15.5(b). The other two phasors
the open terminals of the delta will not be a true residual. will remain the same as in a healthy system and add to
This situation is overcome by providing a low reluctance give the residual voltage Ve, i.e.
return path, suitable for carrying the maximum value of
unbalanced flux without saturation. This is achieved by Ve = VT2 + VT2 + 2 VT VT cos 120
the use of a five-limb transformer (Figure 15.4(b)). The
two additional outer limb are left unwound. where VT is the phase voltage across the secondary
2 Residual voltages under different operating
conditions To extend the ease of application of this
= 2 VT2 VT2 = VT
device, consider the following circuit conditions to
determine the quantum of residual voltages: = 3 zero phase sequence voltage drop.
Healthy system: System neutral, grounded or The voltage across open delta is thus the same as the fall
ungrounded. in the voltage of the faulty phase. It will lead the current
Ground fault on one phase caused by the ground circuit impedance.
System neutral grounded
System neutral isolated
System neutral isolated
Healthy system When the system neutral is isolated, the voltage across
the faulty phase R will be the same as the ground potential
In this case, all the three phases would be balanced and and the ground potential will become equal to the phase
the residual voltage, Ve , will be zero. The three voltage voltage VT as illustrated in Figure 15.5(c). The voltage
across the healthy phases will become 3VT , i.e. 3
times more than the normal phase voltage. The phasors
VY and VB will thus be 60 apart than 120 and 180
from the primary.

\ Ve = ( 3VT ) 2 + ( 3VT ) 2 + 2 3VT 3VT cos 60

a1 b1 c1 = 3VT2 + 3VT2 + 3VT2
voltage = 3VT
b2 c2
i.e. three times the healthy phase voltage.
Figure 15.4(a) Connections of a residual voltage transformer
Important requirements
Grounding Based on the above, it is essential that
a1 b1 c1
the primary windings of the transformer have a
grounded neutral, without which no zero sequence
exciting current will flow through the primary
windings. Although the open delta will develop some
1 2 3 4 5 voltage on an unbalance in the primary, it will only
be the third harmonic component, as would be
contained by the primary windings magnetic flux
and not the zero sequence component.
Voltage factor Since this transformer may have to
perform under severe fault conditions, it should be
suitable for sustaining system switching surges as well
a2 b2 c2
as surges developed on a fault. A voltage factor as
high as 1.9 (Table 15.4) is generally prescribed for
these transformers.
Figure 15.4(b) A five-limb transformer to carry unbalanced flux Short-time duty When this transformer is required
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/537



N Primary VP VP
Primary VP winding B Y
3 VT R
R VT = 0
3 VT R Y B
30 30
V e = Vr+ V y + V b Tertiary

V T sin 30

VT sin 30
VT winding
Ve = 0

Tertiary V
V T sin 30 VT T
winding x B Y
2 V Ve = V T
= T Ve
B Y 2
Ve = 0 VT V e = V T2 + V T2 + 2V T V T cos 120
= VT
Figure 15.5(b) An RVT under ground fault on a 3-f four-wire
Figure 15.5(a) An RVT in a healthy system grounded neutral system



3 Vp B
3 Vp
VP V y b = 3V p
3 VP

3 Vp

winding 120
N N 3 Vp

R Y B Ve
b b

3 VT
3 VT


3 V T
a a
V e = 3 VT V e = V a b = ( 3V T ) 2 + ( 3V T ) 2 + 2 ( 3V T ) 2 cos60
= 3V T
3 Vs
3V s
3V s

winding V yb = 3 V s
R Y B 120
3 V s 3 V s
Figure 15.5(c) Ground fault on a 3-f, three-wire delta or 3-f, four-wire ungrounded star system
15/538 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

to discharge a charged capacitor bank it should be which is reasonably low compared to the high system
capable of withstanding heavy inrush discharge voltage. This helps restrict the phase error, on the one
currents (see below for its application). The following hand, and facilitates an economical intermediate wound
may be considered when designing a transformer for transformer Tr, on the other, to perform the same duty as
discharging purposes: a normal wound voltage transformer. The purpose of
line capacitors is thus to step-down the high to very high
1 The size of the capacitor banks, their voltage and system voltages to an economically low value. Through
the impedance of the capacitor circuit. the tapping point A is connected a conventional and a
2 Rate of discharge of the trapped charge. less expensive wound-type intermediate or auxiliary
3 The temperature of the primary windings after the voltage transformer Tr, rated for the intermediate voltage
discharge. V1 in association with a reactor L (Figure 15.6(b)). The
4 The magnitude of electrodynamic forces on the use of the reactor is to almost offset the heavy capacitive
primary windings, which may be developed by voltage component. If possible, the reactor and the
the discharge currents. transformer may be combined in one unit to make it
Applications They may be used to carry out the easier to operate. The secondary of the transformer is
following functions: rated for the required standard voltage, say, 110/ 3 (63.5
V), to feed the auxiliary devices and components fitted
1 To detect a ground fault or operate a directional in the auxiliary circuit.
ground fault relay (Section 21.6.4). The inductive reactance of the combined transformer
2 To operate a neutral displacement relay (Figures and the reactor is chosen so that it will balance the
26.4 and 26.9). capacitive reactance of the line capacitors at the rated
3 To detect an unbalance in a three-phase normally frequency and thus achieve a near-resonant circuit. Since
balanced capacitor bank (Section 26.1.1(8)). a frequency variation may cause a de-tuning of the resonant
4 To discharge a charged capacitor bank over a very circuit, tappings are generally provided on the intermediate
short period, particularly when a fully charged voltage transformer to facilitate adjustment of the circuit
capacitor is interrupted. See also Section 25.7. reactance at different frequencies, to achieve a near-
5 To discharge an interrupted HV circuit before a resonant condition even on other frequencies. There is a
reclosing. An HV system, say, a transmission line voltage drop across both the capacitor units VC and the
or a cable when interrupted, develops high transient reactor VL. Figure 15.7 illustrates a simple equivalent
voltages as discussed in Sections 23.5.1 and 20.1. circuit for the CVT of Figure 15.6(b) for more clarity.
Unless these transients are damped to a reasonably These voltage drops, being 180 out of phase, are
low level so that they are not able to endanger the detrimental in influencing and adding to the phase error
terminal equipment and devices on an automatic of the intermediate voltage transformer Tr. At higher
reclosing, the equipment and devices installed in
frequencies, the summation of these voltages ( VC + VL )
the system may become damaged due to the
resulting switching transients. The normal practice may become very high and cause high phase errors, leading
to deal with this is to damp the transients through to erratic behaviour of the instruments, devices and
an electromagnetic transformer such as this. The components connected on the secondary of the
transformer, however, may have to be designed intermediate voltage transformer. It is therefore, imperative
for such a duty to sustain the electrostatic stresses that these voltage drops be contained as low as possible,
arising from such transients, the discharge time on the one hand, and must offset each other, i.e. ( VC + VL )
and impedance of the interrupting circuit up to the  0, on the other, to remain almost ineffective even at
transformer. higher frequency variations, in influencing the phase error
of the intermediate VT.
15.4.4 Capacitor voltage transformers (CVTs) Frequency variations are usually caused on a fault or
a switching operation (Sections 20.1 and 23.5.1) and
This type of voltage transformer is normally meant for a also during the changeover of the tapping of the
high to an ultra-high voltage system, say, 110 kV and above. intermediate VT or the reactor. When the voltage drops
While a conventional wound-type (electromagnetic) voltage VC and VL are not large enough compared to V1, the content
transformer will always be the first choice, it may become of phase error is contained. An intermediate voltage of
costlier and highly uneconomical at such voltages. almost 1224 kV is found to be realistic in restricting
The size and therefore the cost of a conventionally the voltage drops across C and L, to a reasonably low
wound voltage transformer will be almost proportional value compared to V during normal operation. Further,
to the system voltage for which it is wound. As a cost it is essential to offset the reactances XC and XL through
consideration, therefore, a more economical alternative a variable reactor to achieve a near-resonant circuit when
is found in a capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) (Figure the CVT is in service. This makes the whole system
15.6(a)). behave like a normally wound VT in terms of its rating
A CVT consists of a capacitor divider unit in which a and class of accuracy for both metering and protection
primary capacitor C1 and a secondary capacitor C2 are purposes. The same error limits will apply as for a normal
connected in parallel between the line and the ground VT (Tables 15.5 and 15.6). The output for a given accuracy
(Figure 15.6(b)). A tapping at point A is provided at an is dependent on the range of frequency variation over
intermediate voltage V1, usually around 12 to 24 kV, which the voltage transformer is required to operate.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/539

Primary voltage
EHV line

V Line voltage
V1 Intermediate voltage
= V
C1 + C 2
C1 Primary line capacitance
Capacitor C2 Secondary line capacitance
divider unit L Variable tuning inductance
SA Surge suppressor
Z Load (burden) impedance
voltage terminal R Damping resistor to prevent
ferro-resonance effects
A Tr Conventionally wound
intermediate VT
(electromagnetic unit, EMU)

C2 1S11S2
2S12S2 Secondary tappings
V  / 3



V1/3 1S2

L 2S2

3S2 voltage

SA 110 V
3 Secondary
R voltage

Figure 15.6(a) Capacitor voltage

transformer (CVT) rated voltage Low voltage or ground terminal G G
36420 kV and above (Courtesy:
ABB) Figure 15.6(b) Schematic diagram of a basic capacitor voltage transformer (CVT)

Note by inserting a damping resistance R in the EMU circuit, as illustrated

Ferro-resonance: This phenomenon may occur in an isolated in Figure 15.6(b).
neutral system employing a CVT, similar to an RVT (Section
20.2.1(2)). The core of the non-linear electromagnetic unit (EMU)
may saturate momentarily during a ground fault or even during a Application
healthy operation, under certain circuit conditions. For instance,
low-frequency transients or a fault on the secondary side may A CVT may be used to carry out the following functions:
cause momentary saturation of the magnetic core of the EMU, 1 To measure as well as protect a high-voltage system,
which may, in turn, resonate with the ground capacitive reactances
Xcg and give rise to sub-harmonic oscillations. These may be generally 110 kV and above. To save on cost and
detrimental to the insulation of the EMU of the CVT as well as mounting space, the electromagnetic unit may be
the terminal instruments and devices connected to it. These wound for two secondary windings, one for metering
oscillations must be damped as far as possible. This can be achieved and the other for protection.
15/540 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

C = C1 + C2 L R1 R 2


V 1 / 3

l m lm R

During resonance, when:

XC =XL the circuit would behave like a normal transformer
VC : Voltage drop across the line capacitors
V L : Voltage drop across the inductance
R1 : Primary resistance representing losses across C and L and
the intermediate voltage transformer (EMU)
R 2 : Secondary resistance of the intermediate VT referred to the
primary side.
Figure 15.9 A typical outdoor type oil-filled 11 kV control
: Loss component
Im : Magnetizing component
Z : Load (burden) impedance
R : Damping resistor to prevent ferro-resonance effects These transformers do not require a high accuracy and
can be specified by the following parameters:
Figure 15.7 Equivalent circuit diagram of a CVT
1 Rated primary voltage The normal practice for an
HV system is to provide a separate LV feeder for the
2 To feed the synchronizing equipment. auxiliary supplies. The primary voltage will be the
3 As a coupling unit for carrier signals (Section normal system voltage, Vr, when the transformer is
23.5.2(D) and Figure 23.9(b)). connected line to line or Vr / 3 when connected line
4 To damp the transient voltages on the primary side. to neutral.
For markings refer to Section 15.10.1 and Figure 15.35. 2 Rated secondary voltage This is 24, 48, 110, 220,
230, 240 or 250 volts, or according to the practice of
a country. Tappings, if required, can be provided on
15.4.5 Control transformers the primary side.
Refer to Figures 15.8 and 15.9. These transformers are 3 Rated burden This is the maximum load the
quite different from a measuring or a protection transformer may have to feed at a time. The preferred
transformer, particularly in terms of accuracy and short- ratings will follow series R-10 of ISO-3 (Section
time VA ratings besides their application. They are installed 13.4.1(4)).
to feed power to the control or the auxiliary devices/ 4 Short-time VA burden This accounts for the
components of a switchgear or a controlgear assembly maximum switching inrush VA burden of the various
not supposed to be connected directly to the main supply. auxiliary devices connected in the switching circuit

Figure 15.8 Typical single-phase and three-phase control transformers (Courtesy: Logic Controls)
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/541

such as contactors, timers and indicating lights. Unless transformer may feed more auxiliary components and
specified, the short-time VA burden of the transformer devices consuming power compared to an instrument
will be a minimum of eight times its rating at 0.5 p.f. VT, the VA rating of such transformers is generally higher
lagging. It can be expressed in terms of VA versus than of an instrument, metering or protection VT.
cos f and drawn in the form of an inrush curve, for Algebraic summation will lead to a higher VA
easy selection of a transformer rating (Figure 15.10). requirement than necessary. The transformer should not
5 Voltage regulation In view of heavy currents during be too small or too large to achieve better regulation in
the switching of an auxiliary circuit, the reactance addition to cost. From Figure 15.11 the following may
and the resistance drops of these transformers should be derived:
be designed to be low to ensure a high degree of
regulation during a switching operation. Regulation VA T = W + VAr
of up to 6% for control transformers rated for 1.0
kVA and above and up to 10% for smaller ratings is or VAT = W 2 + VAr 2
considered ideal (NEMA Standard suggests these
values as 5%). = (( VA cos f ) 2 + ( VA sin f ) 2 )
For brevity, only the more relevant aspects are dis-
cussed here. For more details, refer to IEC 60044-2 where
for instrument voltage transformers and IEC 60076-3/ VAT = Total VA burden
IS 12021 for control transformers.
VA = VA burden of individual component
Application W = W1 + W2 +
These may be used to feed the solenoid or the motor of and VAr = VAr1 + VAr2 +
an interrupting device (such as an electrically operated W1, W 2, VAr1 and VAr2 are the active and reactive
breaker), indicating lights and annunciation circuits, components respectively of the VA burden of a device at
auxiliary contactors or relays, electrical or electronic a p.f. f1 and f2.
timers, hooters or buzzers, and all such auxiliary The following may be ascertained when selecting the
components and devices mounted on a controlgear or a rating of a control transformer:
switchgear assembly requiring a specified control voltage.
Maximum hold-on (continuous) VA burden and the
Procedure to determine the VA rating of a control corresponding p.f. of all the devices likely to be in
circuit service at a time.
Pick-up VA or short-time VA: An electromagnetic
The total VA burden of a control or an auxiliary circuit device such as a contactor or a timer carries a high
is the phasor sum of the VA burdens of each individual inrush current, also known as sealed amperes, during
component and device connected in the circuit, and a switching operation and it is associated with a high
consuming power. It is advisable to add the VA burdens momentary pick-up VA burden on the circuit and the
vectorially rather than algebraically. Since a control feeding control transformer. The effect of the maximum
momentary pick-up VA burden and the corresponding
inflow p.f. of all the components likely to be switched
1600 at a time must be calculated.
Maximum lead burden of the connecting wires under
1400 the above conditions.
% VA rating of the control transformer

The control transformer to be selected may have a

1200 rating nearest to the maximum hold-on VA burden so
calculated and must be suitable to feed the required
1000 inrush current at the p.f. so calculated without affecting
its regulation. So long as these two points fall below the
inrush curve of the control transformer, its regulation
will be maintained within the prescribed limits. Figure
600 W = VA cos f


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Cos f (of control circuit) VA
T VAr = VA sin f

Figure 15.10 Inrush characteristics of a control transformer Figure 15.11 Phasor representation of a load (VA burden).
15/542 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

15.10 illustrates this requirement and Example 15.1 The following data have been assumed:
demonstrates the procedure to determine the required System: 415 V, three-phase, four wire.
VA of a control transformer.
Control voltage: 110 V a.c.
Example 15.1 Control wire: 2.5 mm2 (resistance of wire = 7.6 W/1000 m, as
Consider the control scheme of an auto-control capacitor in Table 13.15).
panel as shown in Figure 23.37. The scheme shows the
control voltage as being tapped from the main bus. But for Approximate length of wire for each feeder up to the power
our purpose, we have considered it through a control factor correction relay (PFCR): 35 m.
transformer 415/110 V.

(1) A study of the control scheme

Component Total quantity nos Maximum hold-on occurs when Maximum inrush occurs when five steps of
all the six steps of the PFCR the PFCR are ON and the sixth is
are ON switched ON

Hold on Inrush

Main contactor 125 A 6 6 5 1

Auxiliary contactor 6 A 2 1 (auto or manual) 1
On indicating light 8 6 (auto or manual) 5 1
PFCR 1 1 (6 steps) 5 1

(2) Approximate VA burden and cos f for each component, as available from the manufacturers catalogues

Component VA cos f W = VA cos f VAr = VA sin f

125 A contactor
Hold-on 65 0.31 20.15 61.79
Inrush 900 0.42 378 817
6A contactor
Hold-on 15 0.33 4.95 14.16
Inrush 115 0.60 69 92
Indicating light
Hold-on 7 1 7
Inrush 7 1 7
PFCR (each step)
Hold-on 5 1 5
PFCRs are available in both static and electromagnetic versions. Their VA levels therefore vary significantly due to inbuilt switching relays,
LEDs (light emitting diodes) and p.f. meter etc. For illustration we have considered an average VA burden of 5 VA at unity p.f. for each step.
For static relays, this may be too low
(3) Computing the maximum hold-on (steady state) and inrush burden values and their cos f

Maximum hold-on values Maximum pick-up (inrush) values

Hold-on for five steps already ON Inrush for the sixth step
Component Qty Total Total Qty Total Total Qty Total Total

Main contactor 6 6 20.15 6 61.79 5 5 20.15 5 61.79 1 378 817

= 120.90 = 370.74 = 100.75 = 308.95
Auxiliary contactor 1 4.95 14.16 1 4.95 14.16
Indicating light 6 6 7 = 42 5 5 7 = 35 1 7
PFCR (steps) 6 6 5 = 30 5 5 5 = 25 1 5

Total 197.85 384.90 165.70 (a) 323.11(b) 390(c) 817(d)

\ VA = 197.85 2 + 384.90 2 \ Total inrush, W ( a + c) = 555.7

and VAr (b + d) = 1140.11
 433 without considering the \ VA = 555.7 2 + 1140.11 2
burden for wire leads  1268 without considering
the burden for wire leads
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/543

Control circuit current Control circuit current

Ic = 433/110 = 3.94A
Ic = 1268/110 = 11.53A
and lead burden = I c2 R
where R is the resistance of the connecting wires at the and lead burden = 11.532 2.035
operating temperature (90C, as in Table 14.5)
= 270.53 W
= 6 35 7.6 [1+ 3.93 10 3 (9020)] W
1000 \ Total maximum inrush burden
(for details refer to Table 14.4)
W = 555.7 + 270.53
= 2.035 W
\Lead burden = 3.942 2.035 = 826.23
= 31.59 W and VAr = 1140.11
\ Total maximum steady-state hold-on burden
\ Maximum short-time VA = 826.23 2 + 1140.11 2
W = 197.85 + 31.59 = 229.44
And VAr = 384.9 = 1408.0
\Maximum VA = 229.44 2 + 384.9 2 at an inrush (short-time) cos f = 826.23
= 448.1 1408.0
= 0.587
at a steady-state cos f = 229.44
= 0.51

Rating of control transformer 1000

Select a continuous rating = 500 VA 900

Inrush characteristic of a
at a cos f = 0.51 800
500 VA control transformer

and short-time rating = 1500 VA 700

at a cos f = 0.587
% VA rating

The actual values as worked out above must fall below

the inrush curve of the selected control transformer of 500
500 VA, as illustrated in Figure 15.12. 400
>1500 VA
15.4.6 Summary of specifications of a VT 300
This point should
lie at more than
In Table 15.7 we list the data that a user must provide to 200 1500 VA
a manufacturer to design a VT for a particular application.
Some of the data chosen are arbitrary to define the 100
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
15.5 Precautions to be observed cos f (of control circuit)

while installing a voltage Figure 15.12 Checking the suitability of the 500 VA control
transformer transformer for the required duty for Example 15.1

1 Since a VT forms an inductive circuit, it generates

heavy switching current surges which should be taken it may cause local discharge and heating up of the
into account when deciding on protective fuses. A inter-turns, leading to dangerous fault currents and
fuse with an appropriately high rating should be chosen ionization of oil in an oil-filled VT. It is advisable
to avoid a blow-up during switching. to provide a Bucholtz relay to protect oil-filled VTs
2 As a result of the generally high rating of protective by detecting the presence of gas in the event of a
fuses they provide no adequate protection against an fault.
inter-turn fault. For critical installations, and for HV 4 For lower voltages (<33 kV), any fault on the VT will
VTs particularly, a separate protection may be provided be detected by the protective devices installed in the
for inter-turn faults. main circuit.
3 When an HV-VT develops an inter-turn fault on the 5 Temperature detectors may also be provided in the
HV side, there is no appreciable rise in the primary windings of large VTs as are provided in a motor
circuit current and which may not be detected. But, (Section 12.8).
15/544 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

Table 15.7 Summary of specifications of VTs

Sr. no. Specifications Measuring VTs Protection VTs Control transformers

1 System voltage As in Table 13.1 (1/ 3 V for line to neutral transformers)

2 Insulation level (peak) Generally as in IEC 60044-2 or Tables 13.2, and 14.3 for series I and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 for
series II voltage systems
3 Class of insulation say, E B E
4 Frequency 50 or 60 Hz 50 or 60 Hz 50 or 60 Hz
5 Nominal voltage ratio e.g. 6.6 kV/110 V for two phase or three phase transformers and 1 times this for line to neutral
transformers 3
6 Output (VA) say, 500 500 1500
7 Short-time output (VA burden) Say, 8 times the rated VA at
and corresponding p.f. 0.2 p.f.
8 Class of accuracy 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 or 3 3P or 6P Not applicable
9 Grounding system Whether an isolated neutral system, an effectively grounded system or a non-effectively grounded
(Section 21.7) neutral system
10 The rated voltage factor and Not applicable Depends upon the system Depends upon the system fault
the corresponding rated time grounding. Refer to Table 15.4 conditions and generally as 1.9
Table 15.4
11 Service conditions Indoors or outdoors Indoors or outdoors Indoors or outdoors
Whether the system is Whether the system is Whether the system is
electrically exposed electrically exposed electrically exposed
Ambient temperature Ambient temperature Ambient temperature
Altitude, if above 1000 m Altitude, if above 1000 m Altitude, if above 1000 m
Humidity Humidity Humidity
Any other important features Any other important features Any other important
12 Marking of VTs (a) 6.6 kV/110 V, 500 VA, 6.6 kV/110 V, 500 VA, 6.6 kV/48 V, 1500 VA and
class 1a class 3P short-time VA: eight times the
rated VA at 0.2 p.f.
(b) System voltage and insulation level, class of insulation and frequency etc. for all types of
Wherever two separated secondary windings are provided, say, one for measuring and the other for protection, the markings will indicate
all such details as are marked against (a) for each secondary winding.
For more details and voltages higher than 66 kV, refer to IEC 60044-2.

SECTION II: CURRENT over-current release (Figure 12.15) where the use of a
ring-type CT may appear crude and the connections
TRANSFORMERS cumbersome, a bar primary CT may be used, as shown in
Figure 15.14. HV CTs, as a matter of necessity and to
15.6 Current transformers (CTs) maintain correct clearances and dielectric strength between
the primary current-carrying conductor and the secondary
windings, are made in the form of a bar primary or wound
These may be one of the following types:
primary only, depending upon the primary current rating
Ring (Figures 15.13(a)(d)) (Figures 15.15 and 15.16). In a wound primary, the primary
Bar primary (Figures 15.14(a) and (b) and 15.15(a) is also wound the same way as the secondary.
and (b))
Wound primary (Figures 15.15(a) and 15.16) Types of insulation
In ring-type CTs the primary current-carrying conductor An LV CT may be insulated in the following ways,
is passed through the ring and the ring forms the secondary depending upon their location and application.
winding (Figure 15.13). Generally, all LV CTs are
produced thus, except for very small ratings of the primary Tape insulated (Figure 15.13(c)) For normal
current, say, up to 50 A, when it becomes imperative to application and generally clean atmospheric conditions.
design them in the form of a wound primary due to the Epoxy resin cast (Figures 15.13(a) and 15.14) To
design constraints discussed in Section 15.6.5(iv). provide greater mechanical strength and a better
For special applications, such as for a motor protection insulation system. They are more suitable for humid,
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/545

(a) LV epoxy resin cast


(b) LV fibreglass taped (c) taped LV PVC (d) Ground leakage relay with CBCT

Figure 15.13 Ring type CTs for measuring or protection (Courtesy: Prayog Electricals)

contaminated and corrosive atmospheres and for all A 1 A secondary is not recommended in higher ratios
HV systems. They are mechanically strong and can due to increased induced voltage on the secondary side
bear shocks and impacts. during an accidental open circuit on load. It may damage
the inter-turn insulation or cause a flashover, besides
All HV CTs are normally manufactured with epoxy resin cast. being dangerous to nearby components or a human body,
if in contact. This we have illustrated in Example 15.8,
Fibreglass tape (Figure 15.13(b)). To make it more under Section 15.9.
Polypropylene (ii) Rated output
15.6.1 General specifications and design The standard VA values may be one of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15
considerations for current transformers and 30 generally, depending upon the application, although
a value beyond 30 VA is also acceptable.
The rated frequency, insulation systems and the
requirement of creepage distances will generally remain (iii) Rated burden
the same as for a voltage transformer (Section 15.4.1).
For the remaining parameters, the following may be noted. This is the value of the impedance of the secondary
circuit (the impedance of all the devices connected to
(i) Rated secondary current it), expressed in ohms and power-factor or volt-amperes,
at the rated secondary current. The CTs will be selected
This will be 1, 2 or 5 A, 1 and 5 A being more common. nearest to the computed total VA burden in the circuit.
All measuring and protection devices are also A CT with a higher VA burden than connected will
manufactured for these ratings only as standard practice. have a slightly higher error besides size. A slightly less VA
15/546 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

(a) Single-phase HV CT
11 kV CT 33 kV CT

Figure 15.15(a) Typical outdoor-type oil-filled bar primary or

wound primary HV CTs (Courtesy: Kappa Electricals)

(b) Three-phase LV CT

Figure 15.14 Typical indoor-type bar primary epoxy resin cast

CTs (Courtesy: Kappa Electricals)

rating than the connected may normally be permissible,

subject to confirmation by the manufacturer. Typical
values of VA burdens at the rated current for the devices
that a measuring CT may have to usually feed are as

Instruments and measuring devices*

Moving iron ammeters 1.5 to 5 VA
Recording ammeters 2 to 10 VA
Current coils of watt-meters 5 VA
Recording watt-meters 5 VA
kWh and kVAr meters 5 VA
Thermal demand ammeters 3 VA Figure 15.15(b) 400 kV bar primary outdoor current transformer
Thermal maximum demand ammeters 4 to 8 VA (Courtesy: BHEL)
Power factor (p.f.) meters 5 VA
Protective devices In view of the large variety of these
devices such as static or electromagnetic, VA burdens
*These values are typically for moving iron instruments and devices.
may be obtained from catalogues or their manufacturers.
For electronic instruments and devices they would be of the order
of 0.1 to 0.5 VA and less. Copper flexible leads (wires) The approximate resistances
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/547

Computing the VA burden

1 The VA values of some of the devices used in the
circuit may be available at a different current rating
than the actual rated secondary current (1 or 5 A)
chosen for the CT circuit. To compute the VA burden
of a circuit when selecting the correct VA level of a
CT, the VA values of all the devices not corresponding
to the rated current of the circuit must be first converted
to the rated current and only then added. This is
essential because the VA level of a CT varies in a
square proportion of the current passing through it,
i.e. VA I2. As a result, at lower operating currents
(a) Single phase HV CT its VA capacity to feed a circuit would also decrease
sharply while the VA requirement of the instruments
or the relays connected in the circuit will remain the
same. It is therefore important that the VA level of the
CT is raised in the same inverse square proportion of
the current to maintain at least the same level of VA
to make it suitable to activate the measuring or
protective devices connected in the circuit, i.e.

VA 1 VA 2
I1 I 22

where VA1 and VA2 are the VA levels of a circuit at

currents I1 and I2 respectively.

Example 15. 2
Consider a 5 A secondary CT circuit connected to the following
(b) HV epoxy resin cast (c) HV epoxy resin cast devices:
Device I = 0.3 VA at 1 A
Device II = 5 VA at 5 A
Device III = 7.5 VA at 5 A
Then the total burden at 5 A will be
= 0.3 + 5 + 7.5

= 7.5 + 5 + 7.5
= 20 VA
Therefore, one should select a 20 VA CT.
Similarly, if this value was required at the 1 A secondary, then
the total burden would be
(d) LV epoxy resin cast (e) LV tape wound
2 2
= 0.3 + 5 1 + 7.5 1
Figure 15.16 Typical indoor-type wound primary CTs for 5 5
measuring or protection (Courtesy: Kappa Electricals)
= 0.3 + 0.2 + 0.3
= 0.8 VA
of such conductors at 20C are provided in Table 13.15.
In this case one can select a 2.5 or 5 VA CT.
They can be estimated at the operating temperature (90C,
as in Table 14.5 or as desired). 2 The current element of a relay is wound for a wide
2 range of current settings in terms of the rated secondary
VA burden = I R current of the CT, such as 1080% for a ground fault
e.g. the VA burden of a CT having a rated secondary protection, 50200% for an over-current and 300
current of 5 A with the length of the 2.5 mm2 connecting 800% for a short-circuit protection. At lower current
leads as 10 m. settings, while the VA requirement for the operation of
the relay will remain the same, the VA capacity of the
VA = 5 2 7.6 10 [1 + 3.93 10 3 (9020)]
CT will decrease in a square proportion of the current.
1000 A CT of a correspondingly higher VA level would
therefore be necessary to obtain the reduced VA level,
= 2.42 VA (for details refer to Table 14.4) at least sufficient to operate the relay. At a 40% setting,
15/548 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

for instance, the CT must have a VA of (I/0.4I )2 or

6.25 times the VA of the relay and at a setting of 20%, e2
(I/0.2 I )2 or 25 times of the relay. Therefore when the
relay setting is low this must be borne in mind and a
CT of a higher VA burden be chosen. Such a
consideration, however, is more pertinent in the case d
of electro-magnetic relays that have a high VA level I2
than in electrostatic (electronic) relays that have a I n Im
near negligible VA level at only around 0.005 VA. Im I n

Where three CTs for unrestricted or four CTs for

restricted ground fault or combined O/C and G/F
protections are employed in the protective circuit, the
VA burden of the relay is shared by all the CTs in parallel
and a normal VA CT may generally suffice. Such is the
Im I1
case in most of the protective schemes discussed in
Sections 21.6 and 15.6.6(1), except for those employing d = Phase displacement (phase error) between I 1 and I 2 .
only one CT to detect a ground fault condition, such as
for a generator protection with a solidly grounded neutral Figure 15.18 Phasor diagram of a CT
(Figure 21.12).

(iv) Circuit diagram

The phasor difference between I 2 and I1, i.e. I n1 results
This can be drawn along similar lines to those for a VT in a composite error I m . The phase displacement between
(Section 15.4.1(12)). Refer to the simple diagram in Figure I 2 and I1 by an angle d is known as the phase error.
15.17, from which we can derive the following: The current error will be important in the accurate
operation of an over-current relay and the phase error in
I 2 = I1 I n1 and the operation of a phase sensitive relay. The composite
error will be significant in the operation of a differential
I n1 = I m + I m relay.
and from this is drawn the phasor diagram (Figure 15.18).
(v) Current error or ratio error
Primary side Secondary side The error in the secondary current from the rated caused
R 2
by the excitation current In1 or the variation in the actual
R1 X1 I1 I 2 X 2 Z
transformation ratio is expressed by:
I n
( K n I 2* I1* )
Current error = 100% ( I 2 = Kn I2)
e1 e2 e 2
(Kn being the rated transformation ratio.)
Refer to Table 15.8 for measuring and Table 15.9 for

Im Im protection CTs.

*Only the r.m.s. values and not the phasor quantities are considered to
define the current error. The phase error is defined separately. Together
e1 Primary induced emf they form the composite error.
e 2 Secondary induced emf
e 2 Secondary terminal voltage for bar primary e1  e2
R1 Primary circuit resistance
(vi) Phase error
R 2 Secondary winding resistance referred to the primary side As noted above, this is the phase displacement between
X1 Primary circuit reactance the primary and the secondary current phasors. Angle d
X 2 Secondary winding reactance referred to the primary side in Figure 15.18 is generally expressed in minutes. For a
Z Load (burden) impedance perfect transformer, the direction of phasors is chosen so
I n Excitation or No load current that this displacement is zero. Refer to Table 15.8 for
Im Loss component supplying the hysteresis and eddy current measuring and Table 15.9 for protection CTs.
losses to the CT core (it is the active component)
I m Magnetizing component producing the flux f (it is the
reactive component) (vii) Composite error
I 2 Secondary current referred to the primary side
Refer to the phasor diagram in Figure 15.18 and Table
15.8 for measuring and Table 15.9 for protection CTs.
Figure 15.17 Equivalent circuit diagram of a current transformer This error can also be expressed by
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/549

Table 15.8 Limits of error for measuring CTs

Accuracy % Current (ratio) errora at % of rated primary current Phase displacement angle d (Figure 15.18)
class in minutes at % of rated primary current

% rated. I1 5 20 50 100 120 5 20 100 120

0.1 0.4 0.2 NA 0.1 0.1 15 8 5 5
0.2 0.75 0.35 NA 0.2 0.2 30 15 10 10
0.5 1.5 0.75 NA 0.5 0.5 90 45 30 30
1.0 3.0 1.5 NA 1.0 1.0 180 90 60 60
3.0 3 3 Not specified
5.0 5 5 Not specified

As in IEC 60044-1
These errors are valid only when the CTs are loaded by a minimum 25% of the rated VA burden, for CTs of class 1 and 50% for CTs of
classes 3 and 5 and a primary current of not less than 5% or more than 120% of the rated current. The measuring CTs may not transform
correctly unless the above conditions are met.

Table 15.9 Limits of error for protection CTs

Accuracy Current error at Phase displacement Composite error
class rated primary angle d (Figure at rated

Excitation (secondary) voltage (Vf)

current 15.18 at rated accuracy limit Knee-point
primary current primary current
% minutes %

5P 1 60 5
10 P 3 10 50%
15 P 5 15

As in IEC 60044-1

Composite error = 100 1/ T ( K n i2 i1 ) 2 dt %
I1 0
where Excitation current (I m )

Kn = rated transformation ratio Figure 15.19 Knee point of the excitation characteristic of a
I1 = actual primary current (r.m.s.) current transformer
I2 = actual secondary current (r.m.s.)
i1 = instantaneous value of the primary current
i2 = instantaneous value of the secondary current can damage instruments connected to its secondary. For
measuring instruments therefore it is kept low, as it is
T= duration of one cycle required to measure only the normal current and not the
= 1/50 s or 20 ms for a 50 Hz system. fault current.

(viii) Knee point voltage 15.6.2 Measuring current transformers

This is the point on the magnetic curve of the laminated These are employed for the measurement of power circuit
core of the CT at which the saturation of the core will currents through an ammeter, kW, kWh or KVAr and
start. It is defined as the point where an increase of 10% power factor meter, or similar instruments requiring a
in the secondary voltage will increase the magnetizing current measurement. They must have a specified accuracy
(excitation) current Im by 50% (Figure 15.19). Beyond class as in IEC 60044-1 and the secondary current
this point, a very large amount of primary current would substantially proportional to the primary within a working
be required to further magnetize the core, thus limiting range of about 5120% of its primary rated current. They
the secondary output to a required level. are required to commence their saturation beyond 120%
of the primary rated current and saturate fully by 500%,
(ix) Instrument security factor (SF) as a system is not warranted to operate on an over-load
or short-circuit, and will be interrupted through its
This is the ratio of instrument limit primary current to protective devices. Thus a low knee-point voltage or a
the rated primary current. Consequently a high SF will low saturation level is needed to protect the connected
mean a high transformation of the primary current and instruments from fault currents (over-current factor) on
15/550 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

the primary side. For example, in a measuring CT of Ip I s1 I s2

1000/5 A, the secondary current will be in direct proportion
to the primary current from about 50 to 1200 A and the
core will start saturating beyond 1200 A.
Load or
Over-current factor for instruments (VAL) instrument

As in IEC 60051, the measuring instruments are required

to have an over-current factor of not more than 120% for
two hours for instruments of all accuracy classes, 200% VAC
for 0.5 second for class 0.5 or less, and 1000% for 0.5 Main CT Interposing CT
second for class 1 accuracy and above. Over-currents or
durations longer than this may damage the instruments. (a) Schematic diagram

Ip I s1 VA C VA I
Accuracy class
This defines the maximum permissible current error at
the rated current for a particular accuracy class. The
standard accuracy classes for the measuring CTs may be I

one of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5. The limits of error in VAL s1

I s2
magnitude of the secondary current and the phase error,
as discussed in Section 15.6.1 and shown in Figure 15.18,
must be as in Table 15.8, according to IEC 60044-1,
when the secondary burden is a minimum 25% of its
rated burden for CTs up to class 1 and 50% for CTs of Main CT
classes 3 and 5. (b) Equivalent control circuit diagram
The recommended class of accuracy will depend upon Figure 15.20 Use of interposing CTs
the type of application and is generally as noted below:

Application Class of
VAI = VA of the interposing CTs at the primary rated
accuracy current
VAL = VA of the load (instrument) connected on the
1 Precision testing or laboratory testing CTs 0.1 secondary of the interposing CTs, including the
2 Laboratory and test work in conjunction with high 0.2 connecting leads.
precision indicating instruments, integrating
meters and also for the testing of industrial CTs
3 Precision industrial meters (indicating instruments 0.5 15.6.4 Summation current transformers
and recorders)
These are required to sum-up the currents in a number of
4 Commercial and industrial metering 0.5 or 1
5 Use with indicating and graphic watt-meters 1 or 3 circuits at a time through the measuring CTs provided in
and ammeters each such circuit. The circuits may represent different
6 Purposes where the ratio is of less importance 3 or 5 feeders connected on the same bus of a power system
(Figure 15.21(a)), or of two or more different power
systems (Figure 15.21(b)). A precondition for summation
15.6.3 Interposing current transformers of currents on different power systems is that all circuits
must be operating on the same frequency and must relate
These are auxiliary CTs, and are sometimes necessary to to the same phase. The p.f. may be different.
alter the value of the secondary of the main CTs. They Each phase of these circuits is provided with an
help to reduce the saturation level and hence the over- appropriate main CT, the secondary of which is connected
loading of the main CTs, particularly during an over- to the primary of the summation CT. Summation is
load or a fault condition. They are used especially where possible of many circuits through one summation CT
the instruments to which they are connected are sensitive alone per phase. The primary of summation CTs can be
to over-loads. They have to be of wound primary type. designed to accommodate up to ten power circuits easily.
So that the main CTs are not overburdened they have a If more feeders are likely to be added it is possible to
VA load that is as low as possible. Figure 15.20 illustrates leave space for these on the same summation CT.
the application of such CTs and their selection is made The summated current is the sum of all the CT secondary
on the following basis: currents of the different circuits. The rating of the instrument
VAM = VAC + VAI + VAL connected on the secondary of the summation CT should
be commensurate with the summated current. The error
where of measurement is now high, as the errors of all individual
VAM = VA of the main CTs CTs will also add up vectorially. It is necessary that CTs
VAC = circuit losses between the main and the have the same ratio, secondary resistance of magnetizing
interposing CTs at the primary rated current current to minimize the error.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/551

Any main CT that is under-loaded will also add to the Table 15.10
error in the measurement. Similarly, if provision is made
in the primary of the summation CT to accommodate Circuit whose Current Main CT VA burden shared
future circuits but is not being utilized it must be left current is being rating ratio by the main
open, otherwise it will also add to the error. The impedance summed CTs
of the shorting terminals will add to the impedance of
the circuit and will increase the total error. Circuit 1 1000 A 1000/1 A *25 1000
As the currents of each circuit are summed by the 3400
7.0 VA
summation CT, the VA burden of each main CT is also
*25 800
borne by the summation CT in addition to its own. The Circuit 2 800 A 800/1 A
VA level of the summation CT, including its own, is 6.0 VA
shared proportionately by all the main CTs in the ratio of *25 1600
their primary currents. Referring to the three different Circuit 3 1600 A 1600/1 A
circuits of Figure 15.21(b), having the ratings as shown 12.0 VA
in Table 15.10, the rating of the summation CT can be
Total load Ratio of *VA of
chosen as 3400/1 A. If we choose a VA level of this CT = 3400 A summation summation
as 25 VA, making no provision for the future, then the CTs = 3400/1 CTs = 25
VA burden shared by each main CT will be as calculated
in the last column, ignoring the losses in the connecting
leads. Based on this, the VA burden of each main CT can
be decided. a measuring and a protective transformer in terms of
accuracy, saturation level and VA burden. Unlike a
measuring CT, a protection CT will have a high saturation
15.6.5 Protection current transformers level to allow the high primary current to transform
These are employed to detect a fault, rather than measuring substantially to the secondary as may be required,
the current of a power system or the connected equipment. depending upon the current setting of the protective or
There is a fundamental difference in the requirement of tripping relays. For protection CTs, therefore, the accuracy
class is of little relevance up to the primary rated current,
but a true reflection in the secondary is more important
of a fault condition in the primary.
Main CTs

Circuit no. 1
On Both requirements of measuring and protection cannot
Circuit no. 2 be met through one transformer generally. Thus two sets
phase B
Circuit no. 3 of transformers are required for a power circuit associated
with a protection scheme, one for measurement and the
Summation CT
other for protection.

(i) Accuracy limit primary current

VA burden
(a) Measuring the sum load of three circuits on phase B This is the highest limit of the primary current that can

Main CTs
R1 Y1 B 1
R2 Y2 B2


Burden Burden Burden

(b) Measuring the sum load of two circuits connected on different supply sources

Figure 15.21 Application of summation CTs

15/552 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

be transformed to the secondary, substantially proportional, Note

complying with the requirement of the composite error For similar reasons, a measuring CT of up to 50 A primary current
(Section 15.6.1). For example, a protection CT 2000/5A is recommended to be produced in a wound design.
represented as 5P10 means that a primary current up to
ten times the rated (i.e. up to 2000 10 A) will induce a Example 15.3
Consider a protective scheme having a total VA burden of 15
proportional secondary current. The factor 10 is known and requiring an accuracy limit factor (ALF) of 20:
as the accuracy limit factor as noted below.
\ VA ALF = 15 20 = 300
(ii) Accuracy limit factor (ALF) which is too large to design a CT adequately. In such cases
it is advisable to consider two sets of CTs, one for those
This is the ratio of the rated accuracy limit primary current relays that are set high and operate at high to very high
to the rated primary current. For example, in the above currents (short-circuit protection relays) and the second for
case it is all other relays that are required to operate on moderate
over-loads. For example, consider one set of CTs for short-
2000 10 = 10 circuit protection having
VA = 5
The standard prescribed factors can be one of 5, 10, 15,
20 and 30. and ALF = 20
i.e. a 5P20 CT having a product of VA ALF of not more than
(iii) Accuracy class 150 and the other set for all the remaining protections having,
This defines the maximum permissible composite error VA = 10
at the rated accuracy limit primary current, followed by
letter P for protection. The standard prescribed accuracy and ALF = 5
classes may be one of 5P, 10P and 15P. A protection CT i.e. a 10P5 CT having a product of VA ALF of much less
is designated by accuracy class, followed by accuracy than 150.
limit factor, such as 5P10. The current error, phase error
d (Figure 15.18) and the composite error with the rated Note
burden in the circuit are as in Table 15.9, according to For high set protective schemes, where to operate the
IEC 60044-1. It should be chosen depending upon the protective relays, the primary fault currents are likely to be
protective device and its accuracy requirement to extremely high, as in the above case. Here it is advisable to
consider a higher primary current than the rated for the
discriminate. Closer discrimination will require more protection CTs and thus indirectly reduce the ALF and the
accurate CTs. product of VA ALF. In some cases, by doing so, even one
set of CTs may meet the protective scheme requirement.
An accuracy class beyond 10P is generally not recommended. Example 15.4
Consider a system being fed through a transformer of 1500
(iv) Output and accuracy limit factors kVA, 11/0.433 kV, having a rated LV current of 2000 A. The
protection CT ratio on the LV side for the high set relay may
The capabilities of a protection CT are determined by be considered as 4000/5 A (depending upon the setting of
the relay) rather than a conventional 2000/5 A, thus reducing
the primary inputs of a CT such as the primary ampere the ALF of the previous example from 20 to 10. Now only one
turns AT (primary current primary number of turns), set of 15 P10 CTs will suffice, to feed the total protective
core dimensions and the quality of laminations. All this scheme and have a VA ALF of not more than 150.
is roughly proportional to the product of the rated output
(VA) and the rated accuracy limit factor of the CT. For (v) Other considerations when selecting a
normal use, the product of the VA burden and the protection CT
accuracy limit factor of a protection CT should not exceed
150, otherwise it may require an unduly large and more 1 The accuracy limit factor (ALF) will depend upon
expensive CT. For example, for a 10 VA CT, the accuracy the highest setting of the protective device. For a 5 to
limit factor should not exceed 15 and vice versa. The 10 times setting of the high set relay, the ALF will be
burden and the accuracy limit factor are thus interrelated. a minimum of 10.
A decrease in burden will automatically increase its 2 A higher ALF than necessary will serve no useful
accuracy limit factor and vice versa. In a ring or bar purpose.
primary CT, which has only one turn in the primary, the 3 It has been found that, except high set relays, all
ampere turns are limited by the primary current only, other relays may not require the ALF to be more than
thus limiting the accuracy and burden of such CTs. This 5. In such cases it is worthwhile to use two sets of
is one reason why CTs of up to 50 A are generally protection CTs, one exclusively for high set relays,
manufactured in a wound primary design, with a few requiring a high accuracy limit factor (ALF), and the
turns on the primary side to obtain a reasonably high other, with a lower ALF, for the remaining relays.
value of VA burden and accuracy. For larger products Otherwise choose a higher primary current than rated,
than 150, it is advisable to use more than one protection if possible, and indirectly reduce the ALF as illustrated
CT, or use low secondary current CTs, i.e. 1 A instead in Example 15.4 and meet the requirement with just
of 5 A. one set of protection CTs.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/553

15.6.6 Special-purpose current transformers, R

type PS Y
These are protection CTs for special applications such as
biased differential protection, restricted ground fault Ip Ip Ip
protection and distance protection schemes, where it is
not possible to easily identify the class of accuracy, the I f1 I f1 I f1
accuracy limit factor and the rated burden of the CTs and F1
where a full primary fault current is required to be
transformed to the secondary without saturation, to
accurately monitor the level of fault and/or unbalance.
Ip Ip Ip
The type of application and the relay being used determine
the knee point voltage. The knee point voltage and the
excitation current of the CTs now form the basic design Wp
parameters for such CTs. They are classified as class
PS CTs and can be identified by the following
CTR = Ip /I s
F2 I f2 I f2 I f2
Rated test winding current
Nominal turn ratio (the error must not exceed 0.25%)
Knee point voltage (kpv) at the maximum secondary G
turns, L2
Vk 2Vft G

where Vk = knee point voltage and F1, F2 2 sets of identical class PS CTs
Relay High impedance three element differential protection relay
Vft = maximum voltage developed across the Wp Windings of a power equipment or section of a power system
relay circuit by the other group of CTs to be protected
during a severe most through fault.
Maximum magnetizing (excitation) current at the Figure 15.22 A circulating current scheme to provide a phase
voltage setting (Vft) of the relay or at half the knee and a ground fault differential protection
point e.m.f. to be < 30 mA for 1A CTs for most high
impedance schemes. The manufacturers select a proper
iron core to limit this to help reduce the effective I2
relay current setting and improve its sensitivity.
Magnetizing characteristics, Vf versus Im (Vf being
the CT secondary voltage under rated conditions), as
shown in Figure 15.19, are provided by the I3
manufacturer to facilitate relay setting.
Maximum resistance of the secondary winding
corrected to 90C or the maximum operating I1
temperature considered. In fact, it should be substituted
by the actual operating temperature.
We discuss below a high-impedance differential
protection scheme to provide a detailed procedure to I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 = 0
select PS Class CTs.
Figure 15.23 Kirchhoffs law sum of currents entering a node
is zero
1 High-impedance differential protection scheme
The scheme primarily detects an inter-turn fault, a ground
fault or a phase fault. It can thus protect a bus system Applying this law to a three-phase, three wire system,
and windings of critical machines such as generators, IR + IY + IB = 0
transformers and reactors in addition to a ground fault.
The differential system is a circulating current system and to a three-phase four-wire system
between the two winding terminals of the equipment or
each section of a multi-section bus system being protected IR + IY + IB + In = 0
as illustrated in Figure 15.22. The scheme is based on When a three-phase four-wire system feeds non-linear
Kirchhoffs law, which defines that the phasor sum of or single-phase loads this balance is upset and the
the currents entering a node is zero, i.e. unbalanced current flows through the neutral. The same
I1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 = 0 relationship can be expressed as
as illustrated in Figure 15.23. I R + I Y + I B = I n.
15/554 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

Similarly, the balance is disturbed in the differential vary with the CT secondary voltage;
scheme on a fault of any type and a spill current, which refer to Figure 15.19)
is the difference between the currents drawn by the two Ic1, Ic2 = Ic = circulating currents
sets of CTs, flows through the relay. Since the scheme Ire = spill or differential current through
functions on the principle of balance of currents, it is the relay
imperative that the two sets of CT parameters, such as Vf1, Vf2 = Vf = CT secondary voltages under rated
their ratio, secondary resistance and the magnetizing conditions (these relays are defined
current, should be identical, except for the permissible by both the current and the voltage
tolerances as discussed in Section 15.10.2. The secondary settings)
lead resistances, from the CTs to the relay terminals, Rr = resistance of the relay coil
should also be the same, otherwise, spill currents may VA where VA is the burden of the
flow through the relay, even under healthy condition and =
I st2
cause an unwanted trip, or require a higher minimum
setting of the relay. A higher setting of the relay may relay. This may be specified in terms
jeopardize its sensitivity to detect minor faults. Since it of its current rating 1 A or 5 A
is not practical to produce all CTs to be identical, small or setting current Ist. Considering
spill currents under healthy condition are likely and the this to be 1 VA relay at a setting of
minimum relay setting, Ist, must account for this. Below 0.05 A,
we consider three different cases to explain the principle 1
of circulating currents, along with the procedure, to select Rr = = 400 W
(0.05) 2
the CTs and carry out the relay setting.
Ist = relay setting
Equivalent circuit diagram and selection of class R1, R2 = R = maximum resistance of the
connecting leads from the CT
terminals to the relay terminals. For
Refer to the control circuit diagram of Figure 15.24, calculating this, for an estimated
drawn for the scheme in Figure 15.22. It is drawn on a length and size, refer to cable data
single-phase basis for ease of illustration, where in Table 13.15
XCT1, XCT2 = XCT = equivalent excitation reactances of
If1, If2 = If = CT secondary currents the CT secondary windings. In ring
Im1, Im2 = Im = CTs excitation currents (these will type CTs, they are generally very low
and can be ignored for ease of
L1 derivation
Ip RCT1, RCT2 = RCT = equivalent resistances of the CT
secondary windings
F1 I f1 V f1
Healthy condition
XCT1 I m1 Refer to Figure 15.24:
R CT1 If1 = Im1 + Ic1
I C1
If2 = Im2 + Ic2
R 1 and Vf2 = (If2 Ic2) XCT2
under protection

= Ic2(RCT2 + RI2) + (Ic2 Ic1) (Rst + Rr)
R st I re
The two current through the relay are in opposite directions
Strictly speaking, these are
R 2 relay Ire = Ic2 Ic1 all phasor quantities but
= (If2 Im2) (If1 Im2)
only their magnitudes are
I C2
considered for ease of
R CT2 Under healthy conditions illustration, as quantities

X CT2 I m2 If1 = If2 of similar parameters such
as I , I and I , I fall
and Im1 = Im2 f1 f2 m1 m2
F2 almost in phase with each
I f2 V f 2 \ Ire = 0
Ip Hence, in a healthy condition there will be no spill current
L2 through the relay and it will stay inoperative.
(1) Healthy condition, I re = I c2 I c1 = 0
Through-fault condition
Figure 15.24 Equivalent control circuit diagram for a differential
ground fault protection scheme of Figure 15.22 Refer to Figure 15.25(a). On a fault occurring outside
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/555

the protected zone, all the CTs that fall in parallel will circuit by the other groups of CTs during a severe
share the fault almost equally, depending upon the location through-fault.
of the fault and the impedance of each CT circuit up to isc = maximum fault current through the secondary of
the point of fault. The balance of the CTs secondary the CTs, on a severe through-fault. This may
currents is therefore disturbed, but only marginally, as correspond to the fault level of the machine or the
the polarities of the two sets of CTs also fall in opposition system being protected, depending upon the machine
and neutralize most of the unbalanced current (Ic2 Ic1) or the system impedances that may fall in the faulty
through the relay. The small spill currents may be taken circuit.
care of by the minimum setting of the relay to avoid a
trip in such a condition. Hence, the relay may remain The protection must be designed to remain inoperative
inoperative on a moderate fault, as illustrated in Figure in such a fictitious fault condition. This condition will
15.25(b). also determine the stability limit of the protection scheme
But this may not always be true, as it is possible that and can be considered as the minimum voltage setting of
one or more CTs in the faulty circuit may saturate partially the relay. In fact, this setting will have a sufficient safety
or fully on a severe through-fault and create a short- margin, as the knee point voltage, Vk, of the CTs is
circuit (Vf2 = 0) across the magnetizing circuits of all the considered quite high, of the order of Vk 2Vft on the
CTs that are saturated. Refer to Figures 15.26(a) and (b). one hand, and the saturation of the CTs is possible only
The CTs resistances, however, will fall across the relay under extreme conditions, on the other. Hence the level
circuit. Assuming that the other sets of CTs in the circuit of Vft developed by the CTs may not be as high as thought
remain functional, this would cause a severe imbalance and when the relay is set at this voltage it will provide
and result in a heavy unbalanced current through the sufficient stability.
relay and an unwanted trip. Under such a condition,
Vft = isc (Rct + RI) It is advisable to choose the CTs with low secondry current, say, at
1 A, to permit a lower relay setting for the voltage and the current
where trip coils. The reduced voltage across the relay will also improve
Vft = maximum voltage that may develop across the relay the stability level of the protection scheme.

R L1
Y I pf
F1 I f1 V f1
X CT1 I m1
i f1 i f1
F1 R CT1
i f1 i f1

I C1

R 1
under protection

Wp Relay Rr
i pf R st I re

i f2
R 2 Differential
i f2 i f2 relay
I C2

L2 X CT2 I m2
G (Neutral of the winding grounded)
F2 I f2 V f2
F1, F2 2 sets of identical class PS CTs.
Wp Windings of a power equipment or section of a power I pf
system to be protected
Fault location 1: L2
The relay stays inoperative for a fault occurring outside
Small spill current through the relay
the protected zone even if it is within the CTs zone
Fault location 2: I re = I c2 I c1
It falls outside the CTs zone.

(a) Principle of operation (b) Control circuit diagram

Figure 15.25 A through-fault condition outside the protected zone in a differential scheme
15/556 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

L1 Sensitivity
This is the ability of the scheme to detect the weakest
internal fault.

I f1 I f1
F1 I f1 I f1
This can be defined by the most severe external fault at
which the scheme will remain inoperative. It should also
remain inoperative in healthy conditions. That is it should
be immune to the momentary voltage or current transients
Wp Relay and normal harmonic contents in the circulating current.
Series LC-filter circuits are generally provided with the
relay coil to suppress the harmonics and to detect the
fault current more precisely.
I f2 I f2 Use of stabilizing resistance
It is possible that the voltage Vft may become sufficiently
high to cause a spill current on a through-fault higher
L2 than the relay pick-up current, Ist. To ensure that no spill
F G (Neutral of the winding grounded) current higher than the relay setting, Ist, will flow through
Ipf the relay circuit under a through-fault condition, the
impedance of the relay circuit is raised substantially. It
can be obtained by using a stabilizing resistance, Rst,
(a) Power circuit such that the differential circuit will act like a high
impedance path for this spill current, compared to the
very low magnetizing impedance of the saturated CT.
L1 This resistance is shown in Figure 15.26(b). It will allow
I f1 = i sc a current of less than the relay pickup current, Ist. To
I p f = ni sc
fulfil this condition, the impedance of the differential
F1 V f1 circuit must be a minimum to ensure
Healthy X CT1 I m1 ( Rr + Rst )
CT I st
The normal practice is to choose Rst based on the
I c1 = i sc setting voltage required. In the above equation, Vft is the
minimum voltage required across the relay branch

R 1
under protection

(Rr + Rst) for pushing a current equal to Ist to ensure that

V ft
I re the relay stays immune on a through-fault. During an
internal fault, the fault current is much more than Ist, and
R st Rr hence it is easy to detect. The equation also implies that
R 2
relay Rst is chosen high to limit the relay current during a
through fault (assuming that one of the CTs is fully
I C2 Magnetizing
circuit is
saturated) to less than its pickup current. Solving the
R CT2 short circuited above equation for Rst,
during the
Vft V
Rr or ft VA
of CT
I st I st I st2*
Saturated CT

F2 V f2 = 0
Since the additional resistance will stabilize the
protective scheme during a maximum through-fault
condition without raising the relay setting, Ist, it is
I pf up to I sc
appropriately termed the stabilizing resistance. Figure
L2 15.27 shows an arrangement in a relay circuit and for the
V ft = i sc (R CT + R ) purpose of illustration, it is shown separately in various
I sc = Fault level of the equipment under protection control circuits (Figures 15.24, 15.25(b) and Figure
(b) Control scheme

Figure 15.26 Power circuit and control scheme during a very *This is relay-specific. The manufacturer may specify VA
severe external fault condition corresponding to its rated current of 1 A or 5 A or setting current Ist.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/557


Isf1 Isf1 + Isf2

F1 Isf1

Isf1 Isf2

Ipf F2 Isf2


(Courtesy: Siemens) L2

R Y B N Relay High impedance differential protection

Stabilizing relay. It operates for the fault occurring
resistors within the protection zone
(1450 W each Ipf Fault current through ground for fault
for Example 15.6) on phase B

Non-linear (a) Power circuit

Ipf = nIsf

F1 I sf1 V f1

X CT1 I m1
Figure 15.27 Three-element high-impedance circulating
current relay scheme (shown with the front view of a differential R CT1
protection relay for transformers, generators, motors and busbars)
I c1
under protection

As standard practice, this resistance is supplied with R 1

the relay by the relay manufacturer. It is of variable type, R st I re
to suit system conditions and the actual fault level. The
maximum value of the stabilizing resistance to be supplied Differential
will depend upon the type of protection (ground or phase R 2 relay
or both) and the relay setting. Generally, it may vary
from 50 to 1500 W. I c2
Fault within the protected zone I pf X CT2 I m2
Refer to Figure 15.28(a). The balance of the two sets of
CTs is disturbed again. The CTs now have the same F2 I sf2 V f2
polarity and currents and the two sets add up to cause a
high-imbalance spill current through the relay. Referring L2 I re = I c2 + I c1
to Figure 15.28(b)
(b) Control scheme
I re = I c1 + I c2 = ( I sf2 I m2 ) These are all phasor Figure 15.28 Fault within the protected zone
quantities, but considered
+ ( I sf1 I m1 ) linear, for ease of
illustration and without stability and prevents the relay from operating on moderate
= I sf2 + I sf1 2 I m much error external faults, while it is sensitive to small spill currents
for all internal ground and phase faults, including winding
The additive characteristic of the scheme now has high faults.
15/558 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

2 Current setting of the relay For a ground fault scheme, it is recommended to

consider a still lower setting to ensure effective detection
The relay has voltage as well as current settings. The of the ground fault current and rapid disconnection of
former defines the stability limit against through-faults, the machine or the bus system being protected. A lower
as discussed above, while the latter determines the setting may be desirable as the actual ground fault current
sensitivity of the protected zone. may already be larger than is being detected by the relay
If Ipf = minimum fault current through the primary due to a higher impedance of the ground loop than assumed
(chosen on the basis of the rated full-load current previously.
of the machine or the system being protected) As a rule and as recommended in IEC 60255-6, the
required to trip the relay. It may be termed the POC may be chosen within 30% of the minimum estimated
minimum primary operating current (POC) of ground fault current. When the scheme is required to
the scheme. Ipf, in terms of the secondary detect only a ground fault, a single-pole relay is connected
between all the CTs shorted ends (Figure 15.29). All the
= n Isf CTs now fall in parallel.
n = turn ratio of the CTs When the scheme is required to detect the ground
Im = corresponding to the Vft, to account for the most fault as well as the phase faults, a triple-pole relay is
severe through-fault used, each pole of which is connected between the shorted
Ist = relay current setting, i.e. minimum spill current terminals of the two same phase CTs and the neutral
required to operate the relay formed by shorting the other terminals of all the CTs, as
shown in Figure 15.22. The setting of all the poles is
Then kept the same. In other words, the sensitivity level remains
I sf = I m + I st the same for all types of faults.
In the case of over-current and ground fault protection
Since on a fault the p.f. is low (Section 13.4.1(5)) all the sensitivity level becomes much higher than in a single-
these quantities may be considered in phase with each pole relay. Now the requirement of the minimum primary
other, with little error, operating current, Ipf (Equation (15.1)), which is a measure
of sensitivity, is greatly reduced. The CT on the faulty
\ Isf = Im + Ist phase has to feed only one third of the CTs that fall in
If there are N number of CTs connected in parallel, the parallel of each relay coil rather than all the CTs, that fell
magnetizing current will flow through all of them. In a in parallel in ground fault protection using only a single-
GF protection scheme all the three CTs of all the feeders pole relay.
being protected together will fall in parallel, while in The CTs are designed for the worst conditions of
case of a combined GF and phase fault protection scheme, fault, even when the scheme is designed to detect only a
only one third of these CTs will fall in parallel. The CT
in the faulty circuit must be able to draw enough current R
to feed the magnetizing losses of all the CTs falling in Y
parallel and the relay pickup current, Ist. The sensitivity B
of the differential scheme can therefore be expressed
more appropriately as
Isf = N Im + Ist
(N being the number of CTs falling in parallel) and in F1
terms of the primary Non-linear
Ipf = n (N Im + Ist) (15.1)
Since it determines the sensitivity level of the protection
scheme, it must be kept as low as possible to detect even WP Relay
a small fault. To achieve a high degree of sensitivity it is
therefore essential
To have the CTs with a low Im
To keep the number of CTs in parallel as small as F2
possible, suggesting protection of individual feeders,
rather than many feeders together, particularly when
the equipment is critical and requires a higher level G
of sensitivity for adequate protection.
As the relay will have only one current setting for all G
types of faults, it is recommended to keep it around 20 Relay High impedance single element ground fault
40% of the rated current of the machine or the system being differential protection relay
protected. This setting will be sufficient to meet the CTs
magnetizing current requirements and also trip the relay. Figure 15.29 Scheme for only ground fault differential protection
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/559

ground fault. This may be a phase to phase and ground high, will mean a high POC (Equation (15.1)). A high
fault, causing a severe unbalance. The iron core of such POC may not be desirable, as it may under-protect the
CTs must therefore possess near-linear magnetizing system. In such cases, it is advisable to divide the system
characteristics, to the extent of the fault level of the into more than one circuit and apply the scheme
machine or the system being protected. This is to achieve individually to all such circuits (Example 15.6).
a near-replica of the magnitude of the fault in the
secondary, which may be 15 to 20 times or more of the 3 Suppressing system harmonics
rated current. In generators, it can increase to 21 Ir (Section
13.4.1(5)). For the CTs, a saturation level sufficient to Such relays are normally instantaneous, highly sensitive
transform the maximum primary fault condition to the and operate at low spill currents. Since they detect the
secondary is therefore considered mandatory to ensure residual current of the system, the current may contain
that the CTs do not saturate during the most severe fault third-harmonic components (Section 23.6(a)) and operate
condition, and render the tripping scheme erratic. This the highly sensitive relay in a healthy condition. To avoid
also ensures better stability of the relay, particularly during operation of the relay under such conditions, it is a normal
severe most through-fault conditions (outside the CTs practice to supply the relay coil with a tuned filter, i.e. a
detection zone) such as a bus fault, as illustrated in Figure series L-C circuit to filter out the third-harmonic
15.30. It is normal practice to define the secondary voltage components. The capacitance of the filter circuit may
of the CTs by its knee point voltage (kpv), Vk. This also tame a steep rising TRV (Section 17.10.3) during a
voltage will depend upon the type of relay, its VA burden momentary transient condition and protect the relay.
and the required stability of the system. It is common
practice to make this at least twice the relay setting voltage 4 Limiting the peak voltage
on the most severe through-fault, i.e. Vk 2Vft.
The most severe fault is the capacity of the machine As this is a high-impedance scheme, it can result in very
or the system being protected to feed the fault, and is high voltages across the CTs and the relay, particularly
determined by its fault level as indicated in Tables 13.7 during internal faults, when the CTs have the same polarity
and 13.10. To consider a higher fault level than this, and the spill currents are additive. As in IEC 60255-6, it
such as of the main power supply, is of little relevance as must be limited within 3 kV across the relay circuit to
it would fall outside the detection zone of the CTs and protect the CTs and the relay. An approximate formula
would serve no useful purpose except to further improve to determine the likely peak voltage across the relay
the stability level of the protective scheme. circuit is given by
Applying this scheme to system protection, where Vp = 2 2 Vk ( Vm Vk ) (15.2)
the number of circuits and hence the number of CTs are
where Vp = peak voltage across the relay and
Vm = theoretical maximum CT secondary voltage
G1 G2 across the relay circuit at the maximum
internal fault current. (The maximum internal
fault current is the level of fault of the
machine or the system under protection.)
This must also take into account any other
supply sources that may also feed the fault,
such as more than one supply bus, as shown
in Section 13.4.1(5) and Figure 13.18, and
illustrated in Figure 15.30. If the cumulative
F1 fault current is Iscc, then the maximum CT
secondary voltage will be
Vm = Iscc impedance of the relay circuit.
This can be limited by using a non-linear resistance called
Metrosil* across the relay, as shown in Figure 15.27. If
Rr voltage reaches a dangerous level, this resistance will
provide a low-resistance parallel path to the current and
limit the voltage across the relay to about 1 kV. The
current I through the non-linear resistance is given by
F2 = I scc
Vm = K Ib (K and b are constants)

F1, F 3 Through faults which may be much higher than at *This is a brand name given by the manufacturer of the non-linear
F2 but outside the CTs zone resistor, a GEC group company in the UK. General Electric, USA
F2 Internal fault being fed by two sources although call it Thyrite, and similar names have been given to it by different
limited by the equipment impedance manufacturers. Basically, it is a SiC non-linear resistance to provide
the desired over-voltage protection. Refer to Section 18.1.1 for
Figure 15.30 An internal fault being fed by more than one source more details.
15/560 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

All these values are provided by the relay supplier when a lead resistance from CT terminals to the relay to be 0.5 W
this resistance becomes necessary. per lead.
\ Total lead resistance, R1 = 2 0.5
5 I Selecting class PS CTs = 1 W (presuming this to be at the
Ground fault protection of a machine and setting of operating temperature)
Fault current in terms of the secondary,
the relay. The following example illustrates the procedure
to select class PS CTs for a typical G/F scheme. In practice, i sc = 16200 1 = 8.1 A
this scheme would be more appropriate for phase and 2000
ground fault protections, as illustrated in Figure 15.22.
1 Relay voltage setting (stability limit)
Example 15.5
V ft = i sc( R CT + R1) (considering the resistances at the operating
Consider a generator, 10 MVA, 3.3 kV, for ground fault
protection having a sub-transient reactance x d = 12 10% temperature)
(Figure 15.29). = 8.1 (7 + 1)
Grounding method: solidly grounded
Over-load capacity: 150% for 30 seconds = 64.8 V
(as in IEC 60034-1) say, 65 V or nearest higher setting available on the relay.
Relay type: differential
Rating: 1A \ Minimum kpv, Vk = 2 65
VA: 1, at the setting current, I st
= 130 V
I r = 10 10

3 3.3
2 Relay current setting
= 1750 A
Considering a ground circuit resistance of, say, 2 W:
The fault level of the system,
\ I g = 3.3 1000
I sc = 1750 100 (Equation (13.5))
10.8 where I g is the ground fault current
= 16.20 kA = 952.6 A (say 950 A)

= 10.8%) to be on
(Assuming a lower value of x d (12 12 Let us consider a setting of, say, 30% of I g:
the safe side.) \ I pf = 0.3 950
Consider CTs with a ratio of 2000/1 A and having R ct = 7 W = 285 A
and the magnetizing chracteristics as in Figure 15.31. Consider
Referring to Figure 15.28(a) the number of CTs that will fall
in parallel,

Knee point and I m corresponds to the relay voltage setting of 65 V from

Vk = 130 V the curve of Figure 15.31 = 15 mA.
From Equation (15.1)
(Flux density converted into volts)

285 = 2000 (6 0.015 + I st )
Secondary voltage, (Vf)

\ I st = 285 6 0.015
= 0.1425 0.09
= 0.0525 A
65 Therefore the relay can be set between 57.5% of 1 A.

3 Stabilizing resistance
Total desired relay circuit impedance
V ft
Rz =
0 15 Im 1.5 I m I st
Excitation current I m (mA) 65 = 1238 W
(Ampere-turns converted into Amps.) =
RCT = 7 W
Core material CRGO silicon steel Relay resistance

Figure 15.31 Assumed magnetizing characteristic of Rr = VA = 1

2000/1 A class PS CTs I st2 (0.0525) 2
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/561

363 W which is a marginal case. It is, however, advisable to provide

a non-linear resistance.
\ Required stabilizing resistance
Rst =1238 363 = 875 W 5 Specification for class PS CTs
CTR = 2000/1
4 Peak voltage across the relay circuit Quantity = 6 numbers (identical)
Vk 130 V
I m = maximum 15 mA at a Vk/2 of 65 V.
Vp = 2 2 V k (V m V k ) (15.2)
The CT manufacturer must provide the user with the
whereVm = i sc Rz (considering that there are no other feeds magnetizing characteristics of the CTs, i.e. I m versus Vf.
to the generator internal fault from other
sources) II Protection of a feeder circuit
= 8.1 1238 Example 15.6
Consider a power distribution system as shown in Figure
= 10,027.8 V 15.32, where a transformer of 50 MVA, 33/11 kV, having a
fault level of 750 MVA, is feeding a bus connected to six
\ Vp = 2 2 130(10,027.8 130) feeders of different ratings. All the CTs for a combined phase
and ground fault may be connected in parallel as illustrated.
= 3208 V The CTs on the primary side of the transformer will be similar



I/C feeder 7
Circuit breaker

50 MVA 33/11 kV
750 MVA
3-element high
impedance instantaneous
differential relay


Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw Sw

O/G feeders
with CTs of

1 2 3 4 5 6

Control bus B

Under healthy condition

Figure 15.32 Phase and ground fault differential protection scheme for a transformer and feeder bus protection
15/562 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

to those on the outgoing feeders, except for the insulation 1 Relay voltage setting (stability limit)
system and the turn ratio, to provide identical secondary
current and magnetizing characteristics, as on the secondary Vft = 13.3 (10 + 1.5) (considering the resistance at the operating
side of the transformer. The relay may be set for a slightly temperature)
higher value to account for the slight error introduced and the = 152.95 V
consequent spill currents to avoid an unwanted trip.
say, 155 V or nearest higher setting available on the relay.

I r = 50 10
\ Minimum kpv, Vk = 2 155
1.732 11
= 310 V (Figure 15.33)
= 2625 A
2 Relay current setting
Consider a reasonably low value of I pf , say, 25% of I r, to
achieve a high level of sensitivity and still feed the Im to all the I pf = 656.25 A
21 = 7 CTs I m at 155 V = 20 mA from the curve of Figure 15.33
\ 656.25 = 3000 (7 0.02 + I st)
\ I pf = 0.25 2625
= 656.25 A or I st = 656.25 7 0.02
Assume the CTs on the secondary side of the transformer to
be 3000/1 and on the primary to be = 0.788 A
Therefore, the relay can be set, say, at 10% of 1 A.
3000 11 or 1000 A
The scheme is suitable to detect both a ground fault and a
1 33 1 phase fault.
and their magnetizing characteristics as in Figure 15.33.
For all the CTs let Rct = 10 W and lead resistance 3 Stabilizing resistance
RI = 0.75 2 = 1.5 W Relay circuit impedance, Rz =
The fault level of the system = 1550 W

I sc = 750 1
1.732 11 Relay resistance, Rr =
= 39 (say 40 kA) = 100 W
and in terms of the secondary (for the same relay as in the earlier example)

3 \ Required stabilizing resistance,

i sc = 40 10 1
3000 Rst = 1550 100 = 1450 W
= 13.3 A
4 Peak voltage across the relay circuit
Vk = 310 V
Vm = i sc R z
Knee point = 13.3 1550
Vk = 310 V
= 20,615 V
(Flux density converted into volts)

310 \ Vp = 2 2 310(20,615 310)

Secondary voltage, (Vf)

= 7095 V
which is more than 3 kV. Hence, a non-linear resistance will
be necessary across the relay branch and must be ordered
from the manufacturer with the relay.
5 Specification for class PS CTs
CTs : 33 kV
CTR = 1000/1 A Qty 3 numbers
CTs : 11 kV
0 20 Im 1.5Im CTR = 3000/1 A Qty 21 numbers
Excitation current I m (mA)
(Ampere-turns converted into Amps.) V k 310 V
I m = as low as possible, but not more than 20 mA at 155 V.
Figure 15.33 Assumed magnetizing characteristic of 3000/1 A The CT manufacturer must provide the magnetizing
class PS CTs characteristics.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/563

Notes Table 15.11 Maximum short-time factors obtainable

1 In the above case the incoming feeder would trip, even economically corresponding to rated output, accuracy class,
when the fault occurs in any of the outgoing feeders, accuracy limit factor and rated short-time for wound primary
which may not be desirable. It is therefore recommended current transformers
that this scheme be applied to individual feeders, so that
in case of a fault, only the faulty feeder is isolated rather Accuracy Rated output STF obtainable, corresponding to the
than the whole system. class VA rated short times up to
2 With the relay one should also order from the manufacturer
(a) Stabilizing resistance of 1450 W and
(b) A non-linear resistance to discharge the excess induced 0.5 s 1.0 s 3.0 s
e.m.f., across the relay circuit.
Both these resistances are illustrated in Figure 15.27. (A) Measuring CTs
0.5 2.5 1100 775 450
5 750 525 300
15.6.7 Core-balanced current transformers 10 500 350 200
(CBCTs) 15 375 275 150
30 200 125 75
These are protection CTs and are used for ground leakage 1 2.5 1100 775 450
protection. They are also a form of summation CTs, where 5 1000 700 400
the phasor sum of the three phase currents is measured. 10 675 475 275
The phasor difference, if any, is the measure of a ground 15 500 350 200
leakage in the circuit. They are discussed in Section 21.5. 3 30 275 200 110
2.5 1100 775 450
5 1000 700 400
10 675 475 275
15.7 Short-time rating and effect of 15 500 350 200
momentary peak or dynamic 30 275 200 110

currents (B) Protection CTs

5P 10 2.5 550 400 225
5 375 275 150
The normal practice of users when selecting a measuring 10 225 150 90
or a protection CT has been to specify only the current 15 150 100 60
ratio, the likely maximum VA burden it may have to feed 30
and the class of accuracy for metering and accuracy limit 5P15 2.5 325 250 135
factor for protection CTs. 5 275 200 110
10 150 100 60
Fault level is normally not mentioned, nor it is requested 15 85 60 35
by the CT manufacturer. Generally, it should be sufficient 30
to meet the likely fault level of the system and its duration 5P20 2.5 325 250 135
in most cases, particularly on an LV system. For critical 5 200 125 75
installations, large feeders and all HV systems, however, 10 100 75 40
it is recommended to check the suitability of the CTs for 15
the system fault level and its duration. 30
A short-circuit on a system will cause over-heating as 10P5 2.5 1000 700 400
5 750 525 300
a result of the short-time current, Isc, and its duration of 10 425 300 175
1 or 3 seconds, according to the system requirements 15 375 275 150
and its protective scheme. It will also develop 30 150 100 60
electrodynamic forces (Equation (28.4)) as a result of 10P10 2.5 600 425 250
the momentary first peak of the fault current (in CTs it is 5 425 300 175
2.5 times the short-time current, Isc, as in IEC 60044-1; 10 275 200 110
see also Table 13.11). These forces may result in electrical 15 200 125 75
as well as mechanical damage to the windings of a CT 10P20 2.5 325 225 125
depending upon the number of turns in the primary 5 275 200 110
winding and the configuration of the coil. For bar primary 10 125 75 50
CTs, having only one turn in the primary, such forces are 15 85 60 35
the least, hence the statement above. With a lower class 30
of accuracy, a low VA level, and a lower accuracy limit
factor (for protection CTs) a CT can easily be built to be
mechanically rugged. But higher requirements of such
parameters may necessitate a bulky CT, disproportionate 13.4.1(5)). For applications on an HV system, where a
in size and cumbersome to instal. wound primary CT is imperative, choice of a CT from
In most applications, a bar primary CT is generally standard wound primary CTs may still be possible, meeting
used and a normal CT may be suitable. But for too small the minimum requirements of class of accuracy, VA burden
ratings, where the use of a wound primary CT is and short-time rating. IEC 60044-1 indicates for measuring
imperative, short-circuit effects must be considered, except and protection CTs the maximum short-time factors (STF)
the CTs for an LV system, where the fault level for such that can be obtained economically for a normal wound
small ratings may be very low and may not matter (Section primary CT where
15/564 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

instruments or give the operator a shock or even trip

Short-time factor (STF) = Rated short-time current other relays connected in the circuit.
Rated primary current
2 One should not allow the CT secondary to be open
I sc circuited when it is energized, for it may induce
Ir dangerously high voltages. This phenomenon is
Some STFs for more important CTs are reproduced in explained in Example 15.8.
Table 15.11.
Example 15.8
To determine the terminal voltage of a CT during an accidental
Example 15.7 open circuit under an energized condition consider a metering
Consider a 1.5 MVA 33/11 kV transformer having a fault level CT connected across a few instruments. Refer to the following
of 750 MVA. The STF can be calculated as below with the figure based on Figure 15.17, showing an equivalent CT
circuit of 11 kV: circuit referred to its secondary side.
I sc =
3 11 Z l = 103.23 kW 1.0 W
40 kA 393.7A

and Ir = 1.5 1000

3 11
79 A 7.5 MVA, *
170 W J60W
* e2 = 508.1 kV e2 **
11/3kV 0.3 W
\ STF = 40 1000

Consider a CT with a ratio of 100/5 A and select a bar

primary CT. If a bar primary is not practicable, then for Excitation circuit
an STF of almost 500, we can choose a wound-type * Typical parameters of the CT
measuring CT from Table 15.11 with an accuracy class ** Resistance of instruments of 7.5VA
of 0.5 and above and a corresponding VA burden of 5 for (a) Under energized and closed circuit condition.
a short-time current of 1 second. If these parameters are
not suitable use the measuring CT with a higher-rated
primary current to meet the requirement. Z l = 103.23 kW 1.0 W
Similarly, for a protection CT from Table 15.11 choose
an accuracy class of 10P5 with a VA burden of 5 for a 393.7A
one second short-time current. If this does not meet the
need, the protection CT may also have to be selected
with a higher-rated primary current. 7.5 MVA,
J60W e2

15.8 Summary of specifications of a

In Table 15.12 we list the data, that a user must provide * Approx. impedance of the excitation circuit.
to a manufacturer to design a CT for a particular (b) Under energized but open circuit condition.
application. Some of the data chosen are arbitrary to CT circuit referred to the Secondary side.
define the specifications.
We have assumed the following parameters,

15.9 Precautions to be observed Connected Load = 7.5 MVA

when connecting a CT System Voltage = 11 kV
Burden of all instruments connected across the
1 It is mandatory to ground the secondary circuit of the
CTs (in a balanced 3f system, the current through CT = 7.5 VA
the neutral will be zero; see Section 21.2.2, Figure Lead resistance = 2 0.5 W = 1W
21.7). It is required to eliminate the error due to
accumulation of electrostatic charge on the instruments 7.5 10 6
Rated current, I r =
that may influence the readings. All the CTs in a 3 11 10 3
circuit must be grounded at one point only otherwise
circulating currents may raise the potential of the = 393.7 A
circuit, which is dangerous and may damage Consider a CT ratio of = 400/5 A
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/565

the CTs own resistance and reactance.

11 10 3
Load impedance Z = Total resistance of the instruments under rated condition
3 393.7
= 7.5/52
16.13 W
= 0.3 W
Z referred to the secondary side = 16.13 (400/5)2
e2 = 11 400
= 103.23 kW 3 5
For ease of analysis we have ignored (without much error) 508.1 kV

Table 15.12 Summary of specifications of a CT

Sr. no. Specifications Measuring CTs Protection CTs Special-purpose protection

CTs type PS

1 System voltage As in Table 13.1

2 Insulation level (peak) As in IEC 60044-1 or Tables 13.2 and 14.3 for Series I and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 for Series II
voltage systems
3 Class of insulation E B B
4 Frequency 50 or 60 Hz 50 or 60 Hz 50 or 60 Hz
5 Nominal current ratio 600/5 A 2000/5 A 2000/5 A

6 VA burden 2.5, 5, 7.5, 15 or 30

7 Class of accuracy 0.1, 0.2, 0.5,1, 3 or 5 (5P, 10P or 15P)a
8 Accuracy limit factor (ALF) (5, 10, 15)b
9 Short-time current Isc and its 25 kA for 1 second 50 kA for 1 second
10 Dynamic current Minimum 2.5 times Isc Minimum 2.5 times Isc
(in the above case 62.5 kA) (in the above case 125 kA)

11 Nominal turns ratio 1/400

12 Limiting secondaryc 3
resistance at 90C (W)
13 Knee point voltage (V) 950 curve to be

14 Excitation current at knee 0.05 furnished by the
point voltage (or at any other manufacturer
required voltage or both) (A)

15 Service conditions Indoors or outdoors Indoor or outdoor Indoors or outdoors

Ambient temperature Ambient temperature Ambient temperature
Altitude, if above 2000 m Altitude, if above 2000 m Altitude, if above
for LV and above 1000 m for LV and above 1000 m 2000 m for LV and
for HV for HV above 1000 m for HV
Humidity Humidity Humidity
Any other important Any other important Any other important
requirement requirement requirement

16 Marking of CTs (a) 600/5 Ad 2000/5 A 6.6 kV, 2000 A, 1/400

10 VA, class 1 15 VA, class 5P10 950 0.05 R3.
(b) System voltage and insulation level, class of insulation, frequency, short-time rating and
dynamic current rating etc. for all types of CTs
The class of accuracy for protection CTs is recommended to be not more than 10P as far as possible.
Product of VA and ALF not to exceed 150.
The limiting secondary resistance is required to determine the secondary limiting e.m.f. which is = (FS) rated secondary current VA
resistance of secondary windings at 90C or the highest operating temperature as in Table 14.5, where
FS = Instrument security factor
Rated instrument limit primary current
Rated primary current
Wherever two separate secondary windings are provided, say, one for measuring and the other for protection, the markings shall indicate
all such details that are marked against (a) for each secondary winding.
15/566 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

(a) Under energized condition when the CTs secondary connecting leads, such as for remote measurement of
is a closed circuit, voltage developed across the relay, current or other quantities. It is advisable to limit the
e2 extra VA burden on the CTs, on account of such leads.
e 2 = 0.3
circuit impedance

= 508.1 10 3 0.3 SECTION III: TESTING OF

(103.23 10 3 + 1 + 0.3)
= 1.48 V
(b) Under energized condition when the CTs secondary
is accidentally open circuited, the current will have
only the magnetizing path and the voltage induced 15.10 Test requirements
across the CT open terminals will be the same as
across the magnetizing circuit. Under this situation The following tests are recommended on a finished voltage
the magnetizing circuit shall carry the same current or current transformer:
as caused by the primary current, which is very high.
\ Voltage developed across the CT open terminals, 1 Type tests These are conducted on a finished voltage
508.1 10 3 or current transformer, one of each design and type,
e 2 = Ze to verify their compliance with the design data and
(103.23 10 3 + Z e )
relevant Standards.
2 Routine tests These are conducted on each finished
where Z e = Impedance of excitation circuit,
voltage or current transformer to verify their suitability
1 = 1 + 1 for the required duty.
Ze 170 J60 3 Field tests
For simplicity, considering the approximate impedance of the 4 Special tests Any tests that are not covered above
excitation circuit (without much error) as J60 W and are considered necessary by the user may be
agreed upon between the manufacturer and the user.
\ e 2 = 508.1 10 3 J60
(103.23 10 3 + J60)
15.10.1 Voltage transformers
J295 V
which is approximately 200 times that of voltage under normal
1 Type tests These will cover the following tests:
condition and hence highly detrimental for the insulation of (i) Temperature rise test
the CT, the connecting leads and the human contact etc. (ii) Verification of dielectric properties on the primary
Depending upon the system loading at the instant of CT windings To check the insulation level, as in Table
circuit interruption, it is possible that the primary current is 13.2 for series I and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 for series
enough to cause a saturation of the CT core. When so, it is II and Tables 14.3, 14.3(a) and (b) common for series
likely that the induced voltage across the CT open terminals
I and II voltage systems.
may give a further momentary kick up to 2 2 times the
voltage calculated above, as the current and hence the voltage (a) Power frequency voltage withstand or HV test.
shall undergo a rapid change from one peak to the other (b) Impulse voltage withstand or lightning impulse
within one half of a cycle, Section 1.2.1. test.
Since a VT is associated with a switchgear, either
3 Provision is therefore made to short-circuit all the CT with its assembly or with the switchyard, the above
secondary terminals not in use (for example, in three two tests are almost the same as those for the
energized measuring CTs, connected to a common
ammeter through a selector switch, when either none
or any one of the CTs only may be connected to the CT1
ammeter at a time, the other CTs remaining out of CT2
circuit). In such cases, except for the CT in use, the Y
remaining CTs should be shorted. The selector CT3
switches are therefore designed so that all the CT
terminals not in use are shorted automatically through
the switch, even during a change-over from one CT
to another. A typical circuit diagram of the switch is
Selector switch

shown in Figure 15.34, which illustrates the fulfilment

of this requirement. It may be observed that in the
OFF position, all the CT secondaries are shorted.
And when any one of them is in circuit, the remaining R Y B
two are shorted. All such switches must be the make A1 A2
before break-type, so that the CT terminals are shorted
before being connected to the load (ammeter) during A
the changeover.
4 One should select a lower secondary current, say, Figure 15.34 Shorting of all unused CT terminals in a CT
1 A CT, for installations requiring long lengths of secondary circuit using a selector switch
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/567

switchgear assembly and as discussed in Sections Note

14.3.3 and 14.3.4. The test requirements and A repeat power frequency test, if considered necessary, must
procedures are also similar. be performed at 80% of the prescribed test voltage. See also
Section 14.5.
(iii) Wet test for outdoor type transformers The outdoor
VTs are also tested for dielectric properties under (iii) Power frequency withstand test on the secondary
wet conditions. The procedure to create the wet windings This must also be conducted only on the
conditions and to carry out the test are specified in electromagnetic unit of a VT, as noted above, similar
IEC 60060-2. In wet conditions, the VT has the same to the control and auxiliary circuit dielectric test
test voltages as specified above. (Tables 14.3 and 14.3(a) and (b)).
(iv) Verification of accuracy The test results obtained (iv) Verification of accuracy As under type tests above.
must comply with the values of Tables 15.5 and
15.6 for a measuring and a protection transformer 3 Field tests Power frequency withstand test on the
respectively. For brevity, we have limited our primary windings (for un-grounded VTs). The value
discussions as above. For more details, exact test of the test voltage and the test procedure, is almost
values and test procedure refer to IEC 60044-2. the same as that for a switchgear assembly (Section
2 Routine tests These will cover the following tests: 4 Additional tests on a capacitor VT The tests
(i) Verification of terminal marking Refer to Table 15.7 discussed above refer generally to the electromagnetic
and Figure 15.35, illustrating types of transformer unit only. To test the whole VT, the following tests
connections. are recommended. For the test procedure and results
(ii) Power frequency withstand test on the primary refer to IEC 60044-2.
windings This must be conducted only on the
electromagnetic unit of a VT. For example, when Type tests
testing a capacitor VT it must be conducted only on
the secondary circuit, i.e. the electromagnetic 1 Tests on capacitors
transformer. The test values and test procedure will (a) Self-resonating frequency test applicable only
remain the same as discussed above. to carrier coupling capacitors.

R Y or N

R Y or N R N

1R 1Y or 1N

R Y or N R N R N
(1) Single phase VT (5) Single phase residual VT
2R 2Y or 2N
(2) Single phase VT with two
secondary windings




(3) 3-phase VT

(4) 3-phase VT with two B Y
(6) 3-phase residual VT
secondary windings
Figure 15.35 Single and three-phase VTs with one and two windings in the secondary
15/568 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

(b) Power frequency wet withstand test on outdoor (v) Wet test for outdoor type transformer This test
capacitors. is similar to that for a VT and as discussed in
(c) D.C. discharge test. Section 15.10.1(1).
(d) Impulse voltage withstand test. (vi) Verification of accuracy The test results obtained
(e) Partial discharge (ionization) test. must comply with the values of Tables 15.8 and
2 Temperature rise test. 15.9 for a measuring and a protection CT
3 Impulse voltage withstand test. respectively.
4 Ferro-resonance test. 2 Routine Tests These will cover the following tests:
5 Transient response test. (i) (a) Verification of terminal marking
6 Verification of accuracy. Refer to Figure 15.36, illustrating types of
transformer connections.
Routine tests (b) To check the polarity of a CT It is imperative
that the terminals of a CT are wired with correct
1 Tests on capacitors polarity, with reference to the primary in each
(a) Capacitance and tangent of the loss angle (tan d ) phase. A reversal in any phase will lead to
(b) Power frequency dry withstand test incorrect meter readings, in metering CTs and
(c) Sealing test erratic signals to the protective relays in
2 Verification of terminal marking protection CTs. Although CTs are marked with
3 Power frequency withstand test on the secondary polarities by their manufacturers, such as P1
circuit P2 for primary and S1 S2 for secondary (Figure
4 Verification of accuracy 15.36) it is possible, that by sheer human error
at the time of fitting the CTs, care is not taken
15.10.2 Current transformers to maintain the same polarity in all the three
phases, or their connections are made
1 Type tests These will cover the following tests: inadvertently, without ascertaining their correct
(i) Short-time current (Isc) test polarity. It is also possible that on a
(ii) Momentary peak or dynamic current test. (This reconnection, such as at site, while reassembling
must be conducted at a minimum of 2.5 I sc ) the modules of a switchgear or a controlgear
(iii) Temperature rise test assembly, such an omission is made. It is
(iv) Verification of dielectric properties on the primary therefore advisable that the polarity of the CTs
windings to check the insulation level as in Table be ascertained at site before commissioning
13.2 for series I and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 for the equipment, such as a switchgear or a
series II and Tables 14.3, 14.3(a) and (b) common controlgear assembly or a switchyard utilizing
for series I and II voltage systems. a few CTs.
(a) Power frequency voltage withstand or HV test. D.C. voltage test to ascertain the polarity A
(b) Impulse voltage withstand or lightning simple procedure to ascertain this is indicated in
impulse test. Figure 15.37. A low reading d.c. voltmeter is
Since a CT is associated with a switchgear, either connected across the CT secondary windings and
with its assembly or the switchyard, the above a battery of 612 V through a switch across the
four tests are almost the same as those for a
switchgear assembly and as discussed in Sections Voltmeter
14.3.3 and 14.3.4. The test requirements and or
procedure are also similar.

P1 P1 P2 +

S1 S2 S1 S2 S3
Primary Secondary
(1) Single ratio CT (2) CT with an intermediate
conductor terminals
tapping on the secondary winding
(winding) S1 S2
C1 C2 P2
P1 D.C. source
P1 P1 P2

S1 S2 1S 1 1S 2 2S 1 2S 2
(3) CT with a primary winding (4) CT with two secondary windings,
in 2 sections which may be each with its own magnetic core
connected in series or Switch
parallel Figure 15.37 Circuit to check the polarity of a bar primary CT
Figure 15.36 A CT wound in different combinations at site
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/569

primary. On closing the switch, the meter needle SECTION IV: NON-CONVENTIONAL
will give a momentary flicker. If the polarity is
correct, the flicker will be positive on connection METHODS OF CURRENT
and negative on disconnection. For HV CTs, MEASUREMENT
mounted on transformer bushings, it is
recommended to short-circuit the main transformer Below we provide a brief description of the non-
secondary (LV) windings to reduce the overall conventional CTs to give an idea of the new generation
impedance of the transformer to achieve an current measuring devices, their applications and inherent
appreciable deflection of the voltmeter needle. advantages over conventional CTs. In view of their distinct
(ii) Power frequency withstand test on secondary advantages their applications for current measurements
windings is gradually on the rise. It it is possible that soon for very
The secondary windings should be capable of high currents, voltages and special applications calling
withstanding a rated power frequency, short- for higher accuracy these devices may take over
duration withstand voltage of 3 kV for 1 minute. conventional CTs. Conventional CTs gradually limiting
(iii) Power frequency withstand test between sections to simple current and energy measurements only. Some
This test is applicable when the CTs primary of these new devices can also be made digital IEDs
and secondary windings have two or more sections. (intelligent electronic devices) capable for serial data
Then the section in between will be capable of transmission and power system automation from a remote
withstanding a similar voltage as noted in item control station (SCADA systems Section 24.11). For more
(ii) above. details one may refer to the manufacturers or the literatures
(iv) Inter-turn over-voltage test on the subject provided under Further Reading.
This test is performed to check the suitability of
the inter-turn insulation to withstand the high
voltage developed in the secondary circuit in the 15.11 Current sensors
event of an accidental secondary open circuit on
load. The inter-turn insulation of the windings A conventional CT is the most used device to measure
should be capable of withstanding an inter-turn current of a circuit. But its magnetizing current causes a
over-voltage of 4.5 kV peak across the complete small phase displacement (d) in its secondary current I 2
secondary winding. The test may be conducted with reference to primary current I1 as shown in Figure
by keeping the secondary winding open circuited 15.18. This displacement introduces a phase error (Table
and applying a primary current less than or equal 15.8) in the accurate measurement of primary current.
to the rated primary current for 1 minute, sufficient Lower the p.f. of the circuit higher the error. It poses a
to produce a voltage at the secondary terminals limitation for instruments and devices that are current
equal to 4.5 kV (peak). operated and demand for accurate measurement of circuit
(v) Power frequency withstand test on primary current in turn to provide reliable measurements, such as
windings testing instruments, measuring current and energy. This
This test is same as for item (iv) (a), under type limitation of a conventional CT is overcome through
tests. electrically isolated (having no magnetic effect) current
sensors or transducers. Some prominent transducers
Note developed so far and available in the market are noted
A repeat power frequency test, if considered necessary, must be below,
performed at 80% of the prescribed test voltage. See also Section
14.5. Resistive shunts
Hall effect current sensors
(vi) Partial discharge measurement
Faraday effect optical sensors
(vii) Verification of accuracy
Zero flux current sensors
This test is the same as under type test item (vi).
Rogowski current transducers or Rogowski coils
3 Special tests The following additional tests may be
Digital optical instrument transformers
conducted when considered necessary:
(i) Chopped lightning impulse test. Refer to IEC
60044-1 15.11.1 Resistive shunts
(ii) Measurement of the dielectric dissipation factor They are miniature but high precision copper shunts
(tan d ), applicable to only liquid immersed primary connected across the circuit whose current is to be
windings, rated for 110 kV and above. measured. In high current circuits they are usually placed
in a slot made in the current carrying conductor. Wound
Note as low inductive coils they can have very low ohmic
For lower voltage systems, say, 2.5 to 10 kV, measurement of
dielectric loss factor tan d, along similar lines, to those recommended
value in the range of milli and micro ohm to contain
for motors and discussed in Section 9.6.1 is advisable as a process voltage drop across them. They can operate at any
test to monitor the quality of an HV insulation system, during the frequency zero to MHz according to the application of
course of manufacture and using the same value for future reference the device.
when checking the quality of insulation at the time of energizing or Usually they have negligible burden. But not so at
during a field test. higher currents because of high resistance loss and hence
15/570 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

not preferred at higher currents. Being low inductive in Figure 15.38 (a corollary to Flemings left hand rule
coils they may be associated with small contents of Figure 1.1).
parasitic L and R. The ratio of L/R determines the high This philosophy is widely used in sensing numerous
frequency limit of the measurement. Increasing R to reduce parameters in semiconductor circuits such as flow, r.p.m.,
L/R can cause heat dissipation and insertion loss problems. commutation of brushless d.c. motors, UPS (un-interrupted
The basic advantage of these transducers is isolation power supply), electric welding machines, numerical
from the circuit of which it is measuring the current. control machine tools, electrolysis, rectifier and
The current to be measured passes through a very electroplating plants. As position sensors for vane control,
low value register with low temperature co-efficient. Shunt liquid level, magnetic position, throttle or air valve
resistance (R) in the current path generates a voltage position. Similarly, for various automotive applications
proportional to the path current. The potential drop across (like measuring the ignition current). Measuring currents
the resistor is a measure of the current to be measured. in electric and electronic circuits is just a few of the
Different manufacturers may adapt to different techniques many applications these devices can perform. Figure 15.39
to measure ac and dc currents with the use of these shunts. shows a current measuring circuit. The current through
the circuit produces a magnetic field which can be guided
Hybrid sensors by a magnetic yoke to a linear Hall sensor. The output of
the sensor is proportional to the electric current. It can
When current or voltage sensors are not capable of measure the inverter loadside harmonic currents up to
demonstrating the values to be measured directly and 100 kHz. It is useful where an isolated measurement of
are required to be augmented through some electronic current is required, which has a d.c. component. The
integrator to perform this job, the sensors are termed as device can measure both ac and dc current components
hybrid sensors. Such as use of optic fibre or optic crystal but having magnetic core, is influenced by saturation
sensors and obtaining the desired values through phenomenon as in a conventional CT. They also require
interferometric technology. a power source and precision. If the device is not isolated
Optical sensors are EM compatible and ideal for from EM environment with the use of magnetic shielding
accurate measurements of currents and voltages in EM between the sensor and the electronic circuit, the sensor
polluted environments. EM pollutions are on the rise may be influenced by EM interferences.
with the ever-rising use of electronic technology in all
fields and corrupt measurements from conventional CTs. 15.11.3 Faraday effect optical sensors
Moreover with digital technologies the new generation
sensors act like IEDs and are capable of serial data transfer Faradays law (Section 1.1) Output signal is proportional
for remote control and automation. Due to cost to the time derivative di/dt of the current I to be
consideration up to MV systems it is possible that the measured. To obtain the signal proportional to the
conventional devices may continue but for HV and EHV monitored current (I ) the output signal d i/d t is required
systems where cost may be of little significance the new to be electronically integrated. This is a drawback with
generation devices are gradually becoming state-of-the- this transducer. Because of this feature it also falls in the
art devices. category of hybrid sensors. For integration of signals
use of optical crystals or optical fibres is made. In both
15.11.2 Hall effect current sensors cases a light source is necessary. The optical signals are
then converted into electrical signals through light
The function of Hall sensors is based on the principle of polarization using the technique of interferometry noted
the Hall effect named after its inventor E.H. Hall. It briefly later. These measuring devices can be called as
suggests that a voltage (Hall voltage) is generated new generation sensors and are becoming increasingly
transversely to the current in a conductor if a magnetic sought after devices for measurement of currents in
field is applied perpendicular to the current as illustrated electrical circuits.
Optical sensors are more accurate being immune from
EM interferences. They are however, sensitive to

Magnetic yoke

Hall sensor
I Current to be measured

Figure 15.38 Figure illustrating Hall effect Figure 15.39 Current measurement through Hall effect
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/571

temperature variations and mechanical stresses. For more

details one may refer to the available literatures on the e = L di
subject, a few mentioned under Further Reading.

15.11.4 Zero flux current sensors

They are employed to measure d.c. component such as
for error in a CT, current in a d.c. circuit like transmission
and distribution of d.c. power. Schematic of such a device
is illustrated in Figure 15.39(a). The device is in the C C
form of a toroidal magnetic circuit similar to a
conventional CT. The flux caused by a.c. component of I
the current I1 in which the content of d.c. component is
to be measured, is cancelled by current I2 as illustrated
in Figure 15.39(a). Current I2 is specially created for this
purpose by providing a compensating secondary winding
S2. I2 is adjusted automatically by an amplifier A.
Accordingly, when I1 = I2 the resultant flux in the magnetic
circuit (MC) is zero and hence the name of the sensor. Figure 15.40(a) Representing a Rogowski coil
The remainder is the d.c. component. Because the fluxes
are nullified, the error of measurement is low. The device
being a magnetic core is highly susceptible to EMI and 3.5
must be well protected from EM interferences and made
EM Compatible. Secondary voltage (V) 3.0

15.11.5 Rogowski coil current transducers
(isolated current probes) 2.0

Rogowski coils were invented in 1912. They are air cored 1.5
toroidal windings, which when wrapped around a current
carrying conductor produce a voltage that is proportional
to differential of the current di/dt flowing in the conductor. 0.2
The windings are spaced around the toroidal as shown in
Figure 15.40(a). Since there is no magnetic circuit they 0
cannot measure d.c. components and therefore output










voltage is largely independent of d.c. distortions. Having
no magnetic core there is no hysteresis saturation effect Primary current (A)
(no non-linearity) and bandwidth is wide. Figure 15.40(b) Figure 15.40(b) Linear characteristics of a few Rogowski coils
illustrates the linear characteristics of such transducers. (Source: Larsen & Toubro)
But they are susceptible to external electromagnetic
interferences (EMI). To minimize sensitivity of the coil
from external magnetic fields, the coil has a rigid coil carrying conductors in the vicinity. To overcome EMI
former and symmetrical coil windings. Small error in effects a grounded di-electric shield to make it
positioning of the windings can render the Rogowski electromagnetic compatible (EMC) is usually provided
coil (RC) susceptible to fields produced by other current between the core and the winding. There are two mirror
image coil layers, each consisting of two concentric
sections wound in opposite directions such that the turns
MC area of the inner and outer sections are equal. The current
I1 = Current to be I1 carrying conductor whose current is to be measured passes
I2 = Secondary circuit
through the core of the coil. Electric flux generated by
current the current in the busbars is coupled with the sensor coil.
MC = Magnetic circuit The output signals of the coil are used directly for
Z = Load impedance S1 measuring, protection and control/monitoring units. Figure
usually low 15.40(c) shows a few such coils. These coils can also be
A = Current amplifier made digital and used for serial data transfer and
S1 = Secondary winding
S2 = Zero flux detection S2 Z power system automation from a remote control station
winding controlling making use of Faradays effect and employing optical
amplifier A
G = Ground
Usually two designs are available, one wound on a
rigid toroidal core former and the other wound on a
Figure 15.39(a) Schematic diagram of a zero current sensor flexible chord like core former to enable achieve any
(Source: Merlin Gerin) size of core to fix it on to any size of a current carrying
15/572 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

Figure 15.40(c) View of a few Rogowski coils (Source: Lilco, UK)

Figure 15.41 Arrangement of a Rogowski coil (Source: Power
Electronic Measurements, UK)
circuit. Both designs can be made openable enabling to
fix it on to a line and measure current of a live circuit. In
this way they can also be fixed at inconvenient locations.
Rogowski principle Rogowski coil is used for high
current measurements. The basic principle is to measure
the electric field produced by the primary current. It is
therefore susceptible to external electromagnetic
interferences (EMI) compared to a conventional CT. But
the coil can be protected from EMI by proper design as
noted above. For details refer to the literature mentioned
under Further Reading. The induced voltage at the coil
e = L di
where L represents the mutual inductance of Rogowski
coil in henry (H). It is the signal level of the coil per unit Figure 15.42 A Rogowski coil probe to measure a.c. currents
di/dt. The e.m.f. of the coil would vary with the variation 0.1 Hz16 MHz (Source: Power Electronic Measurements, UK)
in the primary current. Since the measurement is dependent
on principle of mutual inductance by the primary current,
this coil stays immune to the d.c. components that produce Since there is total electrical isolation they are useful
no induced field. These coils are now established as the where a CT is not convenient or a high d.c. component
true d i/d t sensors. Due to no non-linearity in the exists (high immunity to d.c. transients in primary).
measurement, this arrangement is advantageous to measure They are compatible under broadband high frequencies
large to very large currents with the least error. This 0.1 Hz100 MHz.
method is quite popular for measuring large system As a broadband measuring device they can measure
currents accurately at any voltage. Figures 15.41 and sinusoidal and irregular current waveforms accurately
15.42 show a few applications. without electrical contact and also display it on an
Unique features Because of non-magnetic core they have high linearity
They are environment friendly as they use no oil or and cause no saturation or ferro-resonance effects at
SF6 as in conventional HV and EHV instrument fault currents. And as there are no iron losses they
transformers and therefore call for little maintenance. are accurate and linear current sensing devices.
System voltage is no bar and they can be employed They can measure currents from 50 mA50 kA and
for LV and all HV and EHV applications. They can more.
be encapsulated and fixed around bushings or cables They cause low errors and have accuracy up to 1%
avoiding the need for high insulation. and less.
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/573

Can also measure capacitive discharge currents of (Section 23.5.2). These transformers also conform to
any magnitude. IEC 60044-8.
Can monitor power semiconductors switching
performance. Principle of operation The same Faraday effect applies
Can be used as current monitors, current probes and (to sense and integrate electric field). The current through
current sensors. a conductor induces electric field that affects propagation
Fault monitoring by measuring breaker fault currents. of light travelling through an optical fibre wrapped around
the conductor CC (for simplicity not shown in Figure
Applications 15.40(a)). The electric field changes with the change in
The use of Rogowski coils is now on the rise on HV and the conductor current and that changes the velocity of
EHV systems. They are being used on a live circuit for the polarized light waves in the sensing fibre. By
high current measurements which can be rich in harmonics measuring change in light velocity in an interferometric*
such as capacitor circuit currents, busbar systems, scheme and processing the information so obtained, an
circulating currents in beams, columns etc. As they can extremely accurate measurement of current is obtained.
operate accurately under broadband high frequencies they
can also be used for measuring transient currents and Digital current integrator Since the Rogowski coil sensor
testing of generators, circuit breakers, bus systems or measures the current in time derivative (d i/dt ), an
any kind of high current system. A unique application is electronic integrator is essential to convert this to the
to measure arc currents of an arc furnace to monitor arc primary current i(t) for further processing. Usually a
restrikes to optimize heating. high performance digital integrator is used to convert
the di/dt signal output to the current output. It also takes
Note account of EMI.
1. A Rogowski coil is a low VA device of the order of 0.001 VA
during normal service and 0.25 VA on fault and can feed only
low VA burdens. With the application of the state-of-the-art Additional features of a digital RC compared to
microprocessor based measuring and protective devices the an analog Rogowski coil
VA demand of the measuring and protective circuits is now
very low and these coils are fully capable to feed these They can combine with a capacitor voltage divider
burdens. unit (CVT), Section 15.4.4 and perform current and
2. Some manufacturers have combined the Rogowski coil and voltage sensing for measurement and protection
Hall sensors to achieve a current probe to take advantage of through a single device.
both. Such as measurement of d.c. component (which is not
possible by RCs), large a.c. components (which is not possible Accuracy is very high and can conform to IEC-Class
by Hall sensors) and measuring the current directly than using 0.2 and 0.3.
an electronic integrator etc. As real-time monitoring sensors they can also send
out data for change in temperature and environmental
15.11.6 Digital optical instrument transformers conditions.
Can undertake extensive metering and data acquisition
(also known as electronic instrument current Long-term trending analysis.
transformers) Use of optical or crystal fibre eliminates elaborate
A Rogowski coil (RC) by employing Faradays effect insulation.
and using optical fibre or optical crystal technology
and incorporating digital current integrator can be made Note
digital to provide digital signals. They may also be called Above we have discussed Rogowski coil digital instrument
transformers being the next generation instrument transformers.
as Faraday effect current sensors. As digital device they Conventional digital optical instrument transformers (they are also
can transmit data in digital form and can be termed as electronic instrument transformers) are, however, already in use.
new generation instrument transformers. They are capable For details see Cigre paper under Further Reading or contact the
of digital communication between power generation and manufacturers of conventional HV and EHV instrument
distribution systems (Section 24.11.5) and compatible transformers.
to interface with other IEDs (relays and measuring
instruments) for real time data transfer for power systems
* Radar interferometry system is a technique for measuring
monitoring and automation schemes like SCADA interference phenomena with the use of a device called interferometer.
(Section 24.11). They can conform to various protocol Interferometer separates out a beam of light by means of reflection
requirements like IEC 61850 now in vogue. Optical in two beams to produce interference pattern to measure wavelength
fibre or crystal sensors are not sensitive to EMI influences and index of refraction to determine the circuit current.
15/574 Electrical Power Engineering Reference & Applications Handbook

Relevant Standards


60034-1/2004 Rotating electrical machines. 4722/2001, BS EN 60034-1/1998
Rating and performance. 325/2002
60044-1/2002 Specifications for current transformers. 2705-1/2002, BS EN 60044-1/1999
General requirements. 2705-2/2002,
Application guide for current transformers. 4201/2001
60044-2/2003 Application guide for voltage transformers. 4146/2001, BS 7729/1995,
General requirements for voltage transformers. 3156-1/2002, BS EN 60044-2/1999
Measuring voltage transformers. 3156-2/2002
60044-5/2004 Instrument transformers. 5547/2001 BS EN 60044-5/2004
Capacitor voltage transformers.
60044-6/1992 Protective current transformers. 2705-3/2002 BS EN 60044-6/1999
Protective current transformers for special purpose 2705-4/2002
60044-7/1999 Instrument transformers Electronic VTs
60044-8/2002 Instrument transformers Electronic CTs
60051-1 to 9 Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring 1248-1 to 9 BS 89-1 to 9
instruments and their accessories.
60059/1999 Standard current ratings (based on Renald series R-10 of 3/1973
60060-1/1989 High voltage testing techniques. General definitions and 2071-1/1999 BS 923-1/1990
test requirements.
60060-2/1994 High voltage test techniques. Measuring systems. 2071-2/2001 BS EN 60060-2/1997
60076-3/2000 Power transformers. Specification for insulation levels 2026-3/2001
and dielectric tests.
60255-6/1988 Electrical relays for power system protection. General 3231/2001 BS EN 60255-6/1995
requirements. 3842/2001
60439-1/2004 Low voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies. 8623-1/1998 BS EN 60439-1/1999
Requirements for type-tested and partially type-tested
Summation current transformers. 6949/2001
Specification for control transformers for switchgear and 12021/2000
controlgear for voltages not exceeding 1000 V.

Relevant US Standards ANSI/NEMA and IEEE

ANSI/IEEE-C57.13/1993 Instrument transformers (CTs and VTs) Requirements.

1 In the table of relevant Standards while the latest editions of the Standards are provided, it is possible that revised editions have become
available or some of them are even withdrawn. With the advances in technology and/or its application, the upgrading of Standards is a
continuous process by different Standards organizations. It is therefore advisable that for more authentic references, one may consult the
relevant organizations for the latest version of a Standard.
2 Some of the BS or IS Standards mentioned against IEC may not be identical.
3 The year noted against each Standard may also refer to the year it was last reaffirmed and not necessarily the year of publication.

List of formulae used n = turn ratio of the CTs

Im = magnetizing current of the CTs corresponding to
Differential ground fault protection the Vft
Ist = relay current setting
Current setting of the relay, N = no. of CTs falling in parallel
Ipf = n (N Im + Ist) (15.1)
To limit the peak voltage
Ipf = minimum fault current through the primary required
to trip the relay Vp = 2 2 Vk ( Vm Vk ) (15.2)
Instrument and control transformers: applications and selection 15/575

Vp = peak voltage across the relay Ray, W.F., Hewson, C.R., High Performance Rogowski Current
Transducers, Power Electronic Measurements Ltd, NG96AD,
Vm = theoretical maximum CT secondary voltage across UK.
the relay circuit at the maximum internal fault current Klimek, Andrew, Optical Technology: A New Generation
Vk = knee point voltage of Instrument Transformers, Electricity Today Magazine,
Development of an electronic instrument transformer (active and
Further Reading passive) Adolfo Ibero, Jose Miguel Nogueiras, Electrotecnica
Arteche, Hnos, S.A. (Spain) 12/23/34-04 (Session 2000) Cigre.
Teyssandier Christian, n170 From current transformers to hybrid
Protective Relays and Application Guide, GEC Measurement, General sensors, in HV, Merlin Gerin E/CT 170 first issued March,
Electric Co. Ltd, Stafford, UK. 1995.