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ECN-333 MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES

Dr Nagendra Prasad Pathak

RF-THz Integrated Circuits, Systems & Sensors Research Group


Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE-247667
Two Port Network Parameters

These two port network


parameters are very useful
at low frequencies because
the parameters are readily
measured using short and
open circuit tests at the
terminals of the two port
network

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Series connected two port networks and a typical
application:

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Shunt connected two port networks and a typical
application:

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Cascade connected two port networks and a typical
application:

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


ABCD Matrix of some useful two port circuits

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Why Scattering Parameters for RF Circuit Design??

At Radio Frequencies (~GHz range) the z, y, h or ABCD


parameters are very difficult (if not impossible) to
measure (because short and open circuits to ac signals
are difficult to implement over a broadband and also an
active two port e.g. a RF transistor might oscillate under
short or open circuit conditions)

A new representation of two port network a for Radio


frequencies is needed

This new representation is called the SCATTERING


MATRIX and the scattering parameters are defined in
terms of travelling waves

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Measurement of S-parameters

Advantage of S-parameters is clear from their definition: They are


measured using matched termination (i.e. making a1(l1)=0 or
a2(l2)=0)
Using matched resistive terminations to measure the S-
parameters of a transistor has the advantage that the transistor
doesnt oscillate (if we use short or open circuit, transistor could
become unstable)
Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE
Generalized Scattering Parameters of Two Port Networks:
Power Waves

Power waves ap and


bp are defined as:
Registers R1 and R2
are:

In a transmission line its natural to express voltage


and current in terms of travelling waves i.e using incident
wave a(x) and reflected wave b(x)
Lumped circuits are analyzed using Power Waves and
generalized S-parameters
Expressing Sp-Parameters in terms of S-parameters for a
two port networks:

There is no to directly measure generalized S-


parameters; but S-parameters can be measured easily

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-Parameter of some known networks

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S-Parameter of some known networks

Assume that R01=R02=Z0

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S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

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S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

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S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

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S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

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S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Problem: An ideal transformer is designed to operate at 500 MHz. It has 1000 turns
on its primary side and 100 turns on its secondary side. Assuming that it has a 50-
connector on each side, determine its S-parameters.
Determination of S-matrix from Z matrix

Assume that characteristic impedance of all the ports are


identical (Not applicable for generalized S-parameters)
Total voltage and current at nth port
(let Z0n=1)

. (1 a, b)

For Z matrix:
. (2)
From eq. (1 )and (2):

. (3)
Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE
Determination of S-matrix from Z matrix

Since, S-matrix can be written as: . (4)

From eq. (3) and (4): . (5)

Or, Z matrix can


. (6)
be written as:

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

Impedance and admittance matrices are


symmetric for reciprocal network and are purely
imaginary for lossless networks
S-matrix for a reciprocal network is symmetric
and it is unitary for lossless network

Adding eq. (1 a and b):

. (7)

Subtracting eq. (1 a and b):

. (8)

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

Eliminating [I] from eq. (7 and 8):

. (9)
Taking the transpose of eq. (9):

. (10)

From q. (5) and (10): . (11)


S-matrix is symmetrical

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (12)

eq. (12)

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Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (13)

. (14)

A matrix that satisfies equation (14) is known as Unitary matrix. In


summation form, it can be written as:
. (15)

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (16)

Dot product of any column of scattering matrix with


the conjugate of that same column gives unity
Dot product of any column of scattering matrix with
the conjugate of a different column gives zero
The columns are orthonormal
Same statement can be made about the rows of S-
matrix

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE


Signal Flow Graphs (SFG)

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Decomposition of SFG: Rules

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Decomposition of SFG: Rules

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Example: Expression for in and out

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