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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE-247667

Two Port Network Parameters

parameters are very useful

at low frequencies because

the parameters are readily

measured using short and

open circuit tests at the

terminals of the two port

network

Series connected two port networks and a typical

application:

Shunt connected two port networks and a typical

application:

Cascade connected two port networks and a typical

application:

ABCD Matrix of some useful two port circuits

Why Scattering Parameters for RF Circuit Design??

parameters are very difficult (if not impossible) to

measure (because short and open circuits to ac signals

are difficult to implement over a broadband and also an

active two port e.g. a RF transistor might oscillate under

short or open circuit conditions)

frequencies is needed

MATRIX and the scattering parameters are defined in

terms of travelling waves

Measurement of S-parameters

measured using matched termination (i.e. making a1(l1)=0 or

a2(l2)=0)

Using matched resistive terminations to measure the S-

parameters of a transistor has the advantage that the transistor

doesnt oscillate (if we use short or open circuit, transistor could

become unstable)

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE

Generalized Scattering Parameters of Two Port Networks:

Power Waves

bp are defined as:

Registers R1 and R2

are:

and current in terms of travelling waves i.e using incident

wave a(x) and reflected wave b(x)

Lumped circuits are analyzed using Power Waves and

generalized S-parameters

Expressing Sp-Parameters in terms of S-parameters for a

two port networks:

parameters; but S-parameters can be measured easily

S-Parameter of some known networks

S-Parameter of some known networks

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

S-MATRIX -EXAMPLE

Problem: An ideal transformer is designed to operate at 500 MHz. It has 1000 turns

on its primary side and 100 turns on its secondary side. Assuming that it has a 50-

connector on each side, determine its S-parameters.

Determination of S-matrix from Z matrix

identical (Not applicable for generalized S-parameters)

Total voltage and current at nth port

(let Z0n=1)

. (1 a, b)

For Z matrix:

. (2)

From eq. (1 )and (2):

. (3)

Nagendra P. Pathak E & CE, IIT ROORKEE

Determination of S-matrix from Z matrix

. (6)

be written as:

Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

symmetric for reciprocal network and are purely

imaginary for lossless networks

S-matrix for a reciprocal network is symmetric

and it is unitary for lossless network

. (7)

. (8)

Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (9)

Taking the transpose of eq. (9):

. (10)

S-matrix is symmetrical

Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (12)

eq. (12)

Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (13)

. (14)

summation form, it can be written as:

. (15)

Reciprocal Networks and Loss less networks

. (16)

the conjugate of that same column gives unity

Dot product of any column of scattering matrix with

the conjugate of a different column gives zero

The columns are orthonormal

Same statement can be made about the rows of S-

matrix

Signal Flow Graphs (SFG)

Decomposition of SFG: Rules

Decomposition of SFG: Rules

Example: Expression for in and out

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