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Infantry Guns

Towed & Self Propelled

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Contents
Articles
Towed Infantry Guns 1
Infantry support gun 1
Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP 5
Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun 8
37 mm trench gun M1915 11
Hughes Breech-loading cannon 13
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II 14
7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschtz 18 17
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 37 19
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 42 21
Canon de 76 FRC 22
7.62 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5 23
7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20 25
7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/27 26
15 cm sIG 33 27

Self Propelled Infantry Guns 30


ASU-57 30
Sturmgeschtz III 34
Sturmgeschtz IV 42
Semovente 75/18 45
Semovente 75/34 49
Semovente 75/46 51
Rooikat 53
SU-76 55
Panzer III 60
ASU-85 67
Semovente 90/53 70
Tortoise heavy assault tank 73
Semovente 105/25 76
BT-42 78
SU-122 80
ISU-122 84
Brummbr 88
15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B 93
15 cm sIG 33 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf) 95
Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B 97
Grille (artillery) 99
SU-152 102
ISU-152 107

References
Article Sources and Contributors 119
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 121

Article Licenses
License 124
1

Towed Infantry Guns

Infantry support gun


Infantry support guns or Battalion guns are artillery weapons designed and used to increase firepower of infantry
units they are intrinsic to; offering immediate tactical response to the needs of the unit's commanding officer. The
designs are typically with short low velocity barrels, and light construction carriages allowing them to be more easily
manoeuvred on the battlefield.

Infantry support guns

Development history
Infantry support guns were the first type of artillery employed by armed forces, initially in China, and later brought
to Europe by the Mongol invasion. In their initial form, they lacked carriages or wheels, and were simple cast barrels
called pots de fer in French, or vasi in Italian.[1] These weapons were relatively small, immobile, and fired large bolts
or quarrels. Along with increases in the sizes of ordnance (the barrels) came the requirement of easier transportation.
This led to two divergent approaches, the very light hand-gun, and eventually the arquebus, while another avenue of
development led to the light ordnance, now on wheeled carriages, such as the 2-pounder Culvern moyane, the
1-pounder Falcon, and the 3/4-pounder Falconet.[2] These lighter Renaissance pieces eventually led to the
development of the 3-pounder and 4-pounder regimental guns of the 17th century as well as the leather cannon,
notably in the army of Gustavus Adolphus.[3] The light field guns of the 17th century, commonly known as a drake
in England, came in almost 100 different calibres,[4] with each having its own distinct name, some of which were:[5]
5 pound, 3 inch saker, weighing 1 ton
4 pound, 3 inch minion, weighing 3/4 ton
2 pound, 2 inch falcon, weighing 1/4 ton
1 pound, 2 inch falconet, weighing 200lbs
pound, inch robinet, weighing 100lbs
The saker and falcon had point-blank ranges of 360 and 320 yards, and 2,170 and 1,920 yards extreme ranges
respectively.
Although oxen were used to haul the heavier field and siege ordnance, some on wagons rather than limbers, they
were too slow to keep up with the infantry, and so horses were used to pull the lighter pieces, leading to the
development of the artillery carriage and horse team that survived until the late 19th century.

17th-19th century development


The first School of Artillery in Venice was opened early in the 16th century,[6] and by the late 17th century the
different old names of the lighter ordnance were abandoned, and replaced with the French canon, or cannon.
The first regimental guns in English service were ordered by King James II in 1686; two 3-pounders for each of the
seven regiments (of one battalion each) encamped in Hyde Park.[7] Attachment of guns to the infantry had practical
reasons also. While the allocation of horses was reckoned at one for each 350-500 pounds of ordnance and its
carriage, this was only true for availability of good horses and good roads, both in short supply due to unscrupulous
civilian contractors and lack of road building technology.[8] In cases where the work was excessive for horses alone,
infantry would join them in pulling the guns, calculated at 80lbs per infantryman,[9] a load which remains at the
Infantry support gun 2

upper limit of the average light infantry unit requirement today.


The 3 pounder Grasshopper cannon was in use with British forces in the 18th Century. Each British infantry
battalion had an officer and 34 non commissioned officers and other ranks trained by the Royal Artillery to handle
the two 3 or light 6 pounder guns battalion guns.[10]
Frederick the Great of Prussia was the first to introduce artillery tactics for the regimental guns which were to
accompany the infantry units as part of his reform of the Prussian artillery as a whole before and during the Seven
Years War.[11] This included the determination that canister shot was only effective at a range of 100 yards, same as
that of the musket range, and therefore put the gunners into the environment of direct infantry combat due to
Frederick's insistence that artillery should participate in the infantry attack.[12]
The French artillery ordnance (barrels) was standardised into five calibres in the second half of the 17th century:
4-pounders (regimental guns), 8-pounders and 12-pounders (field artillery), 24-pounders and 32-pounders (garrison
or fortress artillery).
Manufacture of the ordnance was also revolutionised by the early-18th century invention of the boring mechanism
by the Swiss gun-founder Moritz of Geneva which allowed for a far greater precision achieved in the casting, in
essence creating a huge lathe on which the barrel casting turned instead of the boring tool.[13] Manufacture of
cannonballs was also improved so the projectiles were now well-fitted to the bore of the ordnance, and after
conducting experiments with gunpowder, the powder charges were determined to be one-third the weight of the shot
(cannonball).[14]
Frederick's artillery doctrine influenced the development of the French artillery troops, and after 1764 Jean Baptiste
Vaquette de Gribeauval, the first Inspector of Artillery, after conducting trials in Strasbourg, reorganised French
artillery units to provide them with greater mobility, changing length of the barrels to standard 18-calibre length,
including the regimental 4-pounders. These were now pulled by four horses and used large six-wheeled vehicles that
also included the caissons. The system of ordnance, carriages, ball, and powder charges introduced by de Gribeauval
remained virtually unaltered through the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
General Augustin Lespinasse on battalion guns: "If you want to prevent your troops from manouevering,
embarrass them with guns...A line of infantry supported by good, properly established batteries retains its
order of battle better"[15]

20th century development

Belgium
Canon de 76 FRC
The Canon de 76 FRC was a Belgian infantry support gun, produced by the Fonderie Royale des Canons (FRC). The
gun was typically of 76mm calibre; however, an optional 47mm barrel could be fitted instead. The gun was
designed for transport via a trailer towed by a vehicle. In 1940, the Wehrmacht redesignated these as 7.6cm IG
260(b).

France
Canon d'Infantrie de 37 modele 1916 TRP
The Canon d'Infantrie de 37 modele 1916 TRP (37mm mle.1916) was a French infantry support gun, first used
during World War I. The gun was used by a number of forces during and after the war. The US acquired a number of
these guns, which they designated 37mm M1916; however, by 1941 the US Army had put these into storage (or
scrapped them). Poland fielded a number. In 1940, the Wehrmacht began using these as 3.7cm IG 152(f). During the
First World War, the Japanese Type 11 was based on this design.
Infantry support gun 3

Germany
7.5cm Infanteriegeschtz "L/13"
7.5cm leichtes Infanteriegeschtz 18
7.5cm Infanteriegeschtz 37
15cm schweres Infanteriegeschtz 33
7.6cm IG 260(b)

Japan
Type 11 (heavily inspired by France's Canon d'Infantrie de 37 modele 1916 TRP)
Type 92 Battalion Gun

Imperial Russia
37 mm trench gun M1915

Italy
Cannone da 47/32 M35
Cannone da 65/17 modello 13
Cannone da 70/15

Soviet Union
76.2-mm regimental gun M1927
37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)
76.2-mm regimental gun M1943

United Kingdom
1.59 inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II ("Vickers-Crayford rocket gun")

United States
37 mm Gun M3
M116 howitzer
105 mm Howitzer M3

Modern times
Very few support guns are still in service with infantry units; their roles largely replaced in part by-
grenade launchers
light anti-tank weapons
heavier wire-guided missiles in engaging point targets such as structures.
Pack guns are similar in concept, but specifically refer to those guns that are meant to be disassembled into parts
for movement, and are synonymous with mountain guns as infantry support weapons designed for use during
mountain combat.
Airborne guns are those designed for use by paratroopers, and generally reflect similar design features of
portability and lighter weight when compared to field artillery.
Mortars
Infantry support gun 4

Citations and notes


[1] p. 11, Rogers
[2] p. 36, Rogers
[3] p. 39, Rogers
[4] pp.551552, The Corps of Royal Engineers
[5] p.43, Rogers
[6] p. 41, Deane
[7] p. 45, Rogers
[8] p. 46, Rogers
[9] p. 47, Rogers
[10] p.21 Haythornwaite
[11] pp. 5455, Rogers
[12] pp. 5657, Rogers
[13] p. 137, Hicks
[14] pp.5758, Rogers
[15] p.340 Chandler

References
Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon, Volume 1 Simon and Schuster, 1966
The Corps of Royal Engineers, Aide-mmoire to the Military Sciences: Framed from Contributions of Officers of
the Different Services, Volume II, Lockwood & Co., London, 1860
Deane, John, Deanes' Manual of the History and Science of Fire-arms ..., Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans &
Roberts, London, 1858
Haythornthwaite, Philip J. & Fosten, Bryan Wellington's Specialist Troops Osprey Publishing, 24/11/1988
Hicks, James Ernest & Jandot, Andre (illustrator), What the Citizen Should Know about Our Arms and Weapons,
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1941
Rogers, H.C.B., Col, Artillery through the ages, Seeley, Service & Co., Ltd, London, 1971

External links
"Battalion guns" from the A Military Dictionary: Or, Explanation of the Several Systems of Discipline of Different
Kinds of Troops, Infantry, Artillery, and Cavalry William Duane, no. 98, Market Street, 1810 (http://books.
google.com.au/books?id=BLxBAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA20&dq="battalion+guns"&hl=en&sa=X&
ei=4TjET8moLISWiQeZ8JCfCg&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q="battalion guns"&f=false)
Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP 5

Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP


Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916
TRP

A 37 mm Infantry gun in the Brussels Army Museum.

Type Infantry support gun


Aircraft artillery

Placeoforigin France

Service history
Usedby France
United States
Italy
Poland

Wars World War I


World War II

Production history
Designer Atelier de Puteaux

Produced 1916

Specifications
Weight Combat: 108 kg (238 lbs)
Travel: 160.5 kg (354 lbs)

Barrellength 74cm (2ft 5in)

Caliber 37x94R mm (1.45 in)

Elevation -8 to 17

Traverse 35

Rateoffire Sustained: 25 rpm

Muzzlevelocity 367m/s (1,200ft/s)

Effectiverange 1,500m (1,600yd)

Maximumrange 2,400m (2,600yd)

The Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP (37mm mle.1916) was a French infantry support gun, first used
during World War I. TRP stands for tir rapide, Puteaux (fast-firing, designed by the Atelier de Puteaux). The tactical
purpose of this gun was the destruction of machine gun nests. It was also used on aircraft such as the Beardmore
W.B.V and the Salmson-Moineau. Fighter ace Ren Fonck used a 37mm mle.1916 on a SPAD S.XII.
Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP 6

Description
For transport, this weapon could be broken down into 3 sections. In
addition, wheels could be attached for towing. These guns were
sometimes equipped with an armoured shield. They were all equipped
with a removable APX telescopic sight.
U.S. high explosive ammunition for the TRP was the Mark II HE shell
with a projectile weighing 0.67 Kilograms and a TNT bursting charge
of 27.2grams.[1] The French Army used the Obus explosif Mle1916
HE round with a projectile weighing 0.555 Kilograms and a bursting
charge of 30grams. Captured rounds of this type were designated
Sprgr 147(f) by the German military in World War II.

History
During the First World War, the U.S. acquired a number of these guns,
which they designated 37mm M1916. During the interwar years the US
Army adopted a .22 caliber device to train with the 37mm cannon as an
economic measure that allowed training on indoor ranges.[2] By 1941
the U.S. Army had put most of these into storage, scrapped them, or
converted them for use as subcaliber devices for heavy guns. Some
were used in the Philippines Campaign in 1941-42 due to shortages of
the 37mm M3. The Japanese Type 11 was based on this design.

The French Army still had the cannon in service in 1940 as a substitute
US gunners in action 1918. This gun does not
for the 25 mm Hotchkiss anti-tank gun, which was in short supply.
have the flash suppressor
After the defeat of France by Germany, the Wehrmacht began using
the TRP under the designation 3.7cm IG 152(f).

References
[1] OrData record on Mk II HE shell (http:/ / ordatamines. maic. jmu. edu/ displaydata.
aspx?OrDataId=6337)
[2] "Army Target Practice Now Use Tiny Rifles." (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=9ycDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA73& dq=1930+ plane+ "Popular& hl=en&
ei=5SWNTvvhIM63tge6lc2DDA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3&
sqi=2& ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=1930 plane "Popular& f=true)
Popular Science, November 1930, P. 73.

TM 9-2005 volume 3 Ordnance Materiel-General dated 1942


FM 23-75
TM 9-2300 standard artillery and fire control material. dated 1944
SNL A-7 37mm M1916 in action with U.S. forces, 1918

SNL C-33
Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP 7

External links
(1918) War Department Document No. 758 Provisional Instruction for the 37 Mm Gun Model 1916 R.F. (http://
www.scribd.com/doc/48098032)
37-Millimeter Gun Matriel, Model of 1916. In "Handbook of artillery : including mobile, anti-aircraft and trench
matriel". United States. Army. Ordnance Dept. May 1920 (http://www.archive.org/details/
handbookofartill00unitrich)
www.landships.freeservers.com (http://www.landships.freeservers.com/37mm_gun.htm)
Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun 8

Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun


37 mm Infantry Gun Type 11

Type 11 Infantry Gun from a 1933 book. Note the two front carrying poles are in position

Type Infantry support gun

Placeoforigin Empire of Japan

Service history
Inservice 1922-1945

Usedby Imperial Japanese Army


Wars Second Sino-Japanese War
World War II

Production history
Produced 1922-1937

Specifications
Weight 93.4kg (206lb)

Barrellength 92.7cm (3ft)

Crew 4 gunners, 6 support

Shell 0.645kg (1.42lb)

Caliber 37 mm (1.45 in)

Carriage tripod

Elevation -4.8 to 14

Traverse 33

Muzzlevelocity 451 m/s (1,480 ft/s)

Effectiverange 2,400m (2,600yd)

Maximumrange 5,000m (5,500yd)


Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun 9

The Type 11 37 mm Infantry Support Gun (


Jyiichinen-shiki Heisha hoheih) was an infantry support gun
used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War
and World War II.[1] The Type 11 designation was given to this gun as
it was accepted in the 11th year of Emperor Taish's reign (1922).[2]

History and development A infantry gun unit from the same Japanese book.
The two main gunners are operating the gun, the
The Type 11 infantry gun entered service in 1922. It was intended to
first reserve gunner kneels immediately behind
be used against enemy machine gun positions and light tanks, and in a them. The squad leader is kneeling off slightly to
modified form was used to equip some early Japanese tanks (the one side, and a second reserve gunner is lying off
Japanese Renault NC27 and some early Type 89 I-Go medium tanks). to one side.

It had been largely been superseded by the Type 94 37 mm Anti-Tank


Gun by beginning of the Pacific War.[3]

Design
The Type 11 infantry gun was based on the French Canon d'Infanterie de 37 modle 1916 TRP (US Army M1916),
for which Japan bought a production license after World War I, and modified to suit Japanese requirements). It fired
from a tubular steel tripod and used a vertically sliding breechblock, that was opened and closed by a lever on the
right side of the gun. The gun was fired by pulling sharply on a cord hanging from its rear, which drove a lever into
the firing pin, which impacted and initiated the percussion cap in the rear of the shell.[4]
It was intended to be carried into action by its gunners using the rear legs of the gun as carrying poles and lacked
wheels entirely, with a pair of removable poles at the front allowing four men to lift the weapon. The rear legs of the
weapon were fitted with spades to firmly fix the gun in position.
The gun fired the Type 12 high explosive shell, which contained 41 grams of explosive, as well as an ineffective
anti-tank shell.

Combat record
The Type 11 infantry support guns were typically assigned in groups of four to combat infantry regiments. Each
weapon was manned by a squad of 10 men (a squad leader, four gunners (two of whom stood in reserve a little
distance from the gun), three men to carry ammunition and two men who handled the pack horses used with the
gun), and was kept in contact with the regimental headquarters (typically up to 300 meters) away by field telephone
or messenger runners.[5]
The gun was effective in the early stages of the Second-Sino-Japanese War for its intended purpose of providing
heavy infantry firepower against semi-fortified positions, such as pillboxes, machine gun nests, and lightly armored
vehicles.[6] However, its low muzzle velocity, small caliber and low rate of fire rendered it quickly obsolete against
Allied forces equipped with tanks, and it was seldom seen outside of reserve units during the Pacific War.[7]
Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun 10

References

Notes
[1] Chant, Artillery of World War II
[2] War Department TM-E-30-480 Handbook on Japanese Military Forces September 1944 p 400
[3] McLean Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics
[4] US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces
[5] McLean Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics
[6] Nakanishi, Japanese Infantry Arms in World War II
[7] US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces

Bibliography
War Department TM-E-30-480 Handbook on Japanese Military Forces September 1944
Chamberlain, Peter and Gander, Terry. Infantry, Mountain and Airborne Guns . Macdonald and Jane's (1975).
ISBN 0-356-08225-3
Chant, Chris. Artillery of World War II, Zenith Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7603-1172-2
McLean, Donald B. Japanese Artillery; Weapons and Tactics. Wickenburg, Ariz.: Normount Technical
Publications 1973. ISBN 0-87947-157-3.
Mayer, S.L. The Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan. The Military Press (1984) ISBN 0-517-42313-8
Nakanishi, Ritta. Japanese Infantry Arms in World War II. Dainipponkaiga (1998) ISBN 4-499-22690-2
US Department of War, TM 30-480, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, Louisiana State University Press,
1994. ISBN 0-8071-2013-8

External links
Type 11 on Taki's Imperial Japanese Army page (http://www3.plala.or.jp/takihome/infantry.htm)
US Technical Manual E 30-480 (http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJA/HB/HB-9.html#III)
37 mm trench gun M1915 11

37 mm trench gun M1915


37-mm trench gun M1915

37 mm trench gun M1915

Type Infantry support gun

Specifications
Weight 180.1 kg (397 lbs)

Barrellength 19 calibers

Caliber 37 mm (1.45 in)

Recoil none

Elevation -5 to +15

Traverse 90

37-mm trench gun M1915 (Russian: 37- . 1915 ) was a Russian battalion gun
employed in World War I.
With World War I switching into a trench warfare phase late in 1914, a need for a highly mobile artillery system to
be used against enemy machine gun emplacements and other strongpoints became apparent. In 1915 colonel M. F.
Rosenberg, a member of the Artillery Committee, developed such a weapon. The gun was compact enough to fit into
machine gun emplacements. It weighed only about 180kg and could be dismantled into three pieces - barrel (about
74kg), carriage (82kg) and wheels (25kg), making it easy to move around. To protect the crew from enemy fire,
the gun was equipped with a shield 6 or 8mm thick. The weapon was sufficiently accurate at ranges of up to roughly
1 mile or about 1.6kmthis was earlier set out as 1,000-1,200 paces, and a pace is normally the height of the person
walking, so this is not a uniform measure.
37 mm trench gun M1915 12

Image gallery

1-pound explosive shell

External links
Media related to 37 mm trench gun M1915 at Wikimedia Commons
37 K/15 at jaegerplatoon.net [1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. jaegerplatoon. net/ Infantry_guns. htm
Hughes Breech-loading cannon 13

Hughes Breech-loading cannon

Type Field gun


Placeoforigin Confederate States of America

Service history
Inservice 1862-1865

Usedby Confederate States of America

Wars American Civil War

Production history
Designed 1861

Manufacturer Street & Hungerford Company

Produced 1861

Specifications
Barrellength 120.65 cm

Caliber 38.1 mm

Breech Strikerless turning bolt

Carriage box trail

The Hughes breech-loading cannon 38.1mm gun was designed in 1861 and used by the Confederate States of
America. It was produced by the manufacturer Street & Hungerford Company. It was a breech-loading cannon; the
breech of the cannon is uniquely like a bolt-action but has no firing pin in its bolt.
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II 14

1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk


II
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II

The gun is seen here displayed on a non-standard mounting in 1917

Type Light field gun and aerial cannon

Placeoforigin United Kingdom

Service history
Inservice 1917

Usedby United Kingdom

Wars World War I

Production history
Manufacturer Vickers

Specifications
Weight 47 lb (21.3 kg)
90 lb (41 kg) including mounting stock and yoke-pintle

Crew 1

Shell Incendiary, AP, and HE cartridges

Calibre 1.59 in (40 mm)

Breech Simple block

Recoil 7 to 7.5 in (148 to 159 mm)

Rateoffire 50 rounds in 30 minutes from aircraft reported

Muzzlevelocity Incendiary: 800 ft/s (244 m/s)


AP: 1,000 ft/s (305 m/s)
HE: 780 ft/s (238 m/s)

The 1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II was a British light artillery piece designed during World
War I. Originally intended for use in trench warfare, it was instead tested for air-to-air and air-to-ground use by
aircraft. Although it fired shells and had no capability to launch rockets, it was widely but misleadingly known as the
"Vickers-Crayford rocket gun."
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II 15

Design
Vickers designed the gun early in World War I, intending it as a piece of light artillery for use by infantry in trenches
in attacking machine gun positions and pillboxes. To make it portable for infantry use, it was very small and light for
a gun of its calibre. Its light construction dictated a low muzzle velocity, which resulted in it having a short range. It
was too light to withstand the detonation of standard British explosive propellants, so its ammunition used ballistite
packed in cambric bags instead. The gun fired a 1.2-pound (0.54kg) high-explosive shell at 800 feet (244 meters)
per second; it also could fire an armour-piercing round at 1,000 feet (305 meters) per second. The gun's 40x79R
cartridge was a shortened version of the naval 40x158R anti-aircraft cartridge, with the shell case reduced from
158mm (6.22 inches) to 79mm (3.11 inches) in length.[1]
The gun was, for ease of use in trenches, single shot; the gunner had to extract the empty case of a fired cartridge
manually and reload the gun after firing each round, which gave it a low rate of fire.[2] It had a simple block breech
with percussion gear, and was mounted on a non-recoiling frame consisting of a hydraulic buffer, trunnion block,
and rear guide tube. Hand grips were mounted on the guide tube.[] The gun had a large muzzle brake to reduce recoil.
Vickers manufactured the gun at its plant in Crayford, England.

Operational history
The concept of using the 1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II in the trenches was superseded by that
of the trench mortar, which was simpler, cheaper, easily portable, and more effective.
With the gun no longer wanted in the trenches, it was decided to adapt it for use on aircraft as an air-to-air weapon
against airships and observation balloons and for use against ground targets such as trains, ammunition dumps, and
tanks. When mounted aboard aircraft, the gun could fire incendiary, armor-piercing, and high-explosive cartridges.
The incendiary shell in flight emitted very hot flames from two openings in its base, which made it look as if the gun
had fired a rocket; this led to the gun's misleading but widely used popular name of "Vickers-Crayford rocket gun."
The gun was approved for aircraft use in 1917. For operational testing, it was fitted to F.E.2b aircraft of Nos. 100
and 102 Squadrons, Royal Flying Corps, in April 1917. The squadrons tested it on night operations and reported
mixed results. No. 102 Squadron's Captain T. J. C. Martin, an F.E.2b pilot, reported that his observer stopped a train
after firing about 30 rounds at it, and that it took his observer 30 minutes to fire 50 aimed rounds; he submitted an
enthusiastic report on the gun and its potential. No. 100 Squadron, however, reported problems with the gun; its
report stated, "Sometimes the shell does not leave the barrel for some time after the striker has been released;" in one
incident, a gunner who thought the gun had misfired was about to open the breech to remove what he thought was a
hung round when the shell went off in a shower of sparks. This led the squadron to require gunners to wait five
minutes before removing a misfire. The gun also suffered from weak trigger springs and some of its shells had
defective primers.
It was hoped that the gun would prove useful in attacking German airships over the United Kingdom, mounted on
British fighters so as to be able to fire upward into an airship flying above the fighter. Plans to mount the gun on the
Parnall Scout fighter apparently did not come to fruition. At the request of the War Office, Vickers built a single
prototype of the Vickers F.B.25 two-seat night fighter to employ the gun, but the F.B.25 failed official tests and
crashed in May 1917 on the way to Martlesham Heath. The Royal Aircraft Factory N.E.1 night fighter was also
constructed to the same specification to carry the gun; though it flew well, it lacked the performance for use as a
night-fighter.
After the failure of both the F.B.25 and N.E.1 to win production orders, interest in operational employment of the
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II appears to have waned; moreover, the introduction of an
incendiary round for use in machine guns had made aerial use of the gun less desirable.[3] The gun was withdrawn
from use entirely, apparently by no later than the end of World War I.
1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II 16

Notes
[1] 37mm and 40mm Guns in British Service (http:/ / www. quarry. nildram. co. uk/
37-40mm. htm)
[2] 37mm and 40mm Guns in British Service (http:/ / www. quarry. nildram. co. uk/
37-40mm. htm).
[3] Flight p764 (http:/ / www. flightglobal. com/ pdfarchive/ view/ 1919/ 1919 - 0764.
html) 12 June 1919
Incendiary (L) & armour-piercing (R) rounds

References
Author's amendment and updating list, 28 July 1993 (http://www.quarry.nildram.co.uk/Woodman.htm), for
Woodman, Harry, Early Aircraft Armament: The Aeroplane and the Gun up to 1918, since published as Williams,
Anthony G. and Emmanuel Gustin, Flying Guns World War I: Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and
Installations 1914-32, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom: Crowood Press, 2003, ISBN 1-84037-396-2.
37mm and 40mm Guns in British Service (http://www.quarry.nildram.co.uk/37-40mm.htm)
The Cannon Pioneers: The Early Development and Use of Aircraft Cannon (http://www.quarry.nildram.co.uk/
cannon_pioneers.htm)
7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschtz 18 17

7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschtz 18


7,5-cm-leichtes Infanteriegeschtz
18

Type Infantry gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 193245

Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars Second World War

Production history
Designer Rheinmetall

Designed 1927

Manufacturer Rheinmetall

Produced 193245

Numberbuilt ~ 12.000

Specifications
Weight 400 kilograms (880lb)

Barrellength 88cm (3ft) L/11.2

Crew 5

Shell cased cartridge

Shell weight 6 kilograms (13lb)

Caliber 75 millimetres (3.0in)

Breech Shotgun-type block

Carriage split trail

Elevation -10 to 73

Traverse 12

Rateoffire 8-12 rpm

Muzzlevelocity 210m/s (690ft/s)

Maximumrange 3,550m (3,880yd)

The 7,5cm leichtes Infanteriegeschtz 18 (7,5cm le.IG 18) was an infantry support gun of the German
Wehrmacht used during World War II.
7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschtz 18 18

History
Development of the gun began in 1927, by Rheinmetall. The crew was protected by an armoured shield. There was a
mountain gun variant, the 7.5cm le.GebIG 18. For transport, The mountain variant could be broken down into six to
ten packs, the heaviest weighing 74.9kg. The Germans would typically assign two of these to each mountain
battalion. Six 7.5cm le.IG 18F were manufactured in 1939. These were airborne guns, capable of being broken
down into 4x140 kg loads. The airborne variant had smaller wheels and no shield. There was also an infantry support
gun, known as the 7.5cm Infanteriegeschtz L/13 which was designed as a replacement for the le.IG 18, this gun
could be broken into four to six loads. However though prototypes were tested the German army felt that it did not
improve on the existing design sufficiently to merit introduction and the army stayed with the earlier gun.

Statistics of the 7.5 cm le.IG 18 and 7.5 cm le.GebIG 18


Calibre: 75mm (2.95in)
Elevation: -10 to 73
Muzzle Velocity (w/HE shell): 210m/s (689ft/s)
Range: 3,550 m (3,882 yds)
Traverse: 12
Weight: 400kg (882lbs)
Weight of the 7.5cm le.GebIG 18: 440kg (970lbs)
Weight of HE Shell: 6kg (13.22lbs)
Weight of HC Shell: 3kg (6.6lbs)

Statistics of the 7.5 cm IG L/13


Calibre: 75mm (2.95in)
Elevation: -5 to 43
Muzzle Velocity: 305m/s (1,000ft/s)
Range: 5,100 m (5,577 yds)
Traverse: 50
Weight: 375kg (827lbs)
Weight of Shell: 6.35kg (14lbs)

References
Hogg, Ian V. German Artillery of World War Two. 2nd corrected edition. Mechanicsville, PA: Stackpole Books,
1997 ISBN 1-85367-480-X
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 37 19

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 37
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 37

At the Panzermuseum Munster

Type Infantry support gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Usedby Nazi Germany

Production history
Numberbuilt 1,304

Specifications
Weight 510kg (1,100lb)

Shell 5.45kg (12.0lb)

Caliber 75 mm (2.95 in)

Elevation 5 to +24

Traverse 60

Muzzlevelocity 280m/s (920ft/s) (common)


395m/s (1,300ft/s) (anti-tank)

Maximumrange 5,150m (5,630yd)

The 7.5cm Infanteriegeschtz 37 (7.5cm IG 37) was an infantry support gun, used by Germany, during World
War II. The guns were originally designated 7.5cm PaK 37. The IG 37s were manufactured, beginning in late 1944,
from carriages of 3.7 cm PaK 35/36s (and the nearly identical Soviet 3.7 cm PaK 158(r)) and a barrel designed
originally for the IG 42 infantry support gun. As an anti-tank weapon it used a hollow charge shell with 0.5kg of
explosives to penetrate up to 85mm with a v0 of 395m/s. The first 84 guns were delivered in June 1944. By the end
of the war 1,304 guns were operational.
While the gun carriage was an old design, the gun itself was a new design created by Krupp; though the design had
been shelved at the time of its conception. The gun had two distinctive features; first was the large four-baffle
muzzle brake and the second was the vertical sliding block breech that was considered unusual for a Krupp designed
gun. The breech operated in a semi-automatic fashion; once the gun was fired the breech block would open and eject
the spent casing and remained open to allow for rapid reloading. The breech would then be closed once the next
round was loaded and the gun was then ready to fire.
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 37 20

References
http://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Waffen/Infanteriegeschutze.htm (in German)
Engelmann, Joachim and Scheibert, Horst. Deutsche Artillerie 1934-1945: Eine Dokumentation in Text, Skizzen
und Bildern: Ausrstung, Gliederung, Ausbildung, Fhrung, Einsatz. Limburg/Lahn, Germany: C. A. Starke,
1974
Gander, Terry and Chamberlain, Peter. Weapons of the Third Reich: An Encyclopedic Survey of All Small Arms,
Artillery and Special Weapons of the German Land Forces 1939-1945. New York: Doubleday, 1979 ISBN
0-385-15090-3
Hogg, Ian V. German Artillery of World War Two. 2nd corrected edition. Mechanicsville, PA: Stackpole Books,
1997 ISBN 1-85367-480-X
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 42 21

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 42
7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 42
Type Infantry support gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Usedby Nazi Germany

Specifications
Weight 590kg (1,300lb)

Shell 5.45kg (12.0lb)

Caliber 75 mm (2.95 in)

Elevation 6 to +32

Traverse 78

Muzzlevelocity 280m/s (920ft/s)

Maximumrange 5,150m (5,630yd)

The 7.5cm Infanteriegeschtz 42 (7.5cm IG 42) was an infantry support gun, used by Germany, during World
War II. The requirement for this weapon came out of combat experience in 1940 when the existing IG 18 was felt to
be outdated.
However by the time Krupp had completed the design a hollow charge shell had been designed for the IG 18 and the
gun was not put into production.
In 1944 the requirement was raised again and the barrel from the original design was mated with the carriage from
the PAW 600 gun. An order was given for 1,450 guns.
The first IG 42s were delivered in October 1944 equipped with muzzle brakes. It is unclear how many were taken
into service until the end of the war.

References
http://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Waffen/Infanteriegeschutze.htm (in German)
Hogg, Ian V. (1975). German Artillery of World War 2. Lionel Leventhal.
Canon de 76 FRC 22

Canon de 76 FRC
Canon de 76 FRC
Placeoforigin Belgium

Service history
Usedby Belgium
Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Fonderie Royale des Canons

Numberbuilt 198

Specifications
Weight travel: 275 kg (606 lbs)
combat: 243 kg (536 lbs)

Shell 4.64 kg (10.22 lbs)

Caliber 76 millimetres (3.0in)

Elevation -6 to +80

Traverse 40

Muzzlevelocity 160 m/s (525 ft/s)

Effectiverange 2,200 m (2,406 yds)

The Canon de 76 FRC was a Belgian infantry support gun, produced by the Fonderie Royale des Canons (FRC).
The gun was typically of 76mm calibre; however, an optional 47mm barrel could be fitted instead. The gun was
designed for transport via a trailer towed by a vehicle. In 1940, the Wehrmacht redesignated these as 7.6cm IG
260(b). At the start of World War II, 198 of these guns had been produced.
7.62 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5 23

7.62 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5


7.62 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5
Type Infantry gun

Placeoforigin German Empire

Service history
Inservice 1916-1918

Usedby German Empire

Wars World War I

Production history
Designer Krupp

Manufacturer Krupp

Specifications
Weight 608 kilograms (1,340lb)

Length 2.31 metres (7ft 7in)

Barrellength 1.257 metres (4ft) L/16.5

Width 1.15 metres (3ft 9in)

Height 94cm (3ft 1in)

Shell 6 kilograms (13lb)

Caliber 76.2 mm (3 in)

Breech interrupted-screw

Carriage box trail

Elevation -18.6 to +11.5

Traverse 9.5

Muzzlevelocity 295 m/s (968 ft/s)

Effectiverange 600 metres (660yd) (canister)

Maximumrange 4,000 metres (4,400yd) (HE shell)

The 7.62cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5 was an infantry gun used by Germany in World War I.
German field guns had proven too heavy to accompany the infantry in the assault and the Germans resorted to a
variety of solutions in an effort to find something that could help the infantry deal with bunkers and other obstacles.
Enormous numbers of Russian 7.62cm Model 1910 Putilov fortress guns had been captured early in the war and
Krupp was told to adapt them for use as infantry guns. They mounted the barrel and breech of the Russian guns on a
new solid box-trail carriage with two narrow seats behind the gunshield, facing to the rear. The gun retained its
extraordinary depression of -18.6, which was a legacy of its original purpose to fire down into fortress ditches,
although its limited elevation prevented it from ranging past 2.7 kilometres (3,000yd) without digging in the trail. It
used captured Russian canister ammunition for short-range engagements, but Rheinmetall manufactured its HE shell.
It proved to be popular with its crews, who appreciated its light weight, accuracy and good effect of the shell.[1]
Unfortunately the gun wore out quickly due to the poor-quality steel used by the Russians, and this degraded its
accuracy significantly. In their desire to save weight, Krupp had lightened the carriage a bit too much and it proved
to be rather fragile in normal use. The 7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20 was intended to rectify its shortcomings, but it
7.62 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5 24

remained in use for the remainder of the war.

References
Jger, Herbert. German Artillery of World War One. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 2001
ISBN 1-86126-403-8

External links
Infanteriegeschtz L/16 on Landships [2]

Notes
[1] Jger, p. 137
[2] http:/ / www. landships. freeservers. com/ ig_76mm_krupp_l16. htm
7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20 25

7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20


7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20
Type Infantry gun

Placeoforigin German Empire

Service history
Inservice 1916-1918

Usedby German Empire

Wars World War I

Production history
Designer Krupp

Manufacturer Krupp

Specifications
Weight 815 kilograms (1,800lb)

Barrellength 1.54 metres (5ft 1in) L/20

Shell 6.85 kilograms (15.1lb)

Caliber 77 mm (3.03 in)

Breech horizontal sliding wedge

Recoil hydro-pneumatic

Carriage box trail

Elevation -7 to +30

Traverse 5.5

Muzzlevelocity approx. 400 m/s (1,312 ft/s)

Maximumrange 5,000 metres (5,500yd) (HE shell)

The 7.7cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20 was an infantry gun used by Germany in World War I. It was designed by
Krupp to rectify the shortcomings of the 7.62 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/16.5.
Krupp mounted a shortened 7.7 cm Feldkanone 96 n.A on one of their mountain howitzer carriages. It fired the full
range of ammunition of the FK 96 n.A., but generally only with a reduced charge, although it retained the capacity to
fire the old full-power charges that gave a maximum muzzle velocity of 435m/s (1427ft/s). It also used a new
full-power anti-tank round. Generally it broke down into two loads for transport, although it could break down into a
maximum of eight loads.
While generally liked by the troops it was thought to be too heavy and slow to break down and reassemble. The
German search for a better infantry gun that maximized use of existing components continued with Krupp's 7.7 cm
Infanteriegeschtz L/27.
7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20 26

References
Jger, Herbert. German Artillery of World War One. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 2001
ISBN 1-86126-403-8

7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/27


7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/27
Type Infantry gun

Placeoforigin German Empire

Service history
Inservice 1917-1918

Usedby German Empire

Wars World War I

Production history
Designer Krupp

Manufacturer Krupp

Specifications
Weight 845 kilograms (1,860lb)

Barrellength 2.08 metres (6ft 10in) L/27

Shell 6.85 kilograms (15.1lb)

Caliber 77 mm (3.03 in)

Breech horizontal sliding wedge

Carriage box trail

Elevation -15 to +12

Traverse 6

Muzzlevelocity approx 400 m/s (1,312 ft/s)

Effectiverange 4,600 metres (5,000yd)

Maximumrange 7,800 metres (8,500yd) (trail dug in)

The 7.7cm Infanteriegeschtz L/27 was an infantry gun used by Germany in World War I. It was intended to
replace the 7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20, but only saw limited service.
It was another variant of the 7.7 cm FK 96 n.A. using the tube, breech and carriage of the older gun. The carriage
was modified with smaller wheels set closer together and lacked the crew seats and lower part of the shield. It was
transported in two loads.
Only enough guns for eighteen batteries had been ordered and delivered in the Spring of 1917 as the Germans
continued their search for the ideal infantry gun by ordering the Austrian Skoda 7.5 cm Gebirgskanone 15
7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/27 27

References
Jger, Herbert. German Artillery of World War One. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: Crowood Press, 2001
ISBN 1-86126-403-8

15 cm sIG 33
15 cm sIG 33

A sIG 33 at the Belgrade Military Museum, Serbia

Type Heavy infantry gun

Placeoforigin Weimar Republic

Service history
Inservice 1927-1945

Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Designer Rheinmetall

Designed 192733

Manufacturer Rheinmetall, AEG-Fabriken, Bohemisch Waffenfabrik

Produced 19361945

Numberbuilt around 4,600

Specifications
Weight 1,800kg (4,000lb)

Length 4.42m (14ft 6in)

Barrellength 1.65m (5ft 5in) L/11

Width 2.06m (6ft 9in)

Shell cased separate-loading (6 charges)

Caliber 149.1mm (5.87in)

Breech horizontal sliding block

Recoil hydropneumatic
15 cm sIG 33 28

Carriage box trail

Elevation 0 to +73 or -4 to +75

Traverse 11.5

Rateoffire 2-3 rounds per minute


Muzzlevelocity 240m/s (790ft/s) (HE)

Effectiverange 4,700m (5,100yd)

Sights Rblf36

The 15cm sIG 33 (schweres Infanterie Geschtz 33) was the standard German heavy infantry gun used in the
Second World War. It was the largest weapon ever classified as an infantry gun by any nation.[1] Sources differ on
the development history, but the gun itself was of conventional design. Early production models were horse-drawn,
with wooden wheels. Later production models had pressed steel wheels, with solid rubber tires and air brakes for
motor towing. The sIG 33 was rather heavy for its mission and it was redesigned in the late 1930s to incorporate
light alloys in an effort to save weight. This saved about 150 kilograms (330lb), but the outbreak of war forced the
reversion back to the original design as the Luftwaffe had a higher priority for light alloys before more than a few
hundred were made. A new carriage, made entirely of light alloys, was tested around 1939, but was not accepted for
service.

Ammunition
Most of the shells used by the sIG 33 were unexceptional in design, but
the Stielgranate 42 was different in fundamental ways from ordinary
shells. The driving rod was loaded into the muzzle so that the finned
projectile remained in front of, and outside, the barrel entirely. A
special charge was loaded and would propel the projectile about a
1,000 metres (1,100yd) downrange. At about 150 metres (160yd)
distance the driving rod would separate from the projectile. Unlike
Artillerymen of the Grodeutschland Division
other Stielgranaten, this version was not intended for anti-tank use, but
loading a sIG 33
rather for the demolition of strongpoints and clearing barbed-wire
obstacles and minefields by blast effect.

Shell Type Weight Filler

I Gr 33 HE 38 kilograms (84lb) 8.3 kilograms (18lb) amatol

I Gr 38 Nb Smoke 40 kilograms (88lb) oleum/pumice

I Gr 39 Hl/A Hollow-charge 25.5 kilograms (56lb) cyclonite/TNT

Stielgranate 42 demolition 90 kilograms (200lb) 27 kilograms (60lb) amatol


15 cm sIG 33 29

Notes
[1] Hogg, p. 26

References
Chamberlain, Peter, and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz (Technical Editor). Encyclopedia of German Tanks of
World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns,
and Semi-tracked Vehicles, 19331945. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978 (revised edition 1993). ISBN
1-85409-214-6
Engelmann, Joachim and Scheibert, Horst. Deutsche Artillerie 1934-1945: Eine Dokumentation in Text, Skizzen
und Bildern: Ausrstung, Gliederung, Ausbildung, Fhrung, Einsatz. Limburg/Lahn, Germany: C. A. Starke,
1974
Gander, Terry and Chamberlain, Peter. Weapons of the Third Reich: An Encyclopedic Survey of All Small Arms,
Artillery and Special Weapons of the German Land Forces 1939-1945. New York: Doubleday, 1979 ISBN
0-385-15090-3
Hogg, Ian V. German Artillery of World War Two. 2nd corrected edition. Mechanicsville, PA: Stackpole Books,
1997 ISBN 1-85367-480-X
Trojca, Waldemar and Jaugitz, Markus. Sturmtiger and Sturmpanzer in Combat. Katowice, Poland: Model
Hobby, 2008 ISBN 978-83-60041-29-1
Infanteriegeschtze : lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de (http://www.lexikon-der-wehrmacht.de/Waffen/
Infanteriegeschutze.htm) (German)
15-cm Heavy Infantry Howitzer (http://www.lonesentry.com/manuals/german-infantry-weapons/
sig33-15-cm-heavy-infantry-howitzer.html), German Infantry Weapons, Military Intelligence Service, Special
Series No. 14, May 25, 1943.
30

Self Propelled Infantry Guns

ASU-57
ASU-57

Type Airborne Tank Destroyer / Assault Gun

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Service history
Inservice 1951

Usedby USSR
Egypt
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Ethiopia

Wars Six Day War


Ogaden War

Production history
Designer Astrov Design Bureau

Manufacturer MMZ

Produced 1950-1962

Specifications
Weight 3.4 tonnes

Length 3.48m (11ft 5in)


(with gun)

Width 2.8m (9ft 2in)

Height 1.18m (3ft 10in)


(shield up)

Crew 3+6

Armor 6 mm

Main 1x Ch-51 or Ch-51M L/73 57mm Gun


armament

Secondary 1x 7.62mm anti-aircraft machine gun


armament
ASU-57 31

Engine one M-20E4 water cooled gasoline


engine
50hp (37.29 kW) (55hp with later engine)

Suspension torsion bar


Fuelcapacity 140 liters (37 gallons)

Operational 250km (160mi)


range

Speed 45km/h (28mph)

The ASU-57 was a small, lightly constructed Soviet assault gun specifically designed for use by Soviet airborne
divisions. From 1960 it was replaced by the ASU-85.

Development history
The task to develop a light-weight airborne assault gun with 57 or 76mm gun for the airborne troops was given to
two design bureaus, Astrov (OKB-40) in Mytishchi and Kravtsev in Moscow. Nikolaj Astrov's OKB-40 designed the
ASU-76, based on components of the light tank T-70 and the SU-76 assault gun, and armed with the new 76mm gun
D-56T. The ASU-76 turned out to be too heavy, even though the armour was only 3mm thick, and the project was
cancelled. Anatoly Kravtsev's team came up with the similar, amphibious K-73. This vehicle was armed with
Charnko's 57mm anti-tank gun Ch-51 and was even more thinly armoured than the ASU-76. This project too was
shelved.
In 1949, Astrov was instructed to continue with his project, but with reduced weight and with the Ch-51 gun as main
armament instead of the D-56T since it offered better anti-tank performance. The redesigned Ob.572 was developed
simultaneously with the light artillery tractor Ob.561 (AT-P) and was accepted for series production from 1951 as
the ASU-57, after successfully passing the various test phases in 1949.

Design
The ASU-57 was designed to be a light-weight assault gun that could be
air-dropped and deployed by rocket-assisted parachute (PP-128-500 or P-7)
along with the troops. It was lightly armored and armed with a 57mm gun
Ch-51, a development of World War II ZIS-2 but with some similarities to the
Ch-26. From 1954, an improved 57mm gun Ch-51M with much shorter
double-baffle muzzle brake was fitted. The gun fired standard caliber
57x480R ammunition of the ZIS-2 anti-tank gun, such as the BR-271 series
and the O-271U, of which it had 30 on board. The ASU-57's engine was
taken from the GAZ-M-20 "Pobeda" civilian car.

The ASU-57 was a successful design, and saw service with Soviet airborne
divisions for around 20 years before being replaced by the ASU-85. During
its years of operation 54 vehicles would have been assigned to each airborne
division.
One main drawback was the vehicle's welded aluminum hull, which offered
ASU-57's paradropping sequence from little protection for the crew. However for airborne troops such vehicles are
An-12 transport plane invaluable, giving lightly armed soldiers who are isolated behind enemy lines
mobile artillery support on the battlefield.
ASU-57 32

Every vehicle was equipped with a radio 10 RT-12 and intercom system TPU-47. Late-production models (from
1961) had the R-113 and R-120, as well as a TVN-2 night vision device for the driver.

Variants
ASU-57KShM - An unknown number of
ASU-57s were converted into command
and staff vehicles (Russian:
- ). These had
the gun removed and were fitted with
additional signals equipment.
BSU-11-57F or 2T2 - Recoilless gun
carrier for the B-11 of 107mm. Prototype
only.
ASU-57P or Ob.574 - From 1951, work
on an amphibious (Russian: )
variant of the ASU-57 started. This
version had a re-designed front hull and
was armed with a Ch-51P gun with 30
ASU-57. Packed parachute system in the foreground rounds. Even though the 5 prototypes
passed the evaluation with success, series
production was never started.

References
Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres
12.7mm to 57mm [1]. Austria: Koll. p.491. ISBN978-3-200-01445-9.
Zaloga Steven J.; Hull Andrew J.; Markov David R. (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design
Practices: 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. pp.288291. ISBN1-892848-01-5.
Solyankin, A.G.; Zheltov, I.G.; Kudryashov, K.N. (2010). Otechestvenniye Bronirovanniye Mashiny - XX Vek,
Tom 3: 1946-1965. OOO "Tsejkhgauz". pp.530533. ISBN978-5-9771-0106-6.

External links
Sword of the Motherland Foundation [2]
Walkaround of ASU-57 presented in the Central Museum of Armed Forces (Moscow) [3]
Walkaround of 2T2 presented in Il'inskoye (Moscow) [4]
Walkaround of APNP-1 presented in Il'inskoye (Moscow) [5]
Poster [6]
http://modelingmadness.com/reviews/misc/vehicles/stewartasu57.htm
K-73 in Kubinka [7]
ASU-57P prototype during IDELF-2008 [8]
ASU-57 33

References
[1] http:/ / www. russianammo. org
[2] http:/ / www. russianwarrior. com/ STMMain. htm?1947vec_ASU57. htm& 1
[3] http:/ / dishmodels. com/ wshow. htm?p=854
[4] http:/ / www. dishmodels. ru/ wshow. htm?p=1843
[5] http:/ / www. dishmodels. ru/ wshow. htm?p=1845
[6] http:/ / www. tipolog. totalh. com/ img_tanks_1950_2000/ asu_ussr_asu57. jpg
[7] http:/ / museum-tank. ru/ IIIwar/ pages3/ asu57. html
[8] http:/ / vitalykuzmin. net/ ?q=node/ 84
Sturmgeschtz III 34

Sturmgeschtz III
Sturmgeschtz III Ausf. G

StuG III Ausf. F/8 (Sd.Kfz.142/1) at Belgrade Military Museum, Serbia

Type Assault gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 19401945 (German service)
StuG IIIs in Syria were in use until the Six-Day War (1967), possibly later

Usedby See Operators

Wars World War II (Continuation War)


Six-Day War

Production history
Unitcost 82,500 RM

Numberbuilt ~10,001 StuG III


[1]
~1,299 StuH 42

Specifications
Weight 23.9 tonnes (52,690 lbs)

Length 6.85m (22ft 6in)

Width 2.95m (9ft 8in)

Height 2.16m (7ft 1in)

Crew 4

Armor 16 80 mm (.62 - 3.15 in)

Main 1x 7.5 cm StuK 40 L/48


[2]
armament 54 rounds

Secondary 1x 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 34


armament 600 rounds

Engine [3]
Maybach HL 120 TRM V-12 gasoline engine driving six-speed transmission
300 PS (296 hp, 221 kW)

Power/weight 12.6 PS/tonne


Sturmgeschtz III 35

Suspension torsion bar

Operational 155km (96mi) (.9mpg-US (1.1mpg-imp; 260L/100km) at 22mph (35km/h), 71USgal (59impgal; 270l)
[4]
range fuel)

Speed 40 km/h (25 mph)

The Sturmgeschtz III (StuG III) assault gun was Germany's most produced armoured fighting vehicle during
World War II. It was built on the chassis of the proven Panzer III tank. Initially intended as a mobile, armoured light
gun for infantry support, the StuG was continually modified and was widely employed as a tank destroyer.

Development
The Sturmgeschtz III originated from German experiences in World War I when it was discovered that during the
offensives on the western front the infantry lacked the means to effectively engage fortifications. The artillery of the
time was heavy and not mobile enough to keep up with the advancing infantry to destroy bunkers, pillboxes, and
other minor obstacles with direct fire. Although the problem was well known in the German army, it was General
Erich von Manstein who is considered the father of the Sturmartillerie. This is because the initial proposal was from
(then) Colonel Erich von Manstein and submitted to General Ludwig Beck in 1935, suggesting that Sturmartillerie
("assault artillery") units should be used in a direct-fire support role for infantry divisions. On June 15, 1936,
Daimler-Benz AG received an order to develop an armoured infantry support vehicle capable of mounting a 75mm
(2.95in) artillery piece. The gun mount's fixed, fully integrated casemate superstructure was to allow a limited
traverse of a minimum of 25[5] and provided overhead protection for the crew. The height of the vehicle was not to
exceed that of the average man.
Daimler-Benz AG used the chassis and running gear of its recently designed Panzerkampfwagen III medium tank as
a basis for the new vehicle. Prototype manufacture was passed over to Alkett, which produced five prototypes in
1937 on Panzer III Ausf. B chassis. These prototypes featured a mild steel superstructure and Krupps short-barreled
75mm StuK37L/24 cannon. Production vehicles with this gun were known as StuG III Ausfhrung (version) A to
E.
While the StuG III was considered self-propelled artillery it was not
initially clear which arm of the Wehrmacht would handle the new
weapon. The Panzer arm, the natural user of tracked fighting vehicles,
had no resources to spare for the formation of StuG units, and neither
did the infantry branch. It was agreed, after a discussion, it would best
StuG III, Ausf. A
be employed as part of the artillery arm.

The StuGs were organized into battalions (later renamed "brigades" for disinformation purposes) and followed their
own specific doctrine. Infantry support using direct-fire was its intended role. Later there was also a strong emphasis
on destroying enemy armour whenever encountered.
As the StuG III was designed to fill an infantry close support combat
role, early models were fitted with a low-velocity 75mm StuK37L/24
gun to destroy soft-skin targets and fortifications. After the Germans
encountered the Soviet KV-1 and T-34 tanks, the StuG III was first
equipped with a high-velocity 75mm StuK40L/43 main gun (Spring
1942) and in Autumn 1942 with the slightly longer 75mm
StuK40L/48 gun. These versions were known as the Sturmgeschtz
StuG III, Ausf. G, September 1944 40 Ausfhrung F, Ausf. F/8 and Ausf. G.
Sturmgeschtz III 36

When the StuG IV entered production in late 1943 and early 1944, the "III" was added to the name to separate it
from the Panzer IV-based assault guns. All previous and following models were thereafter known as Sturmgeschtz
III.
Beginning with the StuG III Ausf. G, a 7.92 mm MG34 could be mounted on a shield on top of the superstructure for
added anti-infantry protection from December 1942. Some of the F/8 models were retrofitted with a shield as well.
Many of the later StuG III Ausf. G models were equipped with an additional coaxial 7.92mm MG34.
The vehicles of the Sturmgeschtz series were cheaper and faster to build than contemporary German tanks; at
82,500 RM, a StuG III Ausf G was cheaper than a Panzer III Ausf. M, which cost 103,163 RM. This was due to the
omission of the turret, which greatly simplified manufacture and allowed the chassis to carry a larger gun than it
could otherwise. By the end of the war, ~11,300 StuG IIIs and StuH 42s had been built.[6]

Operational history
Overall, Sturmgeschtz series assault guns proved very successful and
served on all fronts as assault guns and tank destroyers. Although
Tigers and Panthers have earned a greater notoriety, assault guns
collectively destroyed more tanks. Because of their low silhouette,
StuG IIIs were easy to camouflage and a difficult target. Sturmgeschtz
crews were considered to be the elite of the artillery units.
Sturmgeschtz units claimed to have knocked out 20,000 tanks by
1944.[7]Wikipedia:Please clarify As of April 10, 1945, there were
StuG III in the Soviet Union, 1941.
1,053 StuG IIIs and 277 StuH 42s in service.

The StuG assault guns were cost-effective compared to the heavier


German tanks, though in the anti-tank role they were best used
defensively, as the lack of a traversable turret was a severe
disadvantage in the assault role. As the German military situation
deteriorated later in the war, more StuG guns were built compared to
tanks, to replace losses and bolster defenses against the encroaching
Allied forces.
In 1943 and 1944, the Finnish Army received a total of 59 StuG III
A StuG III destroyed in Normandy, 1944.
Ausf. Gs from Germany and used them against the Soviet Union.
Thirty of the vehicles were received in 1943 and 29 in 1944. The 1943
batch destroyed at least 87 enemy tanks for a loss of only 8 StuGs[7] (some of which were destroyed by their crews to
avoid capture). The 1944 batch saw no real action. After the war, the StuGs were the main combat vehicles of the
Finnish Army until the early 1960s. These StuGs gained the nickname "Sturmi" which can be found in some plastic
kit models.

100 StuG III Ausf. G were delivered to Romania in the autumn of 1943. They were officially known as TAs (or TAs
T3 to avoid confusion with TAs T4) in the army inventory. By February 1945, 13 units were still in use with the 2nd
Armoured Regiment. None of this initial batch survived the end of the war.[8] 31 TAs were on the army inventory in
November 1947. Most of them were probably StuG III Ausf. G and a small number of Panzer IV/70 (V), known as
TAs T4. These TAs were supplied by the Red Army or were damaged units repaired by the Romanian Army.[9] All
German equipment was scrapped in 1954 due to the Army's decision to use Soviet armour.
StuG IIIs were also exported to other nations such as Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, and Spain.
Many German Sturmgeschtz IIIs were stranded in Yugoslavia after the war. These were used by the Yugoslav
Peoples Army until the 1950s.
Sturmgeschtz III 37

After the Second World War the Soviet Union donated some of their captured German vehicles to Syria, which
continued to use them along with other war surplus AFVs (like long-barreled Panzer IVs and T-34/85s) during the
1950s and up until the War over Water against Israel in the mid-1960s. By the time of the Six Days War all of them
had been either destroyed, stripped for spare parts, or interred on the Golan Heights as static pillboxes.

Variants
Production numbers from Panzer Tracts 23

StuG III prototypes (1937, 5 produced on Panzer III Ausf. B


chassis): By December 1937 two vehicles were in service with
Panzer Regiment 1 in Erfurt. Vehicles had eight road wheels per
side with 360-millimetre (14in) wide tracks, 14.5mm thick soft
steel superstructure and the 7.5 cm StuK 37 L/24 gun. Although not StuG III Ausf. G in Yad la-Shiryon museum,
suitable for combat, they were used for training purposes as late as Israel.

1941.

StuG III Ausf. A (Sd.Kfz. 142; January 1940-May 1940, 30+6 produced by Daimler-Benz): First used in the
Battle of France, the StuG III Ausf. A used a modified 5./ZW chassis (Panzer III Ausf. F) with front armor
strengthened to 50mm. The last six vehicles were built on chassis diverted from Panzer III Ausf. G production.
StuG III Ausf. B: (Sd.Kfz 142; June 1940-May 1941, 300 produced by Alkett) Widened tracks (380mm). Two
Rubber tires on each roadwheel were accordingly widened from 520x79mm to 520x95mm each. Both types of
roadwheels were interchangeable. The troublesome 10-speed transmission was changed to a 6-speed one. The
forwardmost return rollers were re-positioned further forward, reducing the vertical movements of the tracks
before they were fed to the forward drive sprocket, and so reduced the chance of tracks being thrown. In the
middle of production of the Ausf. B model, the original drive sprocket with eight round holes was changed to a
new cast drive sprocket with six pie slice-shaped slots. This new drive wheel could take either 380mm tracks or
400mm wide tracks. 380mm tracks were not exclusive to new drive wheels. Vehicle number 90111 shows older
drive wheel with wider 380mm tracks.
StuG III Ausf. C: (Sd.Kfz 142; April 1941, 50 produced) Gunner's forward view port above driver's visor was a
shot trap and thus eliminated; instead, superstructure top was given an opening for gunner's periscope. Idler wheel
was redesigned.
StuG III Ausf. D: (Sd.Kfz 142; MaySeptember 1941, 150 produced) Simply a contract extension on Ausf. C.
On-board intercom installed, otherwise identical to Ausf. C.
StuG III Ausf. E: (Sd.Kfz 142; September 1941-February 1942, 284 produced) Superstructure sides added
extended rectangular armored boxes for radio equipment. Increased space allowed room for six additional rounds
of ammunition for the main gun (giving a maximum of 50) plus a machine gun. One MG 34 and 7 drum-type
magazines were carried in the right rear side of the fighting compartment to protect the vehicle from enemy
infantry. Vehicle commanders were officially provided with SF14Z stereoscopic scissor periscopes. Stereoscopic
scissor type periscopes for artillery spotters may have been used by vehicle commanders from the start.
StuG III Ausf. F: (Sd.Kfz 142/1; MarchSeptember 1942, 366 produced) The first real up-gunning of the StuG,
this version uses the longer 7.5 cm StuK 40 L/43 gun. Firing armor-piercing Panzergranat-Patrone 39,
StuK40L/43 could penetrate 91mm of armor inclined 30 degrees from vertical at 500m, 82mm at 1,000m,
72mm at 1,500m, 63mm at 2,000m, allowing Ausf. F to engage most Soviet armored vehicles at normal
combat ranges. This change marked the StuG as being more of a tank destroyer than an infantry support vehicle.
Exhaust fan was added to the rooftop to excavate fumes from spent shells, to enable firing of continuous shots.
Additional 30mm armor plates were welded to the 50mm frontal armor from June 1942, making frontal armors
80mm thick. From June 1942, Ausf. F were mounted with approximately 13inch (334mm to be exact) longer
7.5cm StuK40L/48 gun. Firing above mentioned ammunition, longer L/48 could penetrate 96mm, 85mm,
Sturmgeschtz III 38

74mm, 64mm respectively (30 degrees from vertical).


StuG III Ausf. F/8: (Sd.Kfz 142/1; SeptemberDecember 1942, 250 produced) Introduction of an improved hull
design similar to that used for the Panzer III Ausf. J / L with increased rear armor. This was 8th version of Panzer
III hulls, thus the designation "F/8." This hull has towing hook holes extending from side walls. From October
1942, 30mm thick plates of additional armor were bolted on to speed up the production line. From F/8, the 7.5
cm StuK 40 L/48 gun was standard until the very last of the Ausf. G. Due to lack of double baffle muzzle brakes,
few L/48 guns mounted on F/8 were fitted with single baffle ball type muzzle brake found in Panzer IV Ausf.
F2/G.
StuG III Ausf. G (Sd.Kfz. 142/1; December 1942 April 1945, ~8423 produced, 142 built on Panzer III Ausf. M
chassis, 173 converted from Panzer III): The final and by far the most common of the StuG series. Upper
superstructure was widened: welded boxes on either sides were abandoned. This new superstructure design
increased its height to 2160mm. Backside wall of the fighting compartment got straightened, and ventilation fan
on top of the superstructure was relocated to the back of fighting compartment. From March 1943, driver's
periscope was abandoned. In February 1943 Alkett was joined by MIAG as second manufacturer. From May
1943, side hull skirts (schurzen) were fitted to G models for added armor protection, particularly against Russian
anti-tank rifles, but were also useful against hollow-charge ammunition. Side skirts were retro-fitted to some
Ausf. F/8 models, as they were be fitted to all front line StuGs and other tanks by June 1943 in preparation for the
battle of Kursk. Mountings for side skirts proved inadequate, many were lost in the field. From March 1944,
improved mounting was introduced, as a result side skirts are seen more often with late model Ausf G. From May
1943, 80mm thick plates were used for frontal armor instead of two plates of 50mm+30mm. However, backlog of
completed 50mm armors exited. For those, 30mm additional armors still had to be welded or bolted on, until
October 1943.
A rotating cupola with periscopes was added for the commander for Ausf G. However, from September 1943, lack
of ball bearings (resulting from USAAF bombing of SchweinfurtRegensburg mission) forced cupolas to be welded
on. Ball bearings were once again installed from August 1944. Shot deflectors for cupolas were first installed from
October 1943 from one factory, to be installed on all StuGs from February 1944. Some vehicles without shot
deflectors carried several track pieces wired around the cupola for added protection.
From December 1942, a square machine gun shield for the loader was installed, allowing an MG 34 to be factory
installed on a StuG for the first time. F/8 models had machine gun shields retro-fitted from early 1943. The loader's
machine gun shield was later replaced by rotating machine gun mount that could be operated by the loader inside the
vehicle sighting through a periscope. On April 1944, 27 of them were being field tested on the Eastern front.
Favorable report lead to installation of these "remote" machine gun mounts from the summer of 1944.
Later G versions from November 1943, were fitted with the Topfblende pot mantlet (often called Saukopf "Pig's
head") gun mantlet without coaxial mount. This cast mantlet with organic shape was more effective at deflecting
shots than the original boxy mantlet armor of varying thickness between 45mm and 50mm. Lack of large castings
meant that the trapezoid-shape mantlet was also produced until the very end. Coaxial machine gun was added first to
boxy mantlets from June 1944, and then to cast Topfblende from October 1944, in the middle of "Topfblende"
mantlet production. With an addition of coaxial, all StuGs carried two MG 34 machine guns from fall of 1944. Some
previously completed StuGs with boxy mantlet had a coaxial machine gun hole drilled to retrofit a coaxial machine
gun, while Topfblende produced from Nov. 1943 - Oct. 1944 without machine gun opening could not be tampered.
Also from Nov.1943, all metal return rollers of a few different types were used due to lack of rubber supply.
Zimmerit anti-magnetic coating to protect vehicles from magnetic mines were used from September 1943-September
1944 only.
Further variants
Sturmgeschtz III 39

In 1942, a variant of the StuG III Ausf. F was designed with a 105mm
(4.1in) howitzer instead of the 7.5cm StuK 40 L/43 cannon. These
new vehicles, designated StuH 42 (Sturmhaubitze 42, Sd.Kfz 142/2),
were designed to provide infantry support with the increased number
of StuG III Ausf. F/8 and Ausf. Gs being used in the anti-tank role. The
StuH 42 mounted a variant of the 10.5 cm leFH 18 howitzer, modified
to be electrically fired and fitted with a muzzle brake. Production
models were built on StuG III Ausf. G chassis. The muzzle brake was
Sturmhaubitze III, Variant G
often omitted due to the scarcity of resources later in the war. ~1,299
StuH 42 were produced by Alkett from March 1943 to 1945, the initial
12 vehicles were built on repaired StuG III Ausf. F and F/8 from autumn 1942 to January 1943.

In 1943, 10 StuG IIIs were converted to StuG III (Flamm) configuration by replacing the main gun with a Schwade
flamethrower. These chassis were all refurbished at the depot level and were a variety of pre-Ausf. F models. There
are no reports to indicate any of these were used in combat and all were returned to Ausf. G standard at depot level
by 1944.
In late 1941 the StuG III chassis was selected to carry the 15 cm sIG 33 heavy infantry gun. These vehicles were
known as Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B. Twenty-four were rebuilt on older StuG III chassis of which twelve
vehicles saw combat in the Battle of Stalingrad where they were destroyed or captured. The remaining 12 vehicles
were assigned to 23rd Panzer Division.
Due to dwindling supply of rubber, rubber saving road wheels were tested during 814 November 1942, but did not
see production.
Bombing raids on Alkett factory resulted in significant drops in StuG III production in November 1943. To make up
for the loss of production, Krupp displayed a substitution StuG on Panzer IV chassis to Hitler on 1617 December
1943. From January 1944, the StuG IV, based on the Panzer IV chassis and with a slightly modified StuG III
superstructure entered production.
Field modifications were made to increase the vehicle's survivability, resulting in diversity to already numerous
variants: cement plastered on front superstructure, older Ausf.C/D retrofitted with a KwK 40 L/48 gun, Ausf.G
mounting Panzer IV cupola, a coaxial MG34 through a hole drilled on a boxy mantlet.
The Soviet SU-76i self-propelled gun was based on captured StuG III and Panzer III vehicles.[7] In total, Factory #37
in Sverdlovsk manufactured 181 SU-76i plus 20 commander SU-76i for Red Army service by adding an enclosed
superstructure and the 76.2mm S-1 tank gun.
Approximately 10,001 StuG IIIs of various types were produced from 1940 to 1945 by Alkett (~7500) and from
1943 to 1945 by MIAG (2586). From April to July 173 older Panzer III were converted to StuG III Ausf. G standard.
The ~1299 StuH 42 and the 12 conversions from StuG III were solely built by Alkett.

Operators
Nazi Germany
Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Finland
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Italy
Norway - Surrendered German equipment was used from 1947 to 1951[10]
Spanish State (In 1943, received 10 units and used until 1954)
Sturmgeschtz III 40

Sweden - one StuG IIID received from Norway in 1947, used for trials and testing of anti-tank mines, one
StuG IIIG used for spare parts[11]
Syria
Turkey
Soviet Union (for testing and modifications)
SFR Yugoslavia

References

Notes
[1] Thomas L.Jentz, Hillary Louis Doyle: Panzer Tracts No.23 - Panzer Production from 1933 to 1945
[2] Military Intelligence Service, Artillery in the Desert (Department of War, 25 November 1942), p.19, says boxes for 44 rounds plus 40
"stacked on the floor at the loader's station".
[3] Military Intelligence Service, Artillery in the Desert p.19.
[4] Military Intelligence Service, Artillery in the Desert, p.19.
[5] Military Intelligence Service, Artillery in the Desert (Department of War, 25 November 1942), p.19, says depression 5, elevation 20,
traverse only 20 on a captured sample.
[6] Sturmgeschtz (http:/ / www. wwiivehicles. com/ germany/ self-propelled/ sturmgeschutz. asp) wwiivehicles.com
[7] Sturmgeschtz III/IV (http:/ / www. achtungpanzer. com/ stug. htm) achtungpanzer.com
[8] Scafes and Serbanescu 2005, p.77
[9] Scafes and Serbanescu 2005, p.47
[10] http:/ / www. armchairgeneral. com/ panzer-tanks-found-in-norway. htm
[11] Sturmgeschtz III Ausf D. (http:/ / www. sphf. se/ Axvall/ StugIIID. htm) Pansarmuseet i Axvall

Bibliography
Peter Mueller, Wolfgang Zimmermann: Sturmgeschtz III - Backbone of the German Infantry History Facts
(http://www.historyfacts.biz/en/04_Publikationen/11_SturmGeschuetzIII.htm)
Walter J. Spielberger. Sturmgeschtz & Its variants - Schiffer Military History - ISBN 0-88740-398-0
Scafes, Cornel I; Scafes, Ioan I; Serbanescu, Horia Vl (2005). Trupele Blindate din Armata Romana 1919-1947.
Bucuresti: Editura Oscar Print.
Military Intelligence Service. Artillery in the Desert (Special Series #6, MIS 416). Department of War,
Washington, DC. 25 November 1942. Artillery in the Desert (http://www.lonesentry.com/manuals/
artillery-in-the-desert/)

External links
Information about the Sturmgeschtz III at Panzerworld (http://www.panzerworld.net/stugiii.html)
Sturmgeschtz III / IV (http://www.achtungpanzer.com/stug.htm) at Achtung Panzer!
Sturmgeschutz III (http://www.williammaloney.com/Aviation/CanadianWarMuseum/Sturmgeschutz/index.
htm) Photos of the Sturmgeschutz III at the Canada War Museum in Ottawa, Canada
AFV Database (http://afvdb.50megs.com/germany/stug3.html)
LemaireSoft (http://users.swing.be/tanks.tanks/complet/688.html)
OnWar model specifications: A (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfstug3a.htm) B (http://www.
onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfstug3b.htm) D (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfstug3d.htm) E
(http://www.onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfstug3e.htm) F (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfstug3f.
htm) G (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfstug3g.htm)
Sturmgeschutz - World War II Vehicles (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/self-propelled/
sturmgeschutz.asp)
WarGamer (http://www.wargamer.com/Hosted/Panzer/stug.htm)
Sturmgeschtz III 41

Surviving Sturmgeschtz III and Sturmhaubitze 42 tanks (http://the.shadock.free.fr/Surviving_StuG_StuH.


pdf) - A PDF file presenting the Sturmgeschtz III and Sturmhaubitze 42 tanks still existing in the world
Sturmgeschtze vor! (http://www.StuGIII.com) Info on Sturmgeschtz and Panzerjaeger
Video of a Sturmgeschtz III being recovered from a Russian bog in 2013 (http://www.liveleak.com/
view?i=a29_1365428724)
Sturmgeschtz IV 42

Sturmgeschtz IV
Sturmgeschtz IV

Type Assault gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Fried. Krupp Grusonwerk AG, Magdeburg-Buckau

Produced late 1943 - 1945

Numberbuilt 1,108 +31 conversions

Specifications
Weight 23 tonnes (50,705 lbs)

Length 6.7m (20ft)

Width 2.95m (9ft 8in)

Height 2.20m (7ft 3in)

Crew 4 (Commander, Gunner, Loader, Driver)

Armor 10 - 80 mm (.39 - 3.14 in)

Main 1x 7.5 cm StuK 40 L/48


armament 63 rounds

Secondary 1x 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 34


armament 600 rounds

Engine V12-cylinder Maybach HL 120 TRM


300 PS (296 hp, 220.6 kW)

Transmission ZF SSG 76 Aphon

Suspension leaf spring

Groundclearance 40.0 cm (12ft 4 in)

Fuelcapacity 430 L or 110 galWikipedia:Please clarify


Sturmgeschtz IV 43

Operational 210 km (130 mi)


range

Speed 40 km/h (25 mph)

The Sturmgeschtz IV (StuG IV) (Sd.Kfz. 167), was a German assault gun variant of the Panzer IV used in the
mid-late period of the Second World War. Identical in role and concept to the highly successful StuG III assault gun
variant of the Panzer III, both StuG models were quickly transitioned to a full-time tank destroyer role in the German
retreats following the Battle of Kursk.

Development
The Sturmgeschtz IV resulted from Krupp's effort to supply an assault
gun. As Krupp did not build Panzerkampfwagen IIIs, they used the
Panzerkampfwagen IV chassis in combination with a slightly modified
Sturmgeschtz III superstructure.
Initial Project The first known proposal for a Sturmgeschtz on the
Panzer IV chassis is in Krupp drawing number W1468 dated
February 1943. This initial drawing unitized the outdated
A StuG IV destroyed and abandoned in
Sturmgeschtz Ausf. F superstructure on a Panzer IV chassis 9. This
Normandy, 1944. proposal had a sloped front superstructure with a combat weight of
28.26 tons. Krupp abandoned it in February 1943 because it was too
heavy. Plans for the StuG IV were halted.

Another Project During the Fhrer Conference of August 1922, 1943, after the battle of Kursk, Hitler had seen
reports of the StuG III performing superior to the Panzer IV within certain restraints of how they were deployed.
Convinced that a tank-hunter version would be superior to the tank version, Hitler planned to switch Panzer IV
production to "Panzerjger IV" production as soon as possible. It was to mount the same 7.5cm L/70 used for the
Panther. Another manufacturer, Vomag built a prototype Panzerjger IV with 7.5cm L/48 gun and demonstrated
it on October 20, 1943. It was later re-designated as Jagdpanzer IV Ausf. F. As the Jagdpanzer IV was already
being produced by Vomag, the StuG IV may not have materialized, had it not been for the major disruption of
StuG III production, and the scarce supply of the 7.5cm L/70 gun designated for the Jagdpanzer IV.
Restart of the StuG IV In November 1943, Alkett, a major StuG III manufacturer, was bombed. Alkett produced
255 StuG III in October 1943, but in December fell to just 24 vehicles. On December 67, 1943, at a conference
with Hitler, he welcomed the suggestion of taking the StuG III superstructure and mounting it on a Panzer IV
chassis. The StuG IV could be more quickly manufactured than the Jagdpanzer IV at the time. This restarted the
Sturmgeschtz IV project. This time, the superstructure of the StuG III Ausf. G was mounted on a Panzer IV
chassis 7, with a box compartment for the driver added. Combat weight was 23000kg, lighter than the 23900kg
for the StuG III Ausf. G. On Dec. 16-17, 1943, Hitler was shown the StuG IV, and approved it. To make up for
the large deficit in StuG III production, StuG IV production received full support.
From December 1943 to May 1945, Krupp built 1,108 StuG IVs and converted an additional 31 from battle-damaged
Panzer IV hulls. While the number is smaller than the 9000+ StuG III, the StuG IV supplemented and fought along
with StuG III during 1944-45, when they were most needed.
The StuG IV became known as an effective tank killer, especially on the Eastern Front.
It had a four-man crew, and was issued mainly to infantry divisions.
Commander in hull left rear
Gunner in hull left center
Loader in hull right rear
Sturmgeschtz IV 44

Driver in hull left front

Surviving vehicles
There are presently three surviving examples of the StuG IV.
Poland.
Held by the Muzeum im. Orla Bialego. It's a makeshift restoration using a StuG IV hull and various parts from
Stug IIIs and Panzer IVs.
Held by the Armoured Warfare Museum in Pozna. It's complete and in running condition.[1]
Latvia.
In October 2011, a StuG IV that was found in a swamp in the former Courland Pocket was restored by a
Latvian enthusiast. This vehicle with no engine or gearbox, was offered for sale on milweb.net at an asking
price of 425,000 Euros. It was also listed on eBay with a "Buy It Now" price of 900,000 US Dollars.[2]

External links
Full panorama of external and internal StuG IV [3]
StuG IV restoration homepage (Latvia) [4]
StuG IV restoration homepage (Polish) [5]
AFV Database - Dimensions [6]
Panzer World [7]
OnWar [8]
Sturmgeschtz III / IV [9] at Achtung Panzer!
Surviving Panzer IV variants [10] - A PDF file presenting the Panzer IV variants (Jagdpanzer IV, Hummel,
Nashorn, Brummbr, StuG IV, Flakpanzer tanks and prototypes based on Pz IV) still existing in the world.

References
[1] http:/ / moto. onet. pl/ 1569257,1,300-litrow-na-100-kilometrow,artykul. html?node=2
[2] http:/ / cgi. ebay. com/ ebaymotors/ German-Stug-IV-Sturmgeschutz-IV-WW2-/ 290789360443
[3] http:/ / www. wirtualne. muzeumbronipancernej. pl/
[4] http:/ / tanksale. eu/
[5] http:/ / sturmgeschutziv. pl/
[6] http:/ / afvdb. 50megs. com/ germany/ stug4. html
[7] http:/ / www. panzerworld. net/ stugiv. html
[8] http:/ / www. onwar. com/ tanks/ germany/ tfstug4. htm
[9] http:/ / www. achtungpanzer. com/ stug. htm
[10] http:/ / the. shadock. free. fr/ Surviving_Panzer_IV_variants. pdf
Semovente 75/18 45

Semovente 75/18
Semovente 75/18

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Italy

Service history
Inservice 1942-1945

Usedby Italy
Wars World War II

Production history
Designed 1941

Numberbuilt 262

Variants M13/40 or M14/41 chassis

Specifications
Weight 14.4 tonnes (31,746 lbs)

Length 4.92m (16ft 2in)

Width 2.2 m (7 ft 3 inches)

Height 1.85 m (6 ft 1 inch)

Crew 3 (commander/gunner, driver, loader/radio operator)

Armor Front: 50 mm (2 in)

Main 75 mm Obice da 75/18 modello 34


armament 44 rounds

Secondary 8 mm Breda Model 38 or 6.5 mm Breda Model 30 machine gun


armament

Engine Diesel
125 hp/145 hp (93 kW/108 kW)

Suspension semi-elliptical leaf spring bogies

Operational 230 km (143 mi)


range
Semovente 75/18 46

Speed 32 km/h (20 mph)

The Semovente 75/18 was an Italian self-propelled gun of the Second World War. It was built by mounting the
75mm Obice da 75/18 modello 34 mountain gun on the chassis of a M13/40 or M14/41 tank. The first 60 were built
using the M13/40 chassis and a subsequent 162 were built on the M14/41 chassis from 1941 onwards. The
Semovente 75/18 was intended to be an interim vehicle until the heavier P40 tank could be available.

History
An Italian artillery Colonel named Sergio Berlese (who designed the Obice da 75/18 modello 34) suggested that Italy
should create an armoured fighting vehicle similar to the German StuG III, which had been successful in the French
campaign. The first prototype was quickly assembled and delivered, on February 10, 1941, only 13 months after the
first M13/40 tank upon which it was based. After that, 60 more examples were ordered. They were delivered in
1941, and were then shipped to North Africa in January 1942. This initial batch was based on the M13 chassis, with
its weak 125hp engine (later to be replaced by one of 145hp, with M14 chassis).
Structurally, this self-propelled gun was built with riveted steel plates, which were thicker but also less sloped than
in the original tank (50mm as against 42mm max). Frontal armour was almost vertical, but it consisted of two plates
that strengthened it when compared to a simple homogeneous steel plate.

Mechanics and technology


The vehicle had its crew compartment and drive section forward, in a
large and low casemate. The engine was situated behind it, in a typical
Italian design fashion. The engine compartment was not included in the
same structure with the same width and height of the crew's space, but
rather in a separate structure, which was sloped, somewhat smaller and
had inspection panels on the roof. The mechanics were similar to those
of M13/40 tanks, with eight small wheels in four trolleys which were
Semovente 75/18 during the North African joined in pairs by two arms. Suspensions were of the leaf spring type,
Campaign, 1942. which was reliable, but had low performance for speed. The
transmission was located in the forward part of the vehicle, and the
crew consisted of only three members: driver, gunner, and tank commander.

The main gun was a derivative of a 75/18mm gun, itself a quite modern divisional artillery piece. It was 18 calibers
long, with 40 traverse and -12/+22 elevation. The gun had a muzzle brake, and there were several observation and
aiming systems (binoculars, periscopes and others) for the crew. The low muzzle velocity (around 450m/s) meant a
relative short range, 9,500m at best elevation of 45 degrees, but the installation allowed only 22 and so the range
was limited to around 78km. The range in direct fire mode was also limited, especially against moving targets, for
the same reason. Only one roof-mounted machine gun was fitted for close defense, though sometimes it was omitted.
Initially this was a 6.5mm Breda, later upgraded to an 8mm model. Ammunition load was typically 44
Semovente 75/18 47

75mm shells and 1,108 8mm cartridges. A model RF1 CA with


interphone radio was usually fitted, with the gunner also serving as
radio-operator.

Service
Although these machines were not widely known, the vehicle
performed well in its role. Though it was technically similar to the
StuG III, it had a totally different role, serving as divisional artillery
instead of a pure assault gun. The organic structure consisted of two
artillery groups for every armoured division, with two batteries each
(four 75/18 each and a command vehicle). The total was of 18
75/18mm (included two in reserve) and 9 command vehicles, which
were characterized by additional radio equipment and a 13mm
machine gun mounted instead of the main gun. The number originally
ordered, 60 total, was enough for the three armoured divisions.

1943 photograph of a Semovente 75/18 in Italy.


The photograph features a good view of the
75mm main armament.

The Semovente 75/18s were widely deployed in the North African campaign and during the Allied invasion of
Sicily, alongside M13/40 units to provide additional firepower. In North Africa they were quite effective against the
US built M3 Grant and M4 Sherman tanks used by the British Army.
Originally, these Italian vehicles were meant as divisional artillery, but since they sported fully enclosed fighting
compartments, they were well protected enough for front-line action. They could fire as indirect support, and if
necessary, also act as an assault gun and anti-tank vehicle. It could be used with HE, AP and HEAT shells, and with
these latter the vehicle was powerful enough to defeat Allied tanks such as the M4 Sherman. In fact, these machines
were responsible for many of the successes by the Italian armoured troops during 1942-43.
In 1942, more vehicles were built: 132 or 146, but all with the M41 hull. They fought mainly in a defensive role, as
their lack of turret and low profile made them ideal for this task.
The SPG 75/18 was a successful design, and despite the modest quality of Italian armoured vehicles, it performed
well in service. It was employed by Italian artillery in a very innovative fashion, because these were the first SPGs
employed at a divisional level. However, the rest of Italian army was seriously lacking in mobility for its artillery
and these few machines (not debuting in combat until 1942) could not change the overall deficiency.
The capabilities of the 75mm HEAT round were significant because this was the only weapon mounted in Italian
AFVs that was able to defeat the heavier enemy vehicles, with the likely exception of the Churchill tanks. Without
this shell, the 75/18 was not as impressive, due to the low AP velocity and range.
For a self-propelled gun, its ammunition load was barely enough, as were the power and the range of the gun. The
taller and open-topped later vehicles such as the M7 Priest, Sexton, and Wespe, had superior ammo loads and range.
The rate of fire for the SPG 75/18 was quite slow, due to the limitations of the 3 man crew. The lack of a coaxial
machine gun was also an important difference with respect to a 'real tank'. Only in 1943 were tracked supply vehicles
utilized, carrying 99 shells to quickly reload these SPGs. The quantity produced, although not low by Italian
standards, was nonetheless insufficient for the dual role of tank-SPG.
Starting in 1942, these vehicles fought in all of the important desert battles, with the apex at the Second Battle of El
Alamein until the retreat to Tunisia, serving mainly as direct fire anti-tank and fire support.
Semovente 75/18 48

The necessity for a longer and more powerful gun led to the development of the 75/34, 75/46 and 105/25 SPGs.

German use
After the Italian surrender in 1943, 123 Semovente 75/18 were seized
by the Germans and they continued production of another 55. They
were issued to six infantry divisions, two panzer divisions, three
Panzergrenadier divisions, 22 SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Maria
Theresa[1] and one Gebirgsdivision intended for service in Italy and the
Balkans.

References
Notes
[1] Grey Wolf, Battlefront Miniatures, 2011

Bibliography
Pignato, Nicola. Storia dei mezzi corazzati II. Fratelli Fabbri editori.
pp.208214.

Further reading
Semovente 75/18 with German troops in Albania, Leland Ness (2002) Jane's World War II Tanks and Fighting
September 1943. Vehicles: The Complete Guide, Harper Collins, London and New
York, ISBN 0-00-711228-9

External links
Semovente da 75/18 Su Scafo M 41 (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/italy/self-propelled-guns/
semovente-m41.asp) at wwiivehicles.com
SEMOVENTE da 75/18 (http://www.comandosupremo.com/Semovente7518.html) at comandosupremo.com
http://www.flamesofwar.com/Default.aspx?tabid=112&art_id=244
Semovente 75/34 49

Semovente 75/34
Semovente 75/34

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Italy

Service history
Inservice 1943

Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Fiat-Ansaldo

Produced 1942-1943

Numberbuilt 190

Specifications
Weight 15 tonnes (33,069 lbs)

Length 5.04m (16ft 6in)

Width 2.23m (7ft 4in)

Height 1.8m (5ft 11in)

Crew 3 (commander/gunner, driver, loader/radio operator)

Armor Front: 50mm (2in)

Main 75 mm L34 gun


armament

Secondary 8 mm Breda 38 machine gun


armament

Engine SPA M15 (15TB) V8


192 hp (143.17 kW)

Power/weight 12.7 hp/ton

Suspension vertical volute spring

Operational 230 km (143 mi)


range
Semovente 75/34 50

Speed 40 km/h (25 mph)

The Semovente 75/34 was an Italian self-propelled gun in use during World War II. It was built by mounting a
75mm L34 gun (a longer gun than that on the Semovente 75/18) on the chassis of a M15/42 tank. 192 were built
before the Italian surrender in September 1943. The vehicle was never used in combat by the Italian army. Most
were seized by German troops after Italy's surrender and used against the Allies in Italy and the Balkans until the end
of the war.

External links
Semovente da 75/34 [1] at wwiivehicles.com
SEMOVENTE da 75/34 [2] at comandosupremo.com
Semovente da 75/34 [3] at onwar.com

References
[1] http:/ / www. wwiivehicles. com/ italy/ self-propelled-guns/ semovente-m41. asp
[2] http:/ / www. comandosupremo. com/ Semovente7534. html
[3] http:/ / www. onwar. com/ tanks/ italy/ data/ sem753442. htm
Semovente 75/46 51

Semovente 75/46
Semovente 75/46

A 75/46 in German use

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Italy

Service history
Usedby Italy
Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Fiat-Ansaldo

Numberbuilt 15

Specifications
Weight 15 tonnes

Length 6m (19ft 8in)

Width 2.82m (9ft 3in)

Height 1.74m (5ft 9in)

Crew 3 (commander/gunner, driver, loader/radio operator)

Armor Front: 15-80 mm

Main 75mm (3.0in) L46 gun


armament

Secondary 8 mm Breda 38 machine gun


armament

Engine SPA 15TB M-15 diesel


(360L) 192 hp (143.17 kW)

Power/weight 13 hp/ton

Suspension vertical volute spring

Operational 150km (93mi)


range

Speed 38km/h (24mph)


Semovente 75/46 52

The Semovente 75/46 was an Italian self-propelled gun used during World War II. It was built by mounting a
75mm L46 gun on the chassis of a M15/42 tank. After the armistice, control of the Ansaldo factories fell under
German control. The Germans ordered the production of a modified version of the M 42L and a 75/46 was the gun
of choice. The resulting vehicle was named the M 42T da 75/46 (the T signified Tedesco or German). Only a limited
number were produced and these were used exclusively by the Germans. Only about 15 were ever made.
Rooikat 53

Rooikat
Rooikat

Rooikat 105

Type Armoured fighting vehicle

Placeoforigin South Africa

Service history
Inservice 1990 present

Production history
Designed 1976

Produced 1989 present

Specifications
Weight 28 t

Length 7.1m (23ft 4in)


8.2m (26ft 11in) with gun forward

Width 2.9m (9ft 6in)

Height 2.6m (8ft 6in) turret roof

Crew 4

Main 1 x Denel GT4 76mm 62-calibre rifled gun, firing an APFSDS round
armament Muzzle velocity: > 1600m/s.

Secondary 2 x MG4 7.62 mm machine guns; 8 x 81 mm smoke grenade dischargers


armament

Engine 10-cylinder water-cooled diesel


414 KW (563 hp)

Power/weight 14.89kW/t

Suspension 88 wheeled, Fully independent active trailing arm

Operational 1000 km (621 mi)


range

Speed Road: 120 km/h (75 mph)


Off-road: 50 km/h (31 mph)
Rooikat 54

The Rooikat (Afrikaans for "Caracal"; literally "Red cat") is a wheeled armoured fighting vehicle built in South
Africa for the South African Army. It was designed for combat reconnaissance and seek and destroy operations. Its
secondary roles include combat support, anti-armour and anti-guerrilla operations. The Rooikat is intended for deep
penetration missions, so the wheeled design was needed for speed and to counter sandy desert conditions that might
slow tracked vehicles.

Production history
Designed to replace the Eland the Rooikat came too late for the war in Angola. It was designed to incorporate
lessons learned from the bush war.[citation needed] One was turned into a conventional vehicle electric drive
technology demonstrator (CVED) and displayed at AAD2006 in Cape Town in September of that year. The CVED
project involved LMT, HIT, IAD, Nezrotek, Hotchinson (France), Kessler Magnet Motor (Germany) and MTU
(Germany). VEG Magazine reported in 2006 the vehicle was fitted with a power supply control system feeding eight
wheel-hub mounted M67/0 electric units and a two-phase pneumatic gearbox.

Capability
Can climb a 1m earth vertical step.
Can cross a 2m wide trench at a crawl 1m @ 60km/h.
Can ford water 1,5m deep.
Can climb a gradient of 70 degrees.
Can traverse a gradient of 30 degrees.

Variants
Rooikat 76: Denel GT4 76mm gun
Rooikat 105: Denel GT7 105mm gun

Operators
South Africa: South African National Defence Force.[1]

References
[1] http:/ / www. army. mil. za/ equipment/ weaponsystems/ armour/ rooikat_equipm. htm

External links
Manufacturer's website (http://www.baesystems.com/ProductsServices/bae_prod_landa_rooikat.html)
(Accessed 28 July 2008)
Factfile on Vehicle (http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=496&
Itemid=362) (Accessed 25 February 2009)
Rooikat 105 Wheeled Armoured Fighting Vehicles (http://www.army-technology.com/projects/rooikat/)
Rooikat 76 Armoured Fighting Vehicle (http://www.denellandsystems.co.za/
products_rooikat_76_full_description.html)
SU-76 55

SU-76
SU-76M

SU-76M Self-propelled gun in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Production history
Designed 1942

Produced 19421945

Numberbuilt ~14,292 (13,932 SU-76M & 360 SU-76)

Specifications
Weight 10,600 kg (23,320 lb)

Length 4.88 m (16 ft)

Width 2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)

Height 2.17 m (7 ft 1 in)

Crew 4

Armor Front: 35mm (1.4in)


Side: 16mm (0.63in)

Main 76 mm (2.99 in) ZIS-3Sh gun


armament

Engine 2GAZ-203 engines


170 hp (126 kW)

Power/weight 17 hp/tonne

Suspension torsion bar

Operational 320 km (200 miles)


range

Speed 45 km/h (28 mph)

The SU-76 (Samokhodnaya Ustanovka 76) was a Soviet self-propelled gun used during and after World War II. The
SU-76 was based on a lengthened and widened version of the T-70 tank chassis. Its simple construction made it the
second most produced Soviet armoured vehicle of World War II, after the T-34 tank.
Crews loved this vehicle for its simplicity, reliability, and ease of use. Because of this and the steering which was
regarded as cumbersome the vehicle was (un)affectionately called suka ("bitch"), Suchka ("little bitch") by its crews.
But also Golozhopiy Ferdinand ("bare-arsed Ferdinand") for its layout which recalled the massive Porsche-designed
SU-76 56

German tank hunter was in use as a nickname.

History
Design of the SU-76 began in November 1942, when the State Defense Committee ordered the construction of
infantry support self-propelled guns armed with the ZiS-3 76.2mm gun and the M-30 122mm howitzer. The T-70
chassis was chosen for mounting the ZiS-3 gun, and was lengthened, adding one road wheel per side, to facilitate
better gun mounting. The vehicle was completely enclosed by armour.
In the rush for fast completion of the order, a quite unreliable powerplant setup was installed in the first
mass-produced SU-76s. Two GAZ-202 automobile engines were used mounted in "parallel", each engine driving
one track. It was found to be difficult for the driver to control the two engines simultaneously. Moreover, strong
vibrations led to early failures of engines and transmission units. After 320 SU-76s had been made, mass production
was halted in order to fix the problems. Two chief designers at the GAZ plant, N. A. Astrov and A. A. Lipgart,
changed the powerplant arrangement to that of T-70 - the two engines were mounted in tandem on the right hand
side of the vehicle. The roof of the compartment was removed for better gun servicing. This modified version, called
the SU-76M, began mass production in early 1943. As an interim replacement during the halt of production the
SU76i - the 76.2mm gun on captured German tank chassis - were produced.
After the pause, GAZ and two factories in Kirov and Mytishchi produced 13,932 SU-76Ms; the larger part of the
order, over 9,000 vehicles, were built solely by GAZ. Mass production of the SU-76M ceased in the second half of
1945. In contemporary accounts SU-76Ms are often referred to in texts, public radio and TV broadcasting as SU-76s
with the "M" omitted, due to their ubiquity in comparison with the original SU-76s.[citation needed] The SU-76 was the
basis for the first Soviet tracked armoured anti-aircraft vehicle, the ZSU-37. Mass production of the ZSU-37 was
continued after SU-76M production ceased. The SU-76M was withdrawn from Soviet Army service after the Second
World War ended.

Variants
OSU-76
Experimental model based on the T-60 tank chassis.
SU-76
Based on a lengthened T-70 tank chassis, with the inferior dual-engine arrangement of earlier T-70s. Only a
few were produced, and these were quickly withdrawn from front line service.
SU-76M
Main production model.
SU-76B
Featured a completely enclosed armoured crew compartment. Only a few were produced.
ZSU-37
Self-propelled anti-aircraft gun, based on the SU-76.
The unrelated SU-76i (1943) was based on the German Panzer III and StuG III chassis, armed with a ZiS-5 76.2mm
gun. About 1,200 of these captured vehicles, many from Stalingrad, were converted at Factory No. 38 by adding a
new enclosed superstructure. They were issued to tank and self-propelled gun units starting in autumn 1943.[1] They
were withdrawn from the front in early 1944, and used for training until the end of 1945.[2]
The also unrelated SU-76P (1941) was based on the T-26 chassis. it was built in Leningrad during the siege and
involved removing the turret from the T-26 and mounting a 76 mm regimental gun M1927 on the engine deck. This
was created due to the lack of high explosive 45mm ammunition inside Leningrad due to the siege, so some T-26
tanks were rearmed with 37mm or 76mm guns for which a reliable source of ammunition was available. They served
SU-76 57

until 1944, when the siege was broken. They were originally called SU-76, until the SU-76 came into service, upon
which it was renamed SU-76P ("polkovaya" - regimental).[3]
In 1978, Institute 111 from Romania designed an armoured personnel carrier based on the SU-76 chassis, equipped
with the TAB-71 turret. The vehicle entered service as the MLVM (Romanian: Maina de Lupt a Vntorilor de
Munte, meaning "infantry fighting vehicle of vntori de munte").

Combat history
The SU-76M virtually replaced infantry tanks in the close support role.
Its thin armour and open top made it vulnerable to antitank weapons,
grenades, and small arms. Its light weight and low ground pressure
gave it good mobility.
The SU-76M combined three main battlefield roles: light assault gun,
mobile anti-tank weapon and mobile gun for indirect fire. As a light
assault gun, the SU-76M had good estimation from Soviet infantrymen
(in contrast with their own crews). It had more powerful weapons than
any previous light tank for close support and communication between
infantry and the SU-76M crew was simple due to the open crew
compartment. This was extremely useful in urban combat where good
teamwork between infantry and AFVs is a key to success. Although
the open compartment was highly vulnerable to small arms fire and
hand grenades, it very often saved the crew's lives in the case of a hit
by a Panzerfaust, whose concussion blast would mean death in an
Soviet tank troops (Battle of Budapest, October
1944)
enclosed vehicle[citation needed].

The SU-76M was effective against any medium or light German tank.
It could also knock out the Panther tank with a flank shot, but the ZiS-3
gun was not sufficient against Tiger tanks. Soviet manuals for SU-76M
crews usually instructed the gunner to aim for the tracks or gun barrel
against Tigers. To improve the SU-76M's anti-armour capabilities,
armour-piercing composite rigid (APCR) and hollow charge projectiles
were introduced. This gave the SU-76M a better chance against heavily
armoured German vehicles. A low profile, a low noise signature and
good mobility were other advantages of the SU-76M. This was ideal
for organizing ambushes and sudden flank or rear strikes in close
combat, where the ZiS-3 gun was sufficient against most German
Destroyed SU-76 in Korea, 1950 armoured fighting vehicles.

The maximum elevation angle of the ZiS-3 was the greatest amongst all other Soviet self-propelled guns. The
maximum indirect fire distance was nearly 17km. SU-76Ms were sometimes used as light artillery vehicles (like the
German Wespe) for bombardments and indirect fire support. However the power of the 76.2mm shells was not
sufficient in many cases.
The SU-76M was the single Soviet vehicle able to operate in swamps with minimal support from engineers. During
the Belarus liberation campaign in 1944 it was extremely useful for organizing sneak attacks through swamps;
bypassing heavy German defenses on firmer ground. Usually only lightly armed infantry could pass through large
swampy areas. With SU-76M support, Soviet soldiers and engineers could effectively destroy enemy strongpoints
and continue to advance.
SU-76 58

The SU-76M had a large number of ammunition types. They included armour-piercing (usual, with ballistic nose and
subcaliber hyper-velocity), hollow charge, high explosive, fragmentation, shrapnel and incendiary projectiles. This
made the SU-76M a true multi-purpose light armoured fighting vehicle.
One famous crewman was Rem Nikolaevich Ulanov. In his younger days he was a mechanic-driver and later a
commander of a SU-76. He and some other soldiers called their SU-76 Columbina after the female Renaissance
Italian Commedia dell'Arte personage.
After World War II, the SU-76 was used by Communist forces in the Korean War.

Operators
Afghanistan
Albania
China
Cuba
Poland
Nazi Germany
North Korea
North Vietnam
Romania
Soviet Union

Surviving examples
Due to the large number of vehicles produced, many SU-76Ms have survived the post-war years, and most of the
larger Russian military museums have examples of the SU-76M in their exhibitions. They can also be found at the
German-Soviet War monuments or memorials in different Russian, Belarusian, and Ukrainian cities.

In museums
Poland
Muzeum Ora Polskiego in Koobrzeg - Su-76
Armoured Weapon Museum in Pozna - Su-76M
Polish Army Museum in Warsaw
exhibition in front of the main building - Su-76 tactical
number 203, serial number 403062
Museum of Polish Military Technology - Su-76 tactical
number 207
Romania Soviet SU-76M in Bovington tank museum,
Dorset.
National Military Museum, Romania in Bucharest
United Kingdom
The Tank Museum in Bovington - Su 76M captured from North Korea in 1950[4]
SU-76 59

Notes
[1] Zaloga 1984, p 180.
[2] http:/ / english. battlefield. ru/ su-76i. html
[3] http:/ / www. weapon. df. ru/ tanks/ sovsau/ light/ index-e. html
[4] Museum Accession Record (http:/ / www. tankmuseum. org/ ixbin/ indexplus?_IXSS_=_IXMENU_=top& ALL=su76&
_IXACTION_=summary& %2asform=%2fsearch_form%2fbovtm_combined& TYPE=article& _IXFPFX_=templates%2fsummary%2f&
_IXFIRST_=1& _IXSPFX_=templates/ full/ tvod/ t& _IXMAXHITS_=1& submit-button=summary& _IXSESSION_=&
_IXMENU_=Vehicles)

References
Zaloga, Steven J., James Grandsen (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two, London: Arms
and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.
Dougherty, Martin J. (2008). Tanks; From World War I to the Present Day, New York: Metro Books. ISBN
1-4351-0123-5

External links
Axis History Factbook (http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=5260)
series (http://english.battlefield.ru/light-self-propelled-guns-of-the-su-76-series.html) and SU-76i (http://
english.battlefield.ru/su-76i.html) at Battlefield.ru
LemaireSoft (http://users.swing.be/tanks.tanks/complet/538.html)
OnWar (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/ussr/fsu76.htm)
WWII Vehicles (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/ussr/self-propelled-guns/su-76.asp)
Interview with SU-76 gunner (http://english.battlefield.ru/rem-ulanov-su-76m-commander.html)
Panzer III 60

Panzer III
Panzerkampfwagen III

Panzer III Ausf. H (auf Ausf. H Fahrgestell). Muse des Blinds, France (2006)

Type Medium tank

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 19391945

Usedby Nazi Germany


Kingdom of Romania
Slovak Republic
Kingdom of Hungary
Independent State of Croatia
Turkey
Norway

Wars World War II

Production history
Designer Daimler-Benz

Designed 19351937

Manufacturer Daimler-Benz

Produced 19391943

Numberbuilt 5,774 (excluding StuG III)

Specifications
Weight 23.0 tonnes (25.4 short tons)

Length 5.56m (20ft)

Width 2.90m (9ft 6in)

Height 2.5m (8ft 2in)

Crew 5 (commander, gunner, loader, driver, radio operator/bow machine-gunner)

Armor 570mm (0.202.8in)

Main 1 3.7 cm KwK 36 Ausf. A-F


armament 1 5 cm KwK 38 Ausf. F-J
1 5 cm KwK 39 Ausf. J-M
1 7.5 cm KwK 37 Ausf. N
Panzer III 61

Secondary 2-3 7.92mm Maschinengewehr 34


armament

Engine 12-cylinder Maybach HL 120 TRM


300 PS (296 hp, 220 kW)
Power/weight 12 hp/t

Suspension Torsion-bar suspension

Operational 155km (96mi)


range

Speed Road: 40km/h (25mph)


Off-road: 20km/h (12mph)

Panzer III was the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the 1930s by Germany and was used
extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen III Sd Kfz. 141 (abbreviated
PzKpfw III) translating as "armoured fighting vehicle". It was intended to fight other armoured fighting vehicles and
serve alongside the infantry-supporting Panzer IV; however, as the Germans faced the formidable T-34, stronger
anti-tank guns were needed. Since the Panzer IV had a bigger turret ring, the role was reversed. The Panzer IV
mounted the long barreled 7.5 cm KwK 40 gun and engaged in tank-to-tank battles. The Panzer III became obsolete
in this role and for most purposes was supplanted by the Panzer IV. From 1942, the last version of Panzer III
mounted the 7.5 cm KwK 37 L/24, better suited for infantry support. Production of the Panzer III ended in 1943.
However, the Panzer III's capable chassis provided hulls for the Sturmgeschtz III until the end of the war.

Development history
On January 11, 1934, following specifications laid down by Heinz Guderian, the Army Weapons Department drew
up plans for a medium tank with a maximum weight of 24,000 kilograms (53,000lb) and a top speed of 35
kilometres per hour (21.75mph). It was intended as the main tank of the German Panzer divisions, capable of
engaging and destroying opposing tank forces.
Daimler-Benz, Krupp, MAN, and Rheinmetall all produced prototypes. Testing of these took place in 1936 and
1937, leading to the Daimler-Benz design being chosen for production. The first model of the Panzer III, the Ausf.
A, came off the assembly line in May 1937, and a total of ten, two of which were unarmed, were produced in that
year. Mass production of the Ausf. F version began in 1939.
Between 1937 and 1940, attempts were made to standardize parts between Krupp's Panzer IV and Daimler-Benz's
Panzer III.
Much of the early development work on the Panzer III was a quest for a suitable suspension. Several varieties of
leaf-spring suspensions were tried on Ausf. A through Ausf. D before the torsion-bar suspension of the Ausf. E was
standardized. The Panzer III, along with the Soviet KV heavy tank, was one of the first tanks to use this suspension
design.
A distinct feature of Panzer III, influenced by British Vickers tanks, was the three-man turret. This meant that
commander was not distracted with either loader's or gunner's tasks and could fully concentrate on maintaining
situational awareness. Most tanks of the time did not have this capability, providing the Panzer III with a potential
combat advantage. For example the French Somua S-35, had only one-man turret crew, and the Soviet T-34
(originally) had two-men. The practical importance of this feature is signified by the fact that not only all the further
German tank designs inherited it, but also later into the war, most of the Allied tanks' designs either quickly switched
to the three-man turret, or were abandoned as obsolete.
The Panzer III, as opposed to Panzer IV, had no turret basket, merely a foot rest platform for the gunner.[1]
Panzer III 62

The Panzer III was intended as the primary battle tank of the German forces. However, when it initially met the
KV-1 and T-34 tanks it proved to be inferior in both armor and gun power. To meet the growing need to counter
these tanks, the Panzer III was up-gunned with a longer, more powerful 50-millimetre (1.97in) cannon and received
more armour although this failed to effectively address the problem caused by the KV tank designs. As a result,
production of self-propelled guns, as well as the up-gunning of the Panzer IV was initiated.
In 1942, the final version of the Panzer III, the Ausf. N, was created with a 75-millimetre (2.95in) KwK 37 L/24
cannon, a low-velocity gun designed for anti-infantry and close-support work. For defensive purposes, the Ausf. N
was equipped with rounds of hollow charge ammunition which could penetrate 70 to 100 millimetres (2.76 to
3.94in) of armour depending on the round's variant but these were strictly used for self-defense.
The Japanese government allegedly bought two Panzer IIIs from their German allies during the war. Purportedly this
was for reverse engineering purposes, since Japan put more emphasis on the development of new military aircraft
and naval technology and relatively little on the development of new tanks. The vehicles apparently weren't
delivered until 1943 however, by which time much of the Panzer III's technology had arguably already become
obsolete.[2]

Armour
The Panzer III Ausf. A through C had 15 millimetres (0.59in) of homogeneous steel armor on all sides with 10
millimetres (0.39in) on the top and 5 millimetres (0.20in) on the bottom. This was quickly determined to be
insufficient, and was upgraded to 30 millimetres (1.18in) on the front, sides and rear in the Ausf. D, E, F, and G
models, with the H model having a second 30-millimetre (1.18in) layer of face-hardened steel applied to the front
and rear hull. The Ausf. J model had a solid 50-millimetre (1.97in) plate on the front and rear, while the Ausf. J, L,
and the M models had an additional layer of 20 millimetres (0.79in) of armor on the front hull and turret. This
additional frontal armor gave the Panzer III frontal protection from most British and Soviet anti-tank guns at all but
close ranges. The sides were still vulnerable to many enemy weapons including anti-tank rifles at close ranges.

Armament
The Panzer III was intended to fight other tanks; in the initial design
stage a 50-millimetre (1.97in) cannon was specified. However, the
infantry at the time were being equipped with the 37-millimetre
(1.46in) PaK 36, and it was thought that in the interest of
standardization the tanks should carry the same armament. As a
compromise, the turret ring was made large enough to accommodate a
50-millimetre (1.97in) cannon should a future upgrade be required.
This single decision would later assure the Panzer III a prolonged life
in the German Army. Panzerbefehlswagen (command tank) III ausf E
or F in Greece, fitted with a 37 mm gun and two
The Ausf. A to early Ausf. F were equipped with a 3.7 cm KwK 36 coaxial machine guns (1941).
L/45 which proved adequate during the campaigns of 1939 and 1940
but the later Ausf. F to Ausf. J were upgraded with the 5 cm KwK 38 L/42 and the Ausf. J to M with the longer 5
cm KwK 39 L/60 cannon in response to increasingly better armed and armoured opponents.
By 1942, the Panzer IV was becoming Germany's main medium tank because of its better upgrade potential. The
Panzer III remained in production as a close support vehicle. The Ausf. N model mounted a low-velocity 7.5 cm
KwK 37 L/24 cannon - the same used by the early Panzer IV Ausf. A to Ausf. F models. These guns had originally
been fitted to older Panzer IV Ausf A to F1 models and had been placed into storage when those tanks had also been
up armed to longer versions of the 75mm gun.
Panzer III 63

All early models up to and including the Ausf. F had two 7.92-millimetre (0.31in) Maschinengewehr 34 machine
guns mounted coaxially with the main gun, and a similar weapon in a hull mount. Models from the Ausf. G and later
had a single coaxial MG34 and the hull MG34.

Mobility
The Panzer III Ausf. A through C were powered by a 250PS (184kW), 12-cylinder Maybach HL 108 TR engine,
giving a top speed of 32km/h (20mph) and a range of 150km (93mi). All later models were powered by the
300PS (221kW), 12-cylinder Maybach HL 120 TRM engine. Top speed varied, depending on the transmission and
weight, but was around 40km/h (25mph). The range was generally around 155km (96mi).[citation needed]

Combat use
The Panzer III was used in the campaigns against Poland, France, the Soviet Union and in North Africa. A handful
were still in use in Normandy,[3] Anzio,[4] Norway,[5] Finland[6] and in Operation Market Garden[7] in 1944.
In the Polish and French campaigns, the Panzer III formed a small part
of the German armored forces. Only a few hundred Ausf. A through F
were available in these campaigns, most armed with the 37-millimetre
(1.46in) gun. They were the best medium tank available to the
Germans and outclassed most of their opponents such as the Polish
7TP, French R-35 and H-35 light tanks.[citation needed]

Around the time of Operation Barbarossa, the Panzer III was


numerically the most important German tank. At this time the majority
of the available tanks (including re-armed Ausf. E and F, plus new A Panzerkampfwagen III at the US Army
Ausf. G and H models) had the 50-millimetre (1.97in) KwK 38 L/42 Ordnance Museum in Aberdeen, Maryland.
cannon which also equipped the majority of the tanks in North Africa.
Initially, the Panzer IIIs were outclassed and outnumbered by Soviet T-34 and KV tanks. However, the most
numerous Soviet tanks were the T-26 and BT tanks. This, along with superior German tactical skill,[8] crew training,
and the good ergonomics of the Panzer III all contributed to a rough 6:1 favourable kill ratio for German tanks of all
types in 1941.[citation needed]

With the appearance of the T-34 and KV tanks, rearming the Panzer III
with a longer, more powerful 50-millimetre (1.97in) cannon was
prioritised. The T-34 was generally invulnerable in frontal
engagements with the Panzer III until the 50mm KwK 39 L/60 gun
was introduced on the Panzer III Ausf. J in the spring of 1942 (the gun
was based on infantry's 50 mm Pak 38 L/60). This could penetrate the
T-34 frontally at ranges under 500 metres (1,600ft).[9] Against the KV
tanks it was a threat if armed with special high velocity tungsten
The crew of a Panzer III of the 2ndSS Panzer
rounds. In addition, to counter antitank rifles, in 1943 the Ausf. L Division DasReich rest during the Battle of
version began the use of spaced armour skirts (schrzen) around the Kursk.
turret and on the hull sides. However, due to the introduction of the
upgunned and uparmoured Panzer IV, the Panzer III was, after the Battle of Kursk, relegated to secondary roles, such
as training, and it was replaced as the main German medium tank by the Panzer IV and the Panther.

The Panzer III chassis was the basis for the turretless Sturmgeschtz III assault gun, one of the most successful
self-propelled guns of the war, and the single most-produced German armored fighting vehicle design of World War
II.
Panzer III 64

By the end of the war, the Pz.III had almost no frontline use and many vehicles had been returned to the factories for
conversion into StuG assault guns, which were in high demand due to the defensive warfare style adopted by the
German Army by then.

Variants
Panzer III Ausf. A - Prototype; 10 produced in 1937, only 8 armed and saw service in Poland.
Panzer III Ausf. B, C - Prototype; 15 of each produced in 1937, some of each saw service in Poland.
Panzer III Ausf. D - Prototype; 55 produced in 1938, only 30 armed and saw service in Poland and Norway.
Panzer III Ausf. E, F - Production models 1939-1940. Armed with 3.7 cm KwK 36 L/46.5 (later 5 cm KwK 38
L/42) guns. 531 produced.
Panzer III Ausf. G - More armour on gun mantlet. Armed with 3.7 cm KwK 36 L/46.5 (later 5 cm KwK 38 L/42)
gun. 600 produced in 1940-1941.
Panzer III Ausf. H - Minor modifications. Bolt-on armor added to front and rear hull (30mm + 30mm plates).
308 produced in 1940-1941.
Panzer III Ausf. I - Variant mentioned in Allied intelligence reports but not an actual existing vehicle.
Panzer III Ausf. J - The hull was lengthened. Front armor increased to 50mm plate. 482 produced in 1941.
Panzer III Ausf. J - Equipped with the longer and more powerful 5 cm KwK 39 L/60 gun. 1,067 produced in late
1941 to mid 1942.
Panzer III Ausf. K - Panzerbefehlswagen command tank variant with a modified turret. Carried actual main
armament rather than a dummy gun as found on other Panzer III command versions.
Panzer III Ausf. L - Uparmored to 50mm + 20mm plates. 653 produced in 1942.
Panzer III Ausf. M - Minor modifications such as deep-wading exhaust and schurzen. 250 produced in
1942-1943.
Panzer III Ausf. N - Armed with a short barreled 7.5 cm KwK 37 L/24 gun, due to 7.5cm gun's ability to fire
HEAT rounds. 700 re-equipped J/L/M models in 1942-1943.

Ausf. D, Poland (1939) Ausf.G, captured Ausf. H in the Muse des Ausf. J, USSR (1942).
by the British in Blinds, Saumur.
North Africa
(1941).

Ausf. L, US Army Ordnance Ausf. M, Deutsches Ausf. M with side skirts in


Museum (2007) Panzermuseum (2005) southern USSR (1943)
Panzer III 65

Designs based on chassis


Panzerbeobachtungswagen III - Forward artillery observer tank. 262 converted from older Panzer III Ausf. E to
H.
Bergepanzer III - In 1944, 176 Panzer IIIs were converted to armoured recovery vehicles. Mostly issued to
formations with Tiger I tanks.
Flammpanzer III Ausf. M / Panzer III (Fl) - Flamethrower tank. 100 built on new Ausf. M chassis.
Minenrumer III - Mineclearing vehicle based on a Panzer III chassis with a very highly raised suspension.
(Prototype only.)
Panzerbefehlswagen III - Command tank with long-range radios. Ausf. D, E and H: dummy main gun; Ausf. J
and K: armed with 5cm gun.
Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B - A close-support assault gun. Armed with a 15 cm sIG 33, 24 built. 12 used and
lost in Stalingrad.
Sturmgeschtz III - Assault gun/tank destroyer armed with a 75-millimetre (2.95in) StuK.
The Soviet SU-76i self-propelled gun was based on the chassis of captured German Panzer III and StuG III.
About 201 of these vehicles, many captured in the battle of Stalingrad, were converted at Factory No. 37 in 1943
for Red Army service by removing the turret, constructing a fixed casemate, and installing a 76.2-millimetre
(3.00in) S-1 gun (cheaper version of the F-34) in a limited-traverse mount. The armour was 35 millimetres
(1.38in) thick on the casemate front, 50 millimetres (1.97in) in the hull front, and 30 millimetres (1.18in) on the
hull side. It was issued to tank and self-propelled gun units starting in autumn 1943,[10] and withdrawn to training
use in early 1944. Two SU-76i survive: one on a monument in the Ukrainian town of Sarny and a second on
display in a museum on Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow. It should not be confused with the Soviet SU-76 series.
Tauchpanzer III - Some tanks were converted to amphibious tanks for Operation Sea Lion. Unusually, they were
designed to be able to stay underwater rather than float. The idea was that they would be launched near to the
invasion shore and then drive to dry land on the sea bottom. The tank was waterproofed, the exhaust was fitted
with a one-way valve and air intake was through a hose.

Tauchpanzer III under test. Panzerbefehlswagen, Balkans, Finnish army Sturmgeschtz Flammpanzer III
1941. III

References
Citations
[1] Some authors say that basket was added in Ausf. H, some object that:
[2] Zaloga (2007), p.
[3] Served with Panzer Ersatz und Ausbildungs Abteilung 100 (http:/ / www. normandy-1944. com/ PzAbt100. html) and 9th Panzer Division
[4] Used by Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Gring
[5] http:/ / www. armchairgeneral. com/ panzer-tanks-found-in-norway. htm
[6] Panzers in Finland, Kari Kuusala - 6 Ausf. N were deployed with Panzer Abteilung 211
[7] Some tanks used for training by Hermann Gring Training and Replacement Regiment, were pressed into service to oppose the British
advance in Operation Market Garden
[8] Zaloga (1984), p. 223
[9] Zaloga (1994), p. 36
[10] Zaloga (1984), p. 180

Bibliography
Panzer III 66

"Germany's Panzerkampfwagen III, SdKfz 141" (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/tanks-medium/


pzkpfw-iii.asp). World War II Vehicles. Retrieved June 10, 2004.
"PzKpfw III" (http://www.achtungpanzer.com/pz8.htm). Achtung Panzer!. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
"Pz. Kpfw.III" (http://www.panzerworld.net/pzkpfwiii.html). Panzerworld. Retrieved April 19, 2005.
Gander, Terry J. Tanks in Detail; PzKpfw III Ausf A to N ISBN 0-7110-3015-4.
Zaloga, Steven J. (2007). Japanese Tanks 1939-45. Osprey. p.48. ISBN1-84603-091-9.
Zaloga, Steven J. (1994). T-34/76 Medium Tank 1941-1945. Great Britain: Osprey. p.48. ISBN1-85532-382-6.
Zaloga, Steven J., James Grandsen (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two, London: Arms
and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.

External links
AFV Database (http://afvdb.50megs.com/germany/pz3.html)
Surviving Panzer III tanks (http://the.shadock.free.fr/Surviving_Panzer_III.pdf) - A PDF file presenting the
Panzer III tanks (PzKpfw. III, Flammpanzer III, StuIG33B, SU-76i, Panzerbeobachtungswagen III tanks) still
existing in the world
ASU-85 67

ASU-85
ASU-85

ASU of the Polish 6th Air Assault Division

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Production history
Designer Astrov Design Bureau

Designed 1951-1959

Manufacturer MMZ and PMZ

Produced 1958-1967

Specifications
Weight 15.5 tonnes (34,171 lbs)

Length 6m (19ft 8in)

Width 2.8m (9ft 2in)

Height 2.1m (6ft 11in)

Crew 4

Armor 40-45 mm

Main 85mm main gun D-70 (2A15)


armament

Secondary 7.62mm PKT or SGMT coaxial machine gun


armament

Engine YaMZ-206V V-6 inline water-cooled diesel


210hp (154 kw)

Transmission mechanical

Suspension torsion bar

Fuelcapacity 400 l

Operational 230 km (161 mi)


range

Speed 45 km/h (28 mph)

The ASU-85 (Russian: , -85, Aviadesantnaya Samokhodnaya


Ustanovka, 'airborne self-propelled mount') is a soviet-designed airborne self-propelled gun of the Cold War Era.
From 1959 it replaced the open-topped ASU-57 in service but was in its turn replaced by the BMD-1 from 1969.
ASU-85 68

Development history
Development of a new assault gun for the armed forces started at the OKB-40 design bureau of the Mytishchi
Machine Building Plant (MMZ), under the supervision of chief designer Nikolaj Aleksandrovich Astrov. The first
Ob'yekt 573 prototype was ready for factory tests in the second half of 1953. This first vehicle was followed by a
small batch of three improved vehicles that were evaluated by the armed forces in 1956-1957. The improved
vehicles were powered by a new, horizontal six cylinder diesel engine, the YaMZ-206V, instead of the original V-6
of the PT-76. In 1958 the order to start series production of the SU-85 - as it was initially known (although there was
already a vehicle with that same name, based on the T-34) - was given. However, as a result of an order from the
Ministry of Defense to add an armoured roof (the initial vehicles were still open-topped), series production could
only begin in 1961. By then, the configuration was already out of date and in the second half of the 1960s the VDV
became the main operator of the SU-85 and renamed it into ASU-85.

Design
The SU-85/ASU-85 is based on the PT-76 tank chassis, but without the amphibious capabilities and fitted with a new
engine. The vehicle has three compartments: the driver's in front, the combat compartment in the center, and the
engine compartment at the rear.
The armament consists of a D-70 (2A15) 85mm gun, derived from F.F. Petrov's D-48. The L/67 ordnance has a total
weight of 1,865kg and an elevation range from -4.50 to +15. Traverse is 15 either side. The D-70 fires the same
ammunition as the D-48 (3BK-7 HEAT, BR-372 HVAP-T and OF-372 HE), the combat load is 45 rounds. The gun
has an effective range of 1,150 m and a maximum range of 10km. The coaxial machine gun is either the SGMT or
the PKT with a combat load of 2,000 rounds.
Both the main gun and the coaxial machine gun are aimed by means of the TShK-2-79 sight. For nighttime fire, the
TPN1-79-11 sight is used, in combination with the IR searchlight L-2. Indirect fire is conducted with the help of the
S-71-79 and PG-1 sights. Furthermore, the commander is provided with observation devices TNPK-20 (day) and
TKN-1T (night).
All ASU-85s were provided with an R-113 radio and the R-120 intercom system. In the early 1970s, some vehicles
were fitted with a DShK-M 12.7mm heavy machine gun with 600 rounds. These vehicles had a reduced combat load
of 39 main gun rounds and received the NATO designator ASU-85 M1974. The original designation was SU-85M
or ASU-85M. The ASU-85 could also be equipped with smoke generators BDSh-5.

Service history
The Soviet Airborne Forces used the ASU-85 in airborne operations. Its primary role was light infantry support or
assault, with limited anti-tank capability. Each Airborne Division had one assault gun battalion with 31 ASU-85. The
Polish 6th Pomeranian Airborne Division (Polish: 6 Pomorska Dywizja Powietrzno-Desantowa) had an equal
number.
The ASU-85 became possible with the introduction of the Mi-6 and Mi-10 helicopters and high-capacity multi-chute
and retro-rocket systems for fixed wing-drops. It was first observed by NATO in 1962, and was widely used by
Soviet and Polish airborne units.
ASU-85 69

Variants
There are no variants of the ASU-85, but its chassis served as the basis for other designs such as the chassis GM-575
of the ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" and the GM-568 and GM-578 chassis' of the launch vehicle 2P25 and radar vehicle 1S91
of the 2K12 "Kub" system.

Former operators
Soviet Union - withdrawn
Poland - 31, withdrawn

Surviving vehicles
Poland
Polish Army Museum in Warsaw - tactical number 1601, on display at the Museum of Polish Military
Technology;
Artillery Museum in Toru
White Eagle Museum in Skarysko-Kamienna - tactical number 9011,
Polish Arms Museum in Koobrzeg,
Armoured Weapons Museum in Pozna
Military Museum in Suwaki.[1]
Russia
Kubinka Tank Museum - tactical number 057
Monument in Omsk
Two monuments on a military site in Pskov
Ukraine
Museum of Military Equipment in the Park of Peace in Kremenchuk
Monument in Tarutyne - tactical number 328

References
[1] Militarne Podre (http:/ / militarnepodroze. net/ dzialapanc. html)

Gunston B., 'Army Weapons', in: Bonds R. (ed.), Soviet War Power, (Corgi 1982), p.203-204
Zaloga, Steven J., Hull, Andrew W. and Markov, David R. (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design
Practices: 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5
Solyankin, A.G, Zheltov, I.G and Kudryashov, K.N. (2010). Otechestvenniye Bronirovanniye Mashiny - XX Vek,
Tom 3: 1946-1965, "Tsejkhgauz". ISBN 978-5-9771-0106-6.

External links
http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/at/ASU-85.html
http://desantura.ru/articles/15/?PAGEN_1=3
Pictures (http://serkoff.narod.ru/photoalbum159.html)
Pictures (http://mikro-mir.at.ua/publ/5-1-0-100)
Pictures of Kubinka vehicle (http://kr.blog.yahoo.com/shinecommerce/14566.html?p=5&pm=l&tc=112&
tt=1312925878)
Picture of ASU-85M on display (http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/44674980.jpg)
Semovente 90/53 70

Semovente 90/53
Semovente 90/53

Placeoforigin Italy

Service history
Inservice 1942-1943

Usedby Italy, Nazi Germany


Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Ansaldo

Produced 1942

Numberbuilt 30

Specifications
Weight 17 tonnes (37.500 lb)

Length 5.205m (17ft 1in)

Width 2.20m (7ft 3in)

Height 2.15m (7ft 1in)

Crew 4 (commander, driver, two gun crew)

Armor 30 mm (1.57 in)

Main 90 mm (3.5 in) Cannone da 90/53


armament 6 rounds

Engine SPA 15-TM-41 eight-cylinder gasoline


engine
145 hp (115 kW)

Power/weight 8.5 hp/t

Suspension vertical volute spring

Operational 200 km (124 mi)


range

Speed 25 km/h (15.5 mph)

The Semovente 90/53 was a heavy Italian self-propelled gun and tank destroyer, used by the Italian and German
Armies during World War II.
Semovente 90/53 71

Development
It was created by mounting a 90mm Cannone da 90/53 anti-aircraft gun on top of an enlarged chassis of a M14/41
tank. Only 30 of these vehicles were produced, all in 1942.[1] This low production was due to Italy's limited
industrial capability at the time, as well as high demand for the 90mm gun for regular anti-aircraft duties.
The Semovente 90/53 was primarily developed in response to demands by Italian forces on the Eastern Front for a
vehicle-mounted anti-tank weapon that could take on Soviet T-34 and KV tanks. Italian armored forces on the
Eastern Front were equipped only with the L6/40 tank and Semovente 47/32 self-propelled gun; neither of these had
the firepower to cope with the Soviet medium and heavy tanks. However, no Semovente 90/53 were ever sent to the
Eastern Front.
The major drawback of the Semovente 90/53, as with many self-propelled gun types of World War II, was the open
top and rear of the gun compartment, which left the gun crew exposed to shrapnel and small arms fire. In addition,
the Semovente 90/53 had little or no armor in most areas. Because these vehicles were designed to operate far
enough away from enemy vehicles to not be subject to incoming fire, this was initially not considered a problem.
The small ammunition capacity of the vehicle was also a problem; only six rounds could be carried. This
necessitated the creation of special ammunition carriers out of Fiat L6/40 tanks, one accompanying each Semovente
90/53 in the field. The L6 ammunition carrier itself carried 26 rounds along with an additional 40 rounds in a towed
trailer.[2] It fired Effetto Pronto, or HEAT rounds, which could pierce 70mm armor plating at a range of 2,200
meters. [3]

Combat use
None were ever sent to the Russian Front. In the North African Campaign, the Semovente 90/53 proved to be an
effective weapon and its long range was well suited to the flat and open desert terrain. 24 Semovente 90/53s saw
service against the Allies in the 10 Ragruppamento Semoventi, which was stationed in Sicily during the Allied
invasion in 1943. Following the surrender of Italy in September 1943, the few surviving Semovente 90/53 were
seized by the German Army, but were of little value in the mountainous terrain of Northern Italy where they
operated. As a result, most finished their careers as long-range artillery.

Surviving vehicle
Only one Semovente 90/53 survived the war. Originally displayed at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), as shown in
the sidebar photo above, it was transferred the Fort Sill Field Artillery Museum in Fort Sill, Oklahoma in 2012. It has
since been restored by the Fort Sill Directorate of Logistics (DoL) paint shop and is awaiting display. This surviving
example has, "a fairly good history. It was assigned to the 163rd Support Artillery Group, was captured in Sicily in
1943 and shipped back to Aberdeen for evaluation."[4]

References
[1] Pejcoch, Ivo. Obrnn technika 9 - Itlie, panlsko 1919-1945. 1st ed. Prague, 2009. ISBN 978-80-86158-55-6
[2] Bishop, Chris (general editor) (1998). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Metro Books p. 49, ISBN 1-58663-762-2 url: (http:/ /
books. google. com/ books?id=JZ9cSQNeK9cC& pg=PA49)
[3] Joseph 2010, p. 147.
[4] Army FA museum adds WWII artillery pieces (http:/ / www. army. mil/ article/ 94484/ Army_FA_museum_adds_WWII_artillery_pieces/ )

Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York: Amber Books. p.143. ISBN0-7607-1260-3.
Joseph, Frank, Mussolini's War: Fascist Italy's Military Struggles from Africa and Western Europe to the
Mediterranean and Soviet Union 1935-45. Solihull, West Midlands, Helion & Company, 2010. ISBN
978-1-906033-56-9.
Pejcoch, Ivo (2009). Obrnn technika 9 - Itlie, panlsko 1919-1945. Prague: Ares. pp.146149.
ISBN978-80-86158-55-6.
Semovente 90/53 72

External links
Semovente da 90/53 (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/italy/self-propelled-guns/semovente-m41.asp) at
wwiivehicles.com
SEMOVENTE da 90/53 (http://www.comandosupremo.com/Semovente9053.html) at comandosupremo.com
WWII U.S. Report on Semovente 90/53, June 1943 (http://www.lonesentry.com/articles/ttt07/
italian-90mm-sp-gun-semovente.html)
Tortoise heavy assault tank 73

Tortoise heavy assault tank


Tank, Heavy Assault, Tortoise (A39)

Type Super-heavy tank

Placeoforigin United Kingdom

Production history
Designed 1944

Numberbuilt 6

Specifications
Weight 78 long tons (87 short tons; 79t)

Length 10m (33ft)

Width 3.9m (13ft)

Height 3m (9ft 10in)

Crew 7 (Commander, gunner, machine gunner, 2 loaders, driver, co-driver)

Armour 178228mm (79in)


33mm (1.3in) top

Main Ordnance QF 32 pounder


armament (94 mm gun)

Secondary 3 x 7.92 mm Besa machine guns


armament

Engine Rolls-Royce Meteor V12 petrol


600hp (450kW)

Power/weight 7.7 hp/tonne

Suspension torsion bar

Operational Road: 140km (87mi)


range

Speed Road: 19km/h (12mph)


Off-road: 6km/h (4mph)

The Tank, Heavy Assault, Tortoise (A39) was a British heavy assault tank design developed in World War II but
never put into mass production. It was developed for the task of clearing heavily fortified areas and as a result
favoured armour protection over mobility.
Although heavy, at 78 tons, and not readily transported, it was reliable and a good gun platform.[1]
Tortoise heavy assault tank 74

Development
In the early part of 1943 the Allied forces anticipated considerable
resistance in the projected future invasion of Europe, with the enemy
fighting from heavily fortified positions such as the Siegfried Line. As
a result, a new class of vehicles emerged, in the shape of Assault tanks,
which placed maximum armour protection at a higher priority than
mobility. Initially, work was concentrated on the Excelsior tank (A33),
The A39 Tortoise being towed on a trailer during based on the Cromwell tank. There was also a program to upgrade the
trials in BAOR, 1948 armour of the Churchill tank. For similar work in the Far East, the
Valiant tank (A38), based on the Valentine tank was considered
although weight was specified to be as low as possible.

The Secretary of State for War and the Minister of Supply issued a Joint Memorandum in April 1943 which gave a
vague specification for an Assault tank, classing it as a special purpose vehicle to operate in heavily defended areas
as part of the specialist 79th Armoured Division.
The Nuffield Organisation responded with 18 separate designs (AT1 through AT18) drafted between May 1943 and
February 1944, each design larger and heavier than the last. By February 1944 design AT16 was complete and was
approved by the Tank Board who proposed that month that 25 be produced directly from the mockup stage without
bothering with a prototype, to be available for operational service in September 1945. An order for 25 was placed by
the War Office and work was begun.
Following the end of the war the order was reduced and only six vehicles were built. One example was sent to
Germany for trials where it was found to be mechanically reliable and a powerful and accurate gun platform.
However, at a weight of 80 tons and a height of 10 feet (3.0m) it was extremely slow and proved difficult to
transport.

Description
Since the Tortoise had a fixed casemate superstructure instead of a turret, it can be classified as a self-propelled gun
or an assault gun and not a tank. The crew included a commander, driver, and gunner, with two loaders for the
32-pounder gun and two machine gunners.
Internally it was split into three compartments, the transmission to the front, the crew in the centre and the
Rolls-Royce Meteor engine at the rear. The suspension consisted of four bogies on each side each of the hull. Each
bogie had two pairs of wheels, with each pair linked to a transverse torsion bar. The Merritt-Brown transmission was
fitted with an all speed reverse, giving approximately the same speed backwards as forwards.

Armament
The Ordnance QF 32 pounder gun design was adapted from the British 3.7 inch anti-aircraft gun. The ammunition
used a separate charge and shell, the latter a 32 pound (14.5kg) armour piercing shot (APCBC). In tests the gun was
successful against a German Panther tank at nearly 1,000 yards.
The 32-pdr gun was mounted in a power-assisted limited traverse mounting; rather than being mounted on the more
traditional trunnions, it protruded through a large ball mount in the front of the hull, protected by 225mm armour.
To the left of it was a Besa machine gun in an armoured ball mount. A further two Besa machine guns were mounted
in a turret on the top of the hull to the right.
Tortoise heavy assault tank 75

Survivors
One of the six prototype Tortoises constructed of mild steel[citation
needed]
has been preserved at the Bovington Tank Museum in
Bovington, UK. The vehicle is in running condition. A 2011
overhaul saw it running under its own power for the first time since
the 1950s. It was shown to the public in June 2011 at Tankfest 2011,
the Bovington museum's annual display of running vehicles.
A Tortoise, without its gun, lies on the Kirkcudbright military
training area near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. Other damage to the
tank and the designation of the Kirkcudbright training area as a Site
The Tortoise at the Bovington Tank Museum
of Special Scientific Interest mean that removal of the Tortoise to a
(2008)
museum is now unlikely.

Notes
[1] Fletcher, The Universal Tank 1993 HMSO 0 11 290534 X p90

References
Foss, Christopher F. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles. Spellmount.
ISBN1-86227-188-7.
Chamberlain, Peter; Chris Ellis (2000). British and American Tanks of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated
History of British, American and Commonwealth Tanks, 1939-45. Cassell. ISBN0-304-35529-1.
Chamberlain, Peter; Chris Ellis (2002). Tanks of the World 1915-1945. Cassell Military. ISBN0-304-36141-0.
Forty, George (2006). The Illustrated Guide to Tanks of the World. Hermes House. ISBN0-681-45905-0.

External links
Photos of A39 Tortoise at Bovington Museum (http://web.archive.org/web/20091028175237/http://
geocities.com/Pentagon/Quarters/7413/a39tortoise.html)
Armor in Focus - A39 Tortoise Heavy Assault Tank Specifications (http://members.tripod.com/~chrisshillito/
a39/a39txt.htm), Pictures (http://www.armourinfocus.co.uk/a39/)
A39 Tortoise at World War II Vehicles (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/unitedkingdom/heavy-assault/
tortoise-a39.asp)
Semovente 105/25 76

Semovente 105/25
Semovente 105/25

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Italy

Service history
Inservice 1943 - 1945

Usedby Italy
Nazi Germany
Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Fiat-Ansaldo

Produced 1943 - 1945

Numberbuilt 90

Specifications
Weight 15.8 tonnes (34,833 lbs)

Length 5.1m (16ft 9in)

Width 2.4m (7ft 10in)

Height 1.75m (5ft 9in)

Crew 3 (commander/gunner, driver, loader/radio operator)

Armor Front: 75 mm (2.95 in)

Main 105 mm (4.13 in) L/25 with 48 rounds


armament

Secondary 8 mm Breda 38 machine gun with 864 rounds


armament

Engine petrol 192 hp (143 kW)

Suspension vertical volute spring

Operational 180 km (112 miles)


range

Speed 35km/h (22mph)


Semovente 105/25 77

The Semovente 105/25 was an Italian tank destroyer in use during World War II. It was constructed by mounting a
105mm gun that was 25 calibers long (hence the name) in a widened chassis from a M15/42 tank. Thirty were built
by Fiat-Ansaldo and delivered in 1943 before the Italian surrender in September that year. After the surrender the
German forces took them over and used them under the designation Sturmgeschtz M43 mit 105/25 853(i) and they
also built 60 more Semovente 105/25s. This vehicle is considered the best armored fighting vehicle Italy produced
during the warWikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch#Unsupported attributions.

External links
Semovente da 105/25 [1] at wwiivehicles.com
SEMOVENTE da 105/25 [2] at comandosupremo.com

External images

[3]

References
[1] http:/ / www. wwiivehicles. com/ italy/ self-propelled-guns/ semovente-m42. asp
[2] http:/ / www. comandosupremo. com/ Semovente10525. html
[3] http:/ / mailer. fsu. edu/ ~akirk/ tanks/ Italy/ Ita-Semovente-M42L-da-10525. JPG
BT-42 78

BT-42
BT-42

BT-42 in Finnish Tank Museum

Type Assault gun

Placeoforigin Finland

Service history
Wars Continuation War

Production history
Numberbuilt 18

Variants BT-43

Specifications
Weight 15 tonnes

Length 5.7m (18ft 8in)

Width 2.1m (6ft 11in)

Height 2.2m (7ft 3in)

Crew 3

Armor 613 mm

Main 114 mm (4.5-inch) howitzer


armament

Engine Mikulin M-17T


500 hp (370 kW)

Power/weight hp/tonne

Suspension Christie

Operational 375km (233mi)


range

Speed 53km/h (33mph)

The BT-42 was a Finnish assault gun, constructed during the Continuation War. It was constructed from captured
Soviet BT-7 light tanks and British 4.5-inch howitzers (114mm-calibre light howitzer, model 1908) from 1918,
which had been donated during the Winter War. Only eighteen vehicles were constructed.
BT-42 79

Development and use


As the Second World War progressed, the Soviets were fielding better and better tanks. The Finnish Army, on the
other hand, had to make do with a large number of captured tanks, which were for the most part lightly armored and
armed.
The Finns decided to redesign the BT-7 Model 1937 tank. They constructed a new turret and armed it with
British-made 114.3mm howitzers that had been supplied by the British during the Winter War (Q.F. 4,5inch
howitzer Mark II, also known as 114 Psv.H/18 in Finland). Eighteen BT-42 were built and these were pressed into
service in 1943.
The BT-42 was used for the first time in 1943, at the Svir River, where it was used against enemy pillboxes. The
design worked reasonably well against soft targets but was completely unsuitable for anti-tank warfare. To counter
this, the Finns copied a German-designed HEAT round for the gun and it was initially thought that it would be
effective against the sloped armour of the T-34. However, this was not the case.[1]
The BT-42 quickly became very unpopular among its crews. Its mechanical weaknesses could mainly be attributed
to the new turret, which apart from giving the tank a high profile also added significant weight to the vehicle,
stressing the suspension and the engine.
The BT-42s were used again during the major Soviet offensive in 1944. They were deployed in the defence of
Vyborg. In one encounter, a Finnish BT-42 hit a Soviet T-34 18 times, failing even to immobilize the enemy vehicle.
Eight of the 18 BT-42s in action made no significant contribution to the fighting. At the time Finnish armored units
were still composed mostly of older designs such as the Vickers 6-Ton, T-26 and T-28 tanks, and that all of these
suffered losses.
Emergency supplies of German Panzer IV tanks, StuG III self-propelled assault guns and captured T-34s made it
possible for the Finns to replace its losses with more effective vehicles. The BT-42 was retired soon after the Vyborg
battles and was replaced in the role by German-made StuG IIIs.

Front view Left-rear quarter view

Footnotes
[1] The Finnish HEAT shell was called "114 hkr 42/C-18/24-38 is 32-18/24" and it was equipped with a German-made "10.5 cm Hl/C" warhead.
The German 10.5 cm HEAT grenade, which it had been modelled after, could penetrate 100 mm of steel at a 60-degree angle of impact. Thus
it was estimated that the Finnish shell, with its larger calibre, could penetrate 110-115 mm, but this was not to be the case. This was all
attributed to the short-barreled, low-velocity character of the gun.
SU-122 80

SU-122
SU-122

SU-122

Type Self-propelled howitzer

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Service history
Usedby Soviet Union

Wars Eastern Front

Production history
Designer F. F. Pietrow

Designed 15 April 1942 December 1942

Manufacturer UZTM

Produced December 1942 summer of 1944

Numberbuilt 1,150

Variants See variants section

Specifications
Weight 30.9 tonnes (68,122 lb)

Length 6.95m (22ft 10in)

Width 3m (9ft 10.1in)

Height 2.32m (7ft 7in)

Crew 5

Armor 45 mm (1.77 in)

Main 122 mm M-30S howitzer


armament

Secondary none
armament

Engine diesel model V-2


500 PS (493 hp, 368 kW)

Power/weight 16.18 PS/tonne

Suspension Christie

Operational 300 km (186 mi)


range

Speed 55 km/h (34 mph)

The SU-122 (from Samokhodnaya Ustanovka 122 mm) was a Soviet self-propelled howitzer or assault gun used
during World War II. The number "122" in the designation represents the caliber of the main armamenta 122 mm
SU-122 81

M-30S howitzer. The chassis was that of the T-34.

Development history
Soviet High Command became interested in assault guns following the success of German Sturmgeschutz III SPGs.
Assault guns had some advantages over tanks with turrets. The lack of a turret made them cheaper to produce. They
could be built with a larger fighting compartment and could be fitted with bigger and more powerful weapons on a
given chassis. However, assault guns could aim their cannons in high degree only by turning the entire vehicle, and
were thus less suited for close combat than tanks with turrets.
In April 1942, design bureaus were asked to develop several assault guns with various armament: 76.2 mm ZiS-3
divisional field guns and 122 mm M-30 howitzers for infantry support, and 152 mm ML-20 howitzers for breaking
through enemy strongholds.
A prototype assault gun, armed with the 122 mm howitzer and built on the German Sturmgeschtz III chassis was
developed designated SG-122. Only 10 of these were completed. Production was halted when the vehicle was found
to be hard to maintain and judged to be unsuccessful.
Simultaneously, a SPG based on the T-34 medium tank was also developed. Initially the T-34's chassis was selected
for the 76.2 mm F-34 gun. This vehicle, the U-34, was created in summer 1942 at the design bureau of UZTM
(Uralmashzavod Uralsky Machine Building factory) by N. W. Kurin and G. F. Ksjunin. It was a tank destroyer
with the same armament as the T-34, but because of the absence of a turret, the vehicle was 70cm lower, had thicker
armour, and was 2 tonnes lighter. It did not enter production.
UZTM then worked on combining features of the U-34 and the SG-122. Initial design work was completed between
July and August 1942. The project emphasized minimizing modifications to the platform and the howitzer. It used
the same chassis, superstructure, engine and transmission as the U-34 and was armed with a new 122 mm M-30S
howitzer from F. F. Pietrow's design bureau. This vehicle also used the same gun bed cover and mountings as the
SG-122, to keep costs low and simplify production. It had 45 mm thick frontal armour. The M-30S howitzer could
be elevated or depressed between 3 and +26 and had 10 of traverse. The five-man crew consisted of a driver,
gunner, commander and two loaders.
On 25 November 1942 the first U-35 prototype was ready. Trials ran from 30 November to 19 December 1942, and
uncovered various faults in the design including insufficient elevation, a flawed shell transfer mechanism, poor
ventilation for the crew compartment and the fact that the commander had to assist in operating the gun which made
him unable to successfully carry out his other duties. The U-35 entered service with the Red Army as the SU-35
(later renamed SU-122) despite these faults.
Production SU-122s were based on an improved prototype built after trials were conducted. They incorporated
several modifications including slightly less sloped front armour to ease production, modified layout of the fighting
compartment (the location of crew member stations and ammunition racks were changed), fewer vision slots, and a
periscope for the commander. The first production vehicles were completed before 1943.
SU-122 82

Production history
SU-122 production began in December 1942 with 27 vehicles built that
month.[citation needed] The original plan for production beyond that point
was to produce 100 SU-122s each month. Production continued until
the summer of 1944, by which time a total of about 1,150 SU-122s had
been built.

Service history
SU-122 in Kubinka Tank Museum
The first SU-122s produced in December 1942 were sent to training
centers and two new combat units, the 1433rd and 1434th self-propelled artillery regiments. Initially, each of these
mixed regiments consisted of two batteries with four SU-122s each and four batteries with four SU-76 tank
destroyers each. Each regiment had an additional SU-76 tank destroyer as a command vehicle. It was planned to
raise 30 self-propelled artillery regiments operating within armoured and mechanized corps. [citation needed]
In January 1943, the 1433rd and 1434th self-propelled artillery regiments were sent to the Volkhov Front near
Leningrad as part of the 54th Army. On 14 January they saw combat for the first time in Smierdny region. After that
it was decided SU-122s should follow between 400 m and 600 m behind the attacking tanks; sometimes this distance
was shortened to between 200 m and 300 m.
The use of SU-76 tank destroyers together with SU-122s proved unsuccessful. Based on combat experience, the
organization of self-propelled artillery regiments was changed; the new regimental organization consisted of two
batteries of SU-76 tank destroyers and three of SU-122s, for a total of 20 SPGs. In April the organization of
self-propelled artillery regiments was again changed. Separate regiments were created for SU-76 tank destroyers
(light self-propelled artillery regiment) and SU-122s (medium self-propelled artillery regiment).
The medium self-propelled artillery regiment consisted of four batteries of four SU-122s each. Each regiment was
also equipped with either an additional SU-122 or a T-34 for the commander and a BA-64 armoured car. This
organization remained in place until the beginning of 1944 when the SU-122 started to be replaced by the SU-152,
ISU-122 and ISU-152 heavy SPGs and SU-85 tank destroyers.
The SU-122 proved effective in its intended role of direct fire on strongholds. The massive concussion of the 122mm
HE round was reportedly enough to blow the turret off even a Tiger I if a direct hit was scored at close range,
although longer range penetration against heavier German armor remained poor, a trait shared with the larger
152mm howitzers. The new BP-460A HEAT projectile was introduced in May 1943; however its primitive warhead
design was only minimally more effective than brute concussive effects of the old HE shell at close range.
At least one SU-122 was captured by the German Army.
A small number of SU-122s survived the war. Currently, only one example remains, on display in the Kubinka Tank
Museum.
SU-122 83

Variants
The SU-122 had no variants that went into mass production. The T-34 chassis of the SU-122 was further adapted as
part of the later SU-85 self-propelled gun.
Towards the end of the production run, a prototype SU-122 was built with the same ball mantlet as the SU-85.
(Zaloga 1984:16061).

SU-122M
Even as the SU-122 was being mass-produced, its design was being refined primarily with an eye to reduce
production costs. The M-30S armament proved poorly suited for purpose, in spite of its prior recommendation by the
GAU RKKA artillery committee. The howitzer took a lot of space and required both commander and gunner to
operate it in order to fire. Because of this, in January 1943 work started on fitting the SU-122 with a different
howitzer.
The prototype SU-122M was built in April 1943. It featured a bigger fighting compartment as well as an individual
driver's hatch. The M-30S howitzer, mounted on the floor of the vehicle, was replaced by the more modern D-11
howitzer (a variant of U-11 howitzer). However, the SU-122M was not put into production due to a decision to
proceed with the SU-85 instead.

SU-122-III
Another attempt to create an improved SU-122 replacement took a SU-85 chassis and paired it with the 122-mm D-6
howitzer, which was lighter and smaller than the U-11 howitzer. This was unsuccessful, due to the unreliability of
the howitzer's recoil mechanism and its poor anti-tank capabilities. Subsequent wartime design work on 122 mm
self-propelled howitzers was cancelled.

References
Zaloga, Steven J.; James Grandsen (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. London: Arms
and Armour Press. ISBN0-85368-606-8.

External links
Battlefield.ru (http://english.battlefield.ru/su-122.html)
WWII Vehicles (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/ussr/self_propelled_guns/su122.html)
OnWar (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/ussr/fsu122.htm)
ISU-122 84

ISU-122
ISU-122

Polish ISU-122

Type Self-propelled gun

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Specifications
Weight 45.5 tonnes (50.2 short tons; 44.8 long tons)

Length 9.85m (32ft 4in)

Width 3.07m (10ft 1in)

Height 2.48m (8ft 2in)

Crew 4 or 5

Armor front 90mm (3.5in)


gun shield 120mm (4.7in)
side 90mm (3.5in)

Main A-19S 122 mm gun, with 30 rounds


armament

Secondary 12.7 mm DShK AA machine gun, with 250 rounds


armament

Engine 12-cyl. 4-stroke diesel model V-2IS


520 hp (382 kW)

Power/weight 11 hp/tonne

Suspension torsion bar

Operational 220km (140mi)


range

Speed 37km/h (23mph)

The ISU-122 (Istrebitelnaja Samokhodnaya Ustanovka 122) was a Soviet self-propelled gun used during World War
II.
ISU-122 85

History
A prototype of the ISU-122 (in Russian -122) heavy self-propelled gun was built at the Chelyabinsk Kirov
Plant, (Chelyabinskiy Kirovskiy Zavod (ChKZ), Chelyabinsk, Russia), in December 1943. The design shared the
chassis of the ISU-152 self-propelled gun and differed only in armament, having an A-19S 121.92-mm gun as its
main weapon instead of the ISU-152's ML-20S gun-howitzer. Towed versions of these guns used the same carriage:
52-L-504A (Russian designation 52--504), so installation of an A-19 instead of an ML-20 gun was not a difficult
task. After completing development of the ISU-152, ChKZ engineers mounted the A-19 gun on the ISU-152 chassis
to create "Object 242" the first ISU-122 prototype. It was successfully tested but not immediately launched into
mass production.
At that time all ISU hulls were being equipped with the ML-20S gun-howitzer, but the production of hulls increased
quickly and there was a lack of ML-20S tubes in the beginning of 1944. State authorities ordered these uncompleted
hulls armed with an A-19 gun (specifically with the A-19S variant, slightly modified for the self-propelled gun
mount). A further advantage of rearming the ISU was increased direct fire range against heavy German tanks. For
these reasons the State Defense Committee adopted Object 242 for Red Army service as the ISU-122 on 12 March
1944. In April 1944 the first series ISU-122 left the ChKZ production lines.
The A-19S gun had a manual-piston breech, which reduced the rate of fire to 1.5 from 2.5 shots per minute. Soviet
designers developed the D-25 by modernizing the A-19S's breech, creating a semi-automatic variant of the
121.92-mm gun. The D-25 gun was installed in IS-2 tanks as a priority, but in September 1944 became available for
self-propelled guns. The prototype ISU vehicle, armed with a D-25S was designated "Object 249" and successfully
passed plant and state testing. The fire rate was improved to 2 to 3 shots per minute and with two strong experienced
loaders the rate of fire reached 4 shots per minute. Due to the muzzle brake reducing recoil forces the D-25 had a
smaller recoil buffer than the A-19. This improved the crew's work conditions and allowed for a smaller, lighter gun
shield with the same armour thickness.
After testing Object 249 was immediately launched in mass production as the ISU-122S (-122) self-propelled
gun. However, the original ISU-122 remained in production (along with the ISU-152) due to a large stock of A-19
guns (the ML-20 and D-25 came directly from artillery factories). Mass production of the ISU-122 and ISU-122S
ceased at the end of 1945. ChKZ produced 1,735 ISU-122 and 675 ISU-122S variants in total.[]
After World War II, many surviving ISU-122s were rebuilt as rocket launchers, very large calibre gun chassis or
supply vehicles. The small number of ISU-122s which kept their original armament were modernized in 1958. This
modernization was not as complete as that of the ISU-152. Most ISU-122s did not receive a new engine, only
upgraded gun sights and radio sets. In the beginning of 1960, the ISU-122 was withdrawn from Soviet Army service
(the ISU-152 served much longer). Some disarmed ISU-122s were transferred to civil organizations, to be used as
emergency vehicles on Soviet railways or as tracked transport in Arctic areas of the Soviet Union.
ISU-122 86

Variants
Some vehicles were fitted with a 12.7mm DShK
anti-aircraft machine gun.
In later models the A-19 gun was modified to have a
semi-automatic breech block. This gun was designated
D-25S, and the vehicle mounting it ISU-122S. The
modification increased rate of fire from 1.5
rounds/minute to 3 rounds/minute. The ISU-122S
variant is recognizable by its ball-shaped gun mantlet
and double-baffle muzzle brake.

Construction and design


ISU-122 at the museum on Sapun Mountain, Sevastopol. This
Construction of the ISU-122 and ISU-152 is the same
vehicle was manufactured in 1944 and is the earlier variant.
except for the gun mounting, sights and ammunition
stowage. The A-19S or D-25S cannons of the ISU-122
had 18 degrees elevation angle and 30 rounds of ammunition (the ISU-152 had 20 degrees and 20 rounds
respectively). The A-19S cannon was equipped with an ST-18 (-18) telescopic sight and the D-25S cannon was
equipped with a TSh-17 (-17) sight. Both types of sights had maximal exact targeting distance of 1.5km (the
ISU-152 could manage only 900 m). Maximum direct fire range of the A-19S or D-25S cannons was 5km, much
further than these sights' targeting abilities. For direct or indirect firing on distances over 1.5km the gunner used the
second, panoramic sight.

The crew of the ISU-122 was 5 men and their location and roles were identical to those of ISU-152 crewmen. The
ISU-122S was used with either 4 or 5-man crews since the semi-automatic breech allowed for a reasonable fire rate
with a crew of four; the place of the absent loader was often taken up with additional ammunition. With a five man
crew (two loaders) the ISU-122S demonstrated a better fire rate than with four men.

Organisation
The organisation of military units utilizing the ISU-122 was the same as with the ISU-152. Soviet Army
commanders tried not to mix the ISU-122 and the ISU-152 in one regiment or brigade, although there were some
units equipped with both types. The different armament of the ISU-122 and the ISU-152 caused problems with
ammunition supplies and logistics. Another disadvantage of mixed-type units was a doubling of the calculations
required for massed indirect fire.

Combat history
The ISU-122 was used as a powerful assault gun, a self-propelled howitzer, and a long-range tank destroyer, the
same as with the SU-152 and ISU-152 heavy self-propelled guns in general. However these vehicles differed in their
combat use. The primary application of the ISU-122 was as a tank destroyer, while the SU/ISU-152 tended more
towards the assault gun role. With the same hull as the IS-2 the ISU-122 had good armour performance but more
importantly very good performance with high-explosive rounds. The 121.92-mm gun had great potential, although
the gun's abilities were somewhat reduced by the available projectiles and its lack of accuracy. In 1944 the BR-471
was the sole armour-piercing round available (the Germans had armour piercing rounds also, including ballistic nose
and sub-caliber variants). An improved version, the BR-471B (-471) was developed in early 1945, but was
available in quantity only after World War II ended. In extremis the ISU-122 engaged enemy heavy armour with
OF-471 (-471) high explosive projectiles. These shells had a mass of 25kg, a muzzle velocity of 800m/s, and
ISU-122 87

were equipped with a 3kg TNT charge. Mechanical shock and explosion was often enough to knock out enemy
AFVs without any armour penetration.
For urban combat ISU-122's were utilized as assault guns, but with a lower efficiency in comparison to the
SU/ISU-152. In general Red Army commanders viewed the ISU-122 as a good assault gun. The OF-471 projectile
was powerful enough against unprotected and entrenched infantry, pillboxes, and fortified buildings. In urban
combat the long barrel of the 121.92-mm cannon sometimes made maneuvering difficult.
Use of the ISU-122 as a self-propelled howitzer was rare, although its maximum range of fire exceeded 14km.
Usually the ISU-122 delivered indirect fire to the enemy during rapid advances when support from towed artillery
was not available.

Surviving examples
Most of the ISU-122s produced survived the Second World War and
examples remain, but only a few of the surviving ISU-122s kept their
initial appearance. Many were rebuilt or scrapped in the mid 1960s.
The number of ISU-122s preserved in museums and memorials is
substantially lower than surviving ISU-152s. ISU 122s can be seen in
the museums of the Russian Central Artillery and Engineer Troops in
St Petersburg, the Kubinka Tank Museum, the Central Museum of the
Russian Army, the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Kiev and other
tank museums and World War II memorials in Poland and Belarus.
ISU-122 at the Muzeum Polskiej Techniki
Wojskowej in Warsaw

Notes

References
Solyankin A. G., Pavlov M. V., Pavlov I. V., Zheltov I. G. Soviet heavy self-propelled guns 19411945,
Moscow, Printing centre Exprint, 2005, 48 pp.ISBN 5-94038-080-8 ( . ., . .,
. ., . . 1941-1945 ., .
, 2005, 48 . ISBN 5-94038-080-8)

External links
ISU-122 on BattleField.Ru (http://english.battlefield.ru/jsu-122-jsu-152.html)
ISU-122 on Vasiliy Chobitok's ArmorSite (http://armor.kiev.ua/Tanks/WWII/isu122/) (articles by A.
Meretzkov and A. Sorokin) (Russian)
Brummbr 88

Brummbr
Sturmpanzer

Sturmpanzer, displayed at the Muse des Blinds, Saumur, France.

Type Heavy assault gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Production history
Designer Alkett

Designed 19421943

Manufacturer Alkett

Produced 19431945

Numberbuilt 306

Specifications
Weight 28.2 tonnes (62,170 lbs)

Length 5.93 metres (19ft 5in)

Width 2.88 metres (9ft 5in)

Height 2.52 metres (8ft 3in)

Crew 5 (driver, commander,


gunner, 2 loaders)

Armor Front: 100 mm (3.93 in)

Main 15 cm StuH 43 L/12


armament

Secondary 1 or 2 x 7.92mm (0.312in) MG 34


armament

Engine liquid-cooled V-12 Maybach


HL120TRM
300 PS (296 hp, 220 kW)

Power/weight 10.64 PS/tonne

Suspension two-wheel leaf-spring bogies

Operational Road: 210 km (130 mi)


range
Brummbr 89

Speed Road: 40 km/h (25 mph)


Off-road: 24 km/h (15 mph)

The Sturmpanzer (also known as Sturmpanzer 43 or Sd.Kfz. 166) was a German armoured infantry support gun
based on the Panzer IV chassis used in the Second World War. It was used at the Battles of Kursk, Anzio,
Normandy, and helped to put down the Warsaw Uprising. It was known by the nickname Brummbr (German:
"Grouch")[1] a contraction of the term Sturmpanzer.</ref> by Allied intelligence,[2] a name which was not used by
the Germans. Just over 300 vehicles were built and they were assigned to four independent battalions.

Development
The Sturmpanzer was a development of the Panzer IV tank designed to
provide direct infantry fire support, especially in urban areas. The
result was the Sturmpanzer, which used a Panzer IV chassis with the
upper hull and turret replaced by a new casemate-style armored
superstructure housing a new gun, the 15 centimetres (5.9in)
Sturmhaubitze (StuH) 43 L/12 developed by Skoda. It fired the same
shells as the 15 cm sIG 33 heavy infantry gun. Thirty-eight rounds,
with separate propellant cartridges, could be carried. It used the Sfl.Zf.
A Sturmpanzer in the Anzio-Nettuno area of 1a sight. The combined weight of the shell and cartridge (38 kilograms
Italy, March 1944.
(84lb) for an HE shell and 8 kilograms (18lb) for a propellant
cartridge) made the work of the loader arduous, especially if the gun
was elevated to a high angle.

An MG 34 machine gun was carried that could be fastened to the open gunner's hatch, much like the arrangement on
the Sturmgeschtz III Ausf. G. Early vehicles carried a MP 40 sub-machine gun inside, which could be fired through
firing ports in the side of the superstructure.
The driver's station projected forward from the casemate's sloped frontal armor plate and used the Tiger I's
Fahrersehklappe 80 driver's sight. The fighting compartment was (badly) ventilated by natural convection, exiting
out the rear of the superstructure through two armored covers. Sideskirts were fitted on all vehicles.[3]
Early vehicles were too heavy for the chassis, which lead to frequent breakdowns of the suspension and
transmission. Efforts were made to ameliorate this from the second series onwards, with some success.[4]
In October 1943 it was decided that the StuH 43 gun needed to be redesigned to reduce its weight. A new version,
some 800 kilograms (1,800lb) lighter than the StuH 43, was built as the StuH 43/1. Some of the weight was saved
by reducing the armor on the gun mount itself. This gun was used from the third production series onwards.
Zimmerit coating was applied to all vehicles until September 1944.[5]
Brummbr 90

Production series

First
Production of the first series of 60 vehicles began in April 1943. Fifty-two of these were built using new Panzer IV
Ausf. G chassis and the remaining 8 from rebuilt Ausf. E and F chassis. Survivors, about half, were rebuilt beginning
in December 1943; they were mostly rebuilt to 2nd series standards.

Second
Production restarted in December 1943 of another 60 vehicles, using only new Ausf. H chassis, and continued until
March 1944. The Sturmpanzer's baptism in combat at the Battle of Kursk proved that the driver's compartment was
too lightly armored and it was reinforced. The gunner's hatch was removed and a ventilator fan was fitted, much to
the relief of the crew. Internally sprung, steel-rimmed road wheels replaced the front two rubber-rimmed road wheels
in an effort to reduce the stress on the forward suspension that was only partially successful.[6]

Third
Production of the 3rd series ran from March to June 1944 with few changes from the second series. The
Fahrersehklappe 80 was replaced by periscopes and the lighter StuH 43/1 was used.

Fourth
The superstructure was redesigned in early 1944 for the fourth series, which used the chassis and HL120TRM112
engine of the Ausf. J, and was in production between June 1944 and March 1945. It featured a redesigned gun collar,
as well as a general reduction in height of the superstructure. This redesign also introduced a ball mount in the front
superstructure for a MG 34 machine gun with 600 rounds. The vehicle commander's position was modified to use the
cupola of the Sturmgeschtz III Ausf. G, which could mount a machine gun for anti-aircraft defense.

Combat history
Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 216
The first unit to take the Sturmpanzer into battle was Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 216. It was formed at the end of April
1943 and transferred in early May to Amiens to train on its new assault guns. It was organized into 3 line companies,
each with 14 vehicles, and a battalion headquarters with 3 vehicles. It arrived in Central Russia on 10 June 1943 to
prepare for Unternehmen Zitadelle (Operation Citadel), the German attack on the Kursk salient. For this action it was
temporarily assigned as the third battalion of schweres Panzerjger Regiment 656 ("Heavy Anti-tank Regiment
656") under the command of the 9th Army of Army Group Center.
It remained in the Orel-Bryansk area until its transfer to the Dnepropetrovsk-Zaporozhe area at the end of August. Its
vehicles were refitted there and it remained there until the Zaporozhe Bridgehead was abandoned on 15 October. The
battalion retreated to Nikopol where it helped to defend the German salient there until it was withdrawn back to the
Reich at the end of December.[7]
The Allied landing at Anzio on 22 January 1944 caused the battalion, fully independent once more, to be transferred
there in early February with 28 vehicles to participate in the planned counterattack against the Allied beachhead,
Unternehmen Fischfang. This failed in its objective, but the battalion remained in Italy for the rest of the war. The
battalion still had 42 vehicles on hand when the Allies launched their Po Valley offensive in April 1945, but all were
blown up to prevent capture or lost during the retreat before the war ended in May.
Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 217
Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 217 was formed on 20 April 1944 at the Grafenwhr Training Area from cadres provided by
Panzer-Kompanie 40 and Panzer-Ersatz Abteilung 18, although it did not have any armoured fighting vehicles until
Brummbr 91

19 'Sturmpanzer's' were delivered at the end of May It departed 1/2 July for the Normandy Front. Here it had to
detrain in Cond sur Noireau, some 170 kilometres (110mi) behind the front lines, because the Allies had heavily
damaged the French rail network. Many of the battalion's vehicles broke down during the road march to the front
lines. The first mention of Sturmpanzer's in combat is on 7 August near Caen. On 19 August, the battalion had 17
Sturmpanzers operational and another 14 in maintenance. Most of the battalion was not trapped in the Falaise Pocket
and managed to retreat to the northeast. It had only 22 vehicles in October, which were divided between the 1st and
2nd Companies; the surplus crews were sent to Panzer-Ersatz Abteilung 18. It participated in the Battle of the Bulge,
only advancing as far as St. Vith. It was continually on the retreat for the rest of the war and was captured in the
Ruhr Pocket in April 1945.[8]
Sturmpanzer-Kompanie z.b.V. 218
Sturmpanzer-Kompanie z.b.V. 218 was raised in August 1944. It was sent to Warsaw where it was attached to Panzer
Abteilung (Fkl) 302. It remained on the Eastern Front after the Warsaw Uprising was suppressed and was eventually
wiped out in East Prussia in April 1945. It was supposed to have been the cadre for Sturmpanzer Abteilung 218 in
January 1945, but it was never pulled out of the front lines to do so.[9]
Sturmpanzer-Kompanie z.b.V. 2./218 was raised simultaneously with Sturmpanzer Kompanie z.b.V. 218, but was
transferred to the Paris area on 20 August. Nothing is known of its service in France, but company personnel were
sent to Panzer-Ersatz Abteilung 18 at the end of the year and were supposed to have been used in the formation of
Sturmpanzer Abteilung 218.
Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 218 was ordered formed on 6 January 1945 with three companies with a total of 45
Sturmpanzer's, but it received Sturmgeschtz III assault guns during February instead.
Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 219
Sturmpanzer-Abteilung 219 was originally to be formed from Sturmgeschtz-Brigade 914, but this was changed to
Sturmgeschtz-Brigade 237 in September 1944. In mid-September 1944 the brigade transferred to the Dllersheim
Training Area to reorganize and re-equip. Only ten Sturmpanzer's had been received when the battalion was alerted
on 15 October to participate in 'Unternehmen Eisenfaust', the German coup to forestall Hungary's attempt to
surrender to the Allies. All the vehicles were given to the First Company and it departed for Budapest on the
following day. Bomb damage to the rails delayed its arrival until 19 October, by which time it was no longer needed
as a pro-German government had been installed. It was railed to St. Martin, Slovakia for more training. The battalion
was transferred to the vicinity of Stuhlweienburg to relieve trapped German forces in Budapest. It remained in the
vicinity of Budapest until forced to retreat by advancing Soviet forces.[10]

Surviving vehicles
Four Sturmpanzers survive:
Muse des Blinds in Saumur, France
Deutsches Panzermuseum in Munster, Lower Saxony, Germany
Kubinka Tank Museum near Moscow
The Fort Sill Field Artillery Museum in Fort Sill, Oklahoma[11]

Notes
[1] Brummbr does not mean "Grizzly Bear"; a literal translation would be "grumbling Sturmpanzer on display at the Deutsches
bear", but the term is generally used in a figurative sense. Furthermore, German Panzermuseum Munster, Germany
soldiers nicknamed it the "Stupa",<ref name="Spiegal" >

[2] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 23, quoting DTD Report 3066


[3] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 25
[4] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 23
Brummbr 92

[5] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 26


[6] Trojca & Jaugitz, pp. 23, 25
[7] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 56
[8] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 84
[9] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 101
[10] Trojca & Jaugitz, pp. 121-3
[11] Army FA museum adds WWII artillery pieces (http:/ / www. army. mil/ article/ 94484/ Army_FA_museum_adds_WWII_artillery_pieces/ )

Footnotes

References
Chamberlain, Peter, and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz (Technical Editor). Encyclopedia of German Tanks of
World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns,
and Semi-tracked Vehicles, 19331945. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978 (revised edition 1993). ISBN
1-85409-214-6
Jentz, Thomas L. Sturmgeschuetz: s.Pak to Sturmmoerser (Panzer Tracts 8). Darlington Productions, 1999 ISBN
1-892848-04-X
Trojca, Waldemar and Jaugitz, Markus. Sturmtiger and Sturmpanzer in Combat. Katowice, Poland: Model
Hobby, 2008 ISBN 978-83-60041-29-1

External links
Sturmpanzer.com (http://www.sturmpanzer.com/) - Website devoted to the Sturmpanzer.
A German Soldier's Memory (http://home.att.net/~w.tomtschik/WW2OBindex.html) - A Sturmpanzer
crewman's recollections.
Information about the Sturmpanzer at Panzerworld (http://www.panzerworld.net/sturmpanzer)
Achtung Panzer! (http://www.achtungpanzer.com/brum.htm)
Sturmpanzer IV Brummbr (http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/pentagon/
2833/heer/selfpropelledgun/brummbaer/brummbaer.html&date=2009-10-26+00:25:36)
OnWar: Brummbr statistics (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/germany/tfbrummbar.htm)
World War II Vehicles: Sturmpanzer IV Brummbr (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/self-propelled/
brummbar.asp)
Surviving Panzer IV variants (http://the.shadock.free.fr/Surviving_Panzer_IV_variants.pdf) - A PDF file
presenting the Panzer IV variants (Jagdpanzer IV, Hummel, Nashorn, Brummbr, StuG IV, Flakpanzer tanks and
prototypes based on Pz IV) still existing in the world
issue lists for the Sturmpanzer (http://forum.panzer-archiv.de/viewtopic.php?p=164819#164819)
15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B 93

15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf


B
15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I
Ausf B

A sIG 33 (Sf) on a Pz.Kpfw. I chassis in Russia, 1942

Type self propelled artillery

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 1940 - 1943

Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Designed 1939-1940

Manufacturer Alkett

Produced February 1940

Numberbuilt 38

Specifications
Weight 8.5 tonnes (8.4 long tons; 9.4 short tons)

Length 4.67 metres (15ft 4in)

Width 2.06 metres (6ft 9in)

Height 2.8 metres (9ft 2in)

Crew Four

Armor 13 mm - 5 mm

Main 1 15 cm schweres Infanteriegeschtz 33


armament

Engine 6-cylinder, water-cooled Maybach


NL38TR
100 horsepower (75kW)

Transmission 5 forward, 1 reverse gears

Operational 140 kilometres (87mi)


range

Speed 40 kilometres per hour (25mph)


15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B 94

The 15cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B (sometimes referred to as the Sturmpanzer I Bison[1]) was
a German self-propelled heavy infantry gun used during World War II.

Development and history


The Invasion of Poland had shown that the towed sIG 33 guns assigned
to the infantry gun companies of the motorized infantry regiments had
difficulties keeping up with the tanks during combat. The easiest
solution was to modify a spare tank chassis to carry it into battle. A sIG
33 was mounted on the chassis of the Panzer I Ausf. B, complete with
carriage and wheels, in place of the turret and superstructure. Plates 13
millimetres (0.51in) thick were used to form a tall, open-topped
fighting compartment on the forward part of the hull. This protected
A sIG 33 auf Panzerkampfwagen I in Greece in little more than the gun and the gunner himself from small arms fire
1941 and shell fragments, the loaders were completely exposed. The
rearmost section of armor was hinged to ease reloading.

There was no room to stow any ammunition so it had to be carried by a separate vehicle. When mounted, the sIG 33
had a total 25 of traverse and could elevate from -4 to +75. It used a Rblf36 sight. The chassis was overloaded and
breakdowns were frequent. The vehicle's extreme height and lack of on-board ammunition were severe tactical
drawbacks.
Thirty-eight were produced in February 1940 by Alkett. Thirty-six of these were organized into independent schwere
Infanteriegeschtz-Kompanie ("Self-propelled Heavy Infantry Gun Companies"); mot.S. Numbers 701-706 and these
were assigned to the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th Panzer Divisions in the Battle of France[2] as well as Operation
Barbarossa, (the invasion of the Soviet Union).[3] The 705th and 706th were destroyed at this time, belonging to the
7th and 10th Panzer Divisions respectively. Of the remaining companies, only the 701st participated in the opening
stages of the subsequent Case Blue in 1942, although it, and its parent 9th Panzer Division, were transferred to Army
Group Center by the end of the summer of 1942.[4] The last reference to them is with the 704th Company of the 5th
Panzer Division during the middle of 1943.[5]

Notes
[1] Achtung Panzer Article (http:/ / www. achtungpanzer. com/ panzerkampfwagen-i. htm#051311)
[2] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 5
[3] Niehorster, 1941
[4] Niehorster, 1942
[5] Chamberlain & Doyle, p. 24

References
Chamberlain, Peter, and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz (Technical Editor). Encyclopedia of German Tanks of
World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns,
and Semi-tracked Vehicles, 19331945. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978 (revised edition 1993) ISBN
1-85409-214-6.
Niehorster, Leo. German World War II Organizational Series; Volume 3/I: Mechanized Army Divisions (22 June
1941) Hannover, Germany: Niehorster, 1990
Niehorster, Leo. German World War II Organizational Series; Volume 4/I: Mechanized Army Divisions (28 June
1942) Hannover, Germany: Niehorster, 1994
Trojca, Waldemar and Jaugitz, Markus. Sturmtiger and Sturmpanzer in Combat. Katowice, Poland: Model
Hobby, 2008 ISBN 978-83-60041-29-1
15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B 95

External links
Panzers of the Reich (http://www.panzer-reich.co.uk/15-cm-sig-33-sf-auf-panzerkampfwagen-1-ausf-b.htm)
wwiivehicles.com (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/self-propelled/sig-33.asp)

15 cm sIG 33 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen


II (Sf)
15 cm sIG 33 auf Fahrgestell
Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf)
Type heavy assault gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 1942 - 1943

Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Manufacturer Alkett

Produced 1941

Numberbuilt 12

Specifications
Weight 11.2 tonnes (11.0 long tons; 12.3 short tons)

Length 5.41 metres (17.7ft)

Width 2.6 metres (8.5ft)

Height 1.9 metres (6.2ft)

Crew 4

Armor 30 mm - 5 mm

Main 1 15 cm sIG 33
armament

Secondary 1 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 34


armament

Engine Bussing-NAG engine

Transmission 6 forward, 1 reverse gears

Suspension leaf-spring

Operational 190 kilometres (120mi)


range

Speed 40 kilometres per hour (25mph)

Sometimes referred to as the Sturmpanzer II Bison, the 15cm sIG 33 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf)
was a German self-propelled heavy infantry gun used during World War II. The 15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf
15 cm sIG 33 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf) 96

Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B built in time for the Invasion of France in 1940 had proven to be too heavy for their
chassis as well as enormously tall. The same gun was mated to the Panzerkampfwagen II chassis in an attempt to
drastically lower its height while using a stronger chassis. The prototype used a standard Panzer II Ausf. B chassis
when it was built in February 1941, but this was too cramped for use. The chassis was lengthened by 60 centimetres
(24in), which required adding a sixth roadwheel, and widened by 32 centimetres (13in) to better accommodate the
gun while preserving its low silhouette. 15 millimetres (0.59in) plates formed the front and sides of the open-topped
fighting compartment, which was also open at the rear. Its sides were notably lower than the front which made the
crew vulnerable to small arms fire and shell fragments. Large hatches were added to the rear deck to better cool the
engine.
The 15-centimetre (5.9in) sIG 33 gun, for which 30 rounds were carried, could traverse a total of 5 left and right
and used a Rblf36 sight.
Twelve were built at the end of 1941 and shipped to North Africa in early 1942 where they formed schwere
Infanteriegeschtz-Kompanie (mot.S.) ("Heavy Self-propelled Infantry Gun Company") 707 and 708. The former
was assigned to Schtzen-Regiment 155 and the latter to Schtzen-Regiment 200, both part of the 90. leichte
Afrika-Division.[1] Both companies fought until the Axis surrender in Tunisia in May 1943.

Notes
[1] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 5

References
Chamberlain, Peter, and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz (Technical Editor). Encyclopedia of German Tanks of
World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns,
and Semi-tracked Vehicles, 19331945. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978 (revised edition 1993) ISBN
1-85409-214-6
Trojca, Waldemar and Jaugitz, Markus. Sturmtiger and Sturmpanzer in Combat. Katowice, Poland: Model
Hobby, 2008 ISBN 978-83-60041-29-1
"Sturmpanzer II Bison" (http://web.archive.org/web/20100828113619/http://www.achtungpanzer.com/
sig33.htm). Achtung Panzer!. Archived from the original (http://www.achtungpanzer.com/sig33.htm) on 28
August 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.

External links
Panzers of the Reich (http://www.panzer-reich.co.uk/15-cm-sig-33-auf-fahrgestell-panzerkampfwagen-2.
htm)
wwiivehicles.com (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/self-propelled/sig-33.asp)
" Gw. II fr 15 cm s.I.G. 33: S.P. Heavy Infantry Howitzer (http://www.lonesentry.com/ordnance/
gw-ii-fr-15-cm-s-i-g-33-s-p-heavy-infantry-howitzer.html)" (U.S. World War II intelligence report)
Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B 97

Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B
Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B

Left rear view of a sIG 33B showing a spare roadwheel and tool box on the engine deck

Type Heavy assault gun

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 1942 - 1944

Usedby Nazi Germany

Wars World War II

Production history
Designer Alkett

Designed 1941-2

Manufacturer Alkett

Produced 1942

Numberbuilt 24

Specifications
Weight 21 tonnes (21 long tons; 23 short tons)

Length 5.4 metres (17ft 9in)

Width 2.9 metres (9ft 6in)

Height 2.3 metres (7ft 7in)

Crew 5

Armor 1080 millimetres (0.393.1in)

Main 1 15 cm sIG 33/1


armament

Secondary 1 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 34


armament

Engine 12-cylinder Maybach HL120TRM


300 PS (296 hp, 221 kW)

Power/weight 14,3 PS/tonne


Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B 98

Transmission 6 forward, 1 reverse gears

Suspension torsion-bar

Operational 110 kilometres (68mi)


range

Speed 20 kilometres per hour (12mph)

The Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B was a German self-propelled heavy infantry gun used during World War II. A
new, fully enclosed, and heavily armored boxy casemate superstructure was built on the chassis of the
Sturmgeschtz III. It mounted the improved sIG 33/1 infantry gun, offset to the right side, for which 30 rounds were
carried. It could only traverse 3 left and right, elevate 25, and depress 6. A Maschinengewehr 34 machine-gun
was fitted in a ball mount on the left side of the superstructure with 600 rounds. Its traverse limits were 15 left and
20 right, and it could elevate 20 and depress 10.
Sources differ as to the development history. Chamberlain and Doyle say that Alkett was ordered in July 1941 to
convert a dozen Sturmgeschtz III Ausf. E chassis and that these were finished in December 1941 and January 1942
- but not issued. On 20 September 1942, another dozen Sturmgeschutz IIIs were ordered to be converted, and the
existing vehicles were rebuilt.[1] Trojca and Jaugitz contend that all twenty-four were built by Alkett starting in
September 1942 from repaired Sturmgeschtz III Ausf. B, C, D and E chassis.[2]
The first dozen were delivered by the end of October 1942 and assigned to Sturmgeschtz-Abteilungen (Assault Gun
Battalions) 177 and 244, then fighting in Stalingrad. The remaining dozen vehicles could not be delivered to
Sturmgeschtz-Abteilungen 243 and 245, also fighting in Stalingrad, after the Soviets surrounded the German 6th
Army on 21 November. Instead, the vehicles were formed into Sturm-Infanterie-Geschtz-Batterie/Lehr-Bataillon
(Assault Infantry Gun Batterie/Demonstration Battalion) XVII. The battalion was assigned to the 22nd Panzer
Division as the Germans attempted to relieve the trapped 6th Army. The Division was virtually wiped out in the
fighting and the battery was assigned to the 23rd Panzer Division where it became the
Sturm-Infanterie-Geschtz-Batterie/Panzer-Regiment 201 (also known as 9. Kompanie/Panzer-Regiment 201) for
the rest of the war. The last strength report to mention them lists five remaining in September 1944.Only one
survived at the Kubinka NIIBT Research Collection at Russia.[3]

Notes
[1] pp. 81, 87
[2] p. 5
[3] Trojca & Jaugitz, p. 10

References
Chamberlain, Peter, and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz (Technical Editor). Encyclopedia of German Tanks of
World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns,
and Semi-tracked Vehicles, 19331945. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978 (revised edition 1993). ISBN
1-85409-214-6
Trojca, Waldemar and Jaugitz, Markus. Sturmtiger and Sturmpanzer in Combat. Katowice, Poland: Model
Hobby, 2008 ISBN 978-83-60041-29-1
Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B 99

External links
Achtung Panzer (http://www.achtungpanzer.com/sturmgeschutz-iii-sturmgeschutz-iv.htm)
wwiivehicles.com (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/self-propelled/sig-33.asp)

Grille (artillery)
Grille Ausf. M

Grille Ausf. M on display at the US Army Ordnance Museum.

Type self propelled artillery

Placeoforigin Nazi Germany

Service history
Inservice 1943 - 1945

Wars World War II

Production history
Produced 1943 - 1944

Numberbuilt 383

Variants ammunition carrier

Specifications
Weight 11.5 tonnes

Length 4.95m (16ft 3in)

Width 2.15m (7ft 1in)

Height 2.47m (8ft 1in)

Crew 4

Armor 10 mm - 15 mm

Main 1 15 cm sIG 33
armament 15 rounds

Secondary 1 7.92 mm Maschinengewehr 34


armament 600 rounds

Engine 1 x Praga AC, 6-cylinder petrol


engine
147 hp (110 kW)

Suspension Leaf spring


Grille (artillery) 100

Operational 190km (120mi)


range

Speed 35km/h (22mph)

The Grille (German: "cricket") series of self propelled artillery vehicles were used by Nazi Germany during World
War II. The Grille series was based on the Czech Panzer 38(t) tank and used a 15cm sIG 33 infantry gun.

Development
The original order for 200 units of the Grille, was to be based on the new 38(t) Ausf M chassis that BMM
(Bhmisch-Mhrische Maschinenfabrik) was developing, however delays caused production to start on the 38(t)
Ausf H chassis, using, in some cases, the older 38(t)'s returned for factory refit.

Grille Ausf. H
The first variant of the Grille was based on the Panzer 38(t) Ausf. H, which had its engine in the rear. The turret of
the tank was removed and replaced by a low-slung superstructure and fighting compartment. The 15cm schweres
Infanteriegeschtz 33 (heavy infantry gun) was mounted in the front of this armored compartment.
A total of 91 (including the one prototype) were produced in the BMM (erstwhile KD Praga) factory in Prague
from February to April 1943. The official designation was 15cm Schweres Infanteriegeschtz 33 (Sf) auf
Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) Ausf. H (Sd.Kfz. 138/1).
As the Ausf H was built on a tank chassis, its hull armour was 50mm (front) and its superstructure armour was
25mm (front)

Grille Ausf. M
The second Grille variant was based on the Panzer 38(t) Ausf. M, which had its engine in the middle. As with the
earlier version, the turret was removed and replaced with a new superstructure and armored compartment. Unlike the
Ausf.H variant of the Grille, this was located at the rear of the vehicle, as well as somewhat smaller and higher. This
version also carried the 15cm schweres Infanteriegeschtz33.
From April to June 1943 and then from October 1943 to September 1944 a total of 282 vehicles were produced, as
well as 120 ammunition carriers, which replaced the main gun with ammunition racks. These could be converted
back to normal configuration in the field, by mounting the 15cm gun onto the vehicle. The Grille Ausf M was the
last vehicle built on the Ausf M chassis as the 10 that had been allocated to the Flakpanzer 38(t) chassis were used to
build Grille's instead.
The official designation was 15cm Schweres Infanteriegeschtz 33/1 auf Selbstfahrlafette 38(t) (Sf) Ausf. M (Sd.Kfz.
138/1)
Grille (artillery) 101

Combat history
Both versions were intended to take service in the schwere Infanteriegeschtz Companies within the Panzergrenadier
Regiments, inside Panzer and Panzergrenadier Divisions, in their heavy infantry gun units. Each detachment had six
available.

Notes

References
Chamberlain, Peter, and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz (Technical Editor). Encyclopedia of German Tanks of
World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns,
and Semi-tracked Vehicles, 19331945. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978 (revised edition 1993). ISBN
0-85368-202-X; rev. ed. ISBN 1-85409-214-6.

External links
World War II Vehicles (http://www.wwiivehicles.com/germany/self-propelled/bison.asp)
Gw. fr 15 cm s.I.G. 33/1 (Sd. Kfz. 138/1): S.P. Heavy Infantry Howitzer (on Czech Chassis) (http://www.
lonesentry.com/ordnance/gw-fr-15-cm-s-i-g-331-sd-kfz-1381-s-p-heavy-infantry-howitzer-on-czech-chassis.
html) (Catalogue of Enemy Ordnance, 1945)
SU-152 102

SU-152
SU-152

SU-152 in Lubuskie Military Museum, Poland

Type Heavy Artillery

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Specifications
Weight 45.5 tonnes (100,300 lb)

Length 8.95m (29ft 4in)

Width 3.25m (10ft 8in)

Height 2.45m (8ft)

Crew 5

Armor Front: 75 mm (2.95 in)


Side: 60 mm (2.36 in)
Roof: 20 mm (0.78 in)

Main 152 mm ML-20S gun-howitzer, with 20 rounds


armament

Secondary 12.7 mm DShK machine-gun (optional)


armament

Engine 12-cyl. 4-stroke diesel model V-2K


600 hp (450 kW)

Power/weight 13 hp/t

Suspension Torsion Bar

Operational 330 km (205 mi)


range

Speed 43 km/h (27 mph)

The SU-152 (-152) was a Soviet self-propelled heavy howitzer used during World War II.
It mounted a 152 mm gun-howitzer on the chassis of a KV-1S heavy tank. Later production used an IS tank chassis
and was re-designated ISU-152. Because of its adopted role as an impromptu heavy tank destroyer, capable of
knocking out the heaviest German armoured vehiclesTiger and Panther tanks, and Elefant tank destroyersit was
nicknamed Zveroboy which roughly translates to "one who fights beasts/animals". This name was ideal for Soviet
propaganda.
SU-152 103

Development
The Stalingrad counteroffensive, Operation Uranus, exposed the Red Army's urgent need for mobile heavy guns.
Primary targets for these guns were German fortifications in and around Stalingrad. At the time Soviet front-line
ground units did not possess sufficient firepower to deal with pillboxes and other fortifications.
Close support of artillery and combat engineers was an important factor in the success of Operation Uranus.
However, with rare exceptions, all Soviet guns and howitzers at this time were towed rather than self-propelled. This
lack of mobility proved to be greatly exacerbated by the absence of roads, the presence of deep snow cover and a
scarcity of artillery tractors. Towed guns were also highly vulnerable to counterattack while on the move, especially
since they were often hauled by horses or their own crews. The 152mm heavy howitzers were particularly difficult
to maneuver; owing to their great weight and narrow steel wheels, they were incapable of crossing rivers on anything
but tank bridges and were prone to becoming hopelessly mired and needing to be abandoned by their crews.
This situation did not satisfy the state authorities. In November 1942 the State Defense Committee ordered the
development of a heavy self-propelled gun armed with the 152.4mm ML-20 howitzer. It should be noted that the
Red Army had dedicated anti-fortification vehicles in the pre-war period, such as the KV-2 heavy tank armed with
the 152.4mm M-10 howitzer. The design proved unsatisfactory for numerous reasons, including a lethally-high
silhouette, a sluggish and barely-functional manual turret traverse, a slow reload rate, and a high center of gravity
which risked tipping the vehicle over when attempting to surmount even small obstacles. Mass production of KV-2s
ceased in July 1941 and a few survived to November 1942. The new anti-fortification vehicle was designed with the
same purpose in mind, but with higher mobility, heavier armor, reduced production cost, and the more powerful and
accurate ML-20 152mm gun. Mounting the ML-20 in a turret was impossible due to its length and recoil, and it was
eventually decided that the new vehicle should have a non-rotating gun mounted in a fixed casemate-style
superstructure.
Prior to the issue of the State Defense Committee order there were several other anti-fortification vehicle projects, all
of which were halted. Later in the war these projects were restarted. In December 1942 three different designs of
"pillbox killer" vehicles were introduced by various engineer groups from the major Soviet artillery and tank
factories. All of these designs used the ML-20 gun as a primary armament, with the KV-1S heavy tank chassis. After
some discussion, the project of Joseph Yakovlevich Kotin was chosen for further mass production. This design
successfully combined the ML-20 and KV-1S chassis with minimal expense.
The entire project was designated "KV-14" and assembly of the first prototype (called "Object 236") began on
December 31, 1942. It was completed after 25 days. Plant trials of "Object 236" began on January 25, 1943. After a
number of successful plant tests the more stringent state tests began. "Object 236" succeeded again. On February 14,
1943 the State Defense Committee accepted it for Red Army service and immediately launched it into mass
production at the Chelyabinskiy Kirovskiy Zavod (Chelyabinsk Kirov Plant, ChKZ). The designation of the series of
self-propelled guns was changed from KV-14 to SU-152. The ML-20 gun was slightly modified for mounting in the
SU-152 some handles were moved for improved gunner comfort. This variant had the designation ML-20S. The
muzzle velocity and external ballistics were identical to the original towed ML-20 gun.
Although designed with no consideration for the anti-tank role, the SU-152 proved to have surprisingly good
anti-tank capabilities due to the ML-20S's extremely heavy HE projectiles. Standard doctrine for purpose-built AT
guns of the period universally relied on small, dense solid projectiles propelled to high velocities, optimized for
punching through armor. Since the SU-152, like all SU-series self-propelled guns was not designed with tank killing
in mind, no AP projectiles were issued to crews and no initial tests against armor were conducted. However, tests
performed on captured Tiger tanks in early 1943 showed that the SU-152 was able to destroy them at any range with
a fair degree of reliability (the only vehicle then in Russian service capable of doing so) by simply blowing the turret
off the vehicle through sheer blast effect. This fortuitous discovery spurred massive SU-152 production and the
formation of self-propelled artillery units, which then functioned as ersatz heavy tank destroyer battalions.
SU-152 104

After the launch of SU-152 mass production the design was slightly modified to improve reliability. Initially the
SU-152 lacked a machine gun, which was recognized as a severe weakness in urban warfare and other close combat.
To solve this problem the DShK 12.7mm anti-aircraft gun installation was developed in the summer of 1943. Some
SU-152s received it after repair. The SU-152 was the last member of the KV family of tanks in mass production, and
was replaced by the ISU-152 on the ChKZ production lines in December 1943. The exact number of SU-152s
produced differs even in Russian sources, with the most common figures being 670 or 704. The SU-152s that
survived World War II were withdrawn from Soviet Army service in 1954.

Construction and design


The SU-152 followed the same design as other Soviet self-propelled
guns (except the SU-76). The fully armoured hull was divided into two
compartments: a fighting compartment for the crew, gun, and
ammunition in the front of the hull, and the engine and transmission
separate in the rear. The hull was welded from rolled armour plates of
different thickness 75, 60, 30 and 20mm. The front hull and
superstructure armour plates were sloped for better vehicle protection;
side armour was vertical. Lower front hull and rear armour plates were
cylindrical, and were quite complex in their method of production. The 152-mm howitzer-gun ML-20S for SU-152 in
Motovilikha Plants museum (Perm, Russia)
ML-20S gun-howitzer was mounted slightly to the right of centre with
a limited traverse in a range of 12 degrees. Three of the crew were to
the left of the gun: driver to the front, then gunner and last the loader. The vehicle commander and breech
mechanism operator were to the right.

The suspension consisted of twelve torsion bars for the six road wheels (each 600mm in diameter) on each side. The
drive sprockets were at the back. Each track was made up of 90 stamped links, each link of 608mm width. The
normal distance between two connected links was 160mm. There were three internal fuel tanks, two in the crew area
and one in the engine compartment, for a total capacity of 600615 litres. These were usually enhanced by four
unconnected external fuel tanks, which could hold an additional 360 litres of fuel. A 24-volt electrical power supply
came from a 1kW GT-4563A generator with a RRA-24 voltage relay regulator unit and four 6STE-128 accumulator
batteries with a total capacity of 256 ampere-hours. This electrical equipment was common for many contemporary
Soviet AFVs. The generator and accumulator batteries fed all other electrical equipment the ST-700 electric
starter motor, a radio set, an intercom, external and internal lights, and illumination of gunsight scales.

For observation from the interior, all roof hatches had periscopes and there were two gun sights: the telescopic ST-10
(-10) and a panoramic sight. For crew communication a TPU-4-BisF intercom was fitted, and for inter-vehicle
communication there was a single radio. The first-series SU-152 was equipped with the 9R, then 10R and finally the
10RK-26 radio set. These radios were better than Soviet equipment at the start of the war, but remained inferior to
German equipment.
The crew was equipped with two PPSh submachine guns and 25 F1 grenades for short-range self-defence.
SU-152 105

Combat history
Although not designed for the role, the SU-152 proved to be a cheap,
widely produced and effective heavy tank killer, second only to the
SU-100 as an antitank vehicle, as well as highly successful at its
original role against infantry and fortifications. In combat, it was used
for two distinct purposes: long-range artillery fire support during
assaults by suppressing infantry and destroying pillboxes and AT guns,
and as ersatz heavy tank destroyers (usually in ambush).

An abandoned SU-152 assault gun inspected by The SU-152 was produced in large numbers throughout 1943, with the
German troops. first SU-152s being issued to new heavy mechanized gun regiments
raised in May 1943. The first regiment arrived at Kursk with only
twelve guns, and was brought up to its full strength of twenty-one guns during the fighting (Zaloga 1984:165).
Disadvantages of the vehicle included a low rate of fire due to the heavy ammunition, low ammunition storage (only
20 rounds) and a cramped and un-ergonomic crew compartment. Its armor protection was only adequate; the 65mm
of 30-degree sloped frontal armor was moderately greater than that of the T-34 medium tank, but still left it
vulnerable frontally to the 88 mm KwK 36/43 guns of the Tiger and Elefant at long range and the 7.5 cm KwK 40
high-velocity gun of the Panzer IV and StuG III/IV at medium and short ranges (and from any range from the flanks
or rear). The 152mm gun, while having a maximum range far superior to the 88mm, was still a corps-level heavy
howitzer at heart, and had a much shorter accurate range than either the 88mm or the 7.5cm gun while still being
vulnerable to return fire at the same distance. This made it most effective for use in massed ambushes, where the
German heavy tanks' advantages could be nullified and the SU-152's one-shot kill potential could be best utilized.
Since it was intended as a self-propelled artillery piece rather than a true tank destroyer, the SU-152 was generally
issued with standard HE rounds rather than armor-piercing projectiles. The 152mm HE round produced a massive
blast that did not rely on velocity for its effectiveness, making them effective against any German tank, including the
Tiger and Elefant (although with a somewhat decreased level of kill reliability over penetrating projectiles). It was
renowned for its ability to rip the turret completely off a Tiger tank (at any range) by sheer blast effect alone, and
numerous German AFVs were claimed as destroyed or damaged by SU-152 fire during the Battle of Kursk; for
example, one Major Sankovskiy destroyed 10 German tanks (of unknown type) in a single day with his crew and his
SU-152, and was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
However, it proved less reliable at permanently destroying the Elefant heavy tank destroyer, which was impervious
to any other Russian gun and lacked a turret, making it more resistant to non-penetrating HE blast. While the
Russians claimed at least seven German Elefants destroyed by SU-152 ambushes at Kursk, German after-action
reports reveal that, while multiple Elefants were in fact knocked out, only one Elefant was completely destroyed,
with the rest being recovered after nightfall and quickly repaired, recrewed and returned to battle.[1] This has been
attributed to the gun's reliance on blast rather than penetration, which killed the crew and destroyed the vehicle's
interior via concussion and spalling without harming the ammunition supply or chassis. In response, Soviet doctrine
was changed by ordering SU-152 crews to continue firing on incapacitated vehicles until the turret was knocked
off.[2] After Kursk, the 152mm BR-540 solid-core AP round was produced in small numbers and issued to heavy
tank destroyer battalions in an effort to introduce a penetrating projectile, but the gun's inherent low velocity made
the AP round no more accurate and only moderately more effective than the standard HE round (which could also be
used against infantry).
Following the SU-152's performance at Kursk, the SU-152 played a very important role in destroying German
fortifications during the Operation Bagration offensive, this being the vehicle's original design goal. From the second
half of 1943 to the end of World War II SU-152s were used on all Soviet fronts, from Finland to the Crimea. Due to
combat losses and mass production ceasing in December 1943 the number of SU-152s in the Soviet Army decreased.
SU-152 106

Eventually SU-152s were replaced by the more reliable and better-armored ISU-152, which used the same armament
and ammunition in the same dual-purpose role.

Organisation
The SU-152 was used by the Independent Heavy Self-propelled Artillery Regiments (OTSAP, , in Russian,
from Otdel'niy Tyazheliy Samokhodno-Artilleriyskiy Polk, -
). Initially each OTSAP had twelve SU-152s, divided into three batteries of four vehicles. One KV-1S tank
served as a commander's vehicle. After November 1943 the OTSAP organisation changed to 21 vehicles per
regiment.
For more on unit organisation, see the corresponding chapter on the ISU-152 page.

Notes
[1] http:/ / english. battlefield. ru/ damages-of-the-ferdinands. html
[2] The Combat History of Schwere Panzer Abteilung 654, by Karlheinz Munch, pp.6769

References
Solyankin A. G., Pavlov M. V., Pavlov I. V., Zheltov I. G. (2005). Soviet Heavy Self-Propelled Guns 19411945.
Moscow: Exprint ( . ., . ., . ., . .
19411945 . .: , 2005.
. 48.) ISBN 5-94038-080-8
Zaloga, Steven J., James Grandsen (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two, pp 16566.
London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.

External links
SU-152 at BattleField.Ru (http://english.battlefield.ru/su-152.html)
SU-152 in Lubuskie Military Museum (http://www.orasoft.net.pl/~leszek.ch/museum/vsu152.html)
SU-152 at OnWar.com (http://www.onwar.com/tanks/ussr/fsu152.htm)
ISU-152 107

ISU-152
ISU-152
ISU-152 at the Victory Park Memorial,Saratov, Russia

Type Tank destroyer

Placeoforigin Soviet Union

Service history
Inservice 1943 - 1970s

Usedby Soviet Union


Finland
Poland
China
Czechoslovakia
North Korea
Egypt

Wars World War II


Korean War
Hungarian Revolution
EgyptianIsraeli Wars

Production history
Designer Design Bureau of Factory No. 100

Designed 1943

Manufacturer Chelyabinsk Kirovsk Plant


(till 1946, also ISU-152M)
Leningrad Kirov Plant
(few units in 1945, also ISU-152K)

Produced 1943 (ISU-152)


1944 (ISU-152-2)
1945 (Object 704)
1956 (ISU-152K)
1959 (ISU-152M)

Numberbuilt 4,635

Variants ISU-152
ISU-152-2
ISU-152 model 1945
ISU-152K
ISU-152M

Specifications
Weight 47.3 metric tons (maximum)

Length 9.18m (30ft 1in)

Width 3.07m (10ft 1in)

Height 2.48m (8ft 2in)

Crew 4 or 5

Armour ISU-152, ISU-152-2


120 mm (mantlet (maximum))
ISU-152 model 1945 320 mm (in the area of the gun)
ISU-152 108

Main 152.4 mm ML-20S gun-howitzer


armament (21 rounds) (ISU-152)
152.4 mm BL-8 or BL-10 gun
(21 rounds) (ISU-152-2)
152.4 mm ML-20SM model 1944 gun-howitzer
(20 rounds) (ISU-152 model 1945)

Secondary ISU-152, ISU-152-2, ISU-152K


armament 12.7 x 108 mm DShK anti-aircraft machine gun
(250 rounds) (ISU-152, ISU-152-2)
(300 rounds) (ISU-152K)
ISU-152M
12.7 x 108 mm DshKM anti-aircraft machine gun
(300 rounds)
ISU-152 model 1945
12.7 x 108 mm DShK anti-aircraft machine gun
(300 rounds)
12.7 x 108 mm DShK co-axial machine gun

Engine V-2IS diesel engine


V-54K diesel engine (ISU-152K)
520 hp (382 kW)
520 hp (382 kW) (ISU-152K)

Power/weight 11 hp/tonne

Transmission mechanical

Suspension torsion bar

Groundclearance 470mm (1ft 7in) (ISU-152)


450mm (1ft 6in) (ISU-152 model 1945)

Fuelcapacity 560 litres (maximum)


(internal fuel tanks)
920 litres (ISU-152K, ISU-152M)
(internal fuel tanks)
360 litres (maximum)
(four external fuel tanks, not connected to the supply system)

Operational 120 km (cross terrain)


range (with the internal fuel tanks)
170 km (on a road) (maximum)
(with the internal fuel tanks)
220 km on road
(with two external fuel tanks)
670 km on road
(with the internal fuel tanks)
(ISU-152K, ISU-152M)

Speed 37km/h (23mph) on road


15-20 km/h cross terrain
40 km/h (on a road)
(ISU-152 model 1945, ISU-152K, ISU-152M)

ISU-152 was a Soviet multirole fully enclosed and armored assault gun or armored self-propelled gun, also capable
of serving as a heavy tank destroyer developed and used during World War II, with a subsequent use, mainly in the
Soviet military, until the 1970s.
ISU-152 109

History
The ISU-152 marks its beginning on January 24, 1943.
This was the moment of appearance of the first fighting
vehicle of this family. It was designated Object 236
( 236), using the same concept as the SU-152.
The Object 236 was completed in Factory No. 100 in
Chelyabinsk, and on the same day, January 24,
underwent trials on the Chebarkulski artillery range,
107km from Chelyabinsk. By February 7, 1943 the
trials were over, passed with success. On February 14
the vehicle was adopted and put on production under
the KV-14 (-14) designation. In April 1943 was
ordered KV-14 to be henceforth designated SU-152
Karlshorst, Berlin, Germany (-152). In time, the combat performance of SU-152,
based on the KV-1S tank, made necessary the
modernisation of the vehicle, using the new IS tank as a base. On May 25, 1943, shortly after deployment, the
administration of Factory No. 100 ordered the beginning of the SU-152 modernization, which included an increase
of the armour protection and other improvements. The development began in July 1943, under the supervision of
Joseph Yakovlevich Kotin (the chief designer of Soviet heavy tanks) and G. N. Moskvin as the main designer, and in
about a month the first modernized variant was ready. It was designated IS-152 (-152). It underwent factory trials
in September 1943, revealing a large number of different deficiencies, which sent it back for further improvement. In
October 1943 a second (different) modernized variant was ready, designated Object 241 ( 241). It was an
improvement over the IS-152. The factory trials began the same month, followed by state trials on the
Gorohovetskom test range. On November 6, 1943, an order was issued for adoption of this variant, under the
ISU-152 (-152) designation, and in December its production began at the Chelyabinsk Kirovsk Plant, replacing
the SU-152.[1][2]

Design
On April 15, 1942 at the plenum of the artillery committee, where it
was suggested the development of assault guns for support of the
infantry, was acknowledged the necessity of also developing assault
guns capable of destroying fortified positions. It was intended these
assault guns to be armed with a 152.4mm gun-howitzer and used for
penetration of the enemy defence in the offensive operations planned
Positions of crewmembers in a soviet ISU-152 for 1942-1943. This resulted in the development of the Object 236, and
self-propelled gun: 1. Driver 2. Commander 3. eventually the SU-152, which concept was later continued and further
Gunner 4. Breech operator 5. Loader
developed with the ISU-152.

The ISU-152 followed the same design as other Soviet self-propelled guns, except the SU-76. The fully armoured
hull was divided into two compartments: fighting compartment for the crew, gun and ammunition in the front of the
hull, and engine and transmission in the rear. The gun was mounted slightly to the right of centre with a limited
traverse of 12 degrees left and right. The crew consisted of 4 or 5 men placed in the superstructure. Three of the crew
were to the left of the gun: driver to the front, then gunner and last the loader. The vehicle commander and lockman
were to the right: commander to the front and the lockman behind. When the crew consisted of 4 men, the loading
was carried out by the lockman.
ISU-152 110

The suspension consisted of twelve torsion bars for the six road wheels on either side. The drive sprockets were at
the back, and the front idlers were identical to the road wheels. Each track was made up of 90 links. There were three
internal fuel tanks, two in the crew area and one in the engine compartment. These were usually supplemented with
four unconnected external fuel tanks. Twelve and 24-volt electrical power supplies came from a 1kW generator
feeding four accumulator batteries.
For observation from the interior, all roof hatches had periscopes and there were two gun sights : telescopic ST-10
(-10) and panoramic. For crew communication a TPU-4-BisF intercom was fitted, and for inter-vehicle
communication there was a single 10R or 10RK radio. These were better than Soviet equipment at the start of the
war but still inferior to German equipment.
The crew were given two PPSh submachine guns with 1491 rounds and 20 F-1 grenades for short range self-defence.
The ISU-152 was armed with the same gun as the SU-152. It used the hull of the IS-1 tank instead of the KV-1S.
Later in the war the ISU-152 was further improved. It used the hull of the IS-2 or IS-2 model 1944 tank, the armour
of the mantlet was increased, the gun was replaced by newer variants, a 12.7 x 108mm DShK anti-aircraft machine
gun was installed by the right forward hatch and later its ammunition capacity increased, the 10R radio set was
upgraded to a 10RK and the fuel capacity was increased.
Some ISU-152s were equipped with even larger external fuel tanks, two tanks on the rear hull deck, in addition to
the four external fuel tanks (90 litres each, maximum), or with two smaller additional external fuel tanks, on the hull
rear. This option was probably available for the post-war ISU-152 variants.
Between December 1943 and May 1945, 1,885 ISU-152s were built. Mass production ceased in 1947, with 3,242
vehicles produced in total.
Post-war ISU-152 modernisation included installation of night vision sights, replacing of the V-2IS engine with the
V-54K, the 12.7 machine gun was replaced by a newer variant, the ammunition capacity increased to 30 rounds,
additional armor, automotive improvements and significant increase of the main fuel capacity.[3][4]

Variants
The initial variant, developed in 1943. The factory
designation was Object 241 ( 241). It was
armed with the 152.4mm ML-20S (-20)
gun-howitzer, with a barrel length of over 4.2 metres
(27.9 calibers). The self-propelled gun carried 21
rounds of two piece (shell and charge) armour-piercing
and high explosive ammunition. The gun had a
maximum range of 6,200 metere. The armour-piercing
round, weighing 48.78kg, had a muzzle velocity of
600m/s and a maximum penetration of 125mm of
The first ISU-152, in the courtyard of Factory No. 100, 1943.
RHA at 90 at a range of 500 metres. The ISU-152 had
different modifications concerning the gun (newer
modifications), the number of the hatches, or the hull, based on the one of IS-1, IS-2 or IS-2 model 1944. The latter
modification had a thicker gun shield, fuel tankage with increased volume etc. Till May 1944 the main armament
was the 152.4mm ML-20 model 1937 gun-howizer. ISU-152 had a rate of fire of 2-3 rounds/min. The early
modifications had three hatches at the superstructure roof and one emergency hatch at the bottom of the hull behind
the driver's seat, which had an armoured cover. Later was added a fourth, round hatch, at the superstructure roof on
the right, next to the rectangular hatch on the left. The later ISU-152 modifications, with newer gun and slightly
longer barrel, up to over 4.9 metres (32.3 calibers), had a maximum range of fire of up to 13,000 metres.
ISU-152 111

ISU-152-2
One prototype, developed in 1944. In April 1944, in
attempt to increase the firepower of ISU-152, a
high-power variant of the self-propelled gun was
developed in Factory No. 100, designated ISU-152BM
(-152), sometimes referred to as
ISU-152BM-1 or ISU-152-1. The factory designation
was Object 246 ( 246). The "BM" ("") in the
designation stands for "High Powered" ("
"). The main purpose of the ISU-152BM
ISU-152-2 was the fight against heavily armoured tank destroyers
The initial modification with the early designation ISU-152BM,
such as the Elefant and the Jagdtiger. It was armed with
sometimes referred to as ISU-152BM-1 or ISU-152-1, in the
courtyard of Factory No. 100, April 1944. the 152.4mm BL-8 (-8) long barrel gun, which
unlike the ISU-152's gun wasn't a gun-howitzer. The
gun had a maximum range of 18,500 metres, with the
43.56kg high-explosive shell which had a muzzle
velocity of 880m/s. The overall length of the gun was
over 8 metres, with a barrel length of 7620mm (50
calibers). The armour-piercing round, weighing
48.78kg, had a muzzle velocity of 850m/s. During test
firing at armour plates with different thickness, the
ISU-152BM have successfully penetrated a maximum
of 203mm of RHA at 90 at ranges of up to 2000
metres. However, during the trials, July 1944, the gun
ISU-152-2
showed some deficiencies such as being difficult to
The second modification, in the courtyard of Factory No. 100,
August 1944.
operate by the crew, unreliable work of the muzzle
brake and the breech block, and unsatisfactory
performance of the shells. In addition, the gun, reaching out too far, was limiting the maneuverability of the fighting
vehicle. The self-propelled gun carried 21 rounds of two piece (shell and charge) ammunition, and had a rate of fire
of 2 rounds/min. It used the engine, transmission, running gear and electric equipment of the ISU-122. In August
1944 the BL-8 gun was replaced with the improved 152.4mm BL-10 (-10) long barrel gun, with a slightly shorter
barrel of 7392mm (48.5 calibers). The self-propelled gun was designated ISU-152-2 (-152-2). The factory
designation was Object 247 ( 247). The fighting vehicle was also equipped with external fuel tanks. The gun
had a modified muzzle brake and a semi-automatic breech block. It had a rate of fire of 3 rounds/min. The BL-10
had a maximum range of 18,000 metres, with the 43.56kg high-explosive shell. In December 1944 the ISU-152-2
underwent trials, revealing the barrel strength and the angle of horizontal guidance were unsatisfactory. The gun was
sent for further improvement, but it wasn't completed before the war ended. The fighting vehicle was never adopted.
After the war, the final and most improved, third modification of ISU-152-2 was completed. The gun had a
maximum range of 19,500 metres, using a 48.5kg high-explosive shell with a muzzle velocity of 880m/s.
ISU-152 112

Object 704
One prototype, developed in 1945. It used elements of
the IS-2 and IS-3 tanks. The overall height of the
vehicle was reduced to 2240mm, which was
compensated with an increased width of the
superstructure. The factory designation was Object 704
( 704). It was armed with the 152.4mm
ML-20SM model 1944 (-20 . 1944 .)
gun-howitzer, with a barrel length of over 4.5 metres
(29.6 calibers) and no muzzle brake. It had a maximum
range of 13,000 metres. The self-propelled gun carried
20 rounds of two piece (shell and charge)
armour-piercing and high explosive ammunition. The
Object 704 armour-piercing round, weighing 48.78kg, had a
muzzle velocity of 655m/s. The rate of fire was 1-2
round/min. Object 704 had four hatches at the superstructure roof and one emergency hatch at the bottom of the hull
behind the driver's seat, which had an armoured cover. The self-propelled gun carried two external fuel tanks (90
litres each), not connected to the supply system. The secondary armament of the fighting vehicle consisted of two
12.7 x 108mm DShK machine guns, one anti-aircraft and one co-axial. The protection was increased by placing
thicker armour at more radical angles. In the area of the gun, where the mantlet combined with the hull front behind
it and the housing of the recoil mechanism, the armour thickness was 320mm. Object 704 (-152 . 1945 .)
was the best protected of all experimental or production Soviet self-propelled guns of the Second World War.
However, the radical incline of the superstructure walls combined with the increased recoil of the gun, due to the
lack of a muzzle brake, significantly complicated the work of the crew, and for this reason mainly wasn't
adopted.[5][6]

ISU-152K
A modernised variant of the wartime ISU-152 was
developed in 1956. It used a new engine, that of the
T-54, with a cooling system and a heater. The capacity
of the main internal fuel tank was increased to 920
litres, which added 500km more to the vehicle range
on a road. The ammunition capacity was increased to
30 rounds after the removal of an additional internal
fuel tank placed in the crew compartment. The gun had
a maximum range of 13,000 metres. It received a new
commander's cupola, and also new sights. The factory
designation was Object 241K ( 241). The
ISU-152K, Victory Park, Moscow, Russia
running gear used many elements of the T-10. The
mantlet had additional armor ring protecting the sight.
Some of the ISU-152Ks received an additional 15mm armour plate welded on top of the 60mm armour plate
covering the mantlet above. Also, some of them received an additional armour plate welded on the upper mantlet
front. The modernisation was carried out in the Leningrad Kirov Plant.
ISU-152 113

ISU-152M
The final variant, a modernised former ISU-152, was developed in 1959. The work was now transferred to the
Chelyabinsk Kirovsk Plant. This modernisation was parallel to the IS-2M program and the ISU-152M used many
elements of the tank. The factory designation was Object 241M ( 241). The innovations included the
installing of night vision sights, increased ammunition stowage for the 12.7mm machine gun, which was replaced
by the improved DShKM, and internal automotive improvements. It had the same new commander's cupola and
sights as the ISU-152K. It also had the same main internal fuel tank capacity, 920 litres, adding 500km more to the
vehicle range on a road compared to the ISU-152, and an increased ammunition capacity to 30 rounds due to the
removal of an additional internal fuel tank. The gun had a maximum range of 13,000 metres. The ring protecting the
sight was present, and the armour of the upper mantlet front was further increased with a thicker additional armour
plate. The ISU-152M had the same V-54K engine with a heater, but lacked the cooling system.[7]

Multirole use
The ISU-152 self-propelled gun combined three battle
roles : heavy assault gun, heavy tank destroyer and
heavy self-propelled artillery. The 152.4mm gun used
a number of powerful (shell and charge) ammunition.
Some of these ammunition had a 43.56kg
high-explosive shell, or a 48.78kg armour-piercing
shell, or the heaviest of all, the 53-G-545 (53--545)
long range concrete-piercing ammunition with a 56kg
shell. The ISU-152 was used for infantry and tank
support, and attack on fortified positions in a direct fire
role, for support on the battlefield in an indirect fire
role, and for fight against tanks with a direct fire.
Kubinka, Russia

Heavy assault gun


As a heavy assault gun, the ISU-152 was an extremely valuable weapon in urban combat operations such as the
assaults on Berlin, Budapest and Knigsberg. The vehicle's excellent armour protection finally provided the
152.4mm platform with good protection from most German anti-tank guns, allowing it to advance into the face of
direct anti-tank fire, while the huge low velocity high-explosive rounds were excellent at blasting open even the most
heavily fortified and reinforced enemy strongpoints. Such actions would be much more dangerous and much less
effective for a conventional towed artillery piece, with their high crew exposure and low mobility, or even a tank,
with their smaller main guns. When supporting tanks, the usual tactics of the ISU-152 were to be used in the second
line of the attack order, 100 to 200 metres behind the attacking tanks, which were usually IS tanks with equal
mobility.

The ISU-152, like the earlier SU-152 and contemporary ISU-122, was employed by Independent Heavy
Self-propelled Artillery Regiments. Between May 1943 and 1945, 53 of these regiments were formed. Many of them
were re-formed tank regiments, and employed similar direct fire tactics as used by tanks when supporting infantry.
Each of the heavy regiment had 21 guns, divided into 4 artillery batteries of 5 vehicles and the commander's vehicle.
For support the heavy regiments had some supplementary unarmoured vehicles such as trucks, jeeps, or motorcycles.
In December 1944, Guards Heavy Self-propelled Artillery Brigades were formed, to provide heavy fire support to
the tank armies. They were organized along the model of tank brigades, each with 65 ISU-152 or ISU-122
self-propelled guns.
ISU-152 114

To minimize the risks of being knocked out by Panzerfaust-equipped units during urban operations, the ISU-152
usually acted in one or two vehicle detachments alongside infantry squads for protection. The infantry squad would
include a specialist sniper (or at least a sharpshooter), some submachine gunners and sometimes a flamethrower. The
ISU-152's heavy calibre DShK machinegun was also useful for targeting Panzerfaust gunners hiding on upper floors
of city buildings or behind protective cover, barricades, etc. Effective teamwork between the ISU-152 crew and
supporting infantry allowed them to achieve their goals with minimal losses, but if such tactics were not adhered to,
the attacking vehicles were easily attacked and destroyed, usually through the weaker armor on the roof or rear
compartment.

Heavy tank destroyer


The ISU-152 could also operate as an effective heavy tank destroyer.
Though it was not designed for the role, the vehicle inherited the
nickname Zveroboy ("beast killer") from its predecessor, the SU-152,
for its rare ability to reliably kill the best protected German fighting
vehicles; the Panther tank, the Tiger and King Tiger tanks, and even
the rarely fielded Elefant and Jagdtiger tank destroyers. The sheer
weight of the 152.4mm shells resulted in an extremely low rate of fire,
only one to three rounds per minute, and were not as accurate at long
range as high-velocity tank antitank guns. However, the massive blast
effect from the heavy high-explosive warhead was capable of blowing
the turret completely off a Tiger tank. A direct hit usually destroyed or
damaged the target's tracks and suspension, immobilizing it. While the
low-velocity 152mm shell did not generally penetrate heavy armor, it
frequently killed or severely wounded the crew through spalling
(splintering) inside the hull as well as injuries caused by blast
concussion. Surviving crew were often left with an immobilized
vehicle which had to be hurriedly abandoned before being destroyed.
Front view of ISU-152
For anti-tank operations following the Battle of Kursk, armour-piercing
ammunition was developed, with an eye towards giving the howitzer a
more traditional anti-tank capability. However, these rounds were expensive, in short supply, and only moderately
more effective than the standard non-penetrating high-explosive round. As a howitzer the ML-20S exchanged
velocity and accuracy for throw weight and distance, and was not intended to compete with true anti-tank guns.
Sometimes the concrete-piercing ammunition was used for the anti-tank role. A primitive shaped charge
ammunition, with a 27.44kg shell, was also developed. It had a maximum penetration of 250mm of RHA at 90,
but it was not used during the war.

The ISU-152's 90mm of sloped frontal armor, in contrast to the SU-152's 65mm, provided excellent frontal
protection from the 75mm KwK 40 gun of the ubiquitous Panzer IV and StuG family at all but the closest ranges,
while also forcing the original Tiger I, with its vaunted 88mm KwK 36 gun, to close to medium ranges in order to
successfully penetrate the vehicle, negating its traditional long range superiority and exposing more of its vulnerable
flanks to the 85mm ZiS-S gun of the Soviet T-34-85.
The ISU-152 was not a true purpose-built tank destroyer. It had a very low rate of fire compared with specialised
tank destroyers such as the German Jagdpanther or the Soviet SU-100, which could manage a brief burst of 5-8
rounds per minute. However, prior to the introduction of the SU-100 it was the only Soviet armored vehicle capable
of tackling the German heavy tanks with any kind of reliability, and its ability to satisfy multiple roles meant it was
produced in far greater numbers than the SU-100. Attention to camouflage, quick relocation between firing
positions, and massed ambushes of 4-5 vehicles firing in salvo at a single target's flanks reduced the disadvantage of
ISU-152 115

the low rate of fire. Using these tactics, the ISU-152 became greatly feared by German heavy tank commanders,
robbing them of their prior sense of invulnerability to Soviet guns and forcing them to commit their forces more
cautiously and sparingly.

Heavy self-propelled artillery


The ISU-152 was also sometimes used as a self-propelled artillery for support on the battlefield and preparatory
bombardments, though it had a medium range of fire and a slow speed of reloading. The Soviet army had not
developed specialized vehicles for this purpose. Their tank and mechanized units were well equipped with towed
artillery, but the towed guns were very vulnerable while moving and they could not support tanks and motorized
infantry during rapid advances into enemy positions, especially when they lack the armored fully enclosed design of
the fighting vehicles like ISU-152.
Despite the ISU-152's good features it suffered in some other areas. The greatest disadvantage was that the internal
stowage was limited to only 20 or 21 rounds of ammunition, with extra rounds often stowed on the rear deck.
Replenishing the vehicle's ammunition supply took over 40 minutes and required a very strong loader, due to the
large size and weight of the shells. The ST-10 telescopic sight used for direct fire was graduated up to 900 metres. A
second, panoramic, sight was used for direct fire up to 3,500 meter range. However, it was problematic for the
gunner to switch between the two visors. To compensate it was simpler to concentrate the fire of several vehicles
onto the target, sacrificing accuracy for sheer volume of firepower. The high-explosive shells were large enough to
take out even a heavily armoured vehicle, or a fortification with the even heavier long range concrete-piercing shells.
The usual complement of ammunition was 13 high-explosive and 7 armour-piercing or concrete-piercing.

Ammunition Ammunition type Shell type Shell Penetration (1000 (1500 (2000
weight (maximum) meters) meters) meters)

53-OF-540 Long-range gun steel shell 43.56kg


(still in use) high-explosive

53-OF-530 Long-range howitzer steel 40kg


high-explosive shell

53-BR-540 Armor-piercing pointed nose 48.78kg 125mm of RHA at 90 115mm 105mm 90mm
shell (at 500 meters) (123mm)
(without a
ballistic cap)

53-BR-540B Armor-piercing flat nose shell 46.5kg 130mm of RHA at 90 120mm 115mm 105mm
(adopted in late (with a ballistic (at 500 meters)
1944) cap)

53-BP-540 Armor-piercing shaped charge 27.44kg 250mm of RHA at 90


(not used during (220mm at 30 from
the war) vertical)
(120mm at 60 from
vertical)

(naval, model Semi-armor-piercing 51.07kg 136mm of RHA at 90 119mm 111mm 105mm


1915/1928) (at 100 meters)
(128mm at 500 meters)

53-G-530 Long range howitzer shell 40kg about 1 meter of


concrete-piercing reinforced concrete

53-G-545 Long range gun shell 56kg


concrete-piercing

The armor penetration can vary with the different ammunition batches or the different RHA.
ISU-152 116

The use of ISU-152 in the post-World War II years was mainly as an assault gun. By the late 1950s the soviets
had already developed 152.4mm nuclear rounds, capable of being used by the ISU-152 in the role of a
self-propelled artillery, but the low angle of inclination and short maximum range of the gun made it dangerous
for the fighting vehicles themselves. The soviets tried to solve this problem by developing rocket assisted
projectiles, but this solution was later abandoned in favor of the SO-152 (-152) self-propelled artillery of a
new type, developed in 1968. After the adoption of SO-152, the last remaining role of the ISU-152, as a
conventional or nuclear self-propelled artillery, was over.

Soviet combat use


World War II
Eastern Front
Continuation War
SovietJapanese War
Manchurian Invasion
Hungarian Revolution

Foreign use

Finnish military
In June 1944, during the Continuation War, a captured ISU-152 was used by the Finnish military. It was lost in the
fights. Another one was repaired in Varkaus, Finland, but never saw action.

Polish military
In 1944 over 30 ISU-152s were delivered to the People's Army of
Poland. Shortly after, the Poles formed the 25th Polish self-propelled
artillery regiment, consisting of 10 ISU-152s and 22 ISU-122s. As part
of the 1st Polish tank corps (T-34 and T-34-85 tanks), the regiment
took part in the fights on the river Nysa, southwest of Poland in March
1945. In the early 1945 the Polish command began to form another
ISU-152 regiment, but with not enough of these fighting vehicles, the
newly formed 13th Polish self-propelled artillery regiment received
two ISU-152 and two SU-85 artillery batteries. This regiment took part
ISU-152 tank destroyer at the Muzeum Polskiej
in the Battle of Berlin in AprilMay 1945.
Techniki Wojskowej in Warsaw.
During the post-war period the ISU-152s remained in the Polish
military till the early 1960s.
ISU-152 117

Chinese military
In 1955 the Soviet Armed Forces retreated from Dalian, China ending 10 years residence. All armament was sold to
the People's Liberation Army, including 67 ISU-152s, 45 of which were given the new founding 1st Mechanical
Division.

Czechoslovakian military
As part of the military help to the friendly countries, a few ISU-152s were transferred to the Czechoslovakian
military after the World War II, where they were used till the late 1950s.

North Korean military


During & after the Korean War, ISU-152s were used by the North Korean military.

Egyptian military
In the early 1960s the Egyptian military received at least one regiment of ISU-152s. They were used during the
1967-1973 EgyptianIsraeli Wars.

Iraqi Military
Few Operational During the Iran-Iraq war and First Gulf War, Used as
Mobile artillery by the Iraqi army

Yugoslav military
The Yugoslav Army had only one ISU-152 in its inventory which was
ISU-152, Camp Fallujah, Iraq
abandoned by units of the Soviet Red Army 2nd Ukrainian Front in
1944 when it became stuck in the mud some 2km from Panevo
bridge. In 1946 members of the Yugoslav 2nd Tank Brigade's 1st battalion, led by technical officer Stojimir
Ilijevic Guerrilla, recovered the self-propelled gun after five days of work. As a unique vehicle it was used by the
Tank School at Bela Crkva (which relocated to Banja Luka in 1948). In 1954 the standard engine was replaced by an
engine from a Soviet T-34 tank. After it was withdrawn from service, the only remaining Yugoslav ISU-152 was
used for target practice at the Manjaa fire range.[8]

Survivors and memorials


The ISU-152 can be seen, exhibited or simply located, at different museums and memorials around the world. Some
were used to create monuments.
Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Central Museum of Armed Forces, Moscow, Russia
Military Historical Museum of Armored Fighting Vehicles and Equipment in Kubinka, Kubinka, Russia
Sapun Mountain Memorial, Sevastopol, Ukraine
National Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945, Kiev, Ukraine
Museum of the Polish Army, Warsaw, Poland
Military Technical Museum, Lesany, Czech republic
The Armored Corps Memorial Site and Museum at Latrun, Latrun, West Bank
Stalin Line Museum, Minsk, Belarus
Belarusian State Museum of Great Patriotic War History, Minsk, Belarus
Parola Armor Museum, Parola, Finland
ISU-152 118

German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst, Karlshorst, Berlin, Germany


Victory Park Memorial, Saratov, Russia
Victory Park Memorial, Moscow, Russia
People's Tank Museum, Changping District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Imperial War Museum, Duxford, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
Royal Museum of the Armed Forces, Brussels (Belgium)

References
[1] -152 (http:/ / bronetehnika. narod. ru/ su152/ su152. html)
[2] -152 (http:/ / www. aviarmor. net/ TWW2/ tanks/ ussr/ isu-152. htm)
[3] -152 (http:/ / armor. kiev. ua/ Tanks/ WWII/ isu152/ )
[4] (http:/ / armor. kiev. ua/ Tanks/ WWII/ isu152/ 1/ )
[5] 740 (http:/ / www. aviarmor. net/ TWW2/ tanks/ ussr/ Object_704. htm)
[6] -3 (http:/ / armor. kiev. ua/ Tanks/ WWII/ is3/ is3_1. php)
[7] IS-2 heavy tank, 1944-1973 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZjEIa4hcqE4C& pg=PA43#v=onepage& q& f=false)
[8] http:/ / www. oklop. net23. net/ isu152/ opis. html ISU-152, Srpski oklop (Serbian)

External links
Engine of a ISU-152 being reactivated (video) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_aDMqFrUV8)
Article Sources and Contributors 119

Article Sources and Contributors


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Hydraton31, Idsnowdog, Lao Wai, Lightmouse, Loveman, MChew, Megapixie, R'n'B, Rcbutcher, Roo72, Semi-Lobster, Tsange, Warut, 3 anonymous edits

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1.59-inch Breech-Loading Vickers Q.F. Gun, Mk II Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=562487268 Contributors: Archolman, GraemeLeggett, Idsnowdog, Kolbasz,
Magioladitis, MatthewVanitas, Mdnavman, Niceguyedc, Ohconfucius, Pol098, Rcbutcher, Rettetast, Rich Farmbrough

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DarkScipio, Denniss, Dreamafter, Esagsoz, Gene Nygaard, HarDNox, Idsnowdog, Jesse V., Jguk, Joshbaumgartner, Juan Hernandez, King nothing, Klemen Kocjancic, Kubanczyk, Kyng,
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7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 37 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=583124212 Contributors: Aldis90, Bobrayner, Bukvoed, Chris the speller, Crested Penguin, Denniss,
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Rlandmann, Roo72, Sturmvogel 66, SwordSmurf, 6 anonymous edits

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschtz 42 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=569496672 Contributors: Aldis90, Bukvoed, Chris the speller, Hmains, Idsnowdog, Megaidler, Rbaal,
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7.7 cm Infanteriegeschtz L/20 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=559307672 Contributors: Idsnowdog, John of Reading, Lightmouse, Phatom87, Rcbutcher, Rettetast,
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46 anonymous edits

Semovente 75/18 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=576863566 Contributors: Aldis90, Ataruzzolo, Attilios, Bukvoed, Cabalamat, CapitalR, Colonies Chris, DMorpheus,
DerbyCountyinNZ, Diannaa, Dodo19, FAM1885, Giraffedata, GraemeLeggett, Gunbirddriver, Hohum, Htrappeniers, Ibericus Lusitanus, Idsnowdog, Koalorka, Kurt Leyman, LostArtilleryman,
Lyh, Mkpumphrey, Modal Jig, Mzajac, Nthep, Quillin, Rjwilmsi, Rmackenzie, Russ3Z, Snowmanradio, SpudHawg948, Srich32977, Stefanomencarelli, Sus scrofa, TestPilot, Trucksteryp,
WikHead, 21 anonymous edits

Semovente 75/34 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=574814922 Contributors: Aieieprazu, Aldis90, Delta 51, Denniss, Dodo19, Dreamafter, FAM1885, Hohum, Idsnowdog,
Mkpumphrey, Mzajac, Quillin, Rokassan, Russ3Z, Sus scrofa, 13 anonymous edits

Semovente 75/46 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=578723412 Contributors: Aldis90, FAM1885, Idsnowdog, Mahmoudalrawi, Petrb, Sadads, TFCforever, Vardric101,
Welsh, 6 anonymous edits

Rooikat Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=579342998 Contributors: Aldis90, Bobblewik, Carom, Chris the speller, Daggerstab, Darren Olivier, Dee82, Dodger67, Dodo19,
Earth, Elf-friend, Frac22, Frank Shearar, Gadfium, Guliolopez, Idsnowdog, Intrigue, Jcw69, Katangais, Kate, Klemen Kocjancic, Koalorka, Leithp, MFIreland, ManicParroT, Marcus Qwertyus,
Morven, Mzajac, NJR ZA, Noclador, OBrian, Octane, Ominae, RJBurkhart, Reallyfastcar, Riddley, Segelboot, Socrates2008, Sus scrofa, Thosch66, Tyhopho, 15 anonymous edits

SU-76 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=564502530 Contributors: Ahpook, Albi888, Aldis90, Amire80, Andrew c, Bananaman2222, Belovedfreak, Berkut, BigBobcool,
Biglovinb, Cabalamat, Carom, CommonsDelinker, Corella, DMorpheus, Denniss, Dodo19, Dreamafter, Dudtz, Dunkelfalke, Ettrig, Fernkes, Geni, Geoff B, GraemeLeggett, Halibutt, Hohum, Ian
Pitchford, Idsnowdog, Ironplay, James086, Jeepday, Jennavecia, Jetlag, John, Jsd1967, Kross, Lavenderbunny, LeaveSleaves, Lexington50, LordHarris, LostArtilleryman, Martin Wisse,
Megapixie, Mircea87, MoRsE, Mr T (Based), Mzajac, Nick Number, Nixer, Oberiko, Picoz, Pluke, Sean O'Hannon, SenorBeef, Sus scrofa, T55Storm, Tabletop, TheCheeseManCan,
ThreeBlindMice, VP000, Welsh, WereSpielChequers, ZBrisk, , 57 anonymous edits
Article Sources and Contributors 120

Panzer III Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=584742997 Contributors: -js-, Aieieprazu, Aldis90, Andrewrimmer, Ansbachdragoner, Archer888, Asams10, Awotter, BD2412,
Benlisquare, Betacommand, Bobblewik, Bryson109, Bukvoed, Cabalamat, Cancun771, Carnildo, Carom, Catsmeat, Cerejota, Chrislk02, Christian Ankerstjerne, Chubbychicken, Clarityfiend,
CommonsDelinker, Crex85, Csiemers, DMorpheus, DOHC Holiday, DPdH, Darkone, De Administrando Imperio, Deckarudo, Denniss, DocWatson42, DocendoDiscimus, Domino theory,
Duncan Jaques, Elephantus, Ewlyahoocom, FlieGerFaUstMe262, Franz van Lanzee, Gaius Cornelius, Gene Nygaard, GeorgeTopouria, Get It, GraemeLeggett, GrahamBould, Guyd, Halibutt,
Harald Hansen, Hedwig Klawuttke, Idsnowdog, Iohannes Animosus, Italia2006, Japheth the Warlock, Jniemenmaa, John, John1million, Joshbaumgartner, Kamakura, Karl Meier, Kbdank71,
Ketiltrout, King nothing, Klemen Kocjancic, Koalorka, Kronosz 284, Kross, Kubanczyk, Kurt Leyman, Leblanc Evans, Leibniz, LtNOWIS, MGlosenger, Madhatter01, Manzzoku, Marc Kupper,
Marcus Qwertyus, Martin Wisse, Martynas Patasius, Matthew Proctor, Maximus Rex, Mboverload, Michael Devore, Mircea87, MoRsE, Muchenhaeser, Myiak, Mzajac, Nolan Scowen, Oberiko,
On This Continent, Onorem, Palm dogg, PanzerWarMachine, Panzersquad, Parsecboy, Petri Krohn, Philip Trueman, Phoenix and Winslow, Pil56, PlaidBaron, Qurqa, R.D.H. (Ghost In The
Machine), ROMMEL 34, Ramhitter, Rcbutcher, Rex Germanus, Riddley, Rjwilmsi, Rock4arolla, Sam Hocevar, SelfQ, Sm8900, Socrates2008, Spejic, SpookyMulder, Squiddy, Stephan Sem,
Sturmovik, Sturmvogel 66, Super48paul, Sus scrofa, That Guy, From That Show!, Thatguy96, The PIPE, Thiseye, Volker89, Vorthax, Vycheslav Ryzhenkov, WDavis1911, Wartimepress, Widr,
Wstenfuchs, 205 anonymous edits

ASU-85 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=544282574 Contributors: Akitsumaru, Aldis90, Alue26, AndrewHowse, Attilios, Dendirrek, Dodo19, Dreamafter, Elrith, Emijrp,
Flag cloud, HLGallon, Hmains, Idsnowdog, John of Reading, Kaushal mehta, Metropolitan90, Mzajac, Oenie, One half 3544, Raoulduke47, Reallyfastcar, Sandip90, SuperTank17, Sus scrofa,
TheGerm, WikHead, Wiki1609, 14 anonymous edits

Semovente 90/53 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=556159479 Contributors: Aldis90, Attilios, Cerejota, Chris the speller, DMorpheus, Dodo19, Dreamafter, Gaius Cornelius,
Gene Nygaard, Gian piero milanetti, GraemeLeggett, Gunitz, Hohum, Idsnowdog, Ken keisel, Kurt Leyman, MECU, Mzajac, Piano non troppo, RomanM82, Russ3Z, Sa, Sus scrofa,
WhiteKMJK, 12 anonymous edits

Tortoise heavy assault tank Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=579250324 Contributors: Agamemnon2, Akerans, Aldis90, Augen Zu, Bilsonius, Bukvoed, Catsmeat, Cuaxdon,
DJ Clayworth, Delta 51, Dlawndud2002, Dreamafter, Eddaido, Elfalem, GraemeLeggett, Groyolo, Hibernian, Hmains, Hohum, Ian Dunster, Idsnowdog, Jim Sweeney, JoanneB, John, Ken keisel,
King nothing, Kross, Light current, Lightmouse, MWAK, Martin Wisse, Mick Knapton, Mklobas, Mzajac, Naraht, Neutrality, Nieminent, Nigel Ish, Oberiko, Oblivion Lost, Omanchallenger,
Parsecboy, Rockysmile11, Salmanazar, Sandip90, Smartiger, Squid661, Tartarus, The PIPE, Ulric1313, ZH Evers, ZeroOne, 26 anonymous edits

Semovente 105/25 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=574814895 Contributors: Aldis90, Attilios, CommonsDelinker, Dodo19, Dreamafter, FAM1885, GraemeLeggett, Hohum,
Ibericus Lusitanus, Idsnowdog, Mark7-2, Mkpumphrey, Mzajac, Rokassan, Russ3Z, Srich32977, Sus scrofa, Vardric101, 6 anonymous edits

BT-42 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=563971863 Contributors: Agamemnon2, Aldis90, Alexandre loichon, AvicAWB, Balcer, Carom, ChrisGualtieri, Delta 51, DexDor,
Dreamafter, Fnorp, Giraffedata, GraemeLeggett, Hamarainen, Hohum, Idsnowdog, Jniemenmaa, Joshbaumgartner, Kbdank71, Kurt Leyman, Manxruler, MoRsE, Muzlie, Mzajac, Oberiko,
Ohconfucius, OldakQuill, Piotrus, Pudeo, Raul654, Rcbutcher, Rjwilmsi, Wreck Smurfy, 10 anonymous edits

SU-122 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=558226899 Contributors: -js-, Aldis90, Andrew c, Bullzeye, C.Fred, Cabalamat, Carom, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry,
CommonsDelinker, Coped, Corella, DMorpheus, David R. Ingham, Denniss, Dodo19, E2rd, Everyking, Favonian, Frietjes, GraemeLeggett, Hohum, Idsnowdog, Jetlag, Joshbaumgartner,
Koalorka, Kross, Kubanczyk, LostArtilleryman, Manishuvits, Martin Wisse, Megapixie, Moonriddengirl, Mzajac, Nemo5576, Oberiko, Ohconfucius, Picoz, R. fiend, Robertl234, Roo72, S
Marshall, Sa, SuperTank17, Sus scrofa, Tabletop, That Guy, From That Show!, TomStar81, VP000, Wmahan, Wreck Smurfy, 6 anonymous edits

ISU-122 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=543724987 Contributors: -js-, Aldis90, Altenmann, Andrew c, Attilios, Barticus88, BritishWatcher, Cabalamat, Carom, Cmapm,
Coped, Corella, Denniss, Dodo19, Dreamafter, Epolk, GraemeLeggett, Grafikm fr, Hmains, Hohum, Identification01, Idsnowdog, Irpen, JarrodZ, Joshbaumgartner, Karl Meier, Kross,
LostArtilleryman, Markus451, Megapixie, Mzajac, Oberiko, Paul Richter, QuiteUnusual, Radomil, Roo72, Sam8, SteveStrummer, Sus scrofa, The Sanctuary Sparrow, VP000, William Allen
Simpson, 12 anonymous edits

Brummbr Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=572189866 Contributors: Alai, Aldis90, Anaxial, Andres, Appraiser, Attilios, Baku13, Bukvoed, Carnildo, Carom, Catsmeat,
Chris the speller, Chrisboote, Christian Ankerstjerne, ColBatGuano, Corella, DMorpheus, Dakirw8, Darkone, Denniss, Dodo19, Dysmorodrepanis, Elvis, FeloniousMonk, Generalmisra,
GraemeLeggett, Grafikm fr, GrahamBould, Hamish59, Harald Hansen, Hmains, Hohum, Hush02, Idsnowdog, Infrogmation, J04n, John, Joshbaumgartner, Ken keisel, Koalorka, Kurt Leyman,
Lebob, Leibniz, Martin Wisse, Michael Snow, Mike Storm, Mungo Shuntbox, Mzajac, Necrothesp, Nick Number, Oberiko, Pibwl, Rettetast, Rex Germanus, Rheo1905, RottweilerCS, Scartboy,
Starfury, Sturmvogel 66, Sus scrofa, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The PIPE, Varlaam, WhiteKMJK, WorldAsWill, 36 anonymous edits

15 cm sIG 33 (Sf) auf Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=559130428 Contributors: Denniss, Dodo19, GraemeLeggett, JaGa, Malcolma,
Noclador, RASAM, Rettetast, Sturmvogel 66, Tobi, 2 anonymous edits

15 cm sIG 33 auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen II (Sf) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=567628798 Contributors: Afaber012, Aldis90, Altenmann, Attilios, Awrc68,
ChrisGualtieri, DBManley, Deckarudo, Denniss, Dodo19, Ferenheight200, FlyingToaster, Godsfriendchuck, GraemeLeggett, Hmains, JaGa, Magioladitis, Malcolma, MatthewVanitas,
Ohconfucius, Okras, Rettetast, Rsvprsvp, Sturmvogel 66, Tswold@msn.com, 7 anonymous edits

Sturm-Infanteriegeschtz 33B Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=584467171 Contributors: AcroX, Aldis90, Attilios, Chris the speller, Cyseo0219, DMorpheus,
Daemonofdecay, Denniss, Dodo19, Eumolpo, Geoff B, Groyolo, Hamish59, Idsnowdog, Iohannes Animosus, Joep01, Kyng, MatthewVanitas, MaxDel, Rettetast, Sturmvogel 66, The PIPE, 5
anonymous edits

Grille (artillery) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=572190125 Contributors: Andres, Bukvoed, Catsmeat, Chochopk, Chris the speller, Denniss, Dodo19, Esagsoz,
GraemeLeggett, Hmains, Idsnowdog, Japanese Searobin, Japo, John, Kameraad Pjotr, King nothing, Koalorka, Lebob, Mark1800, Marko M, Martin Wisse, Mircea87, Necrothesp, Oberiko,
Roo72, Rsvprsvp, Russ3Z, Sus scrofa, Wooden*canoe*, Xezbeth, 12 anonymous edits

SU-152 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=576907097 Contributors: -js-, Aldis90, Altenmann, Alykkr, Andreas td, Arjayay, Atomlib, Aymegil, Benlisquare, Bobby D. Bryant,
Bondegezou, Bravo Foxtrot, BritishWatcher, Bukvoed, Bullzeye, Cabalamat, Carom, Cherkash, ChrisHodgesUK, Cmdrjameson, CommonsDelinker, Corella, Dar-Ape, Darkman IV, Dodo19,
Dreamafter, Fedallah, Fireaxe888, Gene Nygaard, GraemeLeggett, Hmains, Hohum, Idsnowdog, Jetlag, Joshbaumgartner, Justinmo, Koalorka, Kross, Longshot14, Lord Eru, LostArtilleryman,
Martin Wisse, Megapixie, MikeWren, Mzajac, Nick Number, Nicko223, Oberiko, Paul Richter, Pavel2009, Peter Porai-Koshits, Picoz, Roo72, Sus scrofa, TheXenomorph1, VP000, York
lancaster, Zeppomedio, 54 anonymous edits

ISU-152 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=582225900 Contributors: -js-, .:Ajvol:., Adavidb, Agamemneon, Aldis90, Altenmann, Andrew c, Andrewman327, Angryson1.8,
Asatav, Atirador, Attilios, BD2412, Bezjak90, Bilsonius, Bogdan, BokicaK, BritishWatcher, Bruinfan3.14, Buggie111, Bukvoed, Bullzeye, Cabalamat, Carom, ChrisO, Cmapm, Corella,
Czechrite, David R. Ingham, Dellant, Denniss, Discospinster, DocYako, Dodo19, Dreamafter, EpicShyGuy, Fireaxe888, FlieGerFaUstMe262, Gaius Cornelius, Ginsuloft, Giraffedata,
GraemeLeggett, Grafen, Hohum, IRISZOOM, Idsnowdog, Illythr, Ironhoof, Isebito, James086, Joshbaumgartner, Klemen Kocjancic, Kross, Lavenderbunny, Leszek Jaczuk, Ligand, LilHelpa,
LostArtilleryman, Martin Matha, Martin Wisse, Megapixie, MoRsE, Mondria, Mzajac, Nixer, Oberiko, Oblivion Lost, Parsecboy, Paul Richter, Picoz, Rjwilmsi, Rockfang, Roo72, Sam8,
Someone not using his real name, Squid661, Staygyro, Sus scrofa, T55Storm, Tabletop, Tacintop, The PIPE, 74 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 121

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:French M1916 37mm infantry gun.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:French_M1916_37mm_infantry_gun.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Bukvoed, Hohum, Megapixie, Rcbutcher
Image:Puteaux 37mm gun2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Puteaux_37mm_gun2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Mark
Pellegrini
Image:US23rdInfantry37mmGunInActionFrance1918-ARC531005.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US23rdInfantry37mmGunInActionFrance1918-ARC531005.gif
License: Public Domain Contributors: Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Chief Signal Officer
File:37mm-gun-dieffmatten-19180626.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:37mm-gun-dieffmatten-19180626.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Department of
Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Chief Signal Officer.
File:Type 11 37 mm infantry gun from 1935 book.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Type_11_37_mm_infantry_gun_from_1935_book.jpg License: Public Domain
Contributors: Unknown - possibly Japanese military photographer
File:Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Merchant_flag_of_Japan_(1870).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: kahusi - (Talk)
File:War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:War_flag_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army.svg License: Public Domain
Contributors: Thommy
File:Type 11 37 mm infantry gun unit.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Type_11_37_mm_infantry_gun_unit.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown -
possibly Japanese military photographer
File:37 mm K 15 Rosenberg 1.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:37_mm_K_15_Rosenberg_1.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: MKFI
Image:Russian WWI 1 pounder shell diagram.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Russian_WWI_1_pounder_shell_diagram.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Leon Pratt Alford, ed; John Herbert Van Deventer; E. A Suverkrop; Robert Mawson; Fred HerbertColvin.
file:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Commons-logo.svg License: logo Contributors: Anomie
File:Confederate National Flag since Mar 4 1865.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865.svg License: Public Domain
Contributors: Abjiklam, Fornax, Fredddie, Fry1989, Homo lupus, O, Pmsyyz, Roadkillkane11, Sceptic, Vantey, 2 anonymous edits
File:1.59-inch Crayford gun photograph.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1.59-inch_Crayford_gun_photograph.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: War
Office, UK
File:1.59-inch Crayford gun ammunition diagrams 1917.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1.59-inch_Crayford_gun_ammunition_diagrams_1917.jpg License: Public
Domain Contributors: War Office, UK
File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-219-0594-33, Russland-Mitte-Sd, Infanteriegeschtz.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-219-0594-33,_Russland-Mitte-Sd,_Infanteriegeschtz.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Germany Contributors: ABrocke, Bragidier, Bukvoed
Image:Gruppe geschuetz 01 (RaBoe).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gruppe_geschuetz_01_(RaBoe).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Contributors: Der Grossvater von Ra Boe
Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B22222, Russland, Kampf um Stalingrad, Infanterie.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-B22222,_Russland,_Kampf_um_Stalingrad,_Infanterie.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Germany Contributors: Felix Stember, Ras67
Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-219-0594-34, Russland-Mitte-Sd, leichtes Infanteriegeschtz.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-219-0594-34,_Russland-Mitte-Sd,_leichtes_Infanteriegeschtz.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
3.0 Germany Contributors: ABrocke, Bragidier, Bukvoed
Image:Drawing leig18.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Drawing_leig18.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Original
uploader was BVV at ru.wikipedia
image:Panzermuseum Munster 2010 0261.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Panzermuseum_Munster_2010_0261.JPG License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Banznerfahrer
File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bean49, Cathy Richards, David
Descamps, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Evanc0912, Fry1989, Gabriel trzy, Howcome, IvanOS, Mimich, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Oreo Priest, Pitke, Ricordisamoa, Rocket000, Rodejong, SiBr4, Sir
Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, Zscout370, 7 anonymous edits
File:Flag of German Reich (19351945).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_German_Reich_(19351945).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Fornax
Image:SIG-33 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SIG-33_01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Bukvoed, Jarekt, Kos93, Marko M,
Nikola Smolenski
Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2006-0057, Artilleristen der Division "Grodeutschland".jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2006-0057,_Artilleristen_der_Division_"Grodeutschland".jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
Germany Contributors: Balcer, Fastboy, Florival fr
File:ASU-57.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ASU-57.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:20
File:Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: A1, Ahmadi, Alex Smotrov,
Alvis Jean, Art-top, BagnoHax, Beetsyres34, Brandmeister, Counny, Cycn, Denniss, Dynamicwork, ELeschev, Endless-tripper, Ericmetro, EugeneZelenko, F l a n k e r, Fred J, Fry1989,
G.dallorto, Garynysmon, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Jake Wartenberg, MaggotMaster, MrAustin390, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Palosirkka, Patrickpedia, PeaceKeeper97, Pianist, R-41, Rainforest
tropicana, Sebyugez, Skeezix1000, Solbris, Storkk, Str4nd, Tabasco, ThomasPusch, Toben, Twilight Chill, Xgeorg, Zscout370, , , 4, 65 anonymous edits
File:Flag of Egypt.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Open Clip Art
File:Flag of Vietnam.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Vietnam.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lu Ly v li theo ngun trn
File:Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Flag designed by ore
Andrejevi-KunSVG coding: Zscout370
File:Flag of Ethiopia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ethiopia.svg License: unknown Contributors: Aaker, Anime Addict AA, Antemister, Cycn, Djampa, F
l a n k e r, Fry1989, GoodMorningEthiopia, Happenstance, Homo lupus, Huhsunqu, Ixfd64, Klemen Kocjancic, Ludger1961, MartinThoma, Mattes, Mozzan, Neq00, OAlexander, Pumbaa80,
Rainforest tropicana, Reisio, Ricordisamoa, SKopp, Smooth O, Spiritia, ThomasPusch, Torstein, Wsiegmund, Xoristzatziki, Zscout370, 16 anonymous edits
File:ASU-57 paradrop sequence.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ASU-57_paradrop_sequence.png License: Public Domain Contributors: unknown US Army
soldier or employee
File:-57 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:-57_1.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Gandvik
File:StuGIII.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StuGIII.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader and author was Slaven Radovic
at en.wikipedia
File:StuG III Ausf A.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StuG_III_Ausf_A.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Peter Mller
File:StuG III Ausf G, Dezember 1942.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StuG_III_Ausf_G,_Dezember_1942.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
2.0 Contributors: Peter Mller
File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F016202-23A, Russland, Sturmgeschtz III vor Ortschaft.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundesarchiv_B_145_Bild-F016202-23A,_Russland,_Sturmgeschtz_III_vor_Ortschaft.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
3.0 Germany Contributors: Cobatfor, Nemo5576, Pibwl
File:StuG III Destroyed Normandy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StuG_III_Destroyed_Normandy.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Conseil Rgional de
Basse-Normandie / National Archives USA
File:StuG-III-latrun-2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:StuG-III-latrun-2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: User:Bukvoed
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 122

File:Sturmhaubitze 42, September 1944.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sturmhaubitze_42,_September_1944.jpg License: Creative Commons


Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Peter Mller
File:Flag of Romania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Romania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AdiJapan
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License 124

License
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