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Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high) Version 1.0 May 2002

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls

(less than 3m high)

Version 1.0

May 2002

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Version 1.0 May 2002

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Table of Contents

No.

Section

Page

1.

General

2

2.

Applications

3

3.

Advantages

4

4.

Design Approach

5

5.

Technical Specifications

7

6.

Installation Guide

10

7.

Standard Design Guide

12

8.

Supply Information

16

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 2

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

1.0

General

These notes have been compiled to aid in the design of MassBloc TM retaining walls. The standard design tables presented in this guide shall be only used for preliminary design of walls LESS THAN 3m high ( 3 standard blocks high ). All walls shall require detailed investigation and specific design by a suitably qualified Engineer.

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 3

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

2.0

Applications

MassBloc TM can be used in a variety of situations with the flexibility of a number of different design solutions available, which allows them to be applied to difficult sites.

Retaining walls

Facing for bridge abutments

Stream channelisation and erosion protection

Coastal protection (beach front erosion protection)

Tunnel entrance walls

Culvert wing walls

Slip repairs

Temporary traffic parking barriers

Temporary bin storage

• Temporary traffic parking barriers • Temporary bin storage CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655 200
• Temporary traffic parking barriers • Temporary bin storage CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655 200
• Temporary traffic parking barriers • Temporary bin storage CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655 200
• Temporary traffic parking barriers • Temporary bin storage CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655 200
• Temporary traffic parking barriers • Temporary bin storage CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655 200
• Temporary traffic parking barriers • Temporary bin storage CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655 200

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 4

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

3.0

Advantages

Performance: MassBlocs™ are relatively flexible structures that are typically based on a compacted aggregate foundation. As wall construction is mortarless this dry stacked system can tolerate movement and settlement without causing visual distress at the face.

Permeability: MassBlocs™ are highly permeable. This permeability can be supplemented by draincoil, which will further reduce the development of hydrostatic pressure behind the blocks.

Durability: MassBlocs™ are manufactured from wet-cast concrete that results in a durable retaining wall system. The blocks are resistant to cracking and do not rust or deform like gabions.

Speedy Installation: Two experienced workers and an excavator can place up to 70m² of wall per day. Blocks are placed using the galvanised lifting eye, which is cast into the top of each block.

Ecologically Friendly: MassBlocs™ are an ecologically safe building component. The blocks are manufactured from naturally occurring materials that are in abundant supply and are extracted with minimal environmental impact. MassBlocs™ are eco-friendly!

Economics: MassBlocs™ are competitively priced and when all project costs are measured and compared against the speed of installation, durability and in-situ performance they represent excellent value for the construction dollars invested.

No other system can beat MassBlocs™ in terms of speedy installation, durability and in-site performance.

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 5

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

4.0 Design Approach

MassBlocs TM are essentially a gravity wall structure that depends on the mass of the blocks to resist the destabilising forces due to the retained soil and surcharge loadings. As with all gravity type wall structures, there are three modes of failure by which a wall can fail. All three require careful analysis to ensure both safety and performance of the wall is maintained for the design life of the structure.

4.1 External Stability

The three modes for which gravity retaining walls must be designed to ensure external stability are:

Overturning: the wall fails by rotating about the toe of the wall

Sliding: outward movement of the wall along its base

Bearing Capacity: failure of the foundations causing the wall to lean over

To guard against any of these failure modes occurring, the common practice is to design the wall with a predetermined factor of safety designed in. These predetermined factors of safety are outlined below and are consistent with currently accepted design practice.

Failure Mode

Recommended Minimum Factor of Safety

Overturning

2.0

Sliding

1.5

Bearing Capacity

2.0

As for all structures, the degree of uncertainty over design parameters - and the consequences of the structure failing - dictate the level of safety required. For the designs contained in this document, the factors of safety are defined above. In situations where the structure is to become a critical structure, where failure would cause significant property damage or even loss of life, then we recommend that higher safety factors be used. It is recommended that a suitably qualified geotechnical engineer undertake a detailed soils investigation.

4.2 Internal Stability

When considering the reinforced earth retaining wall utilising geogrid the number and layout must also be determined to ensure that the reinforced fill does not fail internally. Two modes of failure have been checked and allowed for in the design charts.

Pull out failure: the geogrid pulls out of the soil without rupture

Tensile rupture of the geogrid: the geogrid is stressed beyond its allowable tensile limit.

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 6

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

To guard against any of these failure modes occurring, the common practice is to design the wall with a predetermined factor of safety designed in. These predetermined factors of safety are outlined below and are consistent with currently accepted design practice.

Failure Mode

Recommended Minimum Factor of Safety

Pull out failure

1.5

Tensile rupture of the geogrid

1.3

All Geo-grid shown in the design cross sections is Tensar SR 80 and the designs are based exclusively for this type of grid and granular backfill (2mm – 20m).

The spacing and number of layers shown in the design guide are only applicable to design parameters shown. The design solutions are only to be used as a guide and where the parameters vary a suitably qualified engineer should be engaged to ensure that the appropriate design solution is chosen.

As for all structures the degree of uncertainty over design parameters and the consequences of the structure failing dictate the level of safety required. For the designs contained in this document the factors of safety are defined above. In situations where the structure is to become a critical structure, where failure would cause significant property damage or even loss of life, then we recommend that higher safety factors be used.

4.3 Drainage Considerations

MassBlocs TM are constructed from a no fines concrete mix that allows water to easily permeate through the blocks. This effectively allows the wall to drain naturally. Filter fabric and drain coil are also included to ensure that no hydrostatic pore pressure is able to accumulate and destabilise the wall. This is more of a precautionary measure and included as part of good design practice.

4.4 Seismic Considerations

MassBloc TM walls are designed to be relatively flexible and can undergo small changes in line and level without adversely affecting their structural integrity. The effects of seismic conditions on 3m high or less walls are minimal and have not been allowed for in this manual. If a situation arises where additional seismic forces need to be allowed for, it is recommended that a suitably qualified structural engineer be engaged to carry out the seismic analysis.

4.5 Global Stability

MassBloc TM walls must also be analysed for global stability. This shall be undertaken by a suitably qualified geotechnical engineer. They must consider potential failure surfaces passing through the backfill and foundation soils.

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 7

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

5.0 Technical Specifications

Base Unit Dimensions Face width 1185mm Vertical height of front face 1000mm Vertical height of rear face 1000mm Depth of unit 880mm Block weight 1.7 tonne

Standard Unit Dimensions Face width 1185mm Vertical height of front face 1000mm Vertical height of rear face 1150mm Depth of unit 880mm Block weight 1.8 tonne For design flexibility, blocks of varying heights and width may be ordered (note: maximum height is 1000mm and maximum width is 1185mm)

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 8

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 9

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high) CSP Pacific www.csppacific.co.nz Ph 0800 655

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 10

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

6.0 Installation Guide

Note: This information is provided as a guide only. The registered engineer's design details shall take precedence if there is any conflict or ambiguity with this information.

Step One

Excavate the base to the required depth

This will be site dependent - generally 1200mm wide and 200mm deep

Step Two

Place GAP65 (or equivalent) into trench then compact to engineer’s requirements (100kpa as a

basic guide) Use a laser level for the best result

Place a layer of binding material (e.g. GAP7 on sand) up to 20mm thick over the entire

foundation Use a screed to achieve a perfect level front to back and end to end

to achieve a perfect level front to back and end to end Step Three Set string

Step Three

Set string line or conduit approximately 10mm from the front of the MassBlocwall

Blocks can be placed onto the base using an excavator with a certified chain and 2.5t swift lift

Should the work area be within reach of the hiab, blocks can be delivered and placed directly

from the truck Care must be taken so that the block is not damaged when unloading or placing

so that the block is not damaged when unloading or placing Step Four Lower the MassBloc

Step Four

Lower the MassBlocbase unit approximately 30mm from the prepared base and move the

unit slowly into position and then lower fully Each consecutive block is lowered 30mm from base keeping 20mm away from previously placed block

CSP Pacific

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Ph 0800 655 200

Page 11

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Once the front face is positioned correctly, slowly move the block to touch the adjoining block

Using a spirit level, check that each block is level

Using a spirit level, check that each block is level Step Five Once the base is

Step Five

Once the base is level front to back and side to side, standard blocks can be placed on top

back and side to side, standard blocks can be placed on top Step Six Back filling
back and side to side, standard blocks can be placed on top Step Six Back filling

Step Six

Back filling - the engineer's details will provide the required method.

Options include:

Firth no fines concrete mix (Flowable Fill™)

Reid Bars

Manta Rays

Geogrids between each unit

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 12

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

7.0 Standard Design Guide

GRAVITY WALL / LEVEL BACKFILL / VEHICLE SURCHARGE

Guide GRAVITY WALL / LEVEL BACKFILL / VEHICLE SURCHARGE Massbloc Gravity Retaining Wall With Additional Concrete

Massbloc Gravity Retaining Wall With Additional Concrete Mass For a Vehicle Surcharge of 12kPa

g = 20kN/m 3 C = 0

F

= 30 0

Retaining wall

Vehicle Surcharge

height, H

12kPa

1.0

None

2.0

None

2.5

0.25

3.0

0.6

Note: Concrete placed behind the wall is to be 1.0m high

CSP Pacific

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Ph 0800 655 200

Page 13

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

GRAVITY WALL / SLOPING BACKFILL / NO SURCHARGE

than 3m high) GRAVITY WALL / SLOPING BACKFILL / NO SURCHARGE Massbloc Gravity Retaining Wall With

Massbloc Gravity Retaining Wall With Additional Concrete Mass For Various Backfill Slopes

g

= 20kN/m 3

C = 0

F

= 30 0

Retaining wall

 

Backfill slope in degrees

 

height, H

0

10

15

20

25

 

W = Width of concrete required from back of blocks

1.0

None

None

None

None

None

2.0

None

None

None

None

None

2.5

None

0.1

0.15

0.25

0.4

3.0

0.35

0.45

0.55

0.65

0.85

Note: Concrete placed behind the wall is to be 1.0m high

CSP Pacific

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Ph 0800 655 200

Page 14

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

REINFORCED EARTH WALL / SLOPING BACKFILL / NO SURCHARGE

For Various Backfill Slopes F g = 20kN/m 3 C = 0 = 30 0
For Various Backfill Slopes
F
g = 20kN/m 3
C = 0
= 30 0
Retaining wall
Backfill slope
Number
height, H
in degrees
of Layers
Geogrid
Length = L
Placement
above base (m)
0
None
None
None
10
None
None
None
1m
15
None
None
None
20
None
None
None
25
None
None
None
0
None
None
None
10
None
None
None
2m
15
None
None
None
20
None
None
None
25
None
None
None
0
2
1.9m
2m, 1m
10
2
1.9m
2m, 1m
2.5m
15
2
1.9m
2m, 1m
20
2
1.9m
2m, 1m
25
3
1.9m
2m, 1.5m, 1m
0
2
2.3m
2m, 1m
10
3
2.3m
2.5m, 2m, 1m
3m
15
3
2.3m
2.5m, 2m, 1m
20
3
2.3m
2.5m, 2m, 1m
25
3
2.3m
2.5m, 2m, 1m

Note: Geogrid to be Tensar SR 80 and backfill to be granular fill, 2mm - 20mm.

CSP Pacific

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Ph 0800 655 200

Page 15

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

REINFORCED EARTH WALL / LEVEL BACKFILL / VEHICLE SURCHARGE

REINFORCED EARTH WALL / LEVEL BACKFILL / VEHICLE SURCHARGE Massbloc Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall With Tensar

Massbloc Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall With Tensar SR80 Geogrid For a Vehicle Surcharge of 12kPa

g

= 20kN/m 3

C = 0

F

= 30 0

Retaining wall

Vehicle

Number

Geogrid

Placement above base (m)

height, H

surcharge

of Layers

Length (m)

1m

12kPa

None

None

None

2m

12kPa

2

1.5

1.5m, 1.0m

2.5m

12kPa

3

1.9m

2.0m, 1.5m, 1.0m

3m

12kPa

3

2.3m

2.5m, 2m, 1m

Note: Geogrid to be Tensar SR 80 and backfill to be granular fill, 2mm - 20mm.

NOTES:

1. All designs have been based on conservative design parameters and therefore should only be used for preliminary design. A suitably qualified Engineer should be engaged to assess site specific design parameters and produce the final design.

2. Concrete placed behind the wall is to be no fines Masstec mix. The designer shall allow for the hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete during construction.

3. All Geo-grid shown in the design cross sections is Tensar SR 80 and the designs are based exclusively for this type of grid and granular backfill (2mm – 20m)

4. No allowance for seismic loadings, global stability or hydrostatic pressure has been allowed for.

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 16

Design Guide for MassBloc ää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

Design Guide for MassBlocää Retaining Walls (less than 3m high)

8.0 Supply Information

Made locally, manufactured nationally by approved suppliers. Blocks are stocked at various locations around New Zealand in small quantities. There is a lead time to manufacture larger quantities of blocks. Lead times will vary depending on the number of MassBlocs™ required and the demand from the market. Contact CSP Pacific for more information.

CSP Pacific Ph 0800 655 200

or your local CSP Pacific Sales Engineers (see our website for details : www.csppacific.c om )

CSP Pacific

www.csppacific.co.nz

Ph 0800 655 200

Page 17