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International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT) - 2016

Morse code Generator Using Microcontroller with

Alphanumeric Keypad
Paparao Nalajala Bhavana Godavarth M Lakshmi Raviteja Deepthi Simhadri
Department of Electronic Department of Electronics Department of Electronics Department of Electronics
Institute of Aeronautical Institute of Aeronautical Institute of Aeronautical Institute of Aeronautical
Hyderabad, India Hyderabad, India Hyderabad, India Hyderabad, India

AbstractThis research paper proposes the Morse code

which is the earliest method used in Radio Telegraphy. Because
of advanced telecommunication systems it is considered to be
an outdated technique. Travelers, Sailors, Villagers from
remote areas where cellular networks are almost inaccessible
would need a most reliable mode of communication. But, then
there are chances that they might not able to handle Morse
code, because of its complex encoding pattern and ON-OFF J38
Keying technique. So, in order to facilitate communication they
can use this device where only the knowledge of alphabets and
numbers is sufficient. With this design they will able to
telegraph important messages with alphanumeric keypad and
also read the messages from LCD screen. Using
Microcontroller this device can encode and decode messages of
International Morse Code.
Figure 1. Design of Morse code generator
Index Terms--International Morse Code, 8*4 Matrix keypad,
and Radio telegraphy, Binary Format, 8051 Microcontroller,
LED and LCD Display
I INTRODUCTION Morse code is a method of transmitting text as a sequence of
on-off states, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood
Now days Morse code was widely used worldwide over by by a good listener or observer without any special intellectual
an every one communicate a large distance. Morse code to equipment. The International Morse Code [4][14] encodes
provide reliable communication through wires for Military, the ISO basic Latin alphabet, some add-on Latin letters, the
overseas shipping and the railroad rely. After the invention of Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and
radio in the year of 1900 s Communication became more procedural signals as systematize sequences of short and long
spread and predictable. Industries rely on it to send simple signals called "dots" and "dashes, or "dits" and "dahs", as in
and fast messages to their distant clients and employees. The amateur practice [2][3]. Because many non-English natural
frequent use of internet information flow and ease of contact languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, add-on to the
in distinct ways. Morse code is a old technology, simple, Morse alphabet subsist for those languages.
relatively low cost and does not depend on modern
technology and used in dire emergencies, grid negligence or A good listener or observer without any special intellectual
war. The duration of the dash is three times the duration of a equipment can directly understand the method of transmitting
dot. Each dash or dot is followed by a short silence, equal to text as a sequence of on-off states, lights, or clicks in Morse
the dash duration. The word is segregated by a space equal to code .The International Morse Code [4][14] encodes the ISO
three dots (one dash), and the words are segregated by a basic Latin alphabet, some add-on Latin letters, the Arabic
space equal to seven dots .In code transmission dot duration numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural
is the basic unit of time measurement. Making Morse code signals as systematize sequences of short and long signals
effortless and most versatile telecommunication we use easily called "dots" and "dashes, or "dits" and "dahs", as in
for keypad on and off function for emergency signals. amateur practice [2, 3].A unique series of dots and dashes
represent a text letter or numeral in Morse code which is a
Figure 1 Design of Morse code generator using 8051 symbol. The duration of dash is three times the duration of
Microcontroller, LCD screen, LED, Buzzer and the dot. A small amount of time is taken by dot duration for each
transmitter-receiver section. In this device we have an 8x4 dot or dash. The letters of a word are segregated by a space
matrix keypad interfaced to 8051 equal to three dots (one dash), and the words are segregated
by a space equal to seven dots. Dot duration is the basic unit
of time measurement in code transmission. The length of

978-1-4673-9939-5/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE 762

each letter in Morse varies approximately inversely to its
frequency of occurrence in English to raise the speed of the
communication. The most regular letter in English, the letter
"E", has the shortest code, a single dot [3]

One dash = Three dots

The space between parts of the same letter = One
The position between letters = Three dots
The position between words = Seven dots [14]
Figure 1.2. U.S Model Straight Key [15][20]

When telegraph operators [3][16] transmit messages they use

Morse code for the representation of binary code working
from the above ITU definition and additional defining a bit as
a dot time. The combination of following five bit strings are
used to make Morse code sequence.

Short sign dot or dit () : 1

longer sign, dash or dah () : 111
Intra character gap between the dots and dashes
Figure 1.1. International Morse code [14] within a character : 0
Short interval between letters : 000
III LITERATURE REVIEW Medium interval between words : 0000000
An electrical telegraph system was developed in the year Morse code messages are basically transmitted by a hand
1836 by the American designer Samuel.F.B.Morse, the operated device such as a telegraph so there are variations
American doctor Joseph Henry, and Alfred Vail .This system presented formally by the skill of the sender and receiver
sent pulse signals of electric current along with wires to more expert operators can send and receive at quick speeds.
control electromagnet which was placed at the receiving end In addition individual operators vary slightly for example
of the telegraph system. Natural language is transmitted by using slightly longer or shorter dashes or gaps, perhaps only
using these pulse signals and developed the modern for certain characters.The specialist operators can recognize
International Morse code. Earlier 160 years ago Morse code particular individuals by it alone [8]. Morse code Generator
was used frequently than any other electrical signal coding is such a kind of instrument made for signaling without
system [16]. The advanced International Morse code was having the knowledge of Morse code, it come with an alpha
created by Friedrich Clemens Greek in the year of 1848. numeric keypad as our mobile.
International Morse Code was finalized at the International
Telegraphy [14] [15] Congress in the year of 1865 in Paris. V PROPOSED SYSTEM
Cheng-Hong Yang wireless environmental control system for A. Input section
Morse code in December 2003. They designed and execute a
wireless environmental control system [8] using redesigned In this device we have an 8*4 matrix keypad with 32 keys
access communication tool that is Morse code in the year of with 26 keys having dual function of 26 alphabets and 10
2004 Andres Sole, worked on Morse Description and numbers and rest of 5 keys are like space bar,
Geometric Encoding of Digital Elevation Maps and alpha/numeric, backspace, send, SOS. The 26 keys have a
developed two images complementary geometric figures a dual function of typing alphabets or numbers. Each key is a
[10]. The topographic consequence of the Morse and button switch giving electrical signals to the microcontroller.
drainage shapes of digital advance maps [9] (DEMs) suggests Space bar key generates spaces between two words. The dual
that they can be used as the effective in encoding method. function of the keypad is controlled by the alpha/num key.
Dual function keypad acts as an alphabet keypad when
IV EXISTING SYSTEM alpha/num=0 i.e. when that key is in OFF position &
numeric keypad when that key is in ON position. Thus, the
A typical U.S. model straight key [15] [20] earlier called as same key performs two different operations. Send key is used
the J-38 [19] was fabricate in great amount during World to instruct the microcontroller to transmit the data which is
War two and rest in worldwide use today. In a straight key, typed. Backspace key is used to delete a character from the
when the signal is activated when the knob is pressed and off input string.SOS key as it says Save our souls message is
when it is released. Distance and duration of the Morse code the most common distress signal with 3 dots, 3 dashes and 3
is transmitted two states on and off [10] dots "...---..." it is an important application in signal concept

by common people. So, we are using it to display the original
data that is being transmitted or received.
Light Emitting Diode is used to visualize the encoded data by
blinking the light in particular intervals of time as per
standard rules. Buzzer is used to hear the encoded data by
producing audio tones of beep sounds in a pattern similar to
that of LED simultaneously. Finally, the stored complete
string of data is sent to the transmitter section as soon as the
send key is pressed from the keypad.
The Morse code represents a dot (.) or a dash (-) it is used to
define the text messages. This is better to use the binary
Figure 2. Illustration we can see alphabetic keypad on the left format to represent related code. A dot will be represented by
side & numeric keypad on right. the binary 0 while a dash is represented by the binary one.
The Morse code for our letter D is -.. one dash followed by
B. Processing Section
two dots. We require three bits to represent this number.
Most Morse code characters contain up to 5 marks dots or
Here we are using an 8051 microcontroller which we are
dashes. We require 5 bits to represent such character.
interfacing with the matrix keypad, Liquid Crystal Display
screen, a Led, a buzzer and the transmitter. First we take the
input from the keypad. Each of the keys is programmed
according to the Morse code sequence. Every DIT
The Morse code is an electronic device that is used to put the
represents one unit of time and every DAH represents three
text message to code format. In digital electronics encoder is
units of time. Each character is spaced by a time delay of
most frequently used device. The below image contains the
three units & intra-character delay of one unit of time. Let us
schematic design of the Morse code. The aim of this circuit is
assume one unit of time to be one second, then DAH which
to change the text to Morse code based on programming.
is three units of time thus an electrical pulse would be sent
This schematic is designed by using a microcontroller of
for three seconds, DIT which is one unit of time which
8051 family is operates with 12 MHz crystal to provide
produces an electrical signal for one second, for an intra-
higher speed operations. The Alphanumeric keyboard is an
character gap there will be no signal for one second between
analogue 8*8 matrix keyboard used as an input device. The
any DAHs or DITs and between any two letters of the
buzzer is used to indicate the key is pressed on the keyboard.
word there will be no signal for three seconds. The above has
to be represented in the binary format to be understood by the
microcontroller. So, whenever there is a sign it represents
binary 1 & when there is no signal it represents binary 0.

For example, if we want to send a character A then the

processing will be done in this form. The character A is
taken as input which is DIT-DAH then following action is
performed, for the first one second pulse is generated i.e.
binary 1, next one second there will be no pulse i.e. binary
0, for next three seconds an electrical pulse is generated i.e.
binary 1. Similarly, if we need to send a word TIE then
the code will be - .. . thus generating three seconds of ON
pulse binary 1, three seconds of OFF pulse i.e. 0 for
separating two letters of the word, alternate ON-OFF pulse
for next three seconds, followed by three seconds of 0 &
last one second of pulse 1 for the letter E.

In this way, the alphanumeric data is encoded into Morse Figure 3. Display interfacing with contoller
format. The data is sent to multiple outputs for viewing the
output in both alphanumeric & Morse format using LCD, The clock signal will be generated to each data bit using
LED and buzzer. The encoded data is given to the transmitter matrix keypad if pressed any key. It can read a data bit when
section for transmitting the data serially for long distances the clock degrades from 1 to 0 falling edge of the clock. 11
without using satellites. data bits will form a word which is an ASCII with a single
start bit, eight data bits, single parity bit and single stop bit. If
C. Output section this ASCII value is set to the controller, then the controller
builds the Morse code of fixed ASCII value using the
We have four different forms in which we can see the output programming. Thus, this Morse code encoder extracts the
of the above operations. An LCD, LED, buzzer and most text inputs and it turn into dots and dashes.
importantly transmitter. Liquid Crystal Display screen can
display symbols, characters, alphabets & numbers understood


Applications of Morse code is still used in todays Aviation,

Navy, and Radio [9] etc. Normal Applications of Morse code
encoder is the traditional way used to send the distress
signals it is primarily used in military, aviation, submarines
and including Government applications. There are varies
categories of code communications like binary and analogue
code communication but Morse code is one of the crucial
communication technologies in radio communication
Figure 3.1. Character Received on Display

We have seen in the above method that it takes an average

time period of one second for amateur operators to send even
a single DIT. The length of sequence varies for different
characters could vary up to 20 seconds to type a single
character. And also if the data which is to be sent is ._
_. & was sent as ._ ..._. This message is saved but
sent as 4 IR. Thus, by using this device the speed of
transmission can be increased tremendously reducing the unit
time period up to the inverse of the clock frequency. The
error rates are reduced because the data is displayed on LCD
before transmission & can be modified before sending.
Knowledge of Morse code is not necessary, thus can be used
by anyone. Its cost is very low, thus can be afforded by
anyone. Circuit is simple & understandable by the user. It is
Figure 3.2. 8*4 Matrix Keypad reliable mode of communication especially in remote areas.

The ASCII is a type of code for transmission a data. In FUTURE SCOPE

embedded system the data is stored in digital form. Each
character has its own digital code equivalent is called ASCII. Future Scopes are that it can be interfaced with a GPS
module through which by pressing a position key from the
keypad, the location of the user is sent to microcontroller.
The data is then encoded into Morse format and transmitted
automatically by controller. This could be of great help when
a lost sailor or traveler has to be located faster for help by
search & rescue teams.

I have taken efforts in this project. The authors would like

Figure 4.Translate the Keyboard Codes to ASCII Characters to thanks however, without any kind support and help of co
authors and individuals. I am thankful to get constant
The 8051 microcontroller requires translating among ASCII encouragement, support and guidance from all departments.
characters and Morse code in above schematic design. Here
the method for converting the ASCII character to Morse code REFERENCES
that describes.
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Figure 4.1Translate the ASCII Characters to Morse code
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International Conference research interests includes embedded systems, Sensors
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18. (J38)


Paparao N received the Masters degree from BIET,

Hyderabad, India.Working as Asst Professor in the Dept.of
ECE at IARE, Hyderabad. 5 years Experience in Teaching
and 2 Years in Research. His research interests includes
Embedded systems, VLSI, Image processing,
Communications and Wireless sensor networks

Bhavana G received Masters degree from AEC, Hyderabad,

India Working as Asst. Professor in the Department of ECE
at IARE, Hyderabad.5 years Experience in teaching. She
research interests includes Embedded systems, Image
processing and Communications